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OVERVIEW OF BHEL

The first plant of which is today known as BHEL was established nearly 50 years ago
at Bhopal & was the genesis of the Heavy Equipment industry in India.

BHEL is today the largest Engineering Enterprise of its kind in India with excellent track
record of performance, making profits continuously since 1971-1972.

BHEL business operations cater to core sectors of the Indian Economy like
Power
Industry
Transportation
Transmission etc.

BHEL has 14 units spread all over India manufacturing boilers, turbines, generators,
transformers, motors etc. Besides 14 manufacturing divisions the company has 4 power
sector regional centers, 8 service centers and 18 regional offices and a large number of
project sites thus enable the Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them
with suitable products, systems and services efficiently and at competitive prices. The
high level of quality & reliability of its products is due to the emphasis on design,
engineering and manufacturing to international standards by acquiring and adapting
some of the best technologies from leading companies in the world, together with
technologies developed in its own R&D centers.
BHELs vision is to become world-class engineering enterprise, committed to
enhancing stakeholder value. The company is striving to give shape to its aspirations and
fulfil the expectations of the country to become a global player.

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BHEL, HARIDWAR

BHEL
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED
HARIDWAR

HEEP (Heavy Electrical CFFP (Central Foundry


Equipment Plant) Forge Plant)

Block-1: Electrical Machine Shop

Block-2: Heavy Fabrication Shop

Block-3: Turbine Manufacturing Block

Block-4: Coils & Insulation Manufacturing Block

Block-5: Condenser Fabrication & Forge Block

Block-6: Fabrication Shop, Die Shop

Block-7: Carpentry Shop

Block-8: Heat Exchange Shop

Figure-1.1 different block of BHEL Haridwar

Two manufacturing plants of BHEL: Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (HEEP) and Central
Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP) employing about 10000 people.

Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant is equipped to produce Steam and Hydro Turbines
with matching Generators, Industrial Manufacturing Thermal sets up to 1000 MW capacity.

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The Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant was set up in technical collaboration with (Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics) USSR. The construction of the plant commenced in 1962 and the
production of equipment was initiated in early 1967. In 1976, BHEL entered into a
collaboration agreement with West Germany for design, manufacture, erection and
Commissioning of large size steam turbines and turbo generators of unit rating up to
1000MW.

The BHEL plants in Haridwar have earned the ISO-9001 AND 9002 certificates for its high
quality and maintenance. These two units have also earned the ISO-14001 certificates.

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WEEK 1

2. INTRODUCTION

2.1 TURBOGENERATOR:

A turbo generator is a turbine directly connected to electric generator for the


generation of electricity. They are mostly used as large capacity generator driven by
steam/gas turbine.

2.2 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

In case of turbo generator, Rotor winding is supplied with DC current (through slip
rings or brushless exciter) which produces constant magnetic field.
3 phase stator winding is laid in stator core.
When generator rotor is rotated (by a turbine) magnetic flux produced by rotor
winding also rotates.
Voltage is induced in stator winding according to Faradays law.
3 phase stator winding also produces magnetic flux revolving at synchronous speed
( ). Rotor also rotates at synchronous speed. Both the magnetic fields are
locked and rotate together.

Faradays Law:

E.M.F. (Voltage) is induced in a closed path due to change of flux linkages and is
proportional to rate of change of flux linkages. The change in flux linkages can be caused by
change in flux in a stationary coil or by motion of coil with constant flux or both.

2.3 SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE MEDIUM


USED FOR GENERATION:

Turbo generators in Thermal, nuclear, Gas station


High speed 3000 rpm
No. of poles 2 poles
Horizontal construction

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Cylindrical rotor
Hydro generators in hydro plants
Low speed 500 to 1000 rpm
No. of poles 6 or more
Vertical construction
Salient type of rotor

2.4 GENERATOR MODULE NOMENCLATURE:

T H R I 108/44

Core Length (cm)


4350 mm (

Rotor diameter (cm)


1075 mm (

Stator Cooling Indirect

Rotor Cooling Radial

Cooling gas in casing Hydrogen

Product Turbo Generator

Figure-2.1 Generation Module Nomenclature

2.5 GENERATOR MODULES:

TARI: Air Cooled Turbo generator


Stator Winding: Indirectly Air Cooled
Rotor Winding/ Stator Core: Directly Air Cooled
THRI: Hydrogen Cooled Turbo generator
Stator Winding: Indirectly Hydrogen Cooled
Rotor Winding/ Stator Core: Directly Hydrogen Cooled
THDF: Hydrogen/Water Cooled Turbo generator
Stator Winding: Directly Water Cooled
Rotor Winding/ Stator Core: Directly Hydrogen Cooled

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2.6 COMPONENTS USED IN TURBO GENERATOR:

2.6.1 STATOR
Stator frame
Stator core
Stator winding
End cover
Bushings
Generator terminal box

2.6.2 ROTOR
Rotor shaft
Rotor winding
Rotor retaining ring
Field connection

2.6.3 EXCITATION SYSTEM:


Pilot exciter
Main exciter
Diode wheel
The following auxiliaries are required for operation:
Bearings
Cooling system
Oil Supply System

3. STATOR
The stator consists of following parts:
Stator frame
Stator core
Stator winding
Stator end cover
Bushings
Generator terminal box

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3.1 Stator frame:

Rigid fabricated cylindrical frame and is the heaviest section in the generator
Withstands weight of core & winding, forces & torques during operation
Provisions for H2/CO2 filling
Provision for temperature measurements
Foot plates for supporting on foundation
Provision for H2 coolers

Figure-3.1 Stator frame

3.2 Stator core:

The stator core is made from the insulated electrical sheet lamination to minimize eddy
current losses. Each lamination layer is made of individual sections. The main features of
core are:
To carry electric & magnetic flux efficiently.
To provide mechanical support.
To ensure perfect link between the core and rotor.

3.2.1 THE PURPOSE OF STATOR CORE:


Support the stator winding
To carry the magnetic flux generated by rotor winding.

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Therefore the selection of material for building up of core is very important. In
selection of material the losses in the core are considered. There are basically two types of
losses.
Hysteresis losses: Due to the residual magnetic flux in the core material.
Hysteresis loss is given by

Where Proportionality constant which depends upon the volume and quality of the core
material
Maximum flux density in the core
Frequency of the alternating flux
Volume

Figure 3.2 Stator Core


Eddy Current losses: Due to the e.m.f induced in the core eddy currents are produced and
produce losses. Eddy current loss is given by

Where Thickness
Proportionality constant
For the reduction of hysteresis loss, silicon alloyed steel is used since it has low value of
hysteresis coefficient (Kh) for the manufacture of core. The composition of silicon steel is
Steel-95.8%
Silicon-4.0%
Impurities-0.2%

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Since the eddy current loss depends on the square of thickness of the lamination.
Hence to reduce eddy current loss core is made up from thin laminations which are insulated
from each other. The thickness of lamination is about 0.5mm.

3.3 LAMINATION PREPARATION:

The core is built up of 6 sectors, each of 600. The insulation used between the
lamination is ALKYD PHENOLIC VARNISH dried at suitable temperature. The
laminations are passes through a conveyor, which has an arrangement to sprinkle the varnish.
The sheets are dried at a temperature around 300o-400oC. Two coatings of varnish are done.
The thickness of varnish should be around 8-10 microns. Each lamination should be dried for
around 90 sec at constant speed.

Figure-3.3 Stamping

3.4 ASSEMBLY OF CORE:

The stator laminations are assembled as separate cage without stator frame. The entire core
length is made in the form of packets separate by radial ducts to provide ventilating
Passage for the cooling of core. The thickness of lamination is about 0.5mm and the
thickness of lamination separating the packets is about 1mm. The segments are
staggered from layer to layer so that a core of high mechanical strength and uniform
permeability of magnetic flux is obtained.

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To obtain the maximum compression and eliminate under setting during operation, the
laminations are hydraulically compressed and heated during the stacking procedure when
certain heights of stack is reached. The complete stack is kept under pressure and located in
stator frame by means of clamping bolts and pressure plates.

Figure-3.4 assembly of core

Figure-3.5 compression of core

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3.5 STATOR WINDING:

The stator winding of Turbo Generator is three phase two layer lap winding with the pitch of
winding so adjusted as to reduce the 5th and 7th harmonics. The number of slots for
generation of three phase power must be a multiple of 3 or 6.
Each stator slot accommodates two stator bars.

Figure-3.6 Winding of stator

3.5.1 CONDUCTOR CONSTRUCTION:

The bar consists of a large number of separately insulated strands which are
transposed to reduce the skin effect losses.

The strands of small rectangular cross-section are provided with braided glass
insulation and arranged side by side over the slot width. The individual layers are insulated
by vertical separator .In the straight slot portion the strands are transposed by 540o.
The transposition provides for a mutual neutralization of the voltages induced in the
individual strands due to the slot cross-field and end winding flux leakage and ensures that
minimum circulation current exist. The current flowing through the conductor is thus
uniformly distributed over the entire cross-section so uniformly that the current- dependent
losses will be reduced.

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Figure-3.7 Transposition of bars

3.5.2 THDF BAR CONSTRUCTION:

The bar consists of hollow and solid strands distributed over the entire bar cross section so
that good heat dissipation is ensured. At the bar ends, all the solid strands are jointly brazed
into a connecting sleeve and the hollow strands into a water box from which the cooling
water enters and exists via Teflon insulating hoses. The strands are transposed by 540oin
the slot portion.

3.5.3 INSULATION:

Insulation is basically done to prevent any kind of short circuit between the bar and the stator
core when the bar is assembled in the stator of the machine. The stator bars are insulated with
Micalastic (trade name) insulation.

Advantages of Micalastic insulation are as follows:


Good conductor of heat
Low inflammability
High resistance to moisture and chemical action
Retains properties even after years of operation

3.6 STATOR END COVER:

The ends of the stator frame are closed by pressure containing end shields .The end covers
are made up of non-magnetic material (Aluminum castings) to reduce stray load and eddy
current losses. The end Shields feature a high stiffness and accommodates generator bearings.

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Figure-3.8 stator bar of THDF

The end shields are horizontally split to allow for assembly. The end shield used at the
turbine end and exciter end side is different in construction for 500MW. The end cover used
in 250 MW is similar in construction.

EXCITER END SIDE (500MW)

Figure-3.9 Exciter End Side

TURBINE END SIDE (500MW)

Figure-3.10 Turbine End Side

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3.7 BUSHINGS:

The beginning and ends of the three phase windings are brought out from the stator
frame through bushings, which provides for high voltage insulation. The bushings are
bolted to the stator frame at the exciter end.

Figure-3.11 Bushings

3.8 GENERATOR TERMINAL BOX:

The phase and neutral leads of the three phase stator windings are brought out of the
generator through six bushings located in the generator terminal box at the exciter end of the
generator.

Generator terminal box parts are given below:-

Primary water inlet


Conventional neutral connection
Terminal Box
Bushing

The diagrams of generator terminal box are shown below and here the primary water
inlet, conventional neutral connection, terminal box and Bushing also indicated in the
diagram.

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Primary water inlet

Conventional neutral connection

Terminal Box Bushing .

Figure-3.12 Generator Terminal Box

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WEEK 2

4. ROTOR
Rotating part of turbo generator
A high strength alloy steel single forging prepared by vacuum cast steel.
Longitudinal slots for housing field winding
Damper winding is provided which safeguards the asymmetrical and asynchronous
operative conditions.
Rotor of cylindrical type used in turbo generator.
Supported on two journal bearings.
Provision of axial fan for forced ventilation.

Figure-4.1 Rotor

Approximately 60% of the rotor circumference is provided with longitudinally slots which
hold the field windings. The slot pitch is selected so that two solid poles are obtained with a
displacement of 180 degrees.

Due to the non -uniform slot distribution is on the circumference, different moments of
inertia are obtained in the main axis of rotor. This in turn causes vibration. These
vibrations are reduced by transverse slotting of the poles. The rotor winding is provided with
a lateral gap pick up system of cooling in the slot portion, ensuring uniform temperature
distribution of the winding.

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4.1 MAIN PARTS OF ROTOR

Rotor Body
Damper Bar
Silver Plated Rotor End Wedge
Rotor Winding
Retaining Ring
Silver Plated Shrink Seat
Transverse Slots
Rotor Wedge

Figure-4.2 Main Parts of Rotor

4.2 ROTOR WINDING:

The rotor of turbo generator accommodates field winding. Turbo generator is a two pole
machine rotating at a speed of 3000 R.P.M. There are 28 slots cut on two-third of the
periphery which support field winding. The field winding consists of several series connected
coils inserted into the longitudinal slots of rotor body.
Approximately 60% of the rotor circumference is provided with longitudinally slots which
hold the field windings. The slot pitch is selected so that two solid poles are obtained with a
displacement of 180 degrees.

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The coils are wound so that two poles are obtained. The conductors are made up of copper
with a silver content of approximately of 0.1%. The solid conductors have a rectangular
cross section and are provided with axial slots for radial discharge.

Figure-4.3 Rotor Bar

The individual bars are bent to obtain half turns. After insertion into the rotor slots, these
turns are brazed to obtain full turns. The series connected turns of one slot constitute one coil.

Figure-4.4 Rotor winding

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4.3 INSULATION:

The insulation between the individual turns is made of layer of glass fiber laminate.
The coils are insulated from the rotor body with L-shaped strips of glass fiber laminate with
nomex interlines. Insulation between overhang is done by blocks mad of HGL.

4.4 ROTOR SLOT WEDGES:

The rotor of turbo generator is rotating at a very high speed therefore to protect the winding
against the effects from centrifugal forces they are secured firmly by rotor slot wedges. The
slots wedges are made of copper alloy. They are also used damper winding bars. The wedge
and retaining ring act as damper winding in case of asymmetrical and asynchronous
operation. The ring is coated with silver which acts as short circuit rings in damper windings.

Figure-4.5 Rotor Slot Wedge

4.5 ROTOR RETAINING RING:

To protect end winding of rotor from flying out from the rotor due to centrifugal forces rotor
retaining ring is used. Retaining rings are made from high tensile non- magnetic alloy steel
forgings in order to reduce stray losses. These act as short circuit rings to the induced current
to the damper system. To ensure low contact resistance retaining rings are coated with nickel,
aluminum, silver.The rotor of turbo generator is rotating at a very high speed therefore to

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protect the winding against the effects from centrifugal forces they are secured firmly by
rotor slot wedges.

Figure -4.6 Retaining Ring

4.6 FIELD CONNECTION:

The field current is supplied to the rotor winding through radial terminal bolts and two
semicircular conductors located in the hollow bores of the exciter and rotor shafts. The field
connection provides electrical connection between the rotor winding and exciter.

4.6.1 TERMINAL LUG:

The terminal lug is a copper conductor of rectangular cross section. One end of terminal lug
is braced to the rotor winding while the other end is screwed to the radial bolt.

4.6.2 RADIAL BOLT:

The field current leads located in the shaft bore is connected to the terminal lug at the end
winding through a radial bolt.

4.6.3 FIELD CURRENT LEAD:

The leads are run in the axial directions from the radial bolt to the end of rotor.
They consist of two semicircular conductors insulated from each other by an
intermediate plate and from the shaft by tube.
The diagram of field current lead is shown below :-

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Figure-4.7 Field current lead

4.7 ROTOR FAN:

The cooling air in generator is circulated by axial fans located on the rotor shaft. In 250 MW
rotor two axial flow fans are located on both turbine as well as exciter end side whereas in
500 MW axial fans are located on turbine end side only.

Figure-4.8 Rotor Fan

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WEEK 3

5. EXCITATION SYSTEM

5.1 Brushless Excitation:

The main parts of brushless excitation system are as follows:


Pilot exciter
Main exciter
Rectifier wheel
Automatic voltage regulator

The three phase pilot exciter has a revolving field with permanent magnet poles. The
armature winding is housed on the stator. The three phase ac generated by the pilot exciter
is rectified and controlled by automatic voltage regulator to provide variable D.C. for
exciting the main exciter. The three phase main exciter has stationary field with revolving
armature. Thus three phase ac power is produced in main exciter which is rectified by
rotating Rectifier Bridge and is fed to the field winding of the rotor (turbo generator) through
dc leads.

Fan

Permanent Magnet Generator Main Exciter Rectifier Wheel

Figure-5.1 Exciter

5.2 Pilot Exciter:

Three phase pilot exciter is 16 pole revolving field units. The stator accommodates three
phase armature winding and magnetic poles are placed on the rotor. Thus rotating flux is
produced which cuts the stationary armature conductors and three phase ac. is generated.
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Figure-5.2 PMG Rotor and Fan

5.3 Main Exciter:

The three phase main exciter is a 6 pole armature type unit. The stator frame
accommodates the field winding. The field winding is placed on the magnetic poles. The
armature consists of stacked lamination and the three phase winding is inserted into the slots
of the laminated armature.

5.4 Rectifier wheel:

Components in the rectifier wheel are as follows:


Silicon diodes
Aluminum heat sink
Fuses
RC circuit

The diagram of main exciter is shown below :

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Stator Core

Stator Frame Magnetic Pole Damper Winding

Figure-5.3 Main Exciter

The main component in the rectifier wheel is silicon diodes which are arranged in rectifier
wheel in three phase bridge circuit. The direct current from rectifier wheel is fed to DC leads
and then to the field winding of the rotor.

DC leads Heat Sink Diodes Rectifier


Wheel

Figure-5.4 Rectifier Wheel

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Advantages of Brushless Excitation:
Eliminates slip rings and brushes
Eliminates all problems associated with transfer of current via sliding contacts
Eliminates the hazard of changing brushes on load
Brush losses are eliminated
Minimum operating and maintenance cost
High response excitation with fast acting AVR
Rotor Earth Fault Measurement through provision of Instrument Slip Rings

5.5 Flow chart of Brushless Excitation:

Pilot Exciter Main Exciter

Permanent magnet Field on Armature on Rotor, Field Silicon Diode


Rotor armature on stator Winding on stator Bridge on
Shaft

To Alternator
Field
Thyristor Controlled
Bridge

Regulator Output from


Alternator

Figure-5.5 Flow Chart of Brushless Excitation

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WEEK 4

6. COOLING SYSTEM

6.1 COOLING METHODS FOR TURBOGENERATOR:

STATOR WINDING: Indirectly Air Cooled


ROTOR WINDING: Directly Air Cooled
STATOR WINDING: Indirectly Hydrogen Cooled
ROTOR WINDING: Directly Hydrogen Cooled
STATOR WINDING: Directly Water Cooled
ROTOR WINDING: Directly Hydrogen Cooled

6.2 AIR COOLED TURBO GENERATOR:

In Air Cooled Turbo generator stator winding is indirectly air cooled whereas the rotor
winding and stator core is directly air cooled. This type of cooling is applicable for
rating of 30 MW- 60 MW generators. In this type of turbo generator there are vertically sides
mounted cooler in a separate housing.

Hot Air
Cold Air

Figure-6.1 cooling of stator and rotor

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6.3 HYDROGEN COOLING AND HYDROGEN COOLED T.G. (THRI):

When the problem of increasing generator rating was talked in it became clear that the
air cooled machine did not provide the necessary scope for progress. Not only in circulating
the requisite of air through the machine but also because high fan power required to circulate.
Evidently to push up generator ratings hydrogen is used as cooling medium.

Advantages of Hydrogen as Cooling Medium:

Increased efficiency: The density of H2 is only 0.07 times the density of air and
therefore the power required to circulate H2 is less than that required in air.
Increase in rating: H2 has a heat transfer coefficient 1.5 times and its thermal
conductivity is 7 times that of air. Consequently when H2 is used as a coolant, the heat
is more rapidly taken up from the machine parts and dissipated.
Elimination of fire hazard: The outbreak of fire inside the machine is
impossible as H2 does not support combustion.
Smaller size of coolers: The size of cooler required is smaller in size.
The below given diagram are the cooling of rotor and stator in hydrogen cooling and
hydrogen cooled type turbo generator.

Cooler Stator Core Stator Core Rotor Bushing

Figure- 6.2 cooling of rotor and stator

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6.4 HYDROGEN/WATER COOLED T.G. (THDF):

In large rating machines, hydrogen cooling is not sufficient to remove the entire heat
generated. For additional cooling, a Primary Water (PW) cooling system with demineralized
water flowing through the hollow stator conductors is used. The rotor conductors are
hydrogen cooled.

Cooler Water Box Stator Core Rotor

Figure-6.3 cooling of rotor and stator

7. GENERATOR TECHNICAL DATA

The technical data of turbo generator 250MW,500MW,660MW,800MW are


given below

Parameter Unit 250 MW 500 MW 660 MW 800 MW

Module - THRI THDF115/29 THDF115/67 THDF123/67


108/44
Rated KV 16.5 21 21 27
Voltage
Rated Amp 10291 16166 21334 20129
Current
Hydraulic Bar 4 3.5 5 5
Press.(g)

Table -7.1 Generator Technical data

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8. TESTING OF TURBO GENERATOR:

To ensure that all functional requirements are fulfilled, and to estimate the
performance of generator, the TURBO GENERATORS are required to undergo some
tests.

8.1 SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:

The machine is run at rated speed and drive motor input voltage and current are noted and
excitation is gradually increased in steps, at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100% rated current of machine.
The short circuit characteristics is plotted from short circuit results by selecting X-axis as
field current and Y-axis as % rated current from the Short Circuit test, we will get copper
losses.

8.2 OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:

The machine is run at rated speed and the motor input voltage and current are noted and
excitation is gradually increased in steps, at 20, 40, 60, 80, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110 and 120 %
of rated voltage of machine. The open circuit characteristics is plotted from open circuit
results by selecting X-axis as field current and Y-axis as % rated voltage. From the open
circuit test, we will get Iron Losses.

8.3 INTER STRAND TEST:

This testing is basically done to check any short circuit between ant two consecutive
conductors of a bar. For this test all the bare conductors at both the ends are separated from
each other so that they do not short circuit. Then a live wire is connected to a conductor and
received from it consecutive conductor to light a lamp. Hence if the lamp lights up it shows
short circuit between the two conductors due to improper insulation between them.

It shows insulation failure between the conductors, these conductors are then replaced
and bar is followed through all the previous processes. Similarly all the conductors are
checked for any short circuit.

8.4 HIGH VOLTAGE TEST ON ROTOR AND STATOR WINDING :


The High Voltage is applied to windings by increasing gradually to required value and
maintained for one minute and reduced gradually to minimum. The transformer is

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switched off and winding is discharged to earth by shorting the terminal to earth
using Earthing rod connected to earthen wire. The test is conducted on all the phases and
rotor winding separately. When High Voltage test is done on one phase winding, all
other phase windings, rotor winding, instrumentation cables and stator body is earthed.
This test is done to check the insulation of the winding and hence it is also known as
insulation test.

8.5 HELIUM TEST:

Helium test is done to check leakage within the bar and at the brazed portions.
Any minute leakage which couldnt be checked by water test can easily be observed
by helium test because helium is one of the lightest gas.
In helium test, whole of the bar is wrapped in the polythene excluding the end
points. The helium gas at pressure of 11Kg/Cm2 is passed through the bar and a probe
connected to the gauge is inserted inside the polythene at different places.
The gauge will show deflection if there is any helium atom present. Gauge will
show reading even if 1 helium atom in 100000 atoms is present.

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CONCLUSION

The Vocational training at BHEL Haridwar helped us in improving our practical


knowledge and awareness regarding Turbo Generator to a large extent. Here we came to
know about the technology and material used in manufacturing of turbo generators. Besides
this, we also visualized the parts involved or equipments used in the power generation.

Here we learnt about how the electrical equipments are being manufactured and how they
tackle the various problems under different circumstances. At least we could say that the
training at BHEL Haridwar is great experience for us and it really helped us in making or
developing our knowledge about turbo generator and other equipment used in power
generation.

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REFERENCES
Books
A text book of electrical machines by P.S.BIMBRA
A text book of electrical technology by B.L.THERAJA
Other
BHEL Internal material
Sites
http://www.bhel.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turbo_generator
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen-cooled_turbogenerator

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