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English Grammar Th TS AM le reference and practice book for intermediate Caen ee ante iy td Mees + Murphy English Grammar in USC acises reference and practice book for intermediate students of English with answers THIRD EDITION Raymond Murphy Ep CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS ‘Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK Information on this title: 1532891 © Cambridge University Press 2004 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2004 7th printing 2005 Printed in Singapore by KHL Printing Co Pre Led A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN-13, 978-0-521-53289-1 Edition with answers ISBN-10 0-521-53289-2 Edition with answers ISBN-13 978-0-521-53290-7 Edition withour answers ISBN-10 0-521-53290-6 Edition without answers ISBN-13_978-0-521-53762-9 Edition with CD-ROM ISBN-10 0-521-53762-2 Edition with CD-ROM. ISBN-13 978-0-521-84311-9 Hardback edition with CD-ROM ISBN-10 0-521-84311-1 Hardback edition with CD-ROM ISBN-13 978-3-12-534086-2 Klett edition with CD-ROM ISBN-10 3-12-534086-1 Klett edition with CD-ROM ISBN-13. 978-3-12-534084-8 Klett edition ISBN-10 3-12-534084-5 Klett edition Contents Thanks To the student viii To the teacher x Present and past It Present continuous (I am doing) Present simple (I do) Present continuous and present simple 1 (Lam doing and I do) Present continuous and present simple 2 (1 am doing and 1 do) Past simple (I did) Past continuous (I was doing) Present perfect and past > Present perfect | (1 have done} 8 Present perfect 2 (I have done) 9 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) 10 Present perfect continuous and simple (1 have been doing and I have done) 11 How long have you (been) 12 For and since When ... tand How long ... ? 13 Present perfect and past I (I have done and I did) 14 Present perfect and past 2 (I have done and I did) 15. Past perfect (I had done) 16 Past perfect continuous (I had been doing) I7 Have gat and have 18. Used to (do! Future 19. Present tenses (I am doing /1 do) for the furure 20 (I'm) going to (do) 21 Willshall 1 22, Willshall 2 23. Twill and I'm going yo 24. Will be doing and will have done 25 When [do/ When I've done When and if Modals 26 Can, could and (be) able to 27 Could (dot and could have (done} 28 Must and cant 29. May and might | 30. May and might 2 31 Have to and must 32. Must mustn't needn't 33 Should 1 34 Should 2 35 Had better — It's time... 36 Would 37 CaniCould/Would you ... # ete. (Requests, offers, permission and invitations) eG see Sa eee If and wish 38 If ido... and If I did... 39 If knew... I wish I knew... 40 If Thad known... I wish thad known ... 41 Wish Passive 42 Passive | (is done / was done} 43. Passive 2. (be done / been done / being done) 44 Passive 3 45 Iis said that... Heis said to... He is supposed to ... 46 Have something done Reported speech 47 Reported specch | (He said that 48. Reported speech 2 Questions and auxiliary verbs 49 Questions | ions 2 (Do you know where ... ?/ He asked me where ...) 51 Ausiliary verbs (have/do/ean etc.) I think so / I hope so ete. 52 Question tags (do you? isn’t it? ete.) -ing and the infinitive 53. Verb + -ing (enjoy doing / stop doing ete.) 54. Verb + 10 ... (decide to ... forget to ... etc.) $5. Verb (+ object) + to «1 want you to ... etc.) 56. Verb + -ing or to ... 1 (remember/regret etc.) $7. Verh + -ing or to ... 2 (tey/necd/help) 58. Verb + -ing or to ... 3 (like / would like ete.) $9 Prefer and would rather 60. Preposition (in/for/about etc.) + -ing 61 Belget used to something (I'm used to ...) 62. Verb + preposition + -ing (succeed in -ing / accuse somebody of -ing etc.) 63. Expressions + -ing 64 To... for ... and so that ... (purpose) 65. Adjective + 10 ... 66 To ... (afraid to do) and preposition + -ing (afraid of -ing) 67 See somebody do and see somebody doing 68 -ing clauses (Feeling tired, | went to bed early.) Articles and nouns 69 Countable and uncountable { 70 Countable and uncountable 2 71 Countable nouns with a/an and some 72 Alan and the 73 The! 74 The 2 (school / the school etc.) 75. The 3 {children / the children) 76 The 4 (the giraffe / the telephone / the piano etc., the + adjective) 77 Names with and without the | 78 Names with and without the 2 ular and plural 80 Noun + noun (a tennis ball / a headache) 81 ~'s tyour sister’s name) and of ... (the name of the book) Pronouns and determiners 82. Myself/yourself/themselves etc. 83 A friend of mine My own house On my own / by myself ‘$4 There ... and it... 85. Some and any 86 No/none/any — Nothing/nobody ete. 87 Much. many. little, few. a lot. plenty 88 All/all of — most /most of a0 / none of etc, 89 Both / both of neither / neither of either / cither of 90 All, every and whole 91 Each and every Relative clauses 92. Relative clauses 1: clauses with who/thav/which 93. Relative clauses 2: clauses with and without who/thavwhich 94 Relative clauses 3: whose/whom/where 95 Relative clauses 4: extra information clauses (1) 96 Relative clauses 5: extra information clauses (2) 97 ing and -ed clauses (the woman talking to Tom, the boy injured in the accident) Adjectives and adverbs 98 Adjectives ending in -ing and -ed (boring/bored eve.) 99 Adjectives: a nice new house. you look tired 100 Adjectives and adverbs 1 (quick/quickly? 101 Adjectives and adverbs 2 (well/fast/ate, hard/ardly) 102 So and such 103 Enough and too 104 Quite, pretty. rather and fairly 105 Comparison 1 (cheaper. more expensive etc.) 106 Comparison 2 (much better / any better / better and better / the sooner the better) 107 Comparison 3 (as ... as / han) 108. Superlatives (the longest. the most enjoyable etc.) 109 Word order 1: verb + object: place and time 110 Ward order 2: adverbs with the verb 111 Still, yet and already Any more / any longer / no longer 112 Even Conjunctions and prepositions 113 Although / though / even though In spite of / despite 114 In case 115 Unless As long as Provided/providing 116 As (As I walked along the street .,. / As | was hungry 17 Like and as 118 Asif / as though / like er Aken 119 120 For, during and while By and until By the time ... Prepositions (21 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 At/onfin (time) On time and in time At the end and in the end Tolavinsimo Infation (other uses) By Noun + preposition (reason for, cause of etc.) Adjective + preposition | Adjective + preposition 2 Verb + preposition 1 to and at Verb + preposition 2 abouv/for/of/after Verb + preposition 3 about and of Verb + preposition 4 offfor/from/on Verb + preposition 5 infintofwith/eofon Phrasal verbs 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145, Phrasal verbs 1 Introduction Phrasal verbs 2. in/out Phrasal verbs 3 out Phrasal verbs 4 on/off (1) Phrasal verbs 5 on/off (2) Phrasal verbs 6 up/down Phrasal verbs 7 up (1) Phrasal verbs 8 up (2) Phrasal verbs 9. away/back Appendix 1 Regular and irregular verbs 292 Appendix 2 Present and past tenses 294 Appendix 3 The future 295 Appendix 4 Modal verbs (can/could/will/would etc.) 296 Appendix 5 Short forms (I'm / you've / didn't etc.) 297 Appendix 6 Spelling 298 Appendix 7 American English 300 Additional exercises 302 Study guide 326 Key to Exercises 336 Key to Additional exercises 368 Key to Study guide 372 Index 373 PAGE 326. Thanks L wrote the original edition of English Grammar in Use when I was a teacher at the Swan School of English, Oxford. I would like to repeat my thanks ro my colleagues and students at the school for their help, encouragement and interest at that time. More recently I would to thank all the teachers and students | met and who offered their thoughts on the previous edition. It was fun to meet you all and extremely helpful for me. Regarding the production of this third edition, I am grateful to Alison Sharpe, Liz Driscoll, Jane Mairs and Kamae Design. I would also like to thank Cambridge University Press for permission co access the Cambridge International Corpus. Thank you also to the following illustrators: Pau! Fellows, Gillian Martin, Roger Penwill, Lisa Smith and Simon Williams. viii To the student This hook is for students who want help without a teacher. The book will be useful for you if you are nor sure of the answers to questions like these: © What is the difference between I did and I have done? 1 When do we use will for the future? © What is the structure after I wish? 2 When do we say used to do and when do we say used to doing? 1G When do we use the? G Whar is the difference between like and as? English grammar. It is written for you to use ‘These and many other points of English grammar are explained in the book and there are exercises on each point, Level . The book is intended mainly for intermediate students (students who have already studied the basic grammar of English). It concentrates on those structures which intermediate students want 10 use, but which often cause difficulty. Some advanced students who have problems with grammar will also find the book useful The book is not suitable for elementary learners. How the book is organised There are 145 units in the book. Each unit concentrates on a particular point of grammar. Some problems (for example, the present perfect or the use of the) are covered in more than one unit. For a list of units, see the Contents at the beginning of the book. Each unit consists of two facing pages. On the left there are explanations and examples: on the right there are exercises. At the back of the book there is a Key for you to check your answers to the exercises (page 336). There are also seven Appendices at the back of the book (pages 292-301). These include irregular verbs, summaries of verb forms, spelling and American English. Finally, there is a detailed Index at the back of the book (page 373). How to use the book The units are not in order of difficulty, so it is not intended that you work through the book from beginning to end. Every learner has different problems and you should use this book to help you with the grammar that you find difficult. Ie is suggested that you work in this wa G Use the Contents and/or Index co find which unit deals with the point you are interested in. O If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study guide on page 326. Study the explanations and examples on the left-hand page of the unit you have chosen. 1 Do the exercises on the right-hand page. Check your answers with the Key. OG If your answers are not correct, stu he left-hand page again to see what went wrong. You can of course use the hook simply as a reference hook withour doing the exercises. Additional exercises At the back of the book there are Additional exercises (pages 302-325). These exercises bring together some of the grammar points from a number of different units. For example, Exercise 16 brings together grammar points from Units 26-36. You can use these exercises for extra practice after you have studied and practised the grammar in the units concerned. CD Rom The book is sold with or without a CD Rom. On the CD Rom you will find more exercises on all the units (different from those in the book). There are also 1,700 test questions, and you can use these to make your own tests. The CD Rom can also be bought separately. To the teacher English Grammar in Use was written as a self-study grammar book, but teachers may also find it useful as additional course material in cases where further work on grammar is necessary. The book will probably be most useful at middle- and upper- intermediate levels (where all or nearly all of the material will be relevant), and can serve both as a basis for revision and as a means for practising new structures. It will also be useful for some more advanced students who have problems with grammar and need a book for reference and practice. The book is not intended to be used by elementary learners. The units are organised in grimmatical categories (Present and past, Articles and nouns, Prepositions etc.). They are not ordered according to level of difficulty, so the book should not be worked through from beginning to end. Irshould be used selectively and flexibly in accordance with the grammar syllabus being used and the difficulties students are having. The book can be used for i mediate consolidation or for later revision o remedial work. It might be used by the whole class or by individual students needing extra help. The left-hand pages (explanations and examples) are written for the student to use individually, bur they may of course be used by the teacher as a source of ideas and information on which to base a lesson. The student then has the left-hand page as a record of what has been taught and can refer to it in the future. The exercises can he done individually, in class or as homework. Alternatively (and additionally), individual students can be directed to study certain units of the book by themselves if they have particular difficulties not shared by other students in their class, Don't forget the Additional exercises at the back of the book (see To the student). The book is sold with or without a CD Rom. This contains further exercises on all the units in the book, as well as a bank of 1,700 test questions from which users can select to compile their own tests. The CD Rom is also available separately. ‘An edition of English Grammar in Use without the Key is also available, Some teachers may prefer this for use with their students. English Grammar in Use Third Edition ‘This is a new edition of English Grammar in Use. The differences between this edition and the second edition are: G There are eight new units on phrasal verbs (Units 138-145), There is also a new unit ‘on wish (Unit 41), Units 42-81 and 83-137 all have different numbers from the second edition, 1 Some of the material has been revised or reorganised, and in most units there are minor changes in the examples, explanations and exercises. 1 The Additional exercises have been extended. The new exercises are 14-16, 25, 30-31, and 37-41, © The book has heen redesigned with new colour illustea © There is a new CD Rom with further exercises to accompany the book. ns. English Grammar in Use iis i aN LD] Present continuous (I am doing) Study this example situation: Sarah is in her car. She is on her way to work. She is driving to work. This means: she is driving now’, at the time of speaking. ‘The action is nor finished. 1B is the present continuous: Amiis/are +-i 1 am (=m) driving helshelit is (=he'sere.) | working welyoulthey are (= we're etc.) | doing erc. Lam doing something = I'm in the middle of doing it; I've started doing it and I haven't finished yet: Please don't make so much noise. I'm trying to work. (not I try) 0 ‘Where's Mark?” ‘He's having a shower.” (not He has a shower) 1 Let's go out now. It isn’t raining any more. (not It doesn’t rain) 5 © (at a party) Hello, Jane. Are you enjoying the party? (not Do you enjoy) 1 Whar’s all that noise? What's going on? (= What's happening?) ‘The action is not necessarily happening at the time of speaking. For example: Steve is calking to a friend on the phone. He says: ‘Tm reading a really good book at the moment. Ws about a Aan who .. Steve is not reading the book at the time of speaking. He means that he has started it, but has not Finished i yet. He is in the middle of reading it Some more examples: © Kate wants to work in Italy, so she’s learning Italian. (but perhaps she isn’t learning Ikalian at the cime of speaking) 1B Some friends of mine are building their own house. They hope to finish it next summer. You can use the present continuous with today / this week / this year etc. (periods around now}: Ga: You're working hard today. (ot You work hard today) ts: Yes, [have a lot to do. 1 The company 1 work for isn’t doing so well this year. ‘We use the present continuous when we talk about changes happening around now, especially with these verbs: get change become increase rise fall grow improve begin start GIs your English getting better? (not Does your English get better) 1 The population of the world is increasing very fast. (not increases) @ At frst I didn’t like my job, bur I'm beginning co enjoy it now. (not I begin) Present continuous and present simple —> Units 3-4 Present tenses for the future —> Unit 19 Exercises Unit 1 Oy) 12 13 14 Complete the sentences with the following verbs in the correct form: happen look _—lose_—« make = start. stay try -work: reworking . hard today.” "Yes. 1 have a lor ro do for Christine. Do you know where she is? _ dark, Shall Turn on the light? —, They don’t have anywhere ro live at the moment. They until they find somewhere, Things are not so good at work. The company : Have yo got an umbrella? 1 to rain. You a lot of noise. Can you be quieter? | ro concentrate. 8 Why are all these people here? What a» With friends raw Put the verb into the correct form. Sometimes you need the negative (I'm not doing etc). Please don’t make so much noise. 1 eying... (tryl to work. Let’s go out now. It ..!3"1E. mn) any more, You can tura off the radio. U “en tisten 50 it, bene £ LE necnniee (have) a great time and doesn’t want to come bac 1 want to lose weight, so this week | Andrew has just started evening classes. He — Paul and Sally have had an argument. They 1. ee (get) tired. | need a rest. (work) this week, He's on holiday. ~ (eat) lunch. (learn) German. YC £€... (speak) to each other. spa wn Complete the conversations. 1a: Lsaw Brian a few days ago. What's he doug. these days? (what / he / do) ® (what / he / study) at Psychology. BE amin = Yes, he says itz (he / enjoy) sa very good course, + Hi, Liz, How ot Ss ~ ip your ney jab?, (you / get on) : Not bad. If wasn’t so good ar first, but -. now. (things / get) a: Whar about Jonathan? Is he OK? Br Yes, DUE ant -poicton his work, at the, moment. (he / not / enjoy) He's heen in the same job for along time and —. 10 get bored with it. (he / begin) cee better Complete the sentences using the following verbs: begin change get. inerease- rise 1 The population ofthe world ing. very fast. 2 The world .... ie + Things never stay the same. 3: The situation is ci nnn WOFSE, 4 The cost of living Every year things are more expensive. $ The weather .... to improve. The rain has stopped, and the wind isn’t as strong. Unit Ye) Present simple (I do) BETS 5s is example sicuacon: Alex is a bus driver, but now he is in bed asleep. He is not driving a bus. (He is asleep.) but He drives a bus. (He is a bus driver.) Drive(s)/work(s\do(es) etc. is the present simple: Uwelyoulthey drivelwork/do ete. hefshe/it drives/works/does etc. BEY se the present simple to talk about things in general. We use it ro say that something happens all the time or repeatedly, or that something is teue in general: 1 Nurses look after patients in hospital. © usually go away at weekends. © The earth goes round the sun. © The café opens at 7.30 in the morning. =~ Remember: Twotk... but He works... They teach ... but My sister teaches ... For spelling (-s or -es), see Appendix 6. BES vse doidoes to make questions and negative sentences: on T _ do | Vwelyowthey | YO? | | welyouthey | don't YO |, | drive? drive does | he/shefit a helshelit doesn’t 40 : \ I come from Canada. Where do you come from? don’t go away very often. © What does this word mean? (not What means this word?) 0 Rice doesn’t grow in cold climates. In the following examples, do is also the main verb (do you do / doesn’t do etc.): © ‘What do you do?" “I work in a shop.” © He's always so lazy. He doesn’t do any’ ing co help. BE se the present simple to say how often we do things: CL get up at 8 o'clock every morning. © How often do you go to the dentist? © Julie doesn’t drink tea very often. 1 Robere usually goes away two or three times a year. | I promise / I apologise etc, Sometimes we do things by saying something. For example, when you promise to do something, you can say ‘I promise ..."; when you suggest something, you can say ‘I suggest 1 I promise I won't be late. (not I'm promising) 0 ‘What do you suggest I do?” ‘I suggest that you ...” In the same way we say: | apologise ... / I advise ... /1 insist... /Lagree ... / I refuse ... ete. 4 Present simple and present continuous + Units 3-4 Present tenses for the future ~> Unit 19 Exercises Unit 2 20 22 23 24 25 Complete the sentences using the following verbs: cause(s) connect(s) drink(s)_—_live(s)__open(s)_-speak{s} —_rake(s) 1 Tanya ..22¢@Ks.,.. German very well. 2 Idon’t often 26010 to um Coffee. 3. The swimming pool... _- at 7,30 every morning. 4 Bad driving ..[¢1/._ 1... many accidents. 5. My parents pay small flat. 6 The Olympic Games... @ 44. . place every four years. 7 The Panama Canal 4.4: the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Put the verb into the correct form. 1 Julie ..doesn't drank. (not / drink) tea very often. 2 What time _, the banks / close) here? 3 ve gor a compurer, but |. - (not / use) it much. 4 Where 7 -24Martin / come) from?” “He's Scottish.” 5 What a nnee (YOu do}? “I'm an electrician.” (bit (take) me an hour to get to work. How long Hoel ee {ie / take) you? 7 Look ae this sentence. What, nv ticione (this word / mean)? 8 = (not / do) any sport. Use the following verbs to complete the sentences. Sometimes you need the negative: believe eat flow go: grow make rise tell eranslate, 1 The earth 92 round the sun, - 7 An interpreter ~ in Britain. language into another. 8 Liars are people who into the Atlantic Ocean. You ask Liz questions about herself and her family. Write the questions. 1 You know that Liz plays tennis. You want to know how often. Ask her. How often .. 1's tennis too. You want to know. Ask Liz YOUR SiStEF nen, tet) 3. You know that Liz reads a newspaper every day. You want to know which, one. Ask her. You! know that Liz goes to the cinema a lot. You want 40 krtow how often. Ask her, oan Leper 6 You don’t know where 2's grandparents live. You want to know. Ask 1: ere - Complete using the following: 1 apologise Tinsist | promise I recommend Louggest- 1 Irsanice day. 1 _84ggest....we go out for a wall I won't tell anybody what you said. (int a restaurant) You must let me pay for the meal. vow for what I did. It won't happen again. The new restaurant in Hill Street is very good. ene Bu wo iia) Present continuous and present simple 1 Sie (I am doing and | do) E¥ compare: Present continuous (I am doing) We use the continuous for things happening at or around the time of speaking, The action is not complete. Lam doing Present simple (I do) We use the simple for things in general or things that happen repeatedly. 1 do ————_—_—+ past ow Titre © The water is boiling. Can you tun it off? © Listen to those people. Whar language are they speaking? 10 Let's go out. It isn’t raining now. 0 ‘'m busy.” ‘What are you doing?” 1 P'm getting hungry. Let’s go and cat. 1 Kate wants to work in Italy, so she’s learning Italian. 1 The population of the world is increasing very fast. past note Future i Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. 1 Excuse me, do you speak English? © It doesn’ rain very much in summer. © What do you usually do at weekends? 1 always get hungey in the afternoon. © Most people learn to swim when they are children. @ Every day the population of the world increases by about 200,000 people. We use the continuous for temporary We use the simple for permanent situations: | 10 I'm living with some friends until | find | a place of my own. Ga: You're working hard today. Bz Yes, Ihave a lot to do, See Unit 1 for more information. HR) 1 2'wrays do and t'm always doing always do (something) = 1 do it every time: 1B L always go to work by car. (of I'm always going) © My parents live in Landon. They have lived there all their lives. 1 John isn’t lazy. He works hard most of the time, See Unit 2 for more information. ‘T'm always doing something’ has a different meaning. For example: Tye lost my pen again. 'm always losing things, I'm always losing things = I lose things very often, perhaps too often, or more often than normal, Two more examples: 1 You're always watching television. You should do something more active. (= You warch television too often) Gi Tim is never satisfied. He's always complaining. (= He complains too much) 6 Present continuous and simple 2 > Unit 4 Present tenses for the future —» Unit 19 Exercises Unit 3 31 32 38 Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct them where necessary. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. OK. The warer boils. Can you turn it off? Look! Thar man tries to open the door of your car. Can you hear those people? What do they talk about? The moon gots round the earth in about 27 days. J must go now. Ic gets late. usually go to work by car. *Hurry up! les cime to leave.” OK. | come.” Thear you've got a new job. How do vou get on? Paul is never late, He’s always getting to work on time. ~ They don’t get on well. Theyte always arguing. — Scar aueune Put the verb into the correct form, present continuous or present simple, 1 Let's go our. Ir ..u8n't..rauning... (not / rain) now. very good at languages. She ...S2€4KS... (speak) four languages very well. _~. (wait) for you. {you / listen) to the radio? “No, you can turn it off.” {you / listen) to the radio every day?" ‘No, just occasionally.” ns {flow} into the Mediterranean. . (flow) very fast today — much faster than usual. _~ (grow) vegetables in our garden, bur this year we (not / grow) any. si 6 The River Nile —_ TZ The fF nn 8 We usually .. Hovw’s your Englis 8: Nor bad. I think it . (improve) slowly. 10. Rachel is in London at the moment. She _—~ (stay) at the Park Hotel. She always .. (stay) there when she’s in London. 11 Can we stop wal = (start) to feel tired. 12a: Can you drive? Be ce Sormally I (leara). My father .- (teach) me. (finish) work at five, bur this week 1 (work) until six to earn a little more money. _- (live) in Manchester. They were born there and have never lived anywhere else. Where... _-— (your parents / live)? 15 Sonia — {look} for a place to live, She ~ (stay) with her sisrer until she finds somewhere. 16 a: What b: He's an archirecr, but he (ata party) Lusually (not / enjoy) this one very much. 14 My parents -weoen (your brother / do)? a= (not / work) at the moment. (enjoy) parties, but I Finish B's sentences. Use always ing. 14: Eve lost my pen again. B: Not again! ...1ou re. always, losing your pen. 2a: The car has broken down again. B: That car is useless. It Look! You've made the same mistake again. Oh no, not again! |. 4 a: Oh, I've forgotten my glasses again. B: Typical! Vitiag Present continuous and present simple 2 23) (| am doing and | do) EY We use continuous forms for actions and happenings tha have started but not finished (they are cating / it is raining etc.). Some verbs (for example, know and like) are not normally used in this way. We don't say ‘lam knowing’ or ‘they are liking’; we say ‘I know’, ‘they like’. The following verbs are not normally used in the present continuous: like love hate want need prefer know realise suppose mean understand believe remember belong fit contain consist seem 10 F'm hungry. 1 want something to eat. (not I'm wanting) 1 Do you understand what I mean? 1D Ann doesn’t seem very happy at the moment. . ‘When think means ‘believe’ or ‘have an opinion’, we do not use the continuous: OI think Mary is Canadian, but I'm not sure. (not I'm thinking) © What do you think about my plan? (= What is your opinion?) ‘When think means ‘consider’, the continuous is possible: I'm thinking about what happened. I often think about it. 1 Nicky is thinking of giving up her job. (= she is considering it) 4 He is selfish and He is being selfish He's being = He's behaving / He's acting. Compare: 1 Ecan’t understand why he's being so selfish. He isn’t usually like chat, (being selfish = behaving selfishly at the moment) 1 He never thinks about other people. He is very selfish. (not He is being) (= He is selfish generally, not only at the.moment) ‘We use am/is/are being to say how somebody is behaving. It is not usually possible in other sentences: 1 Irs hor today. (not It is being hor) 1 Sarah is very tired. (not is being tired) See hear smell taste We normally use the present simple (not continuous) with these verbs: 1 Do you see that man over there? (not Are you seeing) 1 This room smells. Ler's open a window. We often use can + secfhear/smelltaste: 1 I can hear a strange noise. Can you hear it? Look feel i ae You can use the present simple or continuous to say how somebody looks or feels no 1 You look well today. or You're looking well today. 1G How do you feel now? or How are you feeling now? but ‘© L usually feel tired in the morning. (not I'm usually feeling) 8 Present continuous and simple 1» Unit 3 Have —» Unit 17 Present tenses for the future — Unit 19 Exercises Unit 4 4.1 Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct them where necessary. Nicky is thinking of giving up her job, OK. Are you believing in God? I'm feeling hungry. Is there anything to eat? This sauce is great. It's tasting really good. Mm thinking chis is your key. Am I right? 4.2 Use the words in brackets to make sentences. (You should also study Unit 3 before you do this exercise.) (you | not J seem | very happy today) You don't seem very happy today. (the dinner / smell / good) {these gloves / not / fit / me) No, it's free, ‘They're too small 4.3. Put the verb into the correct form, present continuous or present simple. 1 Are you hungry De_you want. (you / want) something to eat? 2 Don’t put the di jonary away = (use) it. 3 Don't put the dictionary away (need) it. 4 Whois that man? Whar .. vane (he f want)? 5 Who is that man? Why ....... sinteesmnenene (he / look) at us? 6 Alan says he’s 80 years old, but nobody (believe) him. 7 She told me her name, but | nor / remember} it now. es (think) of selling my car. Would ou be interested Vereen (think) you should sell your car. You {not / use) it very often. 1 —-we~ (consist) mainly of nitrogen and oxygen. 4.4 Complete the sentences using the most suitable form of be. Sometimes you must use the simple {am/is/are) and sometimes the continuous is more suitable (am/is/are being). I I can’t understand why he's. being. so selfish. He isn’t usually like that. Ce _. very nice to me at the moment. I wonder why. You'll like Debbie when you meet her. She ren NOFY You're usually very patient, so why —.. v=» $0 unreasonable abour waiting ten more minutes? Why isn’t Steve at work today e. bow 10 Past simple (I did) Study Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was an Austrian musician and composer. He lived from 1756 to 1791. He started composing at the age of five and wrote more than 600 pieces of music. He was only 35 years old when he died. example: Lived/started/wrore/wasidied are all past simple. Very often the past simple ends in -ed (regular verbs): 1 E work in a travel agency now. Before that I worked in a department store. 1D We invited them to our party, but they decided not to come. 10 The police stopped me on my way home last night. 1 Laura passed her examination because she studied very hard. ix 6. For spelling (stopped, studied etc.), see Appen: But many verbs are irregular. The past simple does not end in -ed. For example: write > wrote 1 Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music. see = saw 1 We saw Rose in town a few days ago. go = went 1 went to the cinema three times last week. shut -> shut 1 It was cold, so I shut the window. For a list of irregular verbs, see Appendix 1. In questions and negatives we use did/didn’t + infinitive (enjoy/sce/go etc.}: 1] enjoyed you | enjoy’ if T enjoy she | saw did | she | sect she didn't see they | went they | go? [ they j 80 1 a: Did you go out last night? B: Yes, I went to the cinema, bur | didn't enjoy the film much. 0 ‘When did Mr Thomas die?” ‘About ten years ago.” © They didn't invite her to the party, so she didn’t go. © ‘Did you have time to write the letter?" *No, I didn't.” In the following examples, do is the main verb in the sentence (did ... do / didn’t do): © What did you do at the weekend? (not What did you at the weekend?) 1 Ididn't do anything. (not 1 didn’t anything) The past of be (anvis/are) is wasiwere: Uhe/shesit washwasn't was Uhe/shelit? welyouthey _were/weren't were welyoulthey? Note that we do not use did in negatives and questions with washwere: © I was angry because they were late. 1G Was the weather good when you were on holiday? i They weren't able to come because they were so busy. Did you go out last night or were you too tired? Past simple and past continuous — Unit 6 Past simple and present perfect —+ Units 12-14 Exercises Unit 5 5A 52 53 54 Read what Laura says about a typical working day: Tusually get up at 7 o'clock and have a big breakfast. | walk to ‘work, which takes me about half an hour. start work at 845. 1 ever have lunch. | finish work at § o'clock. I'm always tired when ‘get home. | usually cook a meat in the evening. 1 don't usually 90 out. Igo to bed at about 11 o'clock, and I always sleep well Laura Yesterday was a typical working day for Laura. Write what she did or didn’t do yesterday. ‘She. got. up at 7 o'clock. 7 SHE ence seen a hig breakfast. 8 She 9 It at 5 o'clock. home. _. a meal yesterday evening. _. aut yesterday evening. at Ll o'clock. _— well last night, to get ro work, neon at 8.45; sows lunch. ou Complete the sentences using the following verbs in the correct form: buy catch cost. fall hurt sell spend teach throw -write- Mozart ...W£9t2.... more than 600 pieces of music. 1 2 ‘How did you learn to drive?” *My father . 3 We couldn't afford to keep our car, so we = 4 Dave ... a down the stairs this morning a0 ejeore-roew his leg. 5 Jim the ball ro Sue, who 2 6 Ann esterday. She w= a dress which You ask James about his holiday. Write your questions. Hi, How are things? Fine, thanks. I've just had a great holiday. 1 Where ...414..You..g0... ? To the U: We went on a trip from San Francisco to Denver, ? By car? Yes, we hired a car in San Francisco. How 3 I's a long way to drive. How long ~ ‘ Two weeks. 4 Where. nnn meaner In hotels? Yes, small hotels or motels, Sheet =~ — > Yes, but it was very hat ~ sometimes too hot. 6 — wenvsameew the Grand Canyon? OF course. It was wonderful. Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative. Te was warm, so 1 ..£00K... off my coat. (take) The film wasn’t very good. | ...ddn’t_enjoy.._ ir very much. (enjoy) T knew Sarah was very busy. $0 ann her. (disturb) 1 as very tired, $0 1 on. the party early. (leave) 5 The bed was very uncomfortable. | _ very well. (sleep) 6 The window was open and a bird ~~ into the room. (fly) F The hotel wasn’t very expensive. It. ‘ery much. (cost) 8 Las in a hurry, so I ime co phone you. (have) 9 Iewas hard careying the bags. They enone Very heavy. (be) W itis is) A 12 Past continuous (I was doing) Study this example situation: Yesterday Karen and Jim played tennis. They began at 10 o'clock and finished at 11.30. So, at 10.30 they were playing tennis. They were playing = they were in the middle of playing. They had nor finished playing. Washwere -ing is the past continons: playing doing working etc. Uhelshelit was welyoulthey were I was doing something = I was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time, but had nor finished: I started doing, Lwas doing. I finished doing =, ‘ at + L past past now 0 This time last year I was living in Brazil. . © What were you doing at 10 o'clock last night? I waved to Helen, but she wasn't looking. ‘Compare the past continuous (1 was doing) and past simple (I did) Past continuous (in the middle of an action) | Past simple (complete action) © Iwas walking home when I met Dave. GI walked home after the party last night, (in the middle of an action) all the way, completely) © Kate was watching television when. 2 Kate watched television a lor when she we arrived. was ill last year, ‘We often use the past simple and the past continuous together to say that something happened in the middle of something else: 1 Matt phoned while we were having dinner. 1 It was raining when I got up. 1D J saw you in the park yesterday. You were sitting on the grass and reading a book. 1G Thurt my back while I was working in the garden. Bur we use the past simple to say that one thing happened after another: I was walking along the road when I saw Dave. So I stopped, and we had a chat. Compare: © When Karen arrived, we were having 2 When Karen arrived, we had dinner. dinner. (= we had already started before (= Karen arrived, and then we had she arrived) dinner) Some verbs (for example, know and want) are not normally used in the continuous (see Unit 4A): CO We were good friends. We knew each other well, (not We were knowing) 1 1 was enjoying the party, but Chris wanted to go home. (ot was wanting) Exercises Unit 6 6.1 What were you doing at these times? Write sentences as in the examples. The past continuous is not always necessary (see the second example]. 1 (at 8 o'clock yesterday evening) ...[.Was having. dinne 2 (ar 5 o'clock last Monday)... 3 (at 10.15 yesterday morning) 4 (at 4.30 this morning) 5 tat 7.45 yesterday evening) 6 thalf an hour ago) 6.2 Use your own ideas to complete the sentences. Use the past continuous. 1 Mart phoned while we e_havung, dinner. 2 The doorbell cang whi 3 We saw an accident while we 4 Ann fell asleep while she . 5 The television was on, but nobody’... 6.3 Put the verb into the correct form, past continuous or past simple. 2 aexres Ho} FA A 1.84. (see) Sue im OWA Dennen (meet) Tom | 1 _~ (cycle) home yesterday, but she ceancnnnee and Jane at the airport a few | yesterday when a man a {not / see) me. weeks ago. They _ (step) out She ocnonnnnnnennnnns HOOK) snnennenes (G0) (0 Paris and I | into the road in front of me.I the other 1S (go) to | .. wwe (GO) quite fast, Rome. We... {have) | but luckily { = a chat while we (manage) to stop in time and E (wait) for our flights. | _- (not / hit) him. 6.4 Put the verb into'the correct form, past continuous or past simple. _tuautung... (wait) for me when I ...2 (arrive). 2 a --- you / do) at this time yesterday?" ‘I was asleep.” Be _— {you / go) out last night?” “No, I was too tired.” 4 How fast —-~ (you / drive) when the accident Units 9-10 Present perfect and past = Units 12-14 Yet and already —+ Unit 111 American English — Appendix 7 Exercises MW 72) 73 14 Unit 7 Read the situations and write sentences. Use the following verbs: arrive break fall «= goup grow Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it. Margaret can’t walk and her leg is in plaster Last week the bus fa Macia’s English wasn't very good. Now itis better. Dan didn’t have a heard before. Now he has a Ta wb uwie The temperature was 20 degrees. Now it is only 1 improve fe was 80 pence. Now it is 90. beard. This morning | was expecting a letter. Now I have it. Jose- He. has. lost his key. She ..... The bus fare Her English He .... The letter —... The ..... Complete B's sentences. Use the verb in brackets + just/already/yet. DN. 1 Would you like something to eat? No, thanks. (1/ just / have / lunch) Do you know where Julia is Yes, (I/ just / see / her) ‘What rime is David leay ge | | the / already / leave) 4 What's in the newspaper today? | | I don’t know, (1/ not / read / it yer) 5 | Is Sue coming to the cinema with us? | | No, —— {she / already Are your friends here yee? |_| Yes, | (they / just / arrive) c does Tim think abour your plan? (wwe /not ell / him yer) Read the situations and write sentences with just, already or yet. I After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says, “Would you like something to eat?” You say: No thank you. ...!'ve. just had lunch. (have lich) Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says, “Can I speak to Joe?” You say: Unf afra z + (go our) 3. You are eating in a resta he waiter thinks you have finished and starts co take your plate away. You say: Wait a (not / finish) 4 You are going to a restaurant ronight. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says, ‘Shall 1 phone to reserve a table.” You say: No, = (do it) 5. You know that a friend of yours is lool Ask her. You say: 6 You are still chin for your holiday?” Linda went to the hank, bur a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody the bank?" You say INICE! pee 1g about where to go for your holida A friend asks, “Where are you going {not /decide) ‘Is Linda still ar nue + (come back) Put in been or gone. Jim is on holiday. He’s 90R€... co Iraly. Hello! I've just — none to the shops. I've bought lots of things. Alice isn’t here at the moment. She's wa. 0 the shop to get a newspaper. Tom has. ‘out. He'll be hack in about an hour, “Are you going to the bank?" “No, I've already .. to the bank." Unit 8 16 Present perfect 2 (I have done) Study this example conversation: Dave: Have you travelled a lot, Jane? JANE: Yes, I've been to lots of places. ave: Really? Have you ever been to China? Jane's life JANE: Yes, I've been to China twice. (a period until now) pave: What about India? JANE: No, I haven't been to India. past now When we talk about a period of time that continues from the past until now, we use the present perfect (have been / have travelled etc.). Here, Dave and Jane are talking about the places Jane has visited in her life (which is a period that continues until now'. Some more examples: © Have you ever caten caviar? (in your life) 1 We've never had a car. ‘Have you read Hamlet?” *No, | haven't read any of Shakespeare's plays.” 1 Susan really loves that film. She's seen it eight times! 12 What a boring film! Irs the most boring film I've ever seen. Been (to) = visited: I've never been to China. Have you been there? In the following examples too, the speakers are talking about a period that continues until now (recently / in the last few days / so far / since breakfast etc.): 1 Have you heard from Brian recently? 1 I've met a lor of people in the last few days. recently ——+| © Everything is going well. We haven't had any problems __in the last few days —e! so far, ° I'm hungry. | haven't eaten anything since breakfast. cele ast SL (= from breakfast until now) past row 1 Irs good to see you again. We haven't seen each other for a long time. We use the present perfect with today / this evening / this year etc. when these periods are not finished at the time of speaking (see also Unit 14B): 1 I've drunk four cups of coffee today. aay © Have you had a holiday this year (yet)? © [haven't seen Tom this morning. Have you? past G Rob hasn’t studied very hard this term. ‘We say: It’s the (First) time something has happened. For example: 1 Don is having a driving lesson. It's his first one. Irs the first time he has driven a car. (not drives) or — Hehas never driven a car before. 1 Sarah has lost her passport again. This is the second time this has happened. (ot happens) © Bill is phoning his girlfriend again. That's the third time he’s phoned her this evening. This is the frst time ve driven a car. Present perfect 1 -> Unit 7 Present perfect + for/since —* Units 11-12 Present perfect and past —> Units 12-14 Exercises Unit 8 8.1 82 83 a4 You are asking people questions about things they have done. Make questions with ever using the words in brackets. 1 (ride / horse?) — Have you ever ridden a. horse? (be / California?) Have .. (run / marathon?) (speak / famous person?) (most beautiful place / v ) What's Complete B's answers. Some sentences are positive and some negative. Use the following verbs: be be eat happen have meet play read see. see try AY, ss 1 Whar's Mark’s sister like?) /T've no idea. I've. newer met _ her. 2 How is Diane these days? | | I don't know. 1 _ her recently. 3 Are you hungry’ Yes. 1 = much today. 4 Can you play chess? | | Yes. RUE mmennnne moore FOF AGES. 5.| Are you enjoying your holiday? | | Yes, irs the best holiday... for a long time. 6 Whar's that book like? | [I don't know Is Brussels an interesting place? | | T've m0 idea. monn 8 ‘Mike was late for work again Again? He ... today. | | every day th Do you like caviar? I don’t know, 10 Thear your ear broke down again yesterday. Yes, it's the second CMC eeminsrnewennninnmn this week, 11 \_ Who's thar woman by the door? Pdon't KNOW, rmienennnnrrnnnmnnnmanm het before, Complete the sentences using today / this year / this term ete. 1 I saw Tom yesterday, bur... haven't. seen him today, 3 Tread a newspaper yesterday, but | 4 Last year the company made a profit, bur t 4 Tracy worked hard ar school last term, but 5 Irsnowed a lor last winter, but 6 Our foorball ream won a lor of games last’season, but we Read the situations and write sentences as shown in the example. 1 Jack is driving a ear, bur he’s very nervous and not sure what to do. You ask: Have, you driven a car before? Lis is the fie. (ve, driven aca. 2 Now this isthe frst 3 jing a horse. She doesn’t look very confident or comfortable 4 17 Via Present perfect continuous Jam (| have been doing) Ithas been raining Study this example situation: Is it raining? No, but the ground is wet. Ithas been raining, Havehhas been -ing is the present perfect c Vwwelthey/you have (21 helshefit has waiting playing etc. We use the present perfect continuous for an activity that has recently stopped or just stopped. There is a connection with now: ; 1 You're out of breath. Have you been running? (= you're out of breath now) © Paul is very tired. He's been working very hard. (= he’s tired now) © Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing? 1 I’ve been talking to Amanda about the problem and she agrees with me. 1 Where have you been? I've been looking for you everywhere. BEY) as been raining for two hours. Study this example situation: Ir began raining two hours ago and ic is still raining, How tong has it been raining? Ihas been raining for two hours. We use the present perfecr continuons in this way with how long, for ... and since ... . The activity is still happening (as in this example) or has just stopped. 1G How long have you been learning English? (= you're still learning English) © Tim is still watching television. He's been watching television all day. © Where have you been? I've been looking for you for the last half hour. © Chris hasn't been feeling well recently. You can use the present prefect continuous for actions repeated over a period of time: © Debbie is a very good tennis player. She's been playing since she was eight. © Every morning they mect in the same café. They've been going there for years, I Compare I am doing (see Unit 1) and I have been doing: 1am doing Thave been doing | resent continuous resent perfect continuous + now now © Don’t disturb me now. Pm working. = Hve been working hard. Now I'm going to have a break, The ground is wer. Irs been raining. 3 We've been waiting for an hour. © We need an umbrella. Irs raining, © Hurry up! We're wai 18 Present perfect continuous and simple —> Units 10-11 Present perfect + for/since —> Units 11-12 Exercises Unit 9 at 92 93 9.4 What have these people been doing or what has been happening? | 2 earlier earlier now fe. earlier now lar earlier now aN got. K — They Write a question for each situation. 1 You meet Paul as he is leaving the swimming pool. You ask: (you / swim?) Have, uot b ming? You have just arrived to meet a friend who is waiting for you. You ask: (you / wait / long?) .. 3. You meer a friend in the street. His face and hands are very dirty. You ask: (what / you / do?) 4A friend of yours is now working in a shop. You want ro know how long. You ask: (how long / you / work / there?) em A friend tells you about his job — he sells computers. You want to know how long. You ask: thow long / you / sell / computers?) Read the situations and complete the sentences. 1 It's raining. The rain started two hours ago. Ir 3.been raumeng.. for wo hours. We are waiting for the bus. We started waiting 20 minutes ago. We _— for 20 minutes. w learning Spanish. | started classes in December. wevnvw Since December. London, She started working there on 18 January. www Since 18 January. Our friends always spend their holidays in Italy. They started going there years ago. www for years. 4 Mary is working Put the verb into the present continuous (I am -ing) or present perfect continuous (Ihave been -ing). Maria. hasbeen learnng. Hello. Tom. WHY nnn Linda is a teacher. .. (Maria / learn) English for two years. _.. (I look) for you. Where have you been? (you / look) at me like that? Stop it! _ (she / teach) for ten years. ink) about what you said and I've decided ro take your bene wd — —- (he / work).” .~ (she / work) very hard recently. “Is Paul on holiday this week?” “No, Sarah is very tired, sen 19 Present perfect continuous and simple (I have been doing and I have done) Study this example situation: Kate's clothes are covered in paint. She has been painting the ceiling. Has been painting is the present perfect continuous. We are interested in the activity. It does not matter whether something has been finished or not. In this example, the activity (painting the ceiling) has not been finished. Compare these examples: © My hands are very dirt repairing the car. © Joc has been cating t00 much recently: He should eat less. It's nice to see you again, What have you been doing since we last met? © Where have you been? Have you been playing tennis? We use the continuous to say how Jong (ior an activity chat is still happening): 10 How long have you been reading that book? G Lisa is still writing letters. She's been writing letters all day. © They've been playing tennis since 2 o'clock. 10 I'm learning Spanish, bur I haven't been learning it very lon; a | The ceiling was white. Now it is red. She has painted the ceiling. Has painted is the present perfect simple, Here, the important thing is that something has heen finished. Has painted is a completed action. We are interested in the result of the activity (the painted ceiling). not the a self, C The car is OK again now, I've repaired i © Somebody has eaten all my chocolates. The box is empty. © Where’s the book 1 gave you? What have you done with © Have you ever played tennis? We use the simple to say how much, how many or how many times itor completed | actions): | © How mach of thar book have you vad? | G Lisa has written ten letters today. © They've played tennis three times this week. O I'm learning Spanish, but I haven't learnt very much yet. Some verbs (for example, know/like/believe) are not normally used in the continuous: O T've known about it for a long time. (08 I've been knowing) For a list of these verbs, see Unit 4A. But note that you can use want and mean in the present perfect continuous: © ve been meaning to phone Jane, but I keep forgetting. Present perfect simple -» Units 7-8 Present perfect continuous — Unit 9 Present perfect + for/since —- Units 11-12 Exercises Unit 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 For each situation, write two sentences using the words in brackets. 1 Tom started reading a book two hours ago. He is still reading it and now he is on page 53. tread / for two hours) ...He_has been reading. for. two. hours. (read / 53 pages so far) ..He.has. Rachel is from Australia. She is travelling round Europe at the moment. She began her trip three months ago. {teavel / for three months} She . (visit / six countries so far) ... 3 Patrick is a tennis player. He began playing tennis when he was ten years old. This year he is national champion again - for the fourth time. (wwin / the national championships / four times) (play / tennis since he was ten)... 4 When they left college, Lisa and Sue started making films together. They still make films. (make / five films since they left college) They (make / films since they left college). m—- For each situation, ask a question using the words in brackets. 1 You have a friend who is learning Arabic. You ask thow long / learn / Aral You have just arrived to meet a friend. She is waiting for you. You ask: (wair / long?) Have ... You see somebody fishing by the river. You ask: (catch / any fish?) 4 Some friends of yours are having a party next week. You ask: (how many people / invite?) 5A friend of yours is a teacher. You as (how long / teach? 6 You meet somebo thow many books / wr thow long / write / books?) A friend of yours is saving money to go on holiday. You ast thow long / save?) mn thow much money / save?) Put the verb into the more suitable form, present perfect simple (I have done) or continuous (have been doing). 1 Where have you been? 2 Look! 3 You look tired. 2 sone (YOU / Work) hard? 40 uf ever / work) ina factory?” ‘No, never.” 35 ‘Liz is away on holiday,’ “Is she? Where _ (she / go)? 6 My brother is an actor. .... _ (he / appear) in several films. 7 ‘Sorry I'm late.” “That's all right. eee (I not wait) long? 8 ls ie still rai "No, Ca (ie stop)” 9 ae a (/ lose) my address book. .—- — - (you / see) it? 10. ~ (L/ read) the book you Tent me, But an nneannnneenen Z (1/ not / finish) it yet. ts very interes D1 nonnnannnnnnnenmneneann (11 Fead) the book you lent me, so you can have it back now. 21 Unit sill How fong have you (been) ... ? EY study this example ation: Dan and Jenny ace married. They got married exactly 20 years ago, so today is their 20th wedding ann They have been married for 20 years. We say: They are married, (present) cersary. but How long have they been married? (present perfect) (not How long are they married?) They have been married for 20 years. (not They are married for 20 ars) We use the present perfect co talk about something that began in che past and still continues now. Compare the present and the present perfect: 0 Bill is in hospital. but He has been in hospital since Monday. (not Bill isin hospital since Monday) . present 1 Do you know each other well? but Have you known each other for a long time? (not Do you know) present perfect 1D She's waiting for somebody. but — She's been waiting all morning. now 10 Do they have a car? but How long have they had their car? Thave known/hadflived ete. is the present perfect simple. Thave been learning / been waiting / been doing etc. is the present perfect cuntinuons. When we ask or say *how long’, the continuous is more usual (see Unit 10): I've been learning English for six months. It's been raining since lunchtime. © Richard has been doing the same job for 20 years. © ‘How long have you been driving?" “Since I was 17.” Some verbs (for example, know/like/believe) are not normally used in the continuous: 1 How long have you known Jane? (not have you been knowing) 0 've had a pain in my stomach all day. (not I've been having) See also Units 4A and 10C. For have, see Unit 17. You can use cither the present perfect continuous or simple with live and work: © Julia has been living / has lived in Paris for a long time. © How long have you been working / have you worked here? Bur we use the simple (I've lived / I've done ete.) with alway: I’ve always lived in the country. (not always been living) We say ‘I haven't done something since/for ...” (present perfect simple): DI haven't seen Tom since Monday. (= Monday was the last time I saw him) 1 Sue hasn’t phoned for ages. (= the last rime she phoned was ages ago) 22 Uhaven’t ... since/for + Unit 84 Present perfect continuous —> Units 9-10 For and since — Unit 128 Exercises Unit 11 Wd 2 W3 Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct them where necessary. Dak wn 8 9 to Bob is a friend of mine. Lknow him very well Bob is a friend of mine. Lknow him for a fong time. Sue and Alan are married since July The weather is awful. Irs raining again. The weather is awful. Irs raining all da like your house. How long are you living there? Gary is working in a shop for the last few months. don’c know Tim well net a few times. 1 gave up drinking coffee. I don’t drink it for a year. Thar's a very old bike. How long do you have it? Read the situations and write questions from the words in brackets. John tells you that his mother is in hospital. You ask him: (how long / be / in hospital?) ..How. tong has. your mother been in hospital? You meet a woman who tells you that she teaches English. You ask her: (how long / reach / English?) You know thar Jane is a good thow long / know / Caroline? — Your friend's brother went to Australia some rime ago and he's still there. You ask your frien thow long / be / in Austra “Tim always wears the same jacket. Irs a very old jacket. You ask him: thow long / have / that jacl You are talking to a friend about Joe. Joe now works at the airport. You ask your friend: chow long / work / at the airport?) A friend of yours is learning to drive. You ask him: thow long / earn 110 UFiSE Poon You meet somebody on a plane. She says that she lives in Chicago. You ask hi always Five Jin Chicago?) aoe ne id of Caroline's. You ask Jane: Complete B's answers to A’s questions. bute tau AYN ((e Bitlis in hospital, >) (Yes. he Was. been. in hospital since Monday. Do you see Ann very of No, | haven't. seen... her for three months. Is Margaret married? || Yes, she married for ten years. Are you waiting for me? || Yes, 1 for the last half hour. You know Linda, don’t you? || Yes. we each other a long time. Do you still play tennis? || No. tennis for years. Is Jim watching TV? |] Yes, he TV all evening. Do you watch TV a lot? |] No.1. smovennrnnem TV for ages. Have you gota headache? |] Yes. 1 — headache all morning, George is never ill, is he? |] No, he ill since P've known him. Are you feel Yes, 1 I all day. Sue lives in London, doesn’t she? |] Yes, she -... enone in London for the last few y Do you go to the cinema a lot? |] No, I. neu t0 the cinema for ages. Would you like ro go to New York one day Yes) | omen (use always / want) —nvnnmnoe tO gO t0 New York. 23 Vitae For and since 172m When ... ? and How long .. BEA se for and since to say how long something has been happening. We use for + a period of time (two hours, six weeks ete.) I've bee We use since + the start of a period (8 o'clock, Monday, 1999 etc.) 3 I've been wai | ng for two hours. 1 since 8 o'clock. for two hours 1ce 8 o'clock two bours agoa——+ now: 8 u'dlock. now for owo hours a longtime a week Bo'clock April lunchtime 20 minutes six months ages Monday 1985 we arrived five days 30 years years 12 May Christmas 1 gor up 0 Sally has been working here for six months, (xof since six months) OJ haven't seen Tom for three days. (not since three days) 2 Sally has been working here since April. T haven't seen Tom since Monday. rom Monday until now? It is possible to leave our for (but not usually in nega © They've been married (for) ten years. (with or © They haven't had a holiday for t sentences): thout for) years. (you must use for) We do not use for + all... (all day fall my life ete.) I've lived here all my life. (not for all my life) BED Compare when ... ? (+ past simple) and how long ... ? (+ present perfect): When did‘ic start raining? It started raining an hour ago / at 1 o'clock. How long has it been raining? I's been raining for an hour / since | o'clock. a: When did Joe and Carol first meet? i: They fire mer {2 lone time ago. j when they were at school. jow long have they known each other? te They've known each other { f r along time, ce they were at school. i ‘We say ‘Ie’s (a long tinte / ewo years ete, 1D I's ewo years since I last saw Joe. It’s ages since we went to the cinema. 1ce something happened’ haven't seen Joe for two years) ‘We haven't been to the cinema for ages) You can ask ‘How long is it since ... ?: 1G How long is it since you last saw Joe? (= When did you last see Joe?) 0 How long is it since Mrs Hill died? (= When did Mrs Hill die?) You ean also say “It’s been (= It has been) ... since ... G It's been two years since | last saw Joe. 24 How long have you (been) .. 2+ Unit 11 Exercises Unit 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 124 Write for or since. 1 It’s been raining ..5e"¢é... lunchtime. 2 Sarah has lived in Paris 1995, 3 Paul has lived in London —. ten years, 4 'm tired of waiting. We've heen sitting here .. — an hour, 5 Kevin has been looking for a {0 eeeon-—-n-~ he left school. 6 Thaven’t been to a party ... ages. 7 S wonder where Joc is. | haven’e seen him .... _ last week. 8 Jane is away. She's been away 9 The weather is dry. ft hasn't rained — Friday sree FEW Weeks. Write questions with how long and when. 1 Irs raining thow long?) (when?) 1M Kate is learning Japanese. (how long / learn?) when I start?) J know Simon. thow long / 00 F KNOW?) eonneennnnnnnnn (when / you / first / meet? 4 Rebecca and David are married. thow long?) (hE?) een How long has. it been radning?. we Read the situations and complete the sentences. It’s raining. I's been raining since lunchtime. It Ann and Sue are friends. They first met years ago. They Joe is ill. He became ill on Sunday. He has Joris ill. He became ill a few days ago. He has ... Liz is married. She’s been married for a yeas. She got You have a headache. It started when you woke u TV nnn _ Lwoke up. Sue has been in Italy for the last three week: She went .. = 8 You're working in a hotel. You started six months ago. Tve ~... at lunchtime, years. Sunday. a few days. aun Write B’s sentences using the words in brackets. 1 a: Do you often go on holiday? (no / five years) 2 a: Do you often see Sarah? & (no / about a month) Noy ene 3 a: Do you often go to the cinema? &: (no /a long time) . 4 a: Do you often eat in restaurants? Be (m0 F ages) NOT enero Now write 8's answers again. This time use It's... since No, it's five years since holiday... 25 Vina Present perfect and past 1 ime (| have done and | did) Ay Study this example situation: Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it. He has lost his key. (present perfect) This means that he doesn’t have his key now. Ten minutes later: Now Tom has found his key. He has it now, ie 3 Has he lost his key? No, he has found it. SS Did he lose his key? Yes, he did. He lost his key {past simple) : a but now he has found it. (present perfect) ‘The present perfect (something has happened) is a present tense. It always tells us about the situation nore. “Tom has lost his key" = he doesn’t have his key not (see Unit 7). ‘The past simple (something happened) tells us only about the past. If somebody says ‘Tom lost his key’, this doesn’t tell us whether he has the key now or not. It tells us only that he lost his key at some time in the past. Do not use the present perfect if the situation now is different. Compare: © They've gone away. They'll be back on Friday. (they are away now) ‘They went away, but I think they're back at home now. (nar They've gone) Ichas stopped raining now, so we don’t need the umbrella, (it isn’t raining now) Ie stopped raining for a while, but now its raining again. (not It has stopped) BD You can use the present perfect for new or recent happenings: ‘I've repaired the TV. It’s working OK now." “Oh, that’s good.” 1 Have you heard the news? Sally has won the lottery! Use the past simple (nor the present perfect) for things that are nor recent or new: © Mozart was a composer. He wrote more than 600 pieces of music. (not has been ... has written) Q My mother grew up in Scotland. (not has grown) ‘Compare: 1 Did you know that somebody has invented a new type of washing machine? © Who invented the telephone? (ot has invented) We use the present perfect to give new information (see Unit 7). But if we continue to talk about it, we normally use the past simple: © a: Ow! I've burnt myself. : How did you do that? (not have you done) «I picked up a hot dish. (nor have picked) : Look! Somebody has spilt something on the sofa. ts: Well, it wasn't me. I didn’t do it. (not hasn't been ... haven't done) Past simple — Unit 5 Present perfect -> Units 7-8 Present perfect and past 2 —+ Unit 14 26 ‘American English —» Appendix 7 Exercises Unit 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets. Use the present perfect where possible. Otherwise use the past simple. The office is empty now. a (0) home. eo ° 6 t meant to call you last night, but aes orger) (go) to Egypt for a holiday, but she's back home in England now. have) a headache, but | feet s fine now. break) down, Put the verb into the correct form, present perfect or past simple. 1 Ir stepped. raining for a while, but now it’s raining again. (stop) 2 The town is very different now. Ir Mas changed... a lot. (change) 3 Idid German at school, but 1 most of it now. (forget) 4 The police ~ three people, bur later they let them go. (arrest) 5. What do you think of my English? Do you think it sw cevcwee ? improve} 6 a: Are you still reading the paper? = with it, You ean have it. (finish) =» for a job as a tourist guide, bur I wasn’t successful. (apply) 8 Where's my hike? Ir. outside the house, but it’s not there now. (be) 9 Look! There’s an ambulance aver there. There a am accident. (be) Have you heard about Ben? He” ~ _ hisarm. (break) Really? How om that 2 (happen) a: He s off a ladder. (fall) Are the underlined parts of these sentences right or wrong? Correct them where necessary. Do you know about Sue? She's given up her job, OK... i mother ime tyaninsvpsio Rhatlend, Hor Ow! [ve cut my finger. ifs bleeding Ss Drugs have become a big problem everywhere. te The Chinese have invented paper. a ‘here have you been born? a Paueune 8 Mary isn’t at home. She's gone shopping. 9. Albert Einstein has been the scientist who 3 hhas developed the theory of relat Present perfect and past 2 (I have done and I did) Do not use the present perfect (I have done) when you talk about a finished time (for example, yesterday / ten minutes ago / in 1999 / when | was a child), Use a past tense: 0 It was very cold yesterday. (not has been) UhiThg ie 28 1 Paul and Lucy arrived ten minutes ago. (not have arrived) 0 Did you cat a lot of sweets when you were a child? (not have you eaten) OI got home late last night. I was very tired and went straight to hed. Use the past to ask When ... ? or What time ... ?: © When did your friends arrive? (not have ... arrived) © What time did you finish work? 1 Is Carla here or has she left? Compare: Present perfect (have done) 1 I've done a lot of work today. We use the present perfect for a period of time that continues until now, For example: today / this week / since 1985. ‘Compa: Present perfect ' past simple 1D Tom has lost his key. He can’t get into © Tom lost his key yesterday. He couldn't the house. get into the house. When did Carla leave? Past simple (did) I did a lot of work yesterday. ‘We use the past simple for a finished time in the past. For example: yesterday / last week / from 1995 to 2001. unfinished finished today yesterday past wou past wow © It hasn't rained this week. © It didn't rain last week. © Have you seen Anna this morning? {it is still morning) 1G Have you seen Tim recently? I don’t know where Lisa is. U haven't seen her. (= I haven't seen her recently) © We've been waiting for an hour. (we are still waiting now) Olan lives in London. He has lived there for seven years. 1 Thave never played golf. (in my life) 0 Its the last day of your holiday. You say: It's been a really good hol I've really enjoyed it. Past simple -» Unit § Present perfect —» Units 7-8 © Did you see Anna this morni {itis now afternoon or evening) = Did you sce Tim on Sunday ‘Was Lisa at the party on Sunday? I don’t think so. 1 We waited (or were waitis hour. (we are no longer waiting) n lived in Scotland for ten years. Now he lives in London. 1 didn’t play golf last summer. = After you come back from holiday you say: Itwas a really good holiday: | really enjoyed it. Present perfect and past 1 —+ Unit 13 Exercises Unit 14 14.1 Are the underlined parts of these sentences right or wrong? Correct them where necessary. 1 [ve lost my key. I can’t find it anywhere. 2 Have vou eaten a lot of sweets when you were a el 3 [ve bought a new car. You must come and see it 4 [ve houghr a new car last week. 5 Where have you been yesterday evening? 6 Lucy has left school in 1999. 7 V'm looking for Mike. Have you seen him? 8 “Have you been to Paris?” “Yes, many times.” 9 I'm very hungry. Lhaven't eaten much today. 10 When has shis book been published? ——— = 14.2. Make sentences from the words in brackets. Use the present perfect or past simple. tit / nor / rain / this week) It hasn't rauned. Unis week. (the weather / be / cold / recently) The weather tit / cold /last week) Ir . (1/ not / read / a newspaper yesterday) 1... (if not fread /a newspaper today). (Emily / earn / a lot of money / this year) (she / not / earn / so much / ast year) {you / have /a holiday recently?) non 143. Put the verb into the correct form, present perfect or past 1 [don’t know where Lisa is. ..Havey¢ . (you / see) her? 2 When. one (get) home last night, f Ce (go) straight to bed. 3a -wwenee (YOU / finish) painting the bedroom? Nor yer. Ill finish it tomorrow. 4 George .. ae (nor / be} very well last wee SME CIA none nes aoewnee (Work) in a bank for 15 years. Then he gave it up. 6 Molly lives in Dublin. She om Alive) there all her life. ~~~ (YOU / £0) t0 the cinema last night? ~ tbe) a mistake. The film (die) before I was born. I Yes, but it on 8 My grandfather --e---—en - wenn tev / meet} hi 9 I don’t know Carol’s husband. 1. a: Is Martin here? : No, he —-~» (never / meet) him. ~ (go) out. the / go) out? : About ren minutes ago. War as How long Where And how long ... - {you / live} there? {you / live) before tha fi: Five years. 14.4 Write sentences about yourself using the ideas in brackets. {something you haven't done today) (something you haven't done today) (something you didn’t do yesterday) (something you did yesterday evening) .. (something you haven't done recently) (something you've done a lot recently) — Additional exercises 2-4 (pages 303-04), 14-15 (pages 310-11) 29 iis sis Past perfect (I had done) EY study this example situation: at 10.30 at 11.00 Sarah wenr ro a party last week, Paul went to the party too, but they didn’t see each other. Paul left the party at 10.30 and Sarah arrived at 11 o'clock. So: When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul wasn't there. He had gone home. Had gone is the past perfect (simple' gone seen finished ete. Uwvelthey/you | 14 (= Pd etc.) helshesit (= he'd ete.) PAUL. SARAH The past perfect simple is had + past participle (gone/scenlfinished etc). Sometimes we talk about something that happened in the past: 1 Sarah arrived at the party. This is the starting point of the story. Then, if we want to talk about things that happened before this time, we use the past perfect (had | When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul had already gone home. ‘Some more examples: (0 When we got home last night, we found that somebody had broken into the flat. © Karen didn’t want to go to the cinema with us because she'd already seen the film. 0 At first I thought I'd done the right thing, bur ] soon realised that I'd made a big mistake. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. He hadn't flown before. or... He had never flown before. BED Compare the present perfect (have seen etc.) and the past perfect (had seen etc.): Present perfect Past perfect have seen had seen past now past now 1 Who is that woman? I've never seen = I didn’t know who she was. I'd never her before. seen her before. {= before that time) © We aren't hungry. We've just had lunch. = We weren't hungry. We'd just had lunch. © The house is dirty. They haven't cleaned = The house was dirty. They hadn't it for weeks. cleaned it for weeks. BEES Compare the past simple (left, was etc.) and the past perfect (had left, had been etc.}: © A: Was Tom there when you arrived? = a: Was Tom there when you arrived? B: Yes, but he left soon afterwards. : No, he had already left. 1 Kate wasn’t at home when I phoned. © Kate had just gor home when I phoned. She was at her mother’s house. She had been at her mother’s house. 30 Past perfect continuous -* Unit 16 Irregular verbs (gone/seen ete) -» Appendix 1 Exercises Unit 15 15.1 18.2 15.3 15.4 Read the situations and write sentences from the words in brackets. 1 You went to Sue's house, bur she wasn't there. ishe / go / out) She. out You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn’t the same as before. {it / change /a lot) invited Rachel to the party, but she couldn't come. {she-/ arrange / to do something else) _. 4 You went to the cinema last night. You gor to the cinema late. (the film / already / begin) 5 It was nice to see Dan again after such a long time. (1/ not / see / him for five years) 6 Loffered Sue something to eat. but she wasn’t hungry. (she / just / have / breakfast) | write a sentence ending with never ... before, Use the verb in brackets. nervous. It was his first flight. 2. A woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger to me. (see) I. 3 Sam played tennis yesterday. He wasn't very good at it because it was his first game. (play) He .... 4 Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there, (be there) We — Use the sentences on the left to complete the paragraphs on the right. These sentences are in the order in which they happened - so (1) happened before (2), (2) before (3) etc. But your paragraph begins with the underlined sentence, so sometimes you need the past perfect. 111» Somebody broke into the office during) Wea -d at work in the morning the night. and found that somebody ..1ad. broken 12 We arrived at work inthe morning. into the office during the night. So 13) We called the police. we « 2 uy Laura went our this morning. I tried to phone Laura this morning, but 12) Laried to phone her 13) There was no answer. 3 un Jim came back from holiday a few days ago. : Lae 31 He looked very well. — very well. 4a» Kevin sent Sally lots of emails. Yesterday Kevin « 7 12) She never replied to them, from Sally. He _ very surprised. «3» Yesterday he got a phone call fromher, [ He —. lots of emails, vs He was very surprised. bur she. Sa Put the verb into the correct form, past perfect (I had done) or past simple (I did). 1 “Was Paul at the party when you arrived?” ‘No, he . (g0) home.” 2 1 felt very tired when I got home, so | ~ (go) straight to bed, 3 The house was very quiet when I got home, Everybody wonnunn--nnnne-um (G0) £0 bed. 4 Sorry I'm late, The car ._ (break) down on my way here. We were drivis (see) a car which (stop) to help. along the road when we .. _. (break! down, so we “+ Additional exercises 5-8 (pages 304-07) 31 ities Past perfect continuous scm (I had been doing) EY study this example situation: yesterday morning Yesterday morning 1 got up and looked out of the window. The sun was shining, but the ground was very wet, It had been raining, [te was not raining when | looked out of the window: MU the sun was shining. But it had been raining before. EEA Had been -ing is the past perfect continuous: ] doing Wwelvoulthey | yg |= PEet) | heen | working “helshefit (= he'd ete.) Some more examples: 1 When the boys came into the house, their clothes were dirty, their hair was untidy and one of them had a black eye. They'd been fighting. | 0 I was very tired when I gor home. I'd been working hard all day. G When I went to Madrid a few years ago, I stayed with a friend of mine. She'd been living there only a short time bur knew the city very well. TR) ¥0e can say that something had been happening for a period of time before something else happened: 1 We'd been playing tennis for about half an hour when it started to rain heavil Gi George went to the doctor last Friday. He hadn’t been feeling well for some . MMII or pare have been ing (present perfect coninrons) and had been «ng (past perfect continuous | Present perfect continous * | Past perfect continuous | Thave been -ing Thad been -ing past now past not © At last che bus came. I'd been waiting for 20 minutes. (before the bus came) James was out of breath. He had been running. 1 Thope the bus comes soon. I've been waiting for 20 minutes. (before now) 1D James is out of breath. He has been running. |) compare was -ing (past continuous) and had been -ing: i It wasn’t raining when we went out. The sun was shining, Bur it had been raining, so the | ground was wet. © Cathy was sitting in an armchair resting, She was tired because she'd been working very hard. PE Sore verbs (for example, know and like) are nor normally used in the continuous: (0 We were good friends. We had known each other for years. (not had been knowing) For a list of these verbs, see Unit 4A. 32 Present perfect continuous —+ Units 9-10 Past perfeet simple —+ Unit 15 Exercises Unit 16 16.1 16.2 16.3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. red when I arrived home. I'd. been working hard all day. “The two boys came into the house. They had a football and they were both very tired. (they / play / football). I was disappointed when I had ro cancel my holiday. (Look / forward £0 it) ‘Ann woke up in the middle of the night. She was frightened and didn't know where she was. (she / dream) When I gor home, Tom was siting infront of the TV. He had just turned it off. (he / watch Ja film) we * Read the situations and complete the sentences. 1 We played tennis yesterday. Half an hour after we began play We ..had. been playing for half an hour, Thad arranged ro meet Tom in a restaurant. 1 arrived and waited for him. After 20 minutes I suddenly realised that I was in the wrong restaurant. for 20 minutes when | ... ~ the wrong restaurant. started to rain, when it. started. to. rain Sarah got a job in factory. Five years later the factory closed down. 9 SFB ene ~ there for five y 4 I went to a concert last week. The orchestra began pl: the audience suddenly started shouting. The orchestra ... ars. B- After about ten minutes a man in tea aan when This time make your own sentence: 5 [began walking along the roa when Put the verb into the most suitable form, past continuous (1 was doing), past perfect (had done) or past perfect continuous (1 had been doing). J Ie was very noisy next door. Our neighbours ...Were. having... (have) a party. 2 We were good friends. We a4. k (know) each other for years. 3 John and I wene for a walk. I had difficulty keeping up with him because he sevens (Walk) 50 fast. . 4 Sue was sitting on the ground. She was out of breath She . ——— (run). 5 When 1 arrived, everybody was sitting round the table with their mouths full. They .- (eat). 7 6 When 1 arrived, everybody was sitting round the table and talking. Their mouths were empty, bur their stomachs were full. They —-——-. (eat). Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He. contact lens. 8 When I arrived, Kate —- because I was late and she 9 Lwas sad when I sold my car. I. 10 We were extremely tired at the end of the journey. We more than 24 hours. = - (look) for his _- (wait) for me. She was annoyed with me =» (Wait) for a long time. (have) it for a very long time. ne (travel) for ional exercises 5-8 (pages 304-07) 33 itis vi 34 Have got and have Have got and have (= for possession, relationships, illnesses etc.) ‘You can use have got or have (without got). There is no difference in meaning: 0 They've got a new car. or They have a new cat. © Lisa's got two brothers. 0 I've got a headache. or Lisa has two brothers. or Ihave a headache. © Our house has got a small garden. or Our house has a small garden. © He's got a few problems. or He has a few problems. With these meanings (possession etc.), you cannot use continuous forms (am having etc.): 1 We're enjoying our holiday. We've got / We have a nice room in the hotel. (not We're having) For the past we use had (without got): © Lisa had long hair when she was a child. (not Lisa had gor) In questions and negative sentences there are three possible forms: Have you got any questions? Do you have any questions? Have you any questions? (less usual) Has she got a car? Does she have a car? Has she a car? (less usual) I haven't got any questions. Idon't have any questions. Thaven’t any questions. (less usual) She hasn't got a car. She doesn't have a car. She hasn't a car. (less usual) In past questions and negative sentences, we use did/didn't: 1 Did you have a car when you were living in London? 0.1 didn’t have a watch, so I didn’t know the time. Lisa had long hair, didn’t she? Have breakfast / have a bath / have a good time etc. We also use have (but not have got) for many actions and experiences. For example: breakfast / dinner / a cup of coffee / something to eat etc. a bath / a shower / a swim / a break /a rest / a party / a holiday an accident / an experience / a dream have | a look (at something) a chat / a conversation / a discussion (with somebody) difficulty / trouble / fun / a good time etc. a baby (= give birth to a baby) Have got is not possible in the expressions in the box. Compare: 1D Sometimes I have (= eat) a sandwich for my lunch. (not I've got) but ve got /1 have some sandwiches. Would you like one? You can use continuous forms (am having ete.) with the expressions in the box: 1D We're enjoying our holiday. We're having 2 great time. (not We have) © Mike is having a shower at the moment. He has a shower ev In questions and negative sentences we use do/doe 10 I don't usually have a big breakfast. (not I usually haven't) 0 What time does Jenny have lunch? (not has Jenny lunch) 1 Did you have difficulty finding a place to live? Have (got) to ...-+ Unit 31 American English -+ Appendix 7 Exercises Unit 17 171 17.2 173 17.4 Write negative sentences with have. Some are present (can't) and some are past (couldn't) 1 J can’t get into the house. (a key) ta I couldn't read the letter. (my glasses) |. Tean’t get onto the roof. (a ladder) 1 .. We couldn't visic the museum, (enough time) We .. He couldn't find his way to our house, (a map) She can’t pay her bills. (any MONEY) enwromerenemm I can’t go swimming today. (enough energy) 8 They couldn't take any photographs. (a camera) WO Complete the questions with have. Some are present and some are past. Excuse me, ...Have.,you got... a pen I could borrow? Why are you holding your face like that? anne a toothache? nse 8 HOt of toys when you were a child? the time, please? Bowe : Yes. i's ten past seven. I need a stamp for this letter. When you worked in your last job, —. Ic started to rain very heavily while I was out. an umbrella aw Write sentences about yourself. Have you got these things now? Did you have them ten years ago? Write two sentences each time using I've got / 1 haven't got and I had / I didn't have. (You can also write about your family: We've got ... / We had ... ete.). now ten years ago (a cary lve got. car, | didn’t, have..¢, (a bike) I... {a mobile phone! ~ (a dog) (a guitar) long hair)... (a driving licence) MOU kw Complete the sentences. Use an expression from the list and put the verb into the correct form where necessary. haveababy —haveabreak have achat have difficulty _—_—have a good flight havealook -havelunch- have aparty havea have a shower 1 I don’t eat much during the day: I never 2. David starts work at 8 o'clock and... at 10.30. 3 We ~ lase week. It was great ~ we invited lots of people. 4 Excuse me, can I at your newspaper, please? 5 Jim is away on holiday at the moment. I hope he ... = 6 I met Ann in the supermarket yesterday. We stopped and eer Tat finding che book you wanted? ‘0. | found it OK. 8 Suzanne... 9 a: Why didn’t you answer the phone? & 1 10 You meet your friend Sally at the airport. She has just arrived. You say: Hi. Sally. How are you? a few weeks ago. It’s her second child. 35 18 al 36 Used to (do) Study this example situation: ine doesn't travel much these days. She prefers to stay at home. But she used to travel a lor. She used to go away two or three times a year. She used to travel a lot = she travelled a lot regularly in the past, but she doesn’t do this any more. a few years ago she doesn’t she used to travel travel past now these days Something used to happen = it happened regularly in the past, but no longer happens: © Lused to play tennis a lot, but I don’t play very often now. 1 David used to spend a lot of money on clothes. These days he can't afford it. ‘Do you go to the cinema much?” ‘Not now, but I used to.’ (= I used to go) We also use used to ... for things that were true, but are not true any more: © This building is now a furniture shop. It used to be a cinema. © Lused to think Mark was unfriendly, but now I realise he's a very nice person. 1 P've started drinking tea recently. I never used to like it before. Nicole used to have very long hair when she was a child. ‘I used to do something” is past. There is no present form. You cannot say ‘I use to do’. To talk about the present, use the present simple (I do). Compare: : ‘past | he used to play | we used to live | there used to be present | he plays we live there is 1G We used to live in a small village, but now we live in London. 1D There used to be four cinemas in the town. Now there is only one. The normal question form is did (you) use to .. Did you use to cat a lot of sweets when you were a child? ‘The negative form is didn’t use to ... (used not to ... is also possible): I didn’t use to like him. (or 1 used not to like him.) ‘Compare I used to do and I was doing: 1 Lused to watch TV a lot. (= I watched TV regularly in the past, but I no longer do this) 1 was watching TV when Mike called. (= I was in the middle of watching TV) Do not confuse I used to do and J am used to doing (see Unit 61). The structures and meanings are different: . 1 used to live alone. (=I lived alone in the past, but 1 no longer live alone.) 1G Lam used to living alone. (= I live alone, and I don’t find it strange or difficult because I've been living alone for some time.) Past continuous (1 was doing) > Unit 6 Would (= used to) —* Unit 36 Be/get used to (doing) something — Unit 61 Exercises Unit 18 18.1 Complete the sentences with use(d) to + a suitable verb. 1 Diane doesn’t travel much now. She .. these day Liz Bu rarely ear ice-cream now, but I .... au 7 There — 8 When you lived in jew York, 18.2 Matt changed his life style. He stopped doing some things and started studying hard He stopped } going to bed early running three miles every morning, .~.a lot, but she prefers to stay at home a motorbike, but last year she sold it and bought a car. ‘We came to live in London a few years ago. We nw in Leeds. it when 1 was a child. iy best friend, but we aren't good friends any longer. Ie only rakes me about 40 minutes to get to work now that the new road is open. It enn More than an hour. nw @ hotel near the airport, but ic closed a long time ago. nw t0 the theatce very often? jing other things: sleeping late He started } going out in the evening spending a lot of money Write sentences about Matt with used to and didn’t use to. eat lots of 1 Study, a 3 a. 4. 5 6 18.3 Compare what Karen said five years ago and what she says today: FIVE YEARS AGO Tm a hotel receptionist, Hravelotote A Wa I play the piano. Te got lots I never read wie sees ttm very lazy. {don't drink tea 1 dort tke cheese ve got a dog. 1g0 to a lot of parties. Topay My dog died two years ago. cheese now. I read a newspaper neared Sh these days. ——_~ =< haven't been to 2 party for ages. {don't know many nner pied people these days. the piano for years. A work ina Hion't-go-eway- | -mueh-these-days- ‘bookshop now. every day now. Tea's great! like it now. Now write sentences about how Karen has changed. Use used to / didn’t use to / never used to in the first part of your sentence. -She_used. to travel a lot, She used .. Somuaueuwne > Additional exercise 9 (page 307) . but ...she. doesn't go away much, these days. UE nas 37 itis 38 Present tenses (I am doing / | do) for the future Present continuous (J am doing) with a future meaning This is Ben’s diary for next week. if tennis on Monday afternoon. ist on Tuesday morning. He is having dinner with Kate on Friday: In all these examples, Ben has already decided and arranged to do these things. I'm doing something (tomorrow) = I have already decided and arranged to do it A: What are you doing on Saturday evening? (not What do you do) I'm going to the theatre. (not I go) What time is Cathy arriving tomorrow? . &: Half past ten. I’m meeting her at the station, 1 P'm not working tomorrow, so we can go out somewhere, © Ian isn't playing football next Saturday. He's hurt his leg. o ‘I'm going to (do}’ is also possible in these sentences: 1 What are you going to do on Saturday evening? Bur the present continuous is more natural for arrangements. See also Unit 20B. Do not use will to talk about what you have arranged to do: © What are you doing this evening? (nor What will you do) © Alex is getting married next month, (not will get) You can also use the present continuous for an action just before you begin to do it. This happens especially with verbs of movement (go/comelleave ete.): 0 Fm tired. ’m going to bed now. Goodnight. (not I go to bed now) 0 ‘Tina, are you ready yet?” ‘Yes, I'm coming.’ (not I come) Present simple (I do) with a future meaning We use the present simple when we talk about timetables, programmes etc. (for public transport, cinemas etc.): 1D My train leaves at 11.30, so I nced to be ar the station by 11.15. 1G What time does the film begin this evening? 10 It’s Wednesday tomorrow. / Tomorrow is Wednesday. ‘You can use the present simple to talk about people if their plans are fixed like a timetable: I start my new job on Monday. G What time do you finish work tomorrow? But the continuous is more usual for personal arrangements: 0 What time are you meeting Ann tomorrow? (not do you meet) Compare: | Present simple Present continuous © What time are you arriving? 1D What time does the train arrive? I’m going to the cinema this eveni i The film begins at 8.15 (this evening), I'm going to -» Units 20, 23 Will -+ Units 21-22 Present simple after whenfif ete. —> Unit 25 Exercises Unit 19 19.1 A friend of yours is planning to go on holiday soon. You ask her about her plans. Use the words in brackets to make your questions. (travel / by car? (where / stay?) No, by train, Ina hotel. 1 (Ghere / go) Scotland. 2 | thow long / go for?) Ten days. 3| (when / leave?) . Next Friday. 4 | (go / alone? No, with a friend. 5 6 19.2 Tom wants you to visit him, but you are very busy. Look at your diary for the next few days and explain to him why you can’t come. ‘Tos: Can you come on Monday evening? You: Sorry, bur lm playing volleyba Tost: What about Tuesday evening then? you: No, not Tuesday. 1 Tos: And Wednesday evening? you: Sil eee +B) Tom: Well, are you free on Thursday? you: I'm afraid not. 9 . - 19.3 Have you arranged to do anything at these times? Write sentences about yourself, 1 (this evening) 2 (tomorrow morning) I 3 (tomorrow evening) .... 4 (next Sunday) $ (choose another day or time) .. 19.4. Put the verb into the more suitable form, present continuous or present simple. 1 1..'f..gomg... (go) to the cinema this evening, 2 A. «the film / begin) at 3.30 or 4,307 B thavel a party next Saturday: Would you like to come? 4 -onusnne (finish) on 3 May (not / go) out this evening. ~ (stay) (you / do) anything tomorrow morning?" ‘No, I'm free. Why?” vewuew (QO) f0 a concert tonight. It (start) at 7.30, ~ (leave) now. I've come to say goodbye. a: Have you seen Liz recently B: No, bur we __ (meet) for lunch néxt week. 10 You are on the train to London and you ask another passenger: Excuse me. What time _. (this train / get) to London? 11 You are talking to Helen: Helen, I -. 7 (you / come) with me? 12 You and a friend are watching television. You say: I'm bored with this programme, What time ~~~ (not / use) the car this evening, so you can have it. —~ (come) to see us tomorrow. She... (cravel) by train and her train .. ~ (arrive) at 10.15. “> Additional exercises 10-13 (pages 308-10) 39 iis 20 (I'm) going to (do) going to do something = I have already decided to do it, lintend to do it: DA: Are you going to watch the late film on TV tonight? B: No, I'm going to have an early night. : Uhear Sarah has won some money. What is she going to do with it? 1: She's going to buy a new car. 1 I'm just going to make a quick phone call. Can you wait for me? © This cheese looks horrible. I’m not going to cat it. a Tam doing and 1am going to do ‘We use I am doing (present continuous) when we say what we have arranged to do ~ for example, arranged to meet somebody, arranged to go somewhere: 0 What time are you meeting Ann this evening? 1 I'm leaving tomorrow. I've got my plane ticket. 1am going to do something = I've decided to do it (but perhaps not arranged to do it): 2 ‘Your shoes are dirty.” “Yes, I know. I'm going to clean them.’ (= I've decided to clean them, but I haven't arranged to clean them) 1 Pve decided not to stay here any longer. Tomorrow I'm going to look for somewhere else to stay. Often the difference is very small and either form is possible. You can also say that ‘something is going to happen’ in the future. For example: ‘The man can’t see the wall in front of him. et He is going to wall into the wall. When we say that ‘something is going to happen’, the situation now makes this clear. The man is walking towards the wall now, so we can see thar he is going to walk into it. & e & q = H 2 going to LS ——— — situation now future happening Some more examples: 1 Look at those black clouds! Irs going to rain. (the clouds are there now) OL feel terrible. I think I’m going to be sick. (I feel terrible now) 1 The economic situation is bad now and things are going to get worse. 1 was going to (do something) = I intended to do it, but didn’t dé 1D We were going to travel by train, but then we decided to go by car instead. 1 Peter was going to do the exam, but he changed his mind. J was just going to cross the road when somebody shouted “Stop!” You can say that ‘something was going to happen’ (but didn’t happen): I thought it was going to rain, but it didn’t. am doing for the future —> Unit 194 | will and f'm going to -> Unit 23, Exercises Unit 20 20.1 20.2 203 20.4 Write a question with going to for each situation. 1 Your friend has won some money. You ask: Your friend is going to a party tonight. You ask (what / wear?) a 3 Your friend has just bought a new table. You ask: (here / put it?) 4 Your friend has decided to have a party: (who / invite?) Read the situations and complete the dialogues. Use going to. 1 You have decided to tidy your room this morning. FRIEND: Are you going our this morning? You: No, ..1'm_going._to_ tidy my room You bought a sweater, but it doesn’t fir you very well. You have FRIEND: That sweater is too big for you. you: know. — You have been offered a job, but you have decided not to accept it. FRIEND: I hear you've been offered a job. you: That's right, but — 4 You have to phone Sarah. It’s morning now FRIEND: Have you phoned Sarah yet? you: No, Jed 10 rake it back. and you have decided to phone her tonight, You are in a restaurant. The food is awful and you've decided to complain. FRIEND: This food is awful, isn’t You: Yes. i's disgusting. — What is going to happen in these situations? Use the words in brackets. 1 There are a lor of black clouds in the sky train) —1t's_ gong. to. rain, 2 Its 8.30, Tom is leaving his house. He has to be at work at 8.45, but the journey rakes 30 minutes. (late) He — 3 There isa hole in the bortom of the boat. A lot of water (sink) The boat .. : : — 4 Lucy and Chris are driving. There is very little petrol left in the tank. The nearest petrol station is a long way away. (run our) They coming in throw the hole. Complete the sentences with was/were going to + the following verbs: buy giveup have phone play travel 1 We ...were, going. to, travel. by train, but then we decided to go by car instead. ie _asennnnnnenenee SOME NEW clothes yesterday, but I was very busy and didn’t have time to go to the shops. 3 Martin and 1. — tennis last week, bur he was injured. 41. .—- Jane, bur I decided to email her instead. 5a: When | last saw Tim, he _ ~ his job. ts Thar’ right. but in the end he decided to stay where he was. 6 We _ s-sneneaninusamaane @ party last week, but some of our friends couldn't come, ‘so we cancelled it. 4 Unit ag ry Li 42 Will/shall 1 We use Ill (= I will) when we decide to do something at the time of speaking: 1 Oh, I've left the door open. P'll go and shut it. 1D ‘What would you like to drink?” ‘Till have an orange juice, please.” © ‘Did you phone Lucy?” ‘Oh no, I forgot. I'll phone her now.” You cannot use the present simple (I do / I go etc.) in these sentences: Pll go and shut the door. (not I go and shut) ‘We often use I think I'l... and I don't think 10 I feel a bit hungry. I think I'll have something to eat, 1 I don’t think I'll go out tonight. I'm too tired. In spoken English the negative of will is usually won't (= will not): 0 I can see you're busy, so I won't stay long, Do not use will to talk about what you have already decided or arranged to do (see Units 19-20): 0 I'm going on holiday next Saturday. (not I'll go) . 0 Are you working tomorrow? (not Will you work) ‘We often use will in these situations: Offering to do something © That bag looks heavy. I'll help you with it, (not I help) Agreeing to do something 1 A: Can you give Tim this book? &: Sure, ll give it to him when I see him this afternoon. Promising to do something 0 Thanks for lending me the money. I'l pay you back on Friday. 1 I won't tell anyone what happened. I promise. Asking somebody to do something (Will you ... ?) 1 Will you please turn the stereo down? I'm trying to concentrate. You can use won't to say that somebody refuses to do something: G I've tried to give her advice, but she won't listen. 10 The car won't start. (= the car ‘refuses’ to start) Shall Shall we ... ? Shall is used mostly in the questions shall'T... ? / shall we ... ? We use shall I... ?/shall we .., ? to ask somebody's opinion (especially in offers or suggestions): 0 Shall I open the window? (= Do you want me to open the window?) 1 I've got no money. What shall I do? (= What do you suggest?) 1 ‘Shall we go? ‘Just a minute. I’m not ready yer.” 1 Where shall we go this evening? Compare shall I... ? and will you ... 2: © Shall I shut the door? (= Do you want me to shut it?) 0 Will you shut the door? (=I want you to shut it) Will/shall 2 + Unit 22 | will and t'm going to —+ Unit 23 American English -> Appendix 7