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Adverbios

Los adverbios son palabras invariables cuya funcin consiste en complementar la


significacin del verbo, de un adjetivo, de otro adverbio y de ciertas secuencias.
Suelen aadir informacin circunstancial al verbo, y algunos incluso a toda la
oracin, ya sea de tiempo, de modo, de lugar, de duda, de afirmacin o de
negacin. Precisamente, los adverbios se dividen en diversas categoras segn el
tipo de informacin que le agregan a las oraciones.
Con respecto a la posicin que deben ocupar en la oracin, no existen reglas que
determinen tal orden; sin embargo, se sigue la estructura que se emplea en
muchos libros de japons (el adverbio va antes del verbo y el verbo siempre va al
final de la oracin).

Adverbios de frecuencia:
Estos hacen referencia a la regularidad con la que se realizan las acciones.

Siempre

Casi siempre

Usualmente / generalmente

A menudo

Algunas veces ()

Ocasionalmente

No (accin) mucho ***El verbo/accin principal de la oracin debe ser


negativo***

Del todo no ... () ***El verbo principal de la oracin debe ser


negativo***
Difcilmente ***El verbo principal de la oracin debe ser negativo***

Nunca () ***El verbo principal de la oracin debe ser


negativo***

Algunos ejemplos:


Koohii o yoku nomimasu ka.
Usted a menudo bebe caf?


Hai, itsumo nomimasu.
S, siempre bebo (caf).


No, del todo no bebo (caf).


Toshokan de suugaku o hotondo benkyou shimasu.
Casi siempre estudio matemticas en la biblioteca.

Adverbios de tiempo:
Estos aportan temporalidad a la oracin. En japons, estos adverbios son de vital
importancia para crear oraciones el tiempo futuro, pues no existe conjugacin
verbal futura para los verbos o adjetivos.

Hoy ()

Maana ()

Ayer ()

Pasado maana ()

Anteayer / antier ()

Todos los das ()


Todos los meses ()

Todos los aos ()

Ahora ()

Pronto

Ya

Ahora mismo ()

Todo este tiempo

Pocos das ()

Tambin existen prefijos que permite generar adverbios de tiempo. Estos son
( prximo / entrante), () y ( - anterior).

Semana pasada

Esta semana

Semana prxima (entrante)

Mes entrante ( )

Este mes ( )

Mes anterior ()

Sin embargo, hay que tener cuidado cuando se quiere decir utilizar la palabra ao
como adverbio:

Ao prximo ()
Ao en curso ()

Ao pasado ()

Finalmente hay otro adverbio de tiempo que es especial:

Fin de semana ()

Algunos ejemplos:


Kyonen kuruma o kaimashita.
El ao pasado compr un automvil.


Asatte nyuugaku shiken ga arimasu.
Pasado maana es el examen de admisin / Pasado maana hay examen de
admisin.


Mainichi daigaku he ikanakerebanarimasen.
Todos los das debo ir a la universidad.

Adverbios de modo:

Estos adverbios indican cmo o de qu manera se debe realizar la accin. Los


dividiremos en adverbios de modo derivados de adjetivos y los adverbios de modo
naturales.

- Adverbios de modo derivado de adjetivos:

Estos se generan haciendo pequeas variaciones en los adjetivos, y en espaol


estos adjetivos terminan en mente. Como ya se ha estudiado, hay adjetivos y
adjetivos , por lo tanto hay dos formas de conversin.

Para convertir los adjetivos en adverbios slo basta con utilizar la partcula
despus del adjetivo:

Silenciosamente / tranquilamente ()

Diligentemente ()
Para convertir los adjetivos , slo basta con sustituir la por :
Interesantemente ()

Rpidamente ()

-Adverbios de modo naturales:

Claramente

Rpidamente

Inmediatamente


Paso a paso

Seguramente / sin duda alguna

Lentamente

Con disimulo

Despacio

Adverbios de lugar:
Estos ayudan a enfatizar dnde ocurre la accin.

Aqu

Ah

All

Encima de / en ()

Debajo de ()
En frente de ()

Atrs de ()

Cerca de ()

Lejos de ()

Al lado de ()

Junto a ()

Adentro de ()

Afuera de ()

En medio de ()

Generalmente cuando se utilizan estos adverbios, se dice la posicin y lo que se


halla en dicha posicin, como en la siguiente oracin encima de la mesa hay un
libro. En dichos casos se coloca la partcula despus del adverbio.


Teeburu no ue ni hon ga arimasu.
Encima de la mesa hay un libro.

Adverbios de cantidad:

Apenas

Bastante

Demasiado ()

Mucho

Todo ()
Poco

Muy ()

Adverbios de duda:

Quiz ()

Tal vez

Probablemente

Todava

Eventualmente ()

Despus de todo ()

Otros adverbios:

No muy / no tan ***Se usa con adjetivos negativos***

Ms o menos

Algunos ejemplos:


Miso-shiru ga amari suki ja arimasen.
No me gusta mucho la sopa de Miso /


Nihongo o amari shirimasen.
No s mucho japons.


Kanji ga maamaa kakemasu.
Ms o menos pedo escribir kanji.
Adverbios

(adv,n,uk) certainly; without fail;


;
right and wrong; pros and cons;
(P)
Ex.

= Monogoto no zehi wo kangaeru

= to consider the right and wrong of things

Ex.

= Genpatsu no zehi wo tou.

= To question the need for nuclear power (question whether having nuclear power
generation is right or wrong)

(= genpatsu) is an abbreviation of ( = genshiryoku hatsuden)

( = zettai ni) and ( = kanarazu) are stronger than ( = kitto) and


express strong demand.

( ( = kanarazu) implies strong obligation. ( = zettaini) shows the speakers


strong feeling.)

Ex. (casual)

= Ano eiga omoshiroi kara zehi, mite mite.

= You should see the movie. Its so interesting!

Ex.

= Kono suika totemo amai desuyo. Zehi, okusan to tabete mite kudasai.

= This watermelon is very sweet. Please enjoy it with your wife (by all means.)

Ex.

= Zehi, mata nihon ni kite kudasai.

= You definitely have to come back to Japan.

Ex. (formal)
= Zehi, ichido, uchi ni asobini irashite kudasai.

= Please come and visit my house sometime.

Ex.

= Kono shouhin wo zehi, otameshi kudasai .

= PLEASE try this product.

Ex.

= Maggie sensei no saito wa yaku ni tatsu kara zehi, chekku shite mite.

= Maggie Senseis site is useful so do check it out.

Ex.

= Kondo kuru toki wa zehi, okaasan mo tsurete kite kudasai.

= Please bring your mother the next time you come here.

Ex.

= Nihon no sakura wo zehi, mini kite kudasai.

= Please come see cherry blossoms in Japan.

3) When you REALLY want to do something / show your strong desire

Would love to do something

Ex.

= Daigaku wo sotsugyou surumadeni, zehi , ichido nihon ni itte mitai desu.

= I would love to go visit Japan once before I graduate from the college.

Ex. (formal)

= Haha ga zehi, oai shitai to moushite orimasu.

= My mother said she would love to see you.

Ex.
= Toukyou ni kitara zehi, shirasete kudasai.

= Definitely tell me if you come to Tokyo.

Ex.

= Furenchi buru wo zehi, katte mitai.

= I would love to have a French bulldog.

Ex. (polite)

= Kikai ga attara zehi, goissho sasete kudasai.

=(Please allow me to accompany you if I have a chance.)

= I would love to go there with you if I have a chance.

Note: We also say = =zehitomo

It sounds slightly more stronger than = ( = zehi).

(Stronger)

Ex.

=Kikai ga attara zehi tomo, goissho sasete kudasai.

3) When someone invites you to do something, you accept it showing how eager you
are to do something by using = ( = zehi).

Yes, Id love to ~ !

For example, your friend tells you,

Ex.

= Ii omise wo mitsuketan dakedo kondo, issho ni ikanai?

= I found a nice restaurant (bar). Do you want to go there with me sometime?

You can simply say

Ex.
= Un, tsurete itte.

= Yeah, take me there.

If you want to show more enthusiasm, just add = = zehi.

Ex.

= Un, zehi tsurete itte.

= Yes! Take me there by all means.

or

Ex.

= Un, itte mitai.

= Yeah, I want to go.

Much more enthusiastic

Ex.

= Un, zehi, itte mitai.

= Yeah, Id love to .

Sometime you can just say = ( = zehi).

Ex.

= Tsugi no nichiyoubi, uchi ni kuru?

= Do you want to come over next Sunday?

= Zehi!

= By all means!

Variation :

Ex. (casual)
=Saikin, koneko wo kattan dakedo au?

= I just got a kitten recently. Do you want to see him/her?

Ex.

= Sorewa, mou zehi!!

= Yes, by all means!!!

Ex.

= zehizehi!

= Kore de boku no ressun wo owarimasu. Minna, yonde kurete arigatou!

(adv) necessarily; certainly;

without fail; positively;


invariably; (P)
(kanarazu) means "without fail", while means "with high probability". For sentences
which mean that something is or should be at or near 100% probability, we use :

Ningen wa daredemo kanarazu (not "kitto") shinu.


All human beings will die without exception.

Ashita no asa made ni kanarazu shukudai wo dashite kudasai.


Make sure to give your homework by tomorrow.
(adv,n,uk,arch) surely;
undoubtedly; almost certainly;
most likely (e.g. 90 percent);
sternly; severely; (P)
(kitto), on the other hand, refers to the speaker's personal beliefs or inference.

Tanaka-san wa kitto kuru yo.


I'm sure Tanaka-san will come.

For past events, one can use when talking about a personal evaluation of what happened:

Tarou wa kinou kurasu wo yasundakara, kitto (not "kanarazu") byouki datta no darou.
Because Tarou was absent yesterday, I'm pretty sure he was sick.

But when one is talking about a past event that is verified to be accurate, one must use :

Tanaka-san wa, paatii ga aru to kanarazu (not "kitto") kita.

Note that the past sentence is not a personal evaluation.

Note also that is not normally used for negative sentences, but may be so used.

(adv,adj-no,n) absolutely;

unconditionally; absolute;
unconditional; unmistakable;
absoluteness; (P)

Don't forget what I told you.

Oh man! I was sure this was going to work out.

I shall never give up.

This is definitely, 'The good you do for others is good you do yourself'! It's a reward
because I was helpful!

The judge's decision is final.

(int,abbr,adv) thanks; much


(thanks); very (sorry); quite
(regret); quite; really; somehow;
no matter how hard one may try;
greetings; hello; goodbye; (P)

The Japanese word "do-u-mo/" is used occasionally in a conversation.

But it has various usages and sometimes seems there are no specific meaning in itself.

I'd like to introduce the two most often used expressions.

1)As thanks and hello.

I think they are very easy to use that you try to use in a conversation. Only you need to do is
use "doumo" instead of "hello" or "thanks".

In fact, sometimes sales persons come to our office while he's saying "do-u-mo/"
instead of "hello/konnichwa/"!

That sound casual and friendly, but it can be used in business.

2)With negative forms


The next, "domo/" is also used frequently with negative forms.

Examples:

()
It has been hard to awake in a morning recently.

you can also say "chotto/" instead of


This computer is somewhat hard to use.

...
I have been feeling a bit bad since yesterday, would you mind if I off?