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Grippe, Kamm

Festschrift fur
Elmar Seebold zum 65. Geburtstag

Herausgegeben von
Wolfgang Schindler und Jurgen Untermann

Walter de Gruyter · Berlin · New York

The building itself may have been an early Christian church. Here only Breza II will be discussed. I am also grateful to the Netherlands Association for Scienti- fic Research (NWO) for assigning me a travel-grant. A third important find was a delicately ornamented bronze shieldboss (probably Germanic. Lidija Fekefa for their friendly co-operation and for giving me the opportunity to study the Breza runic object. published by Cremosnik and Sergejev- ski in 1930. 6th c. and why? In 1930 remnants of a late antique building were excavated at Breza. One of these fragments appeared to have a futhark-inscription. and curator Dr. the one excavated in 1930 is called Breza II. I the river Stavnja. which indicates a West-Germanic origin. I would like to thank the Director of the Zemalski Museum at Sarajevo Dr. several pieces of one or more pillars were found in a field. 1 During the recent war in Bosnia and Hercegowina and the siege of Sarajevo. Findhistory According to the early records of the find. and the date may be early sixth century. Another early Christian church ruin was excavated in 1913 near Breza. . which bears a nearly complete futhark. Another col- umn has a Latin alphabet. not marble. Not yet all objects have been recovered and put back to their original places. therefore I simply call it Breza.' . the contents of the showcases and a great many more or less portable objects had to be evacuated into the cellars of the museum. Therefore I could not inspect the column with the Latin alphabet. TINEKE LooIJENGA. as abusively stated in runic literature) was found. about 25 kms North of Sarajevo (Bosnia). I have not seen the fragments that would bear runelike signs (for d and j:J?). The h is double barred. The present author inspected the fragment with the futhark on the 11th of October 1998. The runes are of the older futhark of24 charac- ters. D.). Also. they run right. Groningen Who wrote the Breza futhark.5 and 2. in the Museum at Sarajevo. Buturovic. The fragment is 56 cm high and 30 ems in cross-section. In literature this church is referred to as Breza I. the four last runes are missing because an edge of the stone has broken away. The runes are between 0.6 ems high. Among the debris a fragment of a semi-circular half-column (marl. This church contained Latin inscriptions and grafitti as well. a village on 1.

with On th entran the pr janovs opus i could layers ever fl was fl seem1 were fl before destro T duced the pill The rooms were separated by inner walls. limest However. the representation of the runes is according to reality. wide building. Also Krause (1966) presents the same Suvo photo of the inscription. It does not give any idea of the object in which the inscription was cut. The orientation was ofac North-South. The building had an apse and a long nave flanked by two rectangu. Arntz reproduced photos of these signs and of the part of the stone with were the futhark (Arntz/Zeiss 1939. Sergej ofac Apart from the futhark and the Latin alphabet. VII). This photo makes the impression of being taken from a fumis cast. 144). whos illustration 1: plan of the building proba B into a which nextp umns. some fragments bore Latin grafitti. other runelike signs were detected on different stone pieces. 264 Tineke Looijenga Besides the futhark. Taf. But significant items such as an altar schnitt . The first impression was that it was a after n church. jevski walls. as there had been found similar plans of basilicas in Bosnia (see for seve- lars fr ral plans Sergejevski 1960: 564 and 566). blyde lar corridors (see illustration 1). long and 19 m. and in this respect was fi the photo gives a reliable impression. colu The building 1943: During 1930 and 1931 an excavation of the field where the columns were found T revealed the basis of a 27 m.

according to Sergejevski 1943: 174). On the east-side may have been a kind of triumphal arch. though. On one of those the futhark was carved. a nave and a semi-circular apse. and who said that they were too small to have belonged to the church. and surrounded by a porticus. ii umns. 144). and why? 265 erent stone were not found (which occurred more often. which can be de- duced from the grooves. a platform (Basler 1993: 28). some sources speak were found of a church built by Goths. or walls that were ornamented with half-columns (Sergejevski I 1943: 172). of 1943. proba- ntation was bly destroyed by fire as a result of a Byzantine or Slavic attack (Arntz/Zeiss 1939: ro rectangu. not one piece m was cut. With him were the 6th century shieldboss and some antique and seemingly "barbaric" potsherds. and in doing so. Who wrote the Breza futhark. and traces of opus spicatum (stones layed in herringbone motif) could be seen. which prompted him to suppose that there were low walls upon which the columns stood. I next page). page that it was a after next). The builders also used spolia of antique buildings. I: which ended in two small chambers or chapels on either side (see illustration 2. The relatively small marl pillars were shaped on a lathe. Dr. which was destroyed by fire. The floor was tiled. or a tower (Bo- janovski/Celic 1969: 12. On the front was an entrance as well. that the ts the same furnishings were made of wood (Sergejevski 1943: 172). 25). the rings and the slight convexity (entasis). Sergejevski observes that in this respect they remind of the two pil- see for seve. others call it merely an early Christian church. Gregor Cremosnik and Demetrius this respect Sergejevski. stated that the column with the runes may have stood in or in front of a church. In a later publication. which gives the pillars the appearance of a somewhat stretched barrel (see illustration 3. the building has indeed been destroyed by fire. Deducing from the layers of ashes on the floor. Amid the debris a skeleton of a man was found. topped with rare square capitals. Some steps on the inner side of the western wall might point to the presence of an upper chamber. It may have been. which had been painted red. who saw the pillars himself in 1935. On the front and on both sides the porticus was decorated with col. The apse was decorated on the outside with massive sculptured wild boars' and rams' heads. Serge- ! ii bore Latin jevski stated that the fragments of the columns were found lying across the inner I ! I walls. The capitals are worked in woodcut-style (Kerb- :h as an altar schnitt). There is some confusion about the nature of the building. which indicate that the walls may have still stood for some time before collapsing (Basler 1975: 260). Many fragments of lken from a limestone and marl pillars and capitals were found scattered around. lars from Monkwearmouth. they . The walls were stone-built in opus incertum. What- ever furniture there was has been burned. was found in situ. The first excavators. the pillars were probably part of a canopy. The building may have had a wooden roof. Above the burning-layer some slavic ceramics were found. The building was divided into a narthex. for instance at the church ruin of stone with Suvodol. Arntz quotes a certain Oelmann. · Basler (1993: 28) describes the building in detail. perhaps situated inside the church. Basler suggests also that the building was destroyed during the gothic wars of about 5 35.

illustration 2: front view and side view of the building VLPIAE f - ]ROCUL[AN IIVALENS V F-PRINCEPS ET AELIAIVS ]CENO[P? . illustration 3: p jevski 1930: 2).266 Tineke Looijenga preserved some stones bearing important Latin inscriptions (Cremosnik/Serge.

~ :~ '~: ·. and why? 267 mo8nik/Serge.·. Who wrote the Breza futhark.--i 'O'I 1 ~-~~~rki~---n ~ E _J~. on one side of the apse._ ~~ .F ]ROCUL[ AN-XX II V ALENS VARRON F-PRINCEPS DESITIATI ET AELIA IVSTA ]CENO[P? (after Cremosnik/Sergejevski 1930: 8). a large grave cippus was found. illustration 3: photo of a pillar . >Y For instance. with a long inscription: VLPIAE r . . face down.

Sergejevsk:i. The name DESITIATI would point to a tribe living somewhere along the upper part of the river Bosna.). He enumerates four points of interest: 1. to the time of the East-Roman emperor Justinianus. i. They pro. such as ]AULINUS and ]CORDIA. It would have been carved in the soft marly surface by the 1962: 80) Ostrogoths. reigned Dalmatia from 493-555 AD. it appears that the co- 24 early existence of a Latin alphabet and a futhark in the same building may point to an early Christian consecration ritual (see below).e. basilicas Sergejevski is said to have retracted his earlier statement that the building at the en was a church. He gives a survey of more than twenty ruins of early style wa Christian· basilicas. page 173. (2) the To date t absence of both an altar and a sepulcher. and Breza does not differ fundamentally from the others (cf. and eastwards to the Drina. These points concern Breza as well. But in his 1943 publication. Espe- cording t cially the fact that runes were carved on one of the pillars would point to a "bar- have hin baric" use of the building. 3. tions. it does not look like Serg plans of basilicas in other countries. an idea that is taken up by Bojanovski/Celic (1969: 25). o rate after the Ostrogoths had left Dalmatia (already in 471/2 part of them left for the mosai Italy.e. The first excavators. of one of posed to compare the building to Syrian basilicas. according to them. and Sergejevski as well. to Bojan Sergejevski 1960: 564 f. because of (I) the North-South orientation. Basler suggests that its pur- ofmissio pose may have been profane. Unfortu- nately. They even called the style "gothic". but ence of the futhark. Cremoilnik/Sergejevski (1930). according to Basler (1975 and 1993). the basilicas ofKlobu ondhalf all are built after the same plan. 268 Tineke Looijenga The inscription is dated into the second century AD. Also dated tot the typical Kerbschnitt style of the capitals prompted them to assign the building to the Ostrogoths. the Goths continued to claim Dalmatia. the Breza basilica maybe a should be dated later. Basler (1 mestic art. Sergejevsk:i never published the results of this second excavation. based their dating on the pres. 2. according to the above mentioned authors. On the 11th international Congress of Byzantinists in Mfulchen in 195 8. the buildings did not serve any other purpose than that tised mai of a church (Sergejevski 1960: 565). i. gowina ence of an upper room and the deviating orientation of the building (North-South of ado instead of East-West). This I would like to contradict. this plan is original. he discusses some of the abnormalities of the Breza basilica. Serge- jevski launched another proposition: the sculptures should be compared to do. at any at Split. Thus they were regularly engaged in wars with . Some other fragments of pillars show Latin grafitti. who. He mentions the possible pres. The during the latter authors. In doing so. comparing it to the much later medieval gothic cathedrals. However. also focused on other aspects. the Bosnian basilicas are too small to place in contain many people. In 1959-1962 a second excavation was executed by D. Illyric. 4. and (3) the presence of a futhark. and from 493-526 their king Theoderic reigned in Italy. Ac tu Dating and Christianity The dating of the building is a point of interest taken up by several authors.

dating the Bosnian basilicas is difficult. since the many wars with Goths. rs that the co- Actually. but regarding its shape. at any the mosaic in San Apollinare Nuovo at Ravenna (Basler 1975: 261 f.555 AD. may be a provincial. At the time Sergejevski wrote this (1958). An indication of a date for Breza may be offered by the presence of the 6th c. starting i. or "barbaric". no coins that may indicate a date. who all are dated to the sec- he others (cf. In 536 Dalmatia was reuni- rIATiwould fied with the East Roman empire). who were forced to take part Some other in the building activities of the church. Dabravina and in a lesser degree Duvno. and (2) the hybrid sculptural style. at the end of the 5th. The of one of the palaces of Theoderic in Ravenna. Avars and Slavs would futhark. 1997: 209-218) . or at the beginning of the 6th centuries. shieldboss. and may have arrived at a rather late date in Dalmatia. Christianity was at first prac- too small to tised mainly in cities. no inscriptions. perhaps during the reign of Justinianus. according to Bojanovski and Celie (1969: :oRDIA. ts that its pur- To date the churches to the later 6th century would meet with difficulties. . the futhark would then · Bosna. The tions. surface by the dated to the early 6th c. They pro. (2) the cording to Sergejevski. probably as result t the building of missionary activities on a large scale. during the Gothic era (ca. The fronton ects. Thus they compare Breza with other Bosnian basilicas.and indigenous churches in Bosnia and Herce- ation. Who wrote the Breza futhark. Also sn the building The identity of the building . . The Kerbschnitt 1ossible pres- style was indigenous. only stylistic criteria can 1ay point to an be used. ac- tation.1969: 25). who was emperor of Byzantium 527-565. according (N orth-South to Bojanovski and Celie. and why? 269 Justinianus. such as it is presented on •I. They point to two important features: (1) the architectural similarities with ski. 25). pearly-rimmed halfway the dome and around the button. It is exquisitely decorated with zig-zag lines made in tremolo-stitch technique. since there are no documents. Unfortu- Syrian and Asia Minor churches . If not by the Goths. (see for instance Die Alamannen. Basler ( 197 5: 261) suggests that the Breza building may have been constructed >mpared to do. 1962: 80). It is difficult to fmd a parallel with the same decora- tl authors. on the Via Alberoni. In Alamannic regions this kind of shieldbosses have also been found. According to him. because the front of the building reminds him '. oint to a "bar- 24 early Christian churches were already excavated in Bosnia. On the gowina as well -. The iose than that basilicas of rural Bosnia seem to have been built all in the same period. or rather the middle part of Theoderic's palace. it to the much ge 173. Serge. known and used already for centuries in Bosnia.s well. Sergejevski (1960: 568) discusses the question of when Christianization took not look like place in the Dalmatian inlands. it may be Langobardic (see for instance Werner Lg on the pres. Espe- have hindered such a large enterprise. of them left for rever. the Goths d in wars with . The shieldboss is slightly dome-shaped. the basilicas ond half of the 6th century. 490-535). tinianus. imitation of the entry of the Diocletian palace ~ Breza basilica at Split.). uins of early ofKlobuk. and have been carved by captured Germanic enemies. which resulted from a merger he discusses of a domestic style with late-antique and early-medieval styles.

ofChri As Would the Ostrogoths have written their documents with runes? interm Very unlikely.e. according to Basler (197 5: 263 ). MS Lat. proved A consecration ritual for a new church (ordo quomodo aecclesia debeat dedicari) i. with the name Egbert Pontifical. cross from one comer of the church diagonally to the other. In that way. H. perhaps for administrative or juridical purposes. domine as adiuuandum me festina. Leclercq (1907: 58) states that the crux decussata belongs to roman . 270 Tineke Looijenga Of interest is further that he mentions two richly decorated capitals showing both a cross within ranks. North-S gulo. i. et ad dextro. A. usque in sinistro angulo basilice oldest b occidentalis. adding material found in Anglo-Saxon England. deinde ueniens ad altare dicat. and again joining the Christi two remaining comers. Basler states (1993: differe 28 f. During the consecration rites of a new church. 10575.. a point to certain rights of the indigenous civilians. scribens per pauimentum com cam. the bishop wrote on one empero post the Greek alphabet and on the other the Latin alphabet (Mekking 1988: 28).e. ( . connecting the four comers of a influen church. thus referring to the . and it w buta sua. In the Dictionnaire d'Archeologie Chretienne et Liturgie. T church. The rituals go back to older sources. Andrew's church. cum Gloria absque Alleluia.cosmos. an. least on Deinde incipit pontifex de sinistro ab oriente. The The manuscript.C.B. Leu is described in the Egbert Pontifical. Benedi who ad There may be a connection between the alphabets and the so-called crux de- pal obj cussata. A. The inscribed Franki futhark on one side of the corridor and the Latin alphabet on the other side would time. in how far the King's palace at Ravenna could influence the Roman building style in a far-off province. well as in the He suggests that it was a curtis with an aula. I would say. Banting (1989: xxxvi) con- cludes that "the scribe seems to have drawn on a source from Northern France and Normandy in particular. The most impor- contai tant problem is then. The origins of the Egbert Pontifical are not known. futhark. visitors of the building could find their way in the written documents. one qu the pra The similarity to the Theoderican palaces causes Basler to think of a public function of the Breza building. 46v) is described. These crosses point to Christianity. in which the bishop takes his staff and in the consecr dust and ashes on the floor draws the alphabet in the form of a great St.darium. c.e. In the Middle Ages. used by a comes. the runes(!).).B. a book of special services for the use of gro nea a bishop. Fu Ostrogoths could read the Roman script and the Romans could encipher the script of the Ostrogoths. the ritual (f.C. Deua in adiutorium meum intende. is kept in Paris. usque in dextro angulo occidentalis. I propose another solution for the presence of both a Latin and a runic alphabet. orientalis scribat similiter. The tice.q. The name Egbert refers to the first archbishop of York (732-766). This is an imaginary diagonal cross. i. In Breza b it.darium. ) The Pontifical could have been written in Wessex in the mid tenth century". whereas one of the capitals was ornamented with a liturgy cross in a mandorla.. the crux decussata in Brita played a role during inauguration rites and also when designing the lay-out of the cant.

Benz (1956: 64 ff. If the alphabets played a part in the staff and in the consecration ritual such as is described above. Especially important were the presence of Benedictine monks in furthering this process. an- North-South orientation. For once the function of a complete futhark would be clear. One of the two texts is called Ordo 1ld influence the Romanus XLI.In Breza building presents a unique situation. according to Benz (1956: 97). This is very unusual. it evidently was known and in use in a religious context. As to how the liturgical texts came to France and England. iebeat dedicari) i. albeit in a gain joining the Christian context. Moreover. written down idical purposes.e.) discusses two liturgical texts. according to Banting (1989: xxvii).e. among which the Roman surveying prac- ::locuments. the futhark proves a special significance among at least one Germanic tribe. Both texts are ordines that 'he most impor. but all sorts of orientations of the oldest basilicas seem to have occurred in Rome (Leclercq 1936: 2665-2666). The e Chretienne et longs to roman . since 'P wrote on one emperor Justinianus apparently maintained contacts with St Benedict (480-547). contain rules of how to dedicate a church. which. a sacramentaire gregorien which contains virtually the same text as the amented with a one quoted above from the Egbert Pontifical. according to Benz. Banting points also to the fact that "the 1ur comers of a influence of St Peter's and the church in Rome had. The Benedictine connection may be signifi- ie lay-out of the cant. Furtheron he discusses the significance of the X-form symbolising the name cipher the script of Christ. proved by the fact that the emperor granted him some possessions in Dalmatia. The The occurrence of a runic alphabet and a Roman alphabet side by side in the .Lat. according to Mekking as hink of a public well as Leclercq.10575. angulo basilice meum intende. however. ) h century". :king 1988: 28). ~9: xxxvi) con- rorthem France m England. Remains the problem of the ntum com cam- . Breza may after all have been a :at St. and it was considered equal to the Roman alphabet. The alphabet ritual appears in ORXLI forthe first >ther side would time. we may think of nes? intermediating pilgrims who came back from Rome. He mentions several authors who suggest ler states (1993: different sources for the alphabet ritual. The tice. I). i. in the 9th century. been considerable crux decussata in Britain since the seventh century". and why? 271 : I r l apitals showing liturgy. but actually reflecting older texts. Salluntum (in Montene- ~s for the use of gro near Danilovgrad) and Baloe (see Basler 1993: 18). and the alphabet itself as an elaboration of alpha-omega. This rite evidently is derived from the practice used by the agrimensores oflatin antiquity.). is of "gallikanischer Herkunft". Andrew's church. The order had had some influence in 6th century Dalmatia as well..( . The inscribed Frankish (Benz 1956: 94 f.. Ii! who adds that "the forms ofliturgy used in St Peters in the Vatican were a princi- -called crux de. Who wrote the Breza futhark. ad dextro. pal object of interest" to the pilgrims. Leusinium (on the river Trebisnica in South Bosnia). (732-766).

otherwise one could not even see the bract inscriptions. Since the column with the runes is only 56 ems high. West also across the runes. One runs horizontally on the left hand top. In that case it is not so much the reading of the letters that 0 matters. The runes are very neatly. When seen from front. These features may shape suit better Germanic artisans. perhaps the rests of If letters (Roman cursive?) can be seen. could on the other to be hand be imaginable. such as is described above. The broken-away piece agrees precisely with the space those four runes would have occupied. there are many scratches. Also the Kerbschnitt style is really a woodcutting-style. If only therefore rune it is unlikely that the runes would have had a public function for referendary use cm hi for the reading of Gothic documents. Rema In that respect the runes resemble runes on small metal or wooden objects. They have not been chiseled. carved into the soft marly sur- face with a sharp instrument. It seems that there were at least two more inscriptions that Beuc have been deliberately scraped off. Then follows e m I. 2 they The are quite unlike the runic inscriptions on stones in Scandinavia. This inscription ends in a clear X Some strokes. such as is suggested by Basler (see above). b ing d o are lacking. The sequence is that of the older futhark until t. which runs under the upper brim of the col- umn's fragment. at stena- the same heigth as the futhark and another runs vertically on the left side of the terem column. If something meaningful was written is mscn Gothi or W Aqui 2 The shaping on a lathe of the columns and the cutting of runes with a knife. groov A function in a consecration rite. points to artisans who where used to working with wood instead of stone. on the right hand top comer. one must presume fork that the columns were situated on low walls. but the edge of the stone is broken away. more than it would antique artisans. the whole futhark. and the four last runes have disappeared with it. Thus. for instance. or another sharp Pforz instrument. The inscription would have run all the way to the columns end. ceive . as well as the whole that b alphabet. Aubi When scrutinizing the whole surface of the column. but cut with a knife.272 Tineke Looijenga The runes illustration 4: the runes fu th a r k q w h n IJ i p z s t e m The futhark is just below a groove. the runes run from about the centre of the column to the right. It is difficult to see the inscription if one does not know it is there. but inconspiciously. however also used in metal. but the fact that they are all there.

ie soft marly sur- cut with a knife. Geographically nearest are the runic items of Aquincum. Each If only therefore rune occupies a space of about one cm. near the centre of the stone. or another sharp Pforzen and Bezenye have some runeforms in common. in the sequence up. The rune ne must presume for k has the shape of a roof. but should be considered in the light of other Continental or West-Germanic inscriptions. Who wrote the Breza futhark. These features may shaped k (Pforzen. respectively 2. and perhaps Bezenye.6 ems high. know it is there. at stena-C. A deliberate hand-made cut runs from top to bottom. Pforzen and Bezen- . A little below the futhark. and the the older futhark oken-away piece cupied. Skodborghus-B.4 and 2. The runeform for p occurs also in : many scratches. )f the letters that One would expect the rune for b following upon t.e left side of the teremden B. p and z are the largest. groove. is a carving of a kind of flower. Also the . The last rune mld on the other to be seen is I. Bezenye I. ife. b. which misses its side twig in the break. and it occurs perhaps in Mi. Bezenye and Pforzen. width. the leaves are all about 2 ems. The runes p z s t are all over 2 ems high. Watchfield. they run up to the rim of the tsler (see above).aps the rests of If the double-barred b rune is indeed diagnostic for the West Germanic runic il was written is inscriptions. illustration 5: drawing of the flower t e m ·brim of the col- ont. the conclusion is that this inscription cannot be assigned to the Gothic runic tradition. the l not even see the bracteates Raum K0ge-C and Borringe-C. Breza. 2 they The runes are between 0.5 r referendary use cm high. These inscriptions date from the 5th and 6th centuries. the double-barred h (Breza. The rune for k is very small: 0. and why? 273 uncertain. on the left side of the vertical inscription. Westeremden B. Others are j (Bezenye).6 ems high. most of them are about 2 ems. The runeform for j occurs in Bergakker. which is from a much later date. and three bracteates: Darum (V)-C. inscriptions that Beuchte.inchen- Aubing nm?k and Neudingen Baar klefila}J.5 and 2. Remarks: len objects. although only one stroke can be per- ceived). It has five leaves (see illustration 5). One may be the roof- ad of stone. it may as well have been script-imitation. except for Wes- . Vad- : left hand top. also found in Pforzen. Dischingen. but here one must suppose well as the whole that b was one of the four runes which have disappeared in the break. at least that is where they were found. the runes run i would have run en away. The flower is 4 ems high.

combat arose concerning the former Gothic possessions in Dalmatia. in return. Audoins son Alboin led the Langobards away to North Italy in 567. are consid- ered Langobardic (included in Werner 1962). leaving the area to the A vars. from 489-526. The Lango bards occupied the North of Bosnia and the region between the rivers Bosna and Drina. the Langobards settled in lower Austria. waged battle against Justinia- nus and recaptured Salona.) it was not clear how Lango bards could have gotten in the region near Breza. some thirty years. Justinianus. as the site is called. leaving the Langobard parts of Dalmatia to the A vars and the Slavs. king Totila (541-552). The Aquincum runic brooch may be Langobardic. Around 430 they arrived in Bohemia. which is exactly the area in which Breza lies! Vitilas successor. The Goths. Emperor Justinianus (527-565) succeeded in 536 to incorporate Dalmatia in the East Roman empire. The brooches from Bezenye. sent his commander Narsus to Italy. under their new king Vitigis (536-540). Arntz/Zeiss (1939) date the inscription on the basis of a possible presence of Langobards or Alamanni in the area. A short survey of the history of the Langobards may explain how they got to the Balkan. so it may be that part of the Lango bards became Christians during their stay in Bosnia. the most eligible to have cut this futhark in the column. To Krause (1966: 19 f. no source given). tried in vain to win back Dalmatia. It therefore seems that the Lango bards lived in the Breza region from around 535 until 567. The Bosnian churches were built before or during the period the Langobards settled in the area.274 Tineke Looijenga ye). After the murder of Amalasuntha. in 535. In 526 they invaded upper Pannonia. They suggest Alamanni or Langobards as possible makers. The bad relations between Langobards and Gepides led them to war. Antonsen (1975) lists Breza as an East Germanic inscription. Krause even states that the Langobards were Christi- anized at the end of the 5th c. The building of the church need not coincide with the cutting of the futhark. He offered Justinianus peace in 551. or Pallersdorf. Opitz (1977) lists Breza among his Siidgermanische Runeninschriften. In the meantime the Dalmatian borders were left un- watched. who definitely defeated the Goths in 555. Theoderics daughter and heiress. I think. Thus the Langobards and Gepides could enter the area. (Krause/Jankuhn 1966: 310. from the lower Elbe to the upper Elbe. under the condition that he could keep his possessions in Italy. which had just been deserted by the Ostrogoths. Helped by the A vars the Langobards succeeded in dispelling the Gepides from Pannonia. One may presume that somehow Justinianus succeeded in building the Breza church in between the turmoils of successive barbaric invasions. They are. The Langobards migrated in the 4th c. which has . and it has a variant of the Breza k rune: A. After Odoaker defeated the Rugii in 488. but as terminus ad quern the destruction of the building may be taken. The Gepides successively were defeated.

E. London. taken. Helped Leclercq. d the Langobards Sergejevski. H.H. Schriften der Balkan-Kommission. Paris. Benz. premier. Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. jevo. perhaps preceding the bapti- )r Langobards as cism of a group ofLangobards. buried under the layers of ashes). l. gion from around Opitz. 1956. A. Milnchen. pp. Paris. Eds.M. S./Zeiss. 19. Wien. 259-264. 563-568. August 1956. 1-9.t Roman empire. That there existed friendly terms between Justini- ianic inscription. (1993): Spatantike und Frilhchristliche Architektur in Bosnien und der Herzegowina. Sarajevo. ln: Ziva antika. godisnjak zavoda za zastitu spomenika kulture Bosne i Hercegovine XII.) (1989): Two Anglo-Saxon Pontificals (the Egbert and Sidney Sussex Pon- . deuxieme partie Noirmoutier-Orvieto. S. igible to have cut 2. anti- . ie that somehow Cremosnik. OSB. (1969): Kasnoanticka Bazilika u Brezi. D. B. 14?- 1 -526. (1939): Die einheimische Runendenkmaler des Festlandes. DUsseldorf. happened in the 6th century (based for instance on the presence of the 6th c. Bosna and Drina. Klasse. Abh. H. Neue Folge. G. In: Siidost . )strogoths. Who wrote the Breza futhark.. Skopje. D. in 535. 8. 9. Jankuhn (1966): Die Runeninschriften im alteren Futhark. In: 1e could keep his Nase Starine. and why? 275 ailed. Ttibingen. iperor Justinianus Basler. Problem i konzervacija.Forschungen. Sara- :r Narsus to Italy. J. (1907): Abecedaire./Mekking. Bojanovski. To Krause Audoin got parts of South-Pannonia and Noricum in 546. anus and the Langobards may be proved by the fact that the Langobardic king iriften. In 526 they 154. (ed. D. Franz Dolger und Hans-Georg Beck. in: Dictionnaire d'Archeologie Chretienne et de Liturgie. Bodenfunde var 568./Sergejevski. Kirchzarten. nr. Beitriige zur Kenntnis der langobardischen ng of the futhark. K. Audoins Leclercq. Stadhoudeis. Heft 55 A & B./H. (1988): Een kruis van kerken rond Koenraads hart. Milnchen. H. during which the futhark and the Latin ABC were cut on two pillars. (1943): Archaologische Forschungen in Bosnien in den Jahren 1920-1940. organise par le Comite "Eirene" . combat tificals).-Hist. Eds./Dzemal. l'e partie A-Amende. 21-53. Stuttgart. in: Dictionnaire d'Archeologie Chretienne et de Liturgie. which has .J. unic brooch may shieldboss. Zutphen. Wien. (1960): Plan der Frilhchristlichen Basiliken Bosniens. (1977): Siidgermanische Runeninschriften im alteren Futhark aus der Merowingerzeit. Gesammelte Arbeiten zum 800 jahrigen Weihegedachtnis der Abteikirche Maria Laach am 24. Textteil. In: Akten des XI.Dubrovnik 7-12 act. Sergejevski. in the region near i I n how they got to Bibliography I I ower Elbe to the Antonsen. pp. W. p. 202-204. (1936): Orientation. ng the Langobard Mekking. (1956): Zur Geschichte der romischen Kirchweihe nach den Texten des 6. 7-25. The Langobards quarische Abteilung nr.J . tome :s from Pannonia. rrds were Christi. The consecration of the church. A. In: Utrecht kruispunt van de Middeleeuwsekeik. lnterna- ecame Christians tionalen Byzantinistenkongresses Milnchen 1958. may be . C. A. D. In: Enkainia. (1975): A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions. Phil. Werner. 156-177. In: Novi- tates Musei Saravoensis. iker defeated the Arntz. tome douzieme. 1974.J. Milnchen. n the turmoils of Die Alamannen (1997): Archaologisches Landesmuseum Baden-Wilrttemberg. 19-20. H. D. (1930): Gotisches und romisches aus Breza bei Sarajevo. Jahrhunderts. n back Dalmatia. :lers were left un. Tafelteil. are consid. lefeated. After Banting. Antiquite vivante. nr. Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften. . Actes du X!Ile congres International d'etudes anciennes. (1975): Die "Basilika II" in Breza bei Sarajevo. Gottingen.Langobardic cooperation. source given).sible presence of considered as a Christian . Krause. 77. ~against Justinia- Basler. 12-13. (1962): Die Langobarden in Pannonien. H. m to war. Auflage.-7. Leipzig.

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