Sie sind auf Seite 1von 64

Windows sysadmin interview questions

1. What is Active Directory schema?


2. What are the domain functional level in Windows Server 2003?
3. What are the forest functional level in Windows Server 2003?
4. What is global catalog server?
5. How we can raise domain functional & forest functional level in Windows Server
2003?
6. Which is the deafult protocol used in directory services?
7. What is IPv6?
8. What is the default domain functional level in Windows Server 2003?
9. What are the physical & logical components of ADS
10. In which domain functional level, we can rename domain name?
11. What is multimaster replication?
12. What is a site?
13. Which is the command used to remove active directory from a domain controler?
14. How we can create console, which contain schema?
15. What is trust?
16. What is the file that’s responsible for keep all Active Directory database?

Categories: Windows, Networking

| SQA and testing frequently asked definitions Oracle on Linux/Unix questions |


All categories: .NET | C++ | Database | General | Hardware | Java | Networking |
SAP ABAP | Testing | Unix/Linux | VB | Web dev | Windows

44 Responses to “Windows sysadmin interview questions”

1. Aneesh Said:
March 29th, 2006 11:49 pm

The Active Directory schema contains formal definitions of every object class
that can be created in an Active Directory forest it also contains formal definitions
of every attribute that can exist in an Active Directory object.Active Directory
stores and retrieves information from a wide variety of applications and services.
So that it can store and replicate data from a potentially infinite variety of sources,
Active Directory standardizes how data is stored in the directory. By
standardizing how data is stored, the directory service can retrieve, update, and
replicate data while ensuring that the integrity of the data is maintained.

2. kiran Said:
May 15th, 2006 11:46 pm

1) Schema master is a set of rules which is used to define the struture of active
directory. It contains definitions of all the objects which are stored in AD. It
maintains information and detail information of objects.
2) If there are many organisational units and to implement policy on all OUś we
use Domain level policy.

3)

4) Global Catalog Server maintains full information about its own domain and
partial information about other domains. It is a forest wide role.

12) Sites: one or more well-connected highly reliable and fast TCP/IP subnets. A
site allows administrator to configure active directory access and replication
topology to take advantage of the physical network.

13) dcpromo to add/remove active directory but first ADC should be removed
before DC if we want to remove DC first then check this server is last domain
controller in domain.

16) I think the answer for this is schema master.

3. Pinkesh Said:
June 3rd, 2006 8:00 am

Can you explain us briefly Archeitecture of Windows 2000/2003?

4. Pinkesh Said:
June 3rd, 2006 8:01 am

What are main differences in Windows NT and Windows 2000 Archeitecture ?

5. Muniraj Said:
June 24th, 2006 2:41 am

HI
I was just googling for Interview FAQ’s i got this URL as first choice
it is really dream come true situation for me because readily all possible
question’s and answers are given.

Please send me if u have any FAQ on Exchnage Related.

Thanx and regards


Muniraj

6. shaik Said:
June 29th, 2006 2:31 am

HI
I was just googling for Interview FAQ’s i got this URL as first choice
it is really dream come true situation for me because readily all possible
question’s and answers are given.

Please send me if u have any FAQ on Exchnage Related.

Thanx and regards

shaik

7. SUVENDU Said:
August 15th, 2006 11:08 pm

4.What is global catalog server?

A global catalog server is a domain controller it is a master searchable database


that contains information about every object in every
domain in a forest. The global catalog contains a complete replica of all
objects in Active Directory for its host domain, and contains a partial replica
of all objects in Active Directory for every other domain in the forest.
It have two important functions:
i)Provides group membership information during logon and authentication
ii)Helps users locate resources in Active Directory

8. SUVENDU Said:
August 15th, 2006 11:08 pm

4.What is global catalog server?

A global catalog server is a domain controller it is a master searchable database


that contains information about every object in every
domain in a forest. The global catalog contains a complete replica of all
objects in Active Directory for its host domain, and contains a partial replica
of all objects in Active Directory for every other domain in the forest.
It have two important functions:
i)Provides group membership information during logon and authentication
ii)Helps users locate resources in Active Directory

9. SUVENDU Said:
August 15th, 2006 11:11 pm

13 Which is the command used to remove active directory from a domain


controler?

ANS ” DCPROMO ” in command prompt


10. SUVENDU Said:
August 15th, 2006 11:29 pm

10. In which domain functional level, we can rename domain name?

All domain controllers must be running Windows Server 2003, and the Active
Directory functional level must be at the Windows Server 2003.
Yes u can rename the domain in windows server 2003

11. irfan Said:


September 1st, 2006 1:19 am

User(s) are complaining of delays when using the network. What would you do?

12. shaik Said:


September 3rd, 2006 12:24 pm

hi

15.NTDS.DIT
14. we have to open the register to see the schema master fsmo role
regser 32 schmamgmt.
9.Physical computers,sites,dc
Logical user,o.us, etc….
6.Light wait directory Access Protocal (ldap)
5. What ever changes done in D.c(domain Controlers) will effect at A.D
we can call it as multimaster .

13. Kumar Ken Said:


September 13th, 2006 3:53 pm

Hi
15. To allow users in one domain to access resources in another, AD uses trust.
Trust is automatically produced when domains are created. The forest sets the
default boundaries of trust, not the domain, and implicit trust is automatic. As
well as two-way transitive trust, AD trusts can be shortcut (joins two domains in
different trees, transitive, one- or two-way), forest (transitive, one- or two-way),
realm (transitive or nontransitive, one- or two-way), or external (nontransitive,
one- or two-way) in order to connect to other forests or non-AD domains. AD
uses the Kerberos V5 protocol, although NTLM is also supported and web clients
use SSL/TLS.

11.Multi-master replication is a method of replication employed by databases to


transfer data or changes to data across multiple computers within a group. Multi-
master replication can be contrasted with a master-slave method (also known as
single-master replication).
7.Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer IP standard used by
electronic devices to exchange data across a packet-switched internetwork. It
follows IPv4 as the second version of the Internet Protocol to be formally adopted
for general use.

14. hongsinh Said:


September 19th, 2006 3:00 am

What are the domain functional level in Windows Server 2003?

15. Sarith Said:


September 22nd, 2006 3:26 am

Please check this link :) this will help you


h**p://technet2.microsoft.com/WindowsServer/en/library/b3674c9b-fab9-4c1e-
a8f6-7871264712711033.mspx?mfr=true

16. Naresh Nimmagadda Said:


October 13th, 2006 9:06 am

ip v6
it ia a 128 bit size address
here we can see total 8 ocatates each octate size is 16 bits superated with “:”
it is in hexa decimal formate
these 3 types
1.unicast address
2.multicast address
3.anycast address
loopback address of ip v6 is ::1

17. Ramanand Said:


November 27th, 2006 5:00 am

What is mean by dns,dhcp.?


what is maen different between hub and switch ?
what is meam by brodcast id?
what is mean by loop back id?
what is mean by schema ?
what is mean by master searchable directory

18. Srikanth Said:


December 8th, 2006 6:08 am

10. In which domain functional level, we can rename domain name?


The System Properties dialog box can also be used to rename a domain controller,
and it does not require the functional level to be raised to Windows Server 2003.

19. Renga Raju Said:


December 13th, 2006 11:43 pm

1.What is Rsop ?
Resultant set of policy is provid to make policy modification and trouble shooting
easier. Rsop is the query object it has two mode 1.logging mode: Polls existing
policies and the reports the result of the query. 2.Planning mode: The questins ask
about the planned policy and the report the result of the quer.
2.What is the concept for authoritative and nonauthoritative restoration?
1. Non-authoriative restore: which accept the entries from other domain controller
after the restoed data.
2.Authoritative: Not accept the entries from other domain controller.
3.What is the ntds.tit file default size?
40 mb

20. niraj Said:


December 14th, 2006 5:28 am

13 Which is the command used to remove active directory from a domain


controler?

ANS i think ” DCPROMO ” in command prompt .

11.What is multimaster replication?


Ans. It is also known as single-master replication.
Multi-master replication is a method of replication employed by databases to
transfer data or changes to data across multiple computers within a group. Multi-
master replication can be contrasted with a master-slave method.

21. Sachin Said:


February 19th, 2007 6:54 am

What is Multimaster replication?

In addition to storing primary zone information in Dns we can also store it in


active directory as active directory object.This integrates Dns with active
directory in order to take advantage of active directory features

The benefits are


1 zone can be modified from any domain controller within the domain and this
information is automatically updated or replicated to all the other domain
controllers along with the active directory replication.This replication is said to be
multimaster replication.
2.We no longer face the standard dns server drawbacks.

In standard dns server only the primary server can modify the zone and then
replicate the changes to other domain controllers(It was in windows NT4 before).
But when Dns gets integrated with AD .Zone can be modified and replicated from
any domain controller.

3.Fault tolerance
4.Security

You can prevent access to any updates to zone or individual record preventing
insecure dynamic updates.

22. Unnikrishnan Said:


February 24th, 2007 7:08 am

13 Which is the command used to remove active directory from a domain


controler?

ANS : DCPROMO

23. Unnikrishnan Said:


February 24th, 2007 7:10 am

11 What is multimaster replication?

The two technologies in DFS are as follows:

DFS Replication. New state-based, multimaster replication engine that is


optimized for WAN environments. DFS Replication supports replication
scheduling, bandwidth throttling, and a new byte-level compression algorithm
known as remote differential compression (RDC).

DFS Namespaces. Technology that helps administrators group shared folders


located on different servers and present them to users as a virtual tree of folders
known as a namespace. DFS Namespaces was formerly known as Distributed File
System in Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003.

24. pavan Said:


February 28th, 2007 2:39 pm

hi
1)What is system boot process in windows and linux.
2)how the hardware interact with OS.
3)what is paging.
Thanks

25. Salman MW Said:


March 7th, 2007 3:56 pm

8. The default domain functional level in Windows Server 2003 is “Windows


2000 Mixed”

10. We can rename domain name in “Windows Server 2003″ functional level

26. William Wood Said:


March 13th, 2007 4:59 am

16. NTDS.dit

27. jagjit singh Said:


March 26th, 2007 11:16 am

for removing active directory the command line is

dcpromo /forceremoval

28. Sanjay Patel Said:


March 30th, 2007 1:24 pm

Removing Active Directory:


1. If we want to remove Active Directory then we will
use command……
DCPROMO
2. If some one deleted parent domain and we want to
remove from child domain then we will use command…
DCPROMO /FORCEREMOVAL
Note: - we should not remove parent domain first. we
should start from bottom means child domain
and after that it’s parent and so on.

29. Sanjay Patel Said:


March 30th, 2007 1:53 pm

1. DNS(Domain Name Service):


—————————-
It’s mainly used to resolve from host name(FQDN-Fully Qualified Domain
Name) to IP address and IP address to host name.DNS mainly used in Internet.
DNS devide in form of hierarchical.
2. DHCP(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol):
———————————————
DHCP use for provide IP address dnamically to client machine. If that client not
able to find DHCP server then client machine will go for APIPA(We have range
for APIPA which is 169.254.0.1-169.254.255.254).

3. HUB and SWITCH:


——————
Switch is expencive than hub. If more then one user try to send packet at a time
collision will occure but in switch we can send. Switch is full duplex. Maximum
bandwidth is 100 Mhz and that bandwidth is shared by all of the PC’s connected
to the hub. Data can be sent in both directions simultaneously, the maximum
available bandwidth is 200 Mbps, 100 Mbps each way, and there are no other
PC’s with which the bandwidth must be shared.

30. Sanjay Patel Said:


March 30th, 2007 1:55 pm

3. HUB and SWITCH:


——————
Switch is expencive than hub. If more then one user try to send packet at a time
collision will occure but in switch we can send. Switch is full duplex. In hub
Maximum bandwidth is 100 Mhz and that bandwidth is shared by all of the PC’s
connected to the hub. In switch data can be sent in both directions simultaneously,
the maximum available bandwidth is 200 Mbps, 100 Mbps each way, and there
are no other PC’s with which the bandwidth must be shared.

31. Zahed Said:


March 30th, 2007 2:11 pm

Hi,
1.What is differnece between router and routing?
2.What is dynamic routing and Static routing?

32. Sanjay Patel Said:


March 31st, 2007 12:50 pm

1. Difference between Router and Routing: -


——————————————-
Router: -
———
Router is a device which is used to connect different network. A device or setup
that finds the best route between any two networks, even if there are several
networks to traverse. Like bridges, remote sites can be connected using routers
over dedicated or switched lines to create WANs.
Routing: -
———-
Process of delivering a message across one or more networks via the most
appropriate path.

2. Dynamic Routing and Static Routing: -


—————————————-
Dynamic routing performs the same function as static routing except it is more
robust. Static routing allows routing tables in specific routers to be set up in a
static manner so network routes for packets are set. If a router on the route goes
down the destination may become unreachable. Dynamic routing allows routing
tables in routers to change as the possible routes change. There are several
protocols used to support dynamic routing including RIP and OSPF

33. william wood Said:


April 9th, 2007 5:32 am

The schema is the component of the Active Directory directory service that
defines all the objects and attributes that the directory service uses to store data.
You can combine some objects in the schema to create more-complex definitions
if objects of greater complexity are required. You can also add new definitions to
the schema to support new types of objects in the directory.

34. Zahed Said:


April 18th, 2007 1:45 pm

Hi, i want to know to total process to migrate from Windows NT server to


Windows 2000 server.

What are all the process will done when we start server tell me briefly which file
work for which process.

Thnaks warm Regards,


Zahed.

35. om Said:
April 30th, 2007 11:12 am

The schema is the component of the Active Directory directory service that
defines all the objects and attributes that the directory service uses to store data.
You can combine some objects in the schema to create more-complex definitions
if objects of greater complexity are required. You can also add new definitions to
the schema to support new types of objects in the directory.

36. omraj Said:


April 30th, 2007 11:13 am
Dynamic routing performs the same function as static routing except it is more
robust. Static routing allows routing tables in specific routers to be set up in a
static manner so network routes for packets are set. If a router on the route goes
down the destination may become unreachable. Dynamic routing allows routing
tables in routers to change as the possible routes change. There are several
protocols used to support dynamic routing including RIP and OSPF

37. vijay Said:


May 25th, 2007 7:22 am

The four domain functional levels are:

Windows 2000 Mixed


Windows 2000 Native
Windows Server 2003 Interim
Windows Server 2003

Windows 2000 Mixed

When you configure a new Windows Server 2003 domain, the default domain
functional level is Windows 2000 mixed.
Under this domain functional level, Windows NT, 2000, and 2003 domain
controllers are supported. However,
certain features such as group nesting, universal groups, and so on are not
available.

Windows 2000 Native


Upgrading the functional level of a domain to Windows 2000 Native should only
be done if there are
no Windows NT domain controllers remaining on the network. By upgrading to
Windows 2000 Native functional level,
additional features become available including: group nesting, universal groups,
SIDHistory, and the ability to convert
security groups and distribution groups.

Windows Server 2003 Interim


The third functional level is Windows Server 2003 Interim and it is often used
when upgrading from
Windows NT to Windows Server 2003. Upgrading to this domain functional level
provides support for
Windows NT and Windows Server 2003 domain controllers. However, like
Windows 2000 Mixed, it does not provide new features.

Windows Server 2003


The last functional level is Windows Server 2003. This domain functional level
only provides support for
Windows Server 2003 domain controllers. If you want to take advantage of all the
features included with
Windows Server 2003, you must implement this functional level. One of the most
important features introduced
at this functional level is the ability to rename domain controllers

38. Annveer N. Halkood Said:


July 29th, 2007 10:58 pm

what are the types of name resolution?

how name resolution will take place?

what are the Groups?

what is DHCP Relay agent?

39. Thyagu Said:


September 18th, 2007 7:48 pm

1.Active Directory schema is collection of object class and attributes.Eg user is an


object and its having alot attributes such as first name ,last name etc…
It present in only one domain in a forest,schema master is having the ability to
update the changes in the Active directory schema.
Schema Administrator only can access and edit the schema.

you cannot see the AD schema when you installed AD (dcpromo).

You need to run the registry file for schema in cmd mode :regsvr32.dll schmmgmt

Then you can see the Add -snap in wizard in mmc console ,there you can..

2.the domain functional level in Windows Server 2003

Domain fuctional level support only the windows domain controllers not client
level o/s.

They are four:


windows 2000 mixed(by default) supports- win nt,win 2000,win2003.
Windows 2000 native- supports- win 2000 ,win 2003
Windows 2003 interim- supports ->win NT,win 2003
Windows 2003 - supports-win 2003 only

3.forest functional level in Windows Server 2003


There are three
windows 2000 mixed supports- win nt,win 2000,win2003.
Windows 2000 native- supports- win 2000 ,win 2003
Windows 2003 - supports-win 2003 only

4.Global Catalog
It is a searchable database Enginee.It is used to search the objects in a forest.In
2003 ,Universal Group caching membership is available for speedy logon across
domain. Port no:3268,3269
It is also taking part of AD replication.

Sorry guys ,going out now… i wll cont…later

40. Thyagu Said:


September 19th, 2007 5:04 pm

5.How we can raise domain functional & forest functional level in Windows
Server 2003?

AD users and computers–>domain functional level->choose DFL as per your


environment.

AD Domain and Trust–>Forest functional level–>choose FFL as would your


environment.

Note:once you have change the DFL and FFL,cannot be revert.

6.the deafult protocol used in directory services?


LDAP.

8.Already answered

9.What are the physical & logical components of ADS

Physical->sites,domain controller

Logical ->Forest,domain,tree,ou

10.In which domain functional level, we can rename domain name

Windows 2003 dfl,you can rename the domain.

Note:Not recommended to rename the domain by Microsoft itself.You need to


follow up the proper procedure to prevent the further issue.Renaming is
simple,but forecast issue is lot.

11.multi-master replication
Whenever a change occurs to any object within an Active Directory domain, that
change is replicated automatically to all domain controllers within the domain.
This process is called multi-master replication. Multi-master replication does not
happen instantly across all servers simultaneously. Rather, it is a controlled
process where each domain controller peer is updated and validated in a logically
controlled procedure.

12.Site:

Site is one or more IP subnets.It contains connection objects and computer objects
and mainly used for AD replication.

13.Dcpromo, the command used to remove active directory from a domain


controler

14.Already answered.

15.Trust is relationship,between forest,domain.

16 NTDS.dit is the file that’s responsible for keep all Active Directory database.

I have answered almost question.please let me if my answer is wrong.

41. PREM Said:


September 26th, 2007 7:12 am

The schema is the component of the Active Directory directory service that
defines all the objects and attributes that the directory service uses to store data.
You can combine some objects in the schema to create more-complex definitions
if objects of greater complexity are required. You can also add new definitions to
the schema to support new types of objects in the directory.

42. MAK Said:


October 10th, 2007 3:01 pm

What is a default forest functionl level when you install the root domain controller
?

43. Raj Narayan Said:


October 23rd, 2007 9:24 am

Hi,
Can you pleas answer my query
1.How to Export the Ad data in Excel.Specially Tabs Like
(General,Account,Exchange Advance,Security,Members of )Without any 3rd
party software.
2. Suppose i have deleted any object from Ad but after 2-3 days i want back that
object..What is the process to restore the deleted Ad object.

44. Raj Narayan Said:


November 22nd, 2007 4:55 am

Hi,
Can anyone give me the answer of the mention Questions:
1. Windows server 2008 is actual which version of Windows server ?
2. Explain NAP in Windows Server 2008
3. How 1 can implement IP verison 6 using Windows Server 2008?
4. What are the enhancements in Terminal server which comes with Win2k8 ?
5. Which version of IIS comes with Windows server 2008?
6. What is the new feature included in Windows Server 2008 which can lock
entire hard disk drive?
7. How easy it is to combine Windows Server 2008 os with physical networking
& security appliances?
8. What are the certifications available for Windows 2008 track?
9. What is MCP member site and whats advantage of it ?
10. What is TechNet subscription and what indivisual get by subscribing to
TechNet?

Regards,
Raj Narayan

Write A Comment

Network engineer interview questions


1. User(s) are complaining of delays when using the network. What would you do?
2. What are some of the problems associated with operating a switched LAN?
3. Name some of the ways of combining TCP/IP traffic and SNA traffic over the
same link.
4. What sort of cabling is suitable for Fast Ethernet protocols?
5. What is a Class D IP address?
6. Why do I sometimes lose a server’s address when using more than one server?
7. What is Firewall?
8. How do I monitor the activity of sockets?
9. How would I put my socket in non-blocking mode?
10. What are RAW sockets?
11. What is the role of TCP protocol and IP protocol.
12. What is UDP?
13. How can I make my server a daemon?
14. How should I choose a port number for my server?
15. Layers in TCP/IP
16. How can I be sure that a UDP message is received?
17. How to get IP header of a UDP message
18. Writing UDP/SOCK_DGRAM applications
19. How many bytes in an IPX network address?
20. What is the difference between MUTEX and Semaphore?
21. What is priority inversion?
22. Different Solutions to dining philosophers problem.
23. What is a message queue?
24. Questions on Shared Memory.
25. What is DHCP?
26. Working of ping, telnet, gopher.
27. Can I connect two computers to internet using same line ?

Categories: Networking

| OS interview questions Basic database interview quesitons |


All categories: .NET | C++ | Database | General | Hardware | Java | Networking |
SAP ABAP | Testing | Unix/Linux | VB | Web dev | Windows

42 Responses to “Network engineer interview questions”

1. Vivek Kumar Said:


November 26th, 2005 12:32 am

5. Ip Address Ranges:
Class A: 0-126. 127 is a Broadcast
Class B: 128-191
Class C: 192-223
Class D: 224-239
Class E: 240-255.

2. Vivek Kumar Said:


November 26th, 2005 12:45 am

Ques5. Ip Address Ranges:


Class A: 0-126. : For about >256 Subnets and >16777214 hosts per subnet
127.0.0.1: For Proper Configuraions of TCP/IP.
Class B: 128-191: for about >65536 Subnets and >65534 hosts per subnet
Class C: 192-223: For about >16777214 networks and 254 hosts per subnet
Class D: 224-239 : these addressess are for Scientific researches ..
Class E: 240-255. : these are kept for Future Use

3. Vivek Kumar Said:


November 26th, 2005 1:01 am

Ques 7: what is a Firewall:


Firewalls are of two types:
-Hardware Firewall
-Software Firewall.
Firewall in simple manner is bascially the utility to provide the security over the
network. These are the security measures that prevents the network’s in and out
traffic to pass through the specific Security filters so that the unwanted and
unsecure data can be stopped from entering into the network..
further… as a security measure it also depends on the network designer and
implementer that how to use a Firewall mean to say the security measures like
how to present the content filtering and Url filtering which type of firewall should
be used and where to put it..

4. Vivek Kumar Said:


November 26th, 2005 1:48 am

Ques 11. Well.. firt of all one should know what a protocol actually means:
A Protocol is bascially set of rules designed and developed for the internetwork or
can say intranetwork Communications. the need of Tcp had been rised in early
years when like.. IBM Mainframe were not able to Communicate with the
Burroughs mainframe.. means if you wish to connect 2 or more computers they
should be same with everything from manufacturer to designer and
implementer…then TCP imerged as a solution-for-ever..
EARLIER it was NCP( Network Control Protocal) but later it refined into
TCP( Transmission Control Protocol) and IP(Internet Protocol)on jan.1,1983..
Some General roles of TCP/IP are:
1. Independence from particular vendor or network.
2. very low data overhead
3. good failure recovery.
and if the thinghs are taken seprately.. then
TCP is bascially responsible for proper data transmission by assuring data
integrity it is a connection oriented protocol that follows the under scenerio
1. Handshaking.
2. Packect Sequencing
3. Flow Control.
4. Error handling.
IP : Since the data to be sent must be put somewhere the IP works here .. the
required data is packaged in an IP packet.

5. Subir Sinha Said:


January 6th, 2006 7:10 am

ques11: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a set of rules (protocol) used


along with the Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in the form of message units
between computers over the Internet. While IP takes care of handling the actual
delivery of the data, TCP takes care of keeping track of the individual units of
data (called packets) that a message is divided into for efficient routing through
the Internet.
6. vinod gupta Said:
March 12th, 2006 5:54 am

7 Application
6 Presentation Upper Layers
5 Session

4 Transport
3 Network
2 Data Link Lower Layers
1 Physical

The application, presentation, and session layers are all application-oriented in


that they are responsible for presenting the application interface to the user. All
three are independent of the layers below them and are totally oblivious to the
means by which data gets to the application. These three layers are called the
upper layers.
The lower four layers deal with the transmission of data, covering the packaging,
routing, verification, and transmission of each data group. The lower layers don’t
worry about the type of data they receive or send to the application, but deal
simply with the task of sending it. They don’t differentiate between the different
applications in any way.
The following sections explain each layer to help you understand the architecture
of the OSI-RM (and later contrast it with the architecture of TCP/IP).

The Application Layer

The application layer is the end-user interface to the OSI system. It is where the
applications, such as electronic mail, USENET news readers, or database display
modules, reside. The application layer’s task is to display received information
and send the user’s new data to the lower layers.
In distributed applications, such as client/server systems, the application layer is
where the client application resides. It communicates through the lower layers to
the server.

The Presentation Layer

The presentation layer’s task is to isolate the lower layers from the application’s
data format. It converts the data from the application into a common format, often
called the canonical representation. The presentation layer processes machine-
dependent data from the application layer into a machine-independent format for
the lower layers.
The presentation layer is where file formats and even character formats (ASCII
and EBCDIC, for example) are lost. The conversion from the application data
format takes place through a “common network programming language” (as it is
called in the OSI Reference Model documents) that has a structured format.
The presentation layer does the reverse for incoming data. It is converted from the
common format into application-specific formats, based on the type of application
the machine has instructions for. If the data comes in without reformatting
instructions, the information might not be assembled in the correct manner for the
user’s application.

The Session Layer

The session layer organizes and synchronizes the exchange of data between
application processes. It works with the application layer to provide simple data
sets called synchronization points that let an application know how the
transmission and reception of data are progressing. In simplified terms, the
session layer can be thought of as a timing and flow control layer.
The session layer is involved in coordinating communications between different
applications, letting each know the status of the other. An error in one application
(whether on the same machine or across the country) is handled by the session
layer to let the receiving application know that the error has occurred. The session
layer can resynchronize applications that are currently connected to each other.
This can be necessary when communications are temporarily interrupted, or when
an error has occurred that results in loss of data.

The Transport Layer

The transport layer, as its name suggests, is designed to provide the “transparent
transfer of data from a source end open system to a destination end open system,”
according to the OSI Reference Model. The transport layer establishes, maintains,
and terminates communications between two machines.
The transport layer is responsible for ensuring that data sent matches the data
received. This verification role is important in ensuring that data is correctly sent,
with a resend if an error was detected. The transport layer manages the sending of
data, determining its order and its priority.

The Network Layer

The network layer provides the physical routing of the data, determining the path
between the machines. The network layer handles all these routing issues,
relieving the higher layers from this issue.
The network layer examines the network topology to determine the best route to
send a message, as well as figuring out relay systems. It is the only network layer
that sends a message from source to target machine, managing other chunks of
data that pass through the system on their way to another machine.

The Data Link Layer

The data link layer, according to the OSI reference paper, “provides for the
control of the physical layer, and detects and possibly corrects errors that can
occur.” In practicality, the data link layer is responsible for correcting
transmission errors induced during transmission (as opposed to errors in the
application data itself, which are handled in the transport layer).
The data link layer is usually concerned with signal interference on the physical
transmission media, whether through copper wire, fiber optic cable, or
microwave. Interference is common, resulting from many sources, including
cosmic rays and stray magnetic interference from other sources.

The Physical Layer

The physical layer is the lowest layer of the OSI model and deals with the
“mechanical, electrical, functional, and procedural means” required for
transmission of data, according to the OSI definition. This is really the wiring or
other transmission form.
When the OSI model was being developed, a lot of concern dealt with the lower
two layers, because they are, in most cases, inseparable. The real world treats the
data link layer and the physical layer as one combined layer, but the formal OSI
definition stipulates different purposes for each. (TCP/IP includes the data link
and physical layers as one layer, recognizing that the division is more academic
than practical.)

7. Iraban Said:
March 17th, 2006 10:29 am

Interviews Questions
1. Are all cacheless proxies DNS cacheful ? If so why ?

2. How does a ping work ? The exact mechanism.

3. How does a DHCP work ? When a pc with no Ip address just with an MAC
addrress boots up , what are the steps that Happen till the time a Ip is given to the
pc from a DHCP.

4. What happens if there are 2 DHCP servers in the network and both gets a
message from 2 pcs booting at exactly the same moment of time.

8. Mike Said:
March 27th, 2006 11:52 am

You guys would fail. lol. Class D networks are reserved for multicasting.
someone asking the question isn’t interested in the IP range but what its used for.

9. hariom jindal Said:


April 22nd, 2006 12:40 pm

how to change MAC Address.?


ans
you can change a mac address easly. go to the desktop>write click on the my
computer icon>properties>device manager>Network Adapters> properties>
advance>network address.. and then chnage the value. The value should be
hexadecimal or 16 octat

10. hariom jindal Said:


June 18th, 2006 2:28 pm

What is DHCP.

ans….

DHCP is a protocol which is designe for Automatic Give the IP Address to DHCP
client..

DHCP Assine the IP Address for few days Lease & capture the clients MAC
address..
It is Updated version of BootP…

11. Indranil Banerjee Said:


September 17th, 2006 12:59 pm

27. u can connect two computer using NAT wich use port forwarding method and
proxy server same time on the same line .

26 ping ia process which use ICMP protocl error message which is encapsulated
in a IP packets its calculate the round trip delay time by sending the packet
sending time and subtract it from arrival time. the error messages are 1.destination
unrecheable
2.hardware error.
etc
its also sets maximum hop value and after it becomes 0 the packets discarted

Telnet is a application layer process of connection remote compter and local Area
Network compter by specifing the ip address by a specific port,

25 DHCP is used for MAC address to IP mapping its support both static and
dynamic mapping.Static mapping are done just like bootstrap and for dynamic
mapping it have database of MAC and IP when a packet with a MAC comes ask
for ip its check that assigne a dynamic IP fixed that for a specific time and then
return that packet with that IP

26 In OS when an event done it stored on Message queues and and its relavent
action are called then it executed and cleared message queue it’s tempurary buffer
of a multitusking OS.
5.Class D ip are used for multitusking. that is 1 to many relation ship used with
IGMP protocol for group managemnt.
6.TCP/IP has 4 layer 1.Applicatiotn
2.Transport
3.Internet
4.Netwok Access
Foolish vinod said the OSI Layer

7. Firewall are the rules which are used for Passing traffic thats is packets in
network layer and frame is datalink layer on a specific port it can be two type
1.Hardware
2.Software
11 TCP is a transport layer protocol sued for reliable delivery of segmented
packets
IP is network layer protocol used for end to end delivery of two nodes not
reliable.

12. indranil Said:


September 17th, 2006 1:01 pm

27. u can connect two computer using NAT wich use port forwarding method and
proxy server same time on the same line .

26 ping ia process which use ICMP protocl error message which is encapsulated
in a IP packets its calculate the round trip delay time by sending the packet
sending time and subtract it from arrival time. the error messages are 1.destination
unrecheable
2.hardware error.
etc
its also sets maximum hop value and after it becomes 0 the packets discarted

Telnet is a application layer process of connection remote compter and local Area
Network compter by specifing the ip address by a specific port,

25 DHCP is used for MAC address to IP mapping its support both static and
dynamic mapping.Static mapping are done just like bootstrap and for dynamic
mapping it have database of MAC and IP when a packet with a MAC comes ask
for ip its check that assigne a dynamic IP fixed that for a specific time and then
return that packet with that IP

26 In OS when an event done it stored on Message queues and and its relavent
action are called then it executed and cleared message queue it’s tempurary buffer
of a multitusking OS.

5.Class D ip are used for multitusking. that is 1 to many relation ship used with
IGMP protocol for group managemnt.
6.TCP/IP has 4 layer 1.Applicatiotn
2.Transport
3.Internet
4.Netwok Access
Foolish vinod said the OSI Layer

7. Firewall are the rules which are used for Passing traffic thats is packets in
network layer and frame is datalink layer on a specific port it can be two type
1.Hardware
2.Software
11 TCP is a transport layer protocol sued for reliable delivery of segmented
packets
IP is network layer protocol used for end to end delivery of two nodes not
reliable.

13. pay Said:


October 6th, 2006 9:43 am

Q1: User(s) are complaining of delays when using the network. What would you
do?

ANS:
- get the user(s) to demonstrate the problem

- determine how many other users are affected

- ensure desktop hardware and configuration is OK

- trace all connections (they may be on another subnet)

- commence some monitoring or diagnostics

- determine problem (if there is one)

- provide solution

14. Muhammad Ali Khan Said:


November 5th, 2006 6:18 pm

11. TCP is a connection oriented protocol that provides reliable transfer of


information by synchronization, error checking and sequencing of information to
and from IP layer.

IP layer is transport of TCP. It provides path determination and packet switching.


IP layer uses ARP and RARP protocol to map IP to MAC address and MAC to IP
address respectively, to determine network addresses. It is connectionless protocol
that leaves all error checking functions on upper layer.

12. UDP is a connectionless protocol that do not provide reliable transfer of


information and is fast in nature as compare to TCP. This disadvantage on other
hand is suitable for applications like video and voice.

15. Rich Said:


November 26th, 2006 8:55 am

5. reserved for Multicast.. correct… I never really understood this properly until
working with OSPF. You can try memorising the table if you like but it’ll stick
better if you get some understanding on why, and what different addresses are
used for.

If you want a good undertanding of a decent routing protocol, get your head round
OSPF. It’s nice, easy and used a lot plus you’ll understand multicasting in the
process…

For example in OSPF - 224.0.0.5 is used for multicasting routing information and
is address you should always know about. I’ve been asked about this in EVERY
interview I’ve had in networks.

16. hariom jindal Said:


December 11th, 2006 6:58 am

Active Directory.

Active Directory is a administative tool which is use to manage and administer


the domain users, computers, network clients centrelize.

older name of Active Directory called NTDS( NT Directory Service).

17. hariom jindal Said:


December 11th, 2006 7:01 am

What is a Page file.

Page file is a vertual memory of the operating system & work as Physical RAM.
It encreses the system performance & working.

18. hariom jindal Said:


December 11th, 2006 7:04 am

What is a Printer.
Printer is a Hardware Device which is use to take hard copy of any text or data
from system..

we have three types of printer..

1. Dot Matrix
2. Lazer
3. Inkjet

19. hariom jindal Said:


December 16th, 2006 11:51 am

What is WDS mode in AP?

Ans..

WDS stands for Wireless Distributed System, & work as Bridging Technology.
In WDS mode Access Point can communicate with Wi-Fi Access Points only
does not support Wireless Cliens.

If we want communicate 4 AP to each other so we should configure one AP as


WDS mode.

In this mode WSD AP requires Remote AP mac address so you have to type other
APs MAC address one by one.

and Configure AP in AP with WDS mode with Remote WDS mac address..

with this setting u can make Wireless LAN with out any ethernet wire.

try and if u have any problem contact me at:


rndxpert@gmail.com

20. hariom jindal Said:


December 21st, 2006 12:35 pm

Q. Can I connect two computers to internet using same line.

Ans..
Yes, we can connect two or more system using many types of mathodes..

1. Remote Help Invitations.. if you have high or medium speed internet


connection you can access the system..
2. VPN.. using the Virtual Private Network this is technology which is use to
make virtual network between any remote location. VPN make a tunnel type
connection for fast & secure communication.
3. Using third party software we have many type of VPN softwares.

21. hariom jindal Said:


December 21st, 2006 12:43 pm

Question.
User(s) are complaining of delays when using
the network. What would you do?
Ans.
Network slow problem create by many reasions like.. Spyware, Virus, Spool
Virus, NetBios, or may be any machine infected with a Virus or Worm..

This problem may be genrate by defected HUB/Switch or Carbon in Jack or


female RJ45 connector.

so you have update your antivirus or firewall software or desible the NetBios in
Wins Configurations.

thanks

22. Raja Said Said:


December 30th, 2006 4:02 am

Q.25 What is DHCP?

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a network layer Protocol that enables a


DHCP Server and Assign IP Address Automatically on Individual DHCP Client

23. Raja Said:


January 2nd, 2007 12:39 am

Q. what is firewall?

Firewall are two types


1. Hardware Device
2. Software Firewall
Firewall work as a Filter whichever connect to broadband and router before home
Network and stop all virus coming form Internet

24. Hari Om Jindal Said:


January 23rd, 2007 10:36 am

Que. How ISA Server Works ?

Ans..
ISA is Software Firewal & Internet Soloution for small & large network. ISA
server blocks Inboud traffic as well as Outbound traffic.

It is a multitasking firewall server it provides NAT (Natwork Address


Translation)& Web Proxy etc..

ISA server provides SecureVPN for connect Remote Clients or Remote


Location…

25. Hariom Jindal Said:


February 22nd, 2007 5:07 pm

Que: What is a Domain Controller?

Ans.Domain is a Security boundery which is use to make secure or private


network from inside to outsite.

Domain provide better administration control over the network object.

26. Naveed Nezam Said:


February 23rd, 2007 2:47 am

27- Can I connect two computers to internet using same line ?

There are different methods to share one internet connection on multipe numbers
of computer.

1- ICS(Internet Connection Sharing)


In this method you can just enable Internet Connection Sharing check on your
gateway.. The limitation of ICS is you must have 192.168.X.X IP addressing
scheme on your network. another limitation of ICS is it can support upto 15
Computer(approx.. dont remember exact figure).

2-NAT
NAT or NATING basic function is to convert private IP to Public IP and vice
versa.
It work same like ICS but have some enhanced features and can used for large
number of client computers.
* NAT has also option of Firewall.
* No limitation of IP Scheme..it also provide dynamic IP addressing
* Also have a feature of Server Publishing
*Cannot cache

3- Proxy Servers (e.g Microsoft ISA Server)


Fully enhanced product which provide Internet sharing , Firewall(Fully featured )
and Caching.
27. Mohsin khan Said:
February 26th, 2007 8:46 am

7. FireWall is nothing but it is used to avoid the unwanted trafic or unauthorised


entry. The Firewall has 2 types 1. Hardware & 2.Software. Now the most familiar
used firewall is PIX from the make of cisco. and other firewalls like nokia and so
on..

28. pradeep kumar Said:


March 26th, 2007 7:27 am

please tell me how we can configure DHCP server??

29. Gaurav Said:


April 25th, 2007 9:53 am

TCP/IP is a two-way communication between the client and the server and it is a
reliable and there is a confirmation regarding reaching the message to the
destination. It is like a phone call.

UDP is a one-way communication only between the client and the server and it is
not a reliable and there is no confirmation regarding reaching the message to the
destination.

30. syed khalid Said:


May 13th, 2007 3:45 am

when u want to know about understanding the nature of network then first of all u
should be concentrate on OSI MODEL
osi model have 7 layers and every layer perform unique task:
1 APPLICATION LAYER
2 PRESENTATION LAYER
3 SESSION LAYER
4 TRANSPORT LAYER
5 NETWORK LAYER
6 DATA LINK LAYER
7 PHYSICAL LAYER
BUT NETWORK WORK ON LAYER 7 -1
THANKS SEE YOU ANY TIME WITH LOTS OF FUNDAS

31. Ahamed Harooon Said:


May 15th, 2007 2:19 pm

DHCP stands for “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol


DHCP’s purpose is to enable individual computers on an IP network to extract
their configurations from a server (the ‘DHCP server’) or servers, in particular,
servers that have no exact information about the individual computers until they
request the information. The overall purpose of this is to reduce the work
necessary to administer a large IP network. The most significant piece of
information distributed in this manner is the IP address.

32. Nirmala Said:


May 17th, 2007 11:46 am

2.What are some of the problems associated with operating a switched LAN?
Ans:
A switched LAN (Local Area Network) may use a Gigabit Ethernet switch that
includes different ports connected to PCs and to layer 3 routers. The routers
connected to different switch ports can not immediately identify failures either of
other routers or of the ports and links by which they are connected to the switch.
The routers currently have to rely on slow timeout mechanisms, such as missed
hello packets, to detect failures on other links connected to the switch.
Thus, the time required to detect failures can and often does dominate the time
required for a routing algorithm to determine a new network topology around a
detected failure (convergence time).

33. dharmender yadav Said:


May 30th, 2007 11:53 pm

5.Class D: 224-239 its Class D - Used for multicasts, Class D is slightly different
from the first three classes. It has a first bit value of 1, second bit value of 1, third
bit value of 1 and fourth bit value of 0. The other 28 bits are used to identify the
group of computers the multicast message is intended fo

34. Mike Mountrakis Said:


June 14th, 2007 5:23 pm

Q 7 How do I monitor the activity of sockets?


In any POSIX (UNIX like system ) you can monitor the ports and their state with
netstat command. Try:

$netstat

and this will give you a list of all opened sockets to the associated ports for
TCP/UDP/RAW protocols.

Q8 How would I put my socket in non-blocking mode?


If you choose to open a socket in UDP, the socket is asynchronous, thus non-
blocking.
Q9 What are RAW sockets?
Those sockets bypass the transport layer and talk directly to network layer, in
other words they cannot be categorized as UDP/TCP.
Normally, in RAW sockets e have to build our own IP header to override values
that IP would place into certain header fields (use IP_HDRINCL socket option
when opening socket descriptor).
Normally we use this kind of sockets for two reasons:
a. Implement custom transport protocol
b. Pass raw streaming through the network.

Michael Mountrakis
mountrakis@illumine.gr

35. Mike Mountrakis Said:


June 14th, 2007 5:37 pm

Q17 How to get IP header of a UDP message

If you want to do it for monitoring, use Ethereal


If you want to do it within your code, use pcap (Packet Capturing Library) that
comes with TCPDump distribution.

Q20 What is the difference between MUTEX and Semaphore?


A MUTEX is a lock. You can place a MUTEX Lock on a resource among
processes/threads in order to lock it. When MUTEX is released, the resource is
also released.

A Semaphore is a signal raiser, or a token. When you wait for a MUTEX to be


released, you might need to listen to a specific semaphore caused by the MUTEX
release.

Q21 What is priority inversion?


Rearrange in opposite order the scheduler’s priority list.

Q22 Different Solutions to dining philosophers problem.


Read “UNIX Network Programming” V1 by R. Stevens and
“A Book on C By I. Poll A. Kelly”
There are some excellent solutions over there

Michael Mountrakis
www.illumine.gr

36. Hariom Jindal Said:


June 29th, 2007 12:17 am

Installing, Upgrading and Erase the software using RPM


RPM (Redhat Package Manager)

RPM package manager is a tool which is use to install, upgrade and removes the
rpm packages. RPM is develop by redhat and support many linux distirbutions
like Fedora Project, Redhat Enterprise Linux, CentOs, Mendriva and othrs.

RPM only supports rpm file.

Using RPM command with many functions.

#rpm –q for query a packages

-a for query with all rpms

-V for query with varify the packge

#rpm –i for install a rpm package

-h for display with hash

-v for verbose

#rpm –u for upgrade the module

#rpm –e for erase the module

Some examples:-

#rpm –ivh dhcp-3.0.1-12_EL

37. prakash Said:


July 7th, 2007 4:09 am

User(s) are complaining of delays when using the network. What would you do

38. mukesh Said:


October 10th, 2007 5:31 am

how do i enable or dlsable my usb port?

39. Leela Said:


October 19th, 2007 9:14 am

1.How to take the bios backup?


2.How to disable the ports (usb,com and serial ports)?
3.Difference between cold booting and warm booting?
4.Explain Dr.Watson?

40. Jayshankar Said:


December 15th, 2007 7:19 am

1) How do BGP works in a network?


2) What is STM?

41. Harry Said:


December 17th, 2007 4:04 am

Domain Controllers in a network can be of 2 sub types: PDC (Primary domain


controller) and BDC (Backup Domain Controller).
PDC governs the other network clients and resource sharing/scheduling can be
easily done. All BDCs can be configured and monitored using PDC. From BDC
clients, using a proxy on PDC, one can access the internet facilities.

42. Abhii Said:


January 2nd, 2008 10:54 am

chk the link :

Introduction to the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

Windows Server and MS Exchange interview questions


1. What is DHCP? How we configure DHCP?
2. What are the ways to configure DNS & Zones?
3. What are the types of backup? Explain each?
4. What are Levels of RAID 0, 1, 5? Which one is better & why?
5. What are FMSO Roles? List them.
6. Describe the lease process of the DHCP server.
7. Disaster Recovery Plan?
8. What is scope & super scope?
9. Differences between Win 2000 Server & Advanced Server?
10. Logical Diagram of Active Directory? What is the difference between child
domain & additional domain server?
11. FTP, NNTP, SMTP, KERBEROS, DNS, DHCP, POP3 port numbers?
12. What is Kerberos? Which version is currently used by Windows? How does
Kerberos work?

Microsoft Exchange Server interview questions

1. Distribution List?
2. GAL, Routing Group, Stm files, Eseutil & ininteg - what are they used for?
3. What is MIME & MAPI?
4. List the services of Exchange Server 2000?
5. How would you recover Exchange server when the log file is corrupted?

Categories: Windows, Networking

| July contest winner 55 most frequently asked interview questions |


All categories: .NET | C++ | Database | General | Hardware | Java | Networking |
SAP ABAP | Testing | Unix/Linux | VB | Web dev | Windows

34 Responses to “Windows Server and MS Exchange interview questions”

1. Masud Said:
January 24th, 2006 7:12 pm

On a recent interview i was asked “What is the maximum storage capacity for
Exchange standard version? What would you do if it reaches maximum
capacity?”

2. saed Said:
February 18th, 2006 3:43 am

1. boot process in windows nt/xp/2000/2003


2. how do you configure memory dump if c:,d:,e: & paging file is configured so
and so way?
3. backups ? which is better, why and which to use when?
4. disaster recovery plan?
5. DHCP lease process
6. DNS zones, chronicle records what are they?
7. DHCP relay agent where to place it?
8. what is active directory compared to SAM?
9. what is GC? how many required for A Tree?
10. what is forest?
11. Group policies?
12. FSMO Roles?

3. Shri Said:
April 1st, 2006 6:27 am

I haved asked following question about Active directory 2000.

Can I changed password if my machince’s connectivity to DC who holds PDC


emulator role has been fails?

4. Vipin Bansal Said:


April 26th, 2006 7:00 am
Exchange 2000 Server Standard Edition limits the database size to 16 gigabytes.

5. Mohamed Azlan Said:


May 8th, 2006 10:43 am

What is the diffence between SD-RAM and DD-RAM ?

6. shaik Said:
June 29th, 2006 2:25 am

can i change my Dc ip(dns,pref dns,gateway) while dc is working.


and can i give another ip.

(what happend if i give that ip and what happend about the replication of ther dc
when i am in suspend mode) ?

7. mohd.sameer Said:
August 3rd, 2006 1:30 am

i have been asked if there is set of 30 harddisk configured for raid 5 if two
harddisk failed what about data

8. Tech Said:
September 17th, 2006 3:40 am

i have been asked if there is set of 30 harddisk configured for raid 5 if two
harddisk failed what about data

Tech Interviews comment by mohd.sameer

9. Raj Narayan Said:


September 23rd, 2006 12:51 am

Hi,
Can anybody give me the answer of the mention questions.

1.How Can i Deploy the Latest Patched in Pc through G.P. wihtout having the
Admin Right in Pc.
2.How to remove the $sharing through G.P. in 1000 PCs.
3.In Raid 5,Suppose i have 5 HDD of 10-10 GB, After configuring the Raid how
much space do i have for utilise.
4.How Can i Resolve the Svr name through Nslookup.

Thanks & Regards,


Raj Narayan
10. Debabrata Swain Said:
October 17th, 2006 7:49 am

What is difference between scope and superscope ?

11. Aarif Shaikh Said:


November 26th, 2006 10:13 am

Q) Can I changed password if my machince’s connectivity to DC who holds PDC


emulator role has been fails?
A) No You cant the password.

Q) i have been asked if there is set of 30 harddisk configured for raid 5 if two
harddisk failed what about data
A) It depends how u had configured ur RAID its only Raid5 or with with spare if
its only raid 5 then in raid5 if ur 2 nos of HDD goes then ur raid is gone.

Q) How Can i Deploy the Latest Patched in Pc through G.P. wihtout having the
Admin Right in Pc.
A) Create a batch file and place all the patches in the Netlogon, and deploy the
batch file through GP to all the pcs so the same should take affect after restarting
the pc.

Q) In Raid 5,Suppose i have 5 HDD of 10-10 GB, After configuring the Raid how
much space do i have for utilise.
A) -1 out of the total (eg- if u r using 5 u will get only 4 because 1 goes for
parity).

Q) How Can i Resolve the Svr name through Nslookup


A) what exactly u want to do, nslookup command will let u know through which
server u r getting routed, (eg- c:\nslookup then u will get ur domain name to
which u r getting routed. and if u want to get the name of the pc/server with the ip
address then u have to give the command c:\nbtstat -a ip xx-xx-xx-xx)

12. bart Said:


November 29th, 2006 12:27 am

How Can i Deploy the Latest Patched in Pc through G.P. wihtout having the
Admin Right in Pc.
A) Create a batch file and place all the patches in the Netlogon, and deploy the
batch file through GP to all the pcs so the same should take affect after restarting
the pc.

the answer to the above question is incorrect.

you cannot deploy a batch file using group policy.


you can only publish or assign msi packages or Zap files. They are the only two
valid file formats allowable when using “intellimirror”. in active directory.

13. Rehamn Shaikh Said:


January 5th, 2007 8:35 am

What are FMSO Roles? List them


ANS:Fsmo roles are server roles in a Forest
There are five types of FSMO roles
1-Scheema master
2-Domain naming master
3-Rid master
4-PDC Emullator
5-Infrastructure master

14. Imran Khan Said:


January 11th, 2007 1:13 am

What is Kerberos? Which version is currently used by Windows? How does


Kerberos work?

15. vamsi Said:


January 30th, 2007 8:25 am

what is the difference between 2k and 2k3?

what is the difference between dns and wins?

what is sysprep?

what is netlogon?

16. akshaya Said:


February 2nd, 2007 9:07 am

how many types of server?


(2) what is hotfrix.
(3)what is the difrences btwen 2k , 2k3 and xp?
(4)how many types DNS
(5)hOW MANY TYPES NET ADDRES?
(1)WHAT IS T-VOLI.
(7) WHICH PROTOCOL USED FOR SENDING MESSAGE.
(8) TELL ME WHY WE R USEING EXCHANGE SERVER?
(9) WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF DHCP?
(10) HOW DHCP CONFIGURE?
PLEASE SEND ALL ANS I NEED YOUR HELP .
17. usha Said:
February 18th, 2007 2:38 am

what is hotfrix.

It is hotfix, which microsoft realese whenever there is a bug or for updation of


Operating system.
(3)what is the difrences btwen 2k , 2k3 and xp?
Xp is a client operating system it cannot act as a server, 2k domain name cannot
be renamed, no shadow copying, 2k3 domain name can be renamed, shadow
copying is possible
(4)how many types DNS
I think there are about 7 types…
(1)WHAT IS T-VOLI.
Tivoli is montiroing tool
(7) WHICH PROTOCOL USED FOR SENDING MESSAGE.
SNMP
(9) WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF DHCP?
for providing ip address dynamically

18. Varadarajam Said:


March 26th, 2007 3:48 pm

*** What is the difference between Win2k Server and Win2k3?

1. We can’t rename domain in Win2k,u can rename in Win2k3

2. IIS 5.0 in Win2k and IIS 6.0 in Win2k3

3. No Volume Shadow Copying in Win2k, its available in Win2k3

4. Active Directory Federation Systems in Win2k3

Like that some other security features added in Win2k3, main features are above

***WHICH PROTOCOL USED FOR SENDING MAIL?

SMTP — Simple Mail Transfer Protocal is used to Sending mails.

***TELL ME WHY WE R USEING EXCHANGE SERVER?

This is a mail server.. we can use this Server to send mails in Intranet as well as
outside.

*** What is DHCP?


To assign ip addresses automatically.

*** DHCP relay agent where to place it?

DHCP Relay agent u need to place in Software Router.

*** what is forest?

Is a collection of trees. Tree is nothing but collection domains which is having


same name space.
domain contains domain controllers..
forest — Tree — Domain –

Don’t get confused.. Understand carefully.

*** what is GC? how many required for A Tree?

Global Catalog server is a Searchable Index book. With this we can find out any
object in the Active Directory.

Also it works as logon authentication for Group memberships.

We can have each domain controller in domain or only first domain controller in a
domain..

*** DNS zones, chronicle records what are they?

In Windows 2000 there are mainly 3 zones

Standard Primary — zone information writes in Txt file


Standard Secondary — copy of Primary
Active Directory Integrated– Information stores in Active Directory

in win2k3 one more zone is added that is Stub zone

–Stub is like secondary but it contains only copy of SOA records, copy of NS
records, copy of A records for that zone. No copy of MX, SRV records etc.,
With this Stub zone DNS traffic will be low

*** FSMO Roles?

Flexible Single Master Operation Roles

1. Domain Naming Master — Forest Wide Roles


2. Schema Master — Forest Wide Roles
3. RID Master — Domain Wide Roles
4. PDC Emulator — Domain Wide Roles
5. Infrastructure Master — Domain Wide Roles

RID Master — It assigns RID and SID to the newly created object like Users and
computers. If RID master is down (u can create security objects upto RID pools
are avialable in DCs) else u can’t create any object one its down

PDC emulator : It works as a PDC to any NT Bdcs in your environment

It works as Time Server (to maintain same time in your network)

It works to change the passwords, lockout etc.,

Infrastructure Master: This works when we are renaming any group member ship
object this role takes care.

Domain Naming Master : Adding / Changing / Deleting any Domain in a forest it


takes care

Schema Master : It maintains structure of the Active Directory in a forest.

*** FTP, NNTP, SMTP, KERBEROS, DNS, DHCP, POP3 port numbers?

FTP : 20, 21
(20 is for controlling, 21 is Transmitting)

NNTP : 119

SMTP : 25

Kerberos : 88

DNS : 53

DHCP : 67, 68

Pop3 : 110

*** What is Kerberos? Which version is currently used by Windows? How does
Kerberos work?

Kerberos is the user uthentication used in Win2000 and Win2003 Active


Directory servers

Kerberos version in 5.0


Port is : 88

Its more secure and encrypted than NTLM (NT authentication)

19. Sunit Suri Said:


May 21st, 2007 11:03 am

What is the new major feature introduced in Exchange 2003, which was not
included in Exchange 2000?

How can you recover a deleted mail box ?

what is the use of ESUtil.exe ?

What are the port Numbers for pop3, imap, smtp port, smtp over ssl, pop3 over
ssl, imap over ssl ?

Difference between Exchance 2003 and 2007?

what is RPC over Http ?

What is required for using RPC over Https with MS Outlook ?

If you have deleted the user, after you recreated the same user. How you will give
the access of previous mail box ?

What are the prequisite for installation of Exchange Server ?

What is the use of NNTP with exchange ?

If NNTP service get stoped, what features of exchange will be effected ?

Which protocol is used for Public Folder ?

How will take backup of Active Directory ?

What are the content of System State backup ?

there r more…. i’ll update soon…….

20. Harish P Said:


June 1st, 2007 2:42 pm

Describe the lease process of the DHCP server.


Ans : A DHCP lease is the amount of time that the DHCP server grants to the
DHCP client permission to use a particular IP address. A typical server allows its
administrator to set the lease time.

21. Harish P Said:


June 1st, 2007 3:43 pm

7. Disaster Recovery Plan?

Ans: Deals with the restoration of computer system with all attendent software
and connections to full functionality under a variety of damaging or interfering
external condtions.

22. shan Said:


June 22nd, 2007 9:57 am

Which protocol is used for Public Folder ?

ANS: SMTP

What is the use of NNTP with exchange ?

ANS: This protocol is used the news group in exchange.

23. shan Said:


June 22nd, 2007 10:11 am

How will take backup of Active Directory ?

Ans: Take the system state data backup. This will backup the active directory
database. Microsoft recomend only Full backup of system state database

What are the content of System State backup ?

The cotents are


Boot fles,system files
Active directory (if its done on DC)
Sysvol folder(if it done on DC)
Cerficate service ( on a CA server)
Cluster database ( on a clsture server)
registry
Performance couter configuration inormation
Coponet services class registration database

24. shan Said:


June 22nd, 2007 9:41 pm
What are the prequisite for installation of Exchange Server ?

The pre requsite are

IIS
SMTP
WWW service
NNTP
.NET Framework
ASP.NET
Then run Forestprep
The run domainprep

25. Brian Said:


June 25th, 2007 9:44 am

bart said,
How Can i Deploy the Latest Patched in Pc through G.P. wihtout having the
Admin Right in Pc.
A) Create a batch file and place all the patches in the Netlogon, and deploy the
batch file through GP to all the pcs so the same should take affect after restarting
the pc.

the answer to the above question is incorrect.

you cannot deploy a batch file using group policy.

you can only publish or assign msi packages or Zap files. They are the only two
valid file formats allowable when using “intellimirror”. in active directory.

Actually you are incorrect as well. If you create a script and assign it to the
STARTUP script in a GPO applied to the COMPUTER and not the USER, then it
runs as a local administrator on the computer.

26. Shahnawaz Mulla Said:


September 12th, 2007 10:42 pm

Where is active directory stored?

27. Khan Said:


October 1st, 2007 12:45 am

What is difference between scope and superscope ?


Scope in dhcp, where u can specify a range of IP Address which will be leased to
the dhcp clients.
Superscope is the combination of multiple scopes.

28. Khan Said:


October 1st, 2007 12:58 am

Describe the lease process of the DHCP server.

DHCP Server leases the IP addresses to the clients as follows :


DORA
D (Discover) : DHCP Client sends a broadcast packets to identify the dhcp server,
this packet will contain the source MAC.
O (Offer) : Once the packet is recieved by the DHCP server, the server will send
the packet containing Source IP and Source MAC.
R (Request) : Client will now contact the DHCP server directly and request for
the IP address.
A (Acknowledge) : DHCP server will send an ack packet which contains the IP
address.
The default lease period is 8 days.

29. Khan Said:


October 1st, 2007 1:02 am

What is the new major feature introduced in Exchange 2003, which was not
included in Exchange 2000?

1) RPC over HTTPS.


2) Volume Shadow Copy for backup.
3) Super upgrade tools like ExDeploy.
4) Improved security, including all those of IIS v 6.0.

Pl let me know if u still find more differnces.

30. Khan Said:


October 1st, 2007 1:19 am

What are the port Numbers for pop3, imap, smtp port, smtp over ssl, pop3 over
ssl, imap over ssl ?

POP3 : 110
Standard IMAP4 : 143
SMTP : 25
pop3 over ssl : 992
imap over ssl : 993
31. Khan Said:
October 1st, 2007 1:32 am

What are the prequisite for installation of Exchange Server 2003?

* IIS
* SMTP services
* NNTP services
* ASP.NET
* www services
* .net framework

32. Josh Said:


November 28th, 2007 11:10 am

What is a smarthost?

A Exchange server is having bandwidth issues, explain how you would look at
fixing the issue?

33. Jitendra Singh Thakur Said:


December 8th, 2007 10:41 am

What is Blue Screen Error? and when it comes?


What is clean Booting?
What is warm and cold booting?
Difference between clean Boot and safe mode?

34. Anthony Said:


December 19th, 2007 7:06 am

What is warm and cold booting?

ans:A warm boot, accomplished by pressing the CTRL+ALT+DEL key


combination, restarts the computer through the INT19h ROM BIOS routine. This
warm-boot procedure usually does not go through the complete boot process;
generally, it skips the power-on self test (POST) to save time. In addition, a warm
boot frequently fails to reset all adapters in the computer’s adapter slots.

If you use the Reset button to cold boot the computer, it generally restarts the boot
process, including the POST. However, this procedure does not necessarily
discontinue power to the motherboard. If the power is not interrupted, the cold
boot may fail to reset all adapters in the computer’s adapter slots.

if u want any other clarification let me know


Networking and protocols interview questions
Q: What are the seven layers of the OSI model?

A: The layers are physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and
application layers.

Q: In the TCP client-servel model, how does the three-way handshake work in
opening connection?

A: The client first sends a packet with sequence "x" to the server. When the server
receives this packet, the server will send back another packet with sequence "y",
acknowledging the request of the client. When the client receives the acknowledgement
from the server, the client will then send an acknowledge back to the server for
acknowledging that sequence "y" has been received.

Q: What is the purpose of exchanging beginning sequence numbers during the the
connection in the TCP client-server model?

A: To ensure that any data lost during data transfer can be retransmitted.

Q: How does Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) work?

A: ATM works by transmitting all traffic in small, fixed-sized cells. These small, fixed-
size cells reduces queuing delay and can be switched quickly. ATM fits into layer 2 of
the OSI model and provides functions for framing and error correction. At the port
interface, ATM switches convert cells into frames, and vice versa. ATM provides Quality
of Service and traffic shaping.

Q: Given a Class B Network with subnet mask of 255.255.248.0 and a packet


addressed to 130.40.32.16, what is the subnet address?

A: Take the 2 addresses, write them in binary form, then AND them. The answer is
130.40.32.0

Cisco-specific network engineer questions


1. What is a wildcard mask, and how is it different from a netmask?
2. How do you configure a Cisco switch or router? What are the steps needed?
3. How would I place an interface into trunking mode?
4. How do you shutdown an interface on a router or switch?
5. What is VTP?
6. What is VMPS?
7. What is SPAN/RSPAN?
8. What is flow/netflow?
9. What is TACACS? Radius?

Categories: Networking

| Large list of Intel interview questions Security interview questions for network admin |
All categories: .NET | C++ | Database | General | Hardware | Java | Networking |
SAP ABAP | Testing | Unix/Linux | VB | Web dev | Windows

10 Responses to “Cisco-specific network engineer questions”

1. nalini Said:
December 22nd, 2005 9:43 pm

4.
on router or switch to shutdown the interface commands are:
router>enable
router#config t
router(config)#int s0
router(conf_if)#no shutdown

2. Jason Welcker Said:


December 24th, 2005 5:51 pm

3.
conf t
int foo
switchport mode trunk
exit

4.
conf t
int foo
shutdown
exit

Where foo equals the interface you’d like to trunk/shutdown.

5. Virtual trunking protocol allows easier management of VLANs over multiple


switches by implementing VTP Server(s) and a VTP domain. When you
configure a new VLAN on one VTP server, the VLAN is distributed through all
switches in the domain. This reduces the need to configure the same VLAN
everywhere. There is much more to VTP, but I assume in an interview you
wouldn’t need to get as deep as VTP Pruning, VTP transparent mode, etc..

3. Anjan Said:
June 22nd, 2006 1:06 pm
9. TACACS+ is a security application used with AAA that provides centralized
validation of users attempting to gain access to a router or network access server.
TACACS+ services are maintained in a database on a TACACS+ daemon
running on a UNIX, Windows NT, or Windows 2000 workstation.

TACACS+ provides for separate and modular authentication, authorization, and


accounting facilities
RADIUS is a distributed client/server system used with AAA that secures
networks against unauthorized access.

AAA means Authentication Authorization Accounting

4. Anjan Said:
June 22nd, 2006 1:12 pm

6. A VLAN Membership Policy Server or “VMPS” is a network switch that


contains a mapping of device information to VLAN.

5. Ranjha Singh Said:


November 3rd, 2006 10:37 am

TACACS+ & RADIUS is protocol, which is used to authentication not a


application.

6. rocky Said:
December 10th, 2006 9:13 pm

1. What is a wildcard mask, and how is it different from a netmask?

> netmask determines the subnet part of the ip address

example
255.255.0.0 class b. the netmask is 255.255

wildcard mask is the opposite. u see this in ospf.

0.0.255.255 .. the 255.255 here defines the host portion. its a wild thing really

2. How do you configure a Cisco switch or router? What are the steps needed?

>enable
#configure terminal

configs are slightly similar

3. How would I place an interface into trunking mode?


en
config t
int s0/0
switchport mode trunk encapsulation dot1q|isl

4. How do you shutdown an interface on a router or switch?

en
config t
int s0/0
shutdown

5. What is VTP?

virtual trunking protocol. set up on switches to manage vlans.

6. What is VMPS?

VLAN membership policy server. maps information regarding vlan

7. What is SPAN/RSPAN?

Switched port analyzer. remote switched port analyzer.


you can monitor traffic flowing to a port from another port.

8. What is flow/netflow?

protocol for collecting IP information

9. What is TACACS? Radius?

terminal access controller access control system


remote access dial in user service

security enabled by aaa


authentication, authorization, accounting
provides a means of validation of users gaining access to a router

accounting not used with radius.

7. Hariharan Said:
May 25th, 2007 1:25 am

Netmask defines the class. whereas wildcard mask defines the allow or deny
which is used in the access-list. Means, 0.0.0.255 represents… 0=match;
1=ignore; so here in this wc mask all 0 octets should match exactly where as .255
octet can be anything.

8. sandeep yadav Said:


May 30th, 2007 4:03 am

on router or switch to shutdown the interface commands are:


router>enable
router#config t
router(config)#int s0
router(conf_if)# shutdown

this will shut your active interface

9. Ameet Mathrani Said:


August 17th, 2007 10:12 am

Following is wrong:

nalini said,
4.
on router or switch to shutdown the interface commands are:
router>enable
router#config t
router(config)#int s0
router(conf_if)#no shutdown

Right way:
on the interface of the router/switch,which you want to shutdown,just enter the
command “shutdown”

10. Jah Said:


September 21st, 2007 2:48 pm

The wildcard mask is usually a string of binary digits shown over the subnet
number, telling the router which parts of the subnet number to look at. A binary
“0″ over a particular digit in the subnet number says “Pay attention to this digit.”
A “1″ says “Ignore this digit.” In a wildcard mask, all the binary “0″s in a
conventional subnet mask are replaced by “1″s and all the “1″s are replaced by
“0″s.

Windows sysadmin interview questions


1. What are the required components of Windows Server 2003 for installing
Exchange 2003? - ASP.NET, SMTP, NNTP, W3SVC
2. What must be done to an AD forest before Exchange can be deployed? -
Setup /forestprep
3. What Exchange process is responsible for communication with AD? -
DSACCESS
4. What 3 types of domain controller does Exchange access? - Normal Domain
Controller, Global Catalog, Configuration Domain Controller
5. What connector type would you use to connect to the Internet, and what are
the two methods of sending mail over that connector? - SMTP Connector:
Forward to smart host or use DNS to route to each address
6. How would you optimise Exchange 2003 memory usage on a Windows
Server 2003 server with more than 1Gb of memory? - Add /3Gb switch to
boot.ini
7. What would a rise in remote queue length generally indicate? - This means
mail is not being sent to other servers. This can be explained by outages or
performance issues with the network or remote servers.
8. What would a rise in the Local Delivery queue generally mean? - This
indicates a performance issue or outage on the local server. Reasons could be
slowness in consulting AD, slowness in handing messages off to local delivery or
SMTP delivery. It could also be databases being dismounted or a lack of disk
space.
9. What are the standard port numbers for SMTP, POP3, IMAP4, RPC, LDAP
and Global Catalog? - SMTP – 25, POP3 – 110, IMAP4 – 143, RPC – 135,
LDAP – 389, Global Catalog - 3268
10. Name the process names for the following: System Attendant? – MAD.EXE,
Information Store – STORE.EXE, SMTP/POP/IMAP/OWA – INETINFO.EXE
11. What is the maximum amount of databases that can be hosted on Exchange
2003 Enterprise? - 20 databases. 4 SGs x 5 DBs.
12. What are the disadvantages of circular logging? - In the event of a corrupt
database, data can only be restored to the last backup.

Categories: Windows, Networking

| Load testing interview questions Popular interview questions and answers |


All categories: .NET | C++ | Database | General | Hardware | Java | Networking |
SAP ABAP | Testing | Unix/Linux | VB | Web dev | Windows

17 Responses to “Windows sysadmin interview questions”

1. murali Said:
August 17th, 2006 8:46 am

hi…
how to send messages or get control of other system connected in LAN with the
client OS is 2000 pro and server is NT workstation
2. Marcus Said:
September 14th, 2006 6:39 am

net send “computername or user” message

3. Emmanuel Said:
October 8th, 2006 9:52 am

1.How windows server will configure?.


2.How many types of server?.
3.What is the server evnverment?.
I faced one interview they asked how many types of server in your company, how
u configured.

Please guide me in this mater

Thank you.

Rmmanue

4. Emmanuel Said:
October 8th, 2006 9:57 am

I faced on interview They asked how many servers u have, how u will configure.
we havw 400 system, one mail server.
But i need how corporate leve configaration. Please guide me in this mater.

Thank you.

Emmanuel

5. Javeed Khan Said:


October 16th, 2006 4:28 am

Dear Mr. Emmanuel

Tell them that you have 400 pc based network, and you configure a Active
Directory domain on windows servers to centralize administration tasks.

1) How windows server will configure?

6. Javeed Khan Said:


October 16th, 2006 4:33 am

Dear Mr. Emmanuel


Tell them that you have 400 pc based network, and you configure a Active
Directory domain on windows servers to centralize administration tasks.

1) How windows server will configure?

Its depends on the role of the server. If you installing Active Directory, you have
to run DCPROMO on commond prompt, and followed instructions.
Over all its depends on the role.

Simply you can say– there is an option in windows “Manage Server” once you
follow the instructions it will guide you to configure your server.
2) How many types of servers?
If they are concern with Hardware server, tell them the hardware configuration
and vendor of the server.
If they are asking about the types of windows server, tell them Standard,
enterprise, or Small business server etc.

7. Guruprasad Said:
November 3rd, 2006 1:15 am

start > Run > Cmd >


Type
net send Computername type ur msg

8. bart Said:
November 29th, 2006 12:10 am

Question 2: What must be done to an AD forest before Exchange can be


deployed? - Setup /forestprep

question 2 is incorrect, in order for ms exchange 2k or 2003 to be sucessfully


“deployed” both forestprep and domain prep must successfuly complete first,
before the setup.exe of the actual exchange install, or the install and will error out
if attempted.

9. haque Said:
March 31st, 2007 12:45 am

.How windows server will configure?.


2.How many types of server?.
3.What is the server evnverment?.
I faced one interview they asked how many types of server in your company, how
u configured.

Please guide me in this mater


10. Mohammed Khaja Mohinuddin Said:
May 3rd, 2007 1:29 am

1) How to migrate from windows 2000 to 2003 without distrubing the existing
Domain ?????????
2) How to migrage from Ms. Exchange 2000 to 2003 and how to configure
Outlook Web Access ????????
3) What r the ports to required to configure to Exchange Server ????????
4) What is IIS and how to migrate from IIS 5.0 to IIS 6.0 ???

11. Mohammed Khaja Mohinuddin Said:


May 3rd, 2007 1:34 am

1) What r the frequently asked questions on ADS 2003. and what r the main
differences between ADS 2000 and 2003 ????????
2) What are main differences between WINS and DNS ???
3) Why we have to go to DNS what r the advantages in DNS ???????
4) What r the frequently asked questions on DNS ????
5) What r the frequently asked questions on DHCP ????
6) What r the frequently asked questions FTP ????
7) What r the frequently asked questions on DFS ????
8) What r the frequently asked questions on File Server ??????????
9) What r the frequently asked questions on Print Server ?????????

12. srinivasan Said:


May 17th, 2007 2:44 am

1.In windows2000 perfosonal or winxp pc perfomance is very low what is the


solution you will give?

2. what is diffrent between AD2000 & AD2003?


3. what is different between windows2000 & NT & winxp?

13. aman Said:


May 30th, 2007 1:56 pm

What r the frequently asked questions on ADS 2003. and what r the main
differences between ADS 2000 and 2003 ????????
2) What are main differences between WINS and DNS ???
3) Why we have to go to DNS what r the advantages in DNS ???????
4) What r the frequently asked questions on DNS ????
5) What r the frequently asked questions on DHCP ????
6) What r the frequently asked questions FTP ????
7) What r the frequently asked questions on DFS ????
8) What r the frequently asked questions on File Server ??????????
9) What r the frequently asked questions on Print Server ?????????
14. seenu Said:
July 18th, 2007 2:06 am

XP
1.Firewall
2.Automatic update
3.Media Player 9 is support to DVD
4.Visual style
5.Remote Desktop
6.On Screen Board
7.Program Capability wizard
8 etc………………..

15. riyaz,pune Said:


August 31st, 2007 5:58 am

Question asked @ interview

what is use of NTLDR file


where its location
what will you do if error occure”ntldr missing”
what would be the poroblem if my mails not outgoing.
what are the protocols use by outlook.

what are diff between outlook & outlook express.

16. kamron Said:


November 27th, 2007 1:52 pm

most of these are terrible questions for a general windows/AD sysadmin. They’re
bookish, not realistic; the kind of thing one looks up if one doesn’t use every day.
Also, too many of the questions are focused on exchange. For example, we
outsource exchange, so a windows sysadmin here wouldn’t be asked any of those
questions…

17. Jitendra Said:


December 8th, 2007 10:32 am

What are main differences between WINS and DNS ???


WINS:- It is used to resolve IP address into netbios Viceversa it is used prior
version of win 2000
DNS:-It is used to resolve IP address into host name.Viceversa it is used in 2000,
XP, 2003 server
Microsoft Win32 interview questions
1. Tell the differences between Windows 95 and Windows NT? Lack of Unicode
implementation for most of the functions of Win95. Different extended error
codes. Different number window and menu handles. Windows 95 implements
some window management features in 16 bits. Windows 95 uses 16-bit world
coordinate system and the coordinates restricted to 32K. Deletion of drawing
objects is different. Windows 95 does not implement print monitor DLLs of
Windows NT. Differences in registry. Windows 95 does not support
multiprocessor computers. NT implementation of scheduler is quite different.
Different driver models. Win95 was built with back-compatibility in mind and ill-
behaving 16-bit process may easily corrupt the system. Win95 starts from real
DOS, while WinNT uses DOS emulation when one needs a DOS. Win95’s FAT
is built over 16-bit win3.1 FAT (not FAT32!, actually, Win95’s FAT contains two
FATs).
2. What is the effective way of DIB files management? A: Memory-mapped file is
the best choice for device-independent bitmaps. MMF allows to map the file to
RAM/SWAP addresses and to let Windows handle all load/unload operations for
the file.
3. What should you be aware of if you design a program that runs
days/weeks/months/years? A: When your program should run for a long time,
you should be careful about heap allocations, because if you use new/delete
intensively in your application, the memory becomes highly fragmented with a
time. It is better to allocate all necessary memory in this case that many times
small blocks. You should be especially careful about CString class which
allocates permanent DLL
4. What are the advantages of using DLL’s? DLLs are run-time modular. DLL is
loaded when the program needs it. Used as a code sharing between executables.
5. What are the different types of DLL’s? A: Extension, Regular and pure Win32
DLL (without MFC)
6. What are the differences between a User DLL and an MFC Extension DLL?
A: Extension DLL supports a C++ interface, i.e. can export whole C++ classes
and the client may construct objects from them. Extension DLL dynamically links
to MFC DLLs (those which name starts with MFC??.DLL) and to be synchronous
with the version it was developed for. Extension DLL is usually small (simple
extension DLL might be around 10K) Regular DLL can be loaded by any Win32
environment (e.g. VB 5) Big restriction is that regular DLL may export only C-
style functions. Regular DLLs are generally larger. When you build a regular
DLL, you may choose a static link (in this case MFC library code is copied to
your DLL) and dynamic (in this case you would need MFC DLLs to be presented
on the target machine)
7. What do you have to do when you inherit from two CObject-based classes?
A: First of all, this is a bad idea does not matter what tells you interviewer.
Secondly, if you forced to use condemned rhombus structure, read Technical Note
16 in MSDN, which discusses why MFC does not support multiple inheritance
and what to do in case you still need it (there are a few problems with CObject
class, such as incorrect information, returned by IsKindOf() of CObject for MI,
etc.)
8. What are the additional requirements for inheritance from CWnd-based
classes? A: Again, this is the bad idea. Try to find alternative solution. Anyway, if
you have to multiply inherit from CWnd-based class, the following are additional
requirements to the above conditions (again, this is extremely bad question for
interview!!!): There must be only one CWnd-derived base class. The CWnd-
derived base class must be the first (or left-most) base class.
9. What is a "mutex"? A: Mutexes are the mechanism of process synchronization
that might be used to synchronize data across multiple processes. Mutex is a
waitable object while a critical section is not. Mutexes are significantly slower
than critical sections.
10. What’s the difference between a "mutex" and a "critical section"? Critical
section provides synchronization means for one process only, while mutexes
allow data synchronization across processes.
11. What might be wrong with the following pseudo-code:
FUNCTION F
BEGIN
INT I=2
DO
I=I+1
IF I = 4 THEN BREAK
END DO
END
A:This code is not thread safe. Suppose one thread increments I to 3 and then
returns to the beginning of DO statement. Then it increments I to 4 and now
context switch happens. Second thread increments I to 5. From this moment the
code shown will execute forever until some external force intervention. Solution
is obviously using some synchronization object to protect I from being changed
by more than one thread.
12. What is a deadlock ? A: A deadlock, very simply, is a condition in which two or
more threads wait for each other to release a shared resource before resuming
their execution. Because all threads participating in a deadlock are suspended and
cannot, therefore, release the resources they own, no thread can continue, and the
entire application (or, worse, more than one application if the resources are shared
between threads in multiple applications) appears to hang.
13. How can we create thread in MFC framework? A: Using AfxBeginThread.
14. What types of threads are supported by MFC framework? A: Working thread
and windows thread. Working thread usually does not have a user interface and
easier to use. Windows thread has an user interface and usually used to improve
responsiveness of the user input. Message Map
15. When ON_UPDATE_COMMAND_UI is called? (message may vary) A:
When a user of your application pulls down a menu, each menu item needs to
know whether it should be displayed as enabled or disabled. The target of a menu
command provides this information by implementing an
ON_UPDATE_COMMAND_UI handler.
16. What is a "hook"? A: A point in the Windows message-handling mechanism
where an application can install a subroutine to monitor messages. You need
hooks to implement your own Windows message filter.
17. What are the difference between MFC Exception macros and C++ exception
keywords? A:Actually, MFC macros may accept exception of only CException
class or class, derived from CException, where as C++ exception mechanism
accepts exception of ANY type Reusable Control Class
18. How would you set the background of an edit control to a customized color?
A: You have several choices, but the simplest one is subclassing. Kruglinski in his
"Inside Visual C++" describes pretty well this process. Generally, you derive the
class from none control class, override the messages you want (like
WM_CTLCOLOR) and then in init function like OnInitialUpdate of CDialog,
subclass the control with SubclassDlgItem().
19. What is Message Reflection? How could you accomplish the above task using
message reflection? A: See Technical Note 62 of MSDN. Usually, message is
handled in the parent class that means you have to override message handler for
each parent. Sometimes it is nice to handle a message in the control itself, without
parent invocation. Such handling mechanism is called message reflection. Control
"reflects" message to itself and then processes it. Use
ON_<MESSAGE_NAME>_REFLECT macro to create a reflected message.
20. What is the command routing in MFC framework? A: CView => CDocument
=> CFrameWnd => CWinApp
21. What’s the purpose of CView class? CDocument class? What are
relationships between them? A: The CView class provides the basic
functionality for user-defined view classes. A view is attached to a document and
acts as an intermediary between the document and the user: the view renders an
image of the document on the screen or printer and interprets user input as
operations upon the document. The CDocument class provides the basic
functionality for user-defined document classes. A document represents the unit
of data that the user typically opens with the File Open command and saves with
the File Save command. Users interact with a document through the CView
object(s) associated with it. A view is a child of a frame window. The relationship
between a view class, a frame window class, and a document class is established
by a CDocTemplate object. A view can be attached to only one document, but a
document can have multiple views attached to it at once.
22. What class is responsible for document template in MDI application? A:
CMultiDocTemplate.
23. What function must be used to add document template? A: AddDocTemplate.
24. What the main objects are created for SDI and MDI applications? A:
CWinApp - application object. For MDI application with New document
implementation CDocTemplate, CDocument, CView, CMainFrame. If your
application is SDI, your CMainFrame class is derived from class CFrameWnd. If
your application is MDI, CMainFrame is derived from class CMDIFrameWnd.
For MDI application CMDIChildWindow is also created.
25. We have a loop for 800,000. It fails on 756,322. How can we get the
information before it fails? A: You could think of several way to debug this: Set
the condition in debugger to stop when loop is passed around 756321 times.
Throw an exception within a loop (may be not the best idea since exception does
not show you the exact location of the fail. Create a log file and to put detailed
information within a loop.
26. Our Debug version works fine, but Release fails. What should be done? A:
There are four differences between debug and release builds:
o heap layout (you may have heap overwrite in release mode - this will
cause 90% of all problems),
o compilation (check conditional compilation statements, assertion functions
etc.),
o pointer support (no padding in release mode which may increase chances
of a pointer to point into sky)
o optimization.

Check the project settings.

Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Security


questions
1. What’s the difference between local, global and universal groups? Domain
local groups assign access permissions to global domain groups for local domain
resources. Global groups provide access to resources in other trusted domains.
Universal groups grant access to resources in all trusted domains.
2. I am trying to create a new universal user group. Why can’t I? Universal
groups are allowed only in native-mode Windows Server 2003 environments.
Native mode requires that all domain controllers be promoted to Windows Server
2003 Active Directory.
3. What is LSDOU? It’s group policy inheritance model, where the policies are
applied to Local machines, Sites, Domains and Organizational Units.
4. Why doesn’t LSDOU work under Windows NT? If the NTConfig.pol file exist,
it has the highest priority among the numerous policies.
5. Where are group policies stored? %SystemRoot%System32\GroupPolicy
6. What is GPT and GPC? Group policy template and group policy container.
7. Where is GPT stored? %SystemRoot
%\SYSVOL\sysvol\domainname\Policies\GUID
8. You change the group policies, and now the computer and user settings are
in conflict. Which one has the highest priority? The computer settings take
priority.
9. You want to set up remote installation procedure, but do not want the user to
gain access over it. What do you do? gponame–> User Configuration–>
Windows Settings–> Remote Installation Services–> Choice Options is your
friend.
10. What’s contained in administrative template conf.adm? Microsoft NetMeeting
policies
11. How can you restrict running certain applications on a machine? Via group
policy, security settings for the group, then Software Restriction Policies.
12. You need to automatically install an app, but MSI file is not available. What
do you do? A .zap text file can be used to add applications using the Software
Installer, rather than the Windows Installer.
13. What’s the difference between Software Installer and Windows Installer?
The former has fewer privileges and will probably require user intervention. Plus,
it uses .zap files.
14. What can be restricted on Windows Server 2003 that wasn’t there in
previous products? Group Policy in Windows Server 2003 determines a users
right to modify network and dial-up TCP/IP properties. Users may be selectively
restricted from modifying their IP address and other network configuration
parameters.
15. How frequently is the client policy refreshed? 90 minutes give or take.
16. Where is secedit? It’s now gpupdate.
17. You want to create a new group policy but do not wish to inherit. Make sure
you check Block inheritance among the options when creating the policy.
18. What is "tattooing" the Registry? The user can view and modify user
preferences that are not stored in maintained portions of the Registry. If the group
policy is removed or changed, the user preference will persist in the Registry.
19. How do you fight tattooing in NT/2000 installations? You can’t.
20. How do you fight tattooing in 2003 installations? User Configuration -
Administrative Templates - System - Group Policy - enable - Enforce Show
Policies Only.
21. What does IntelliMirror do? It helps to reconcile desktop settings, applications,
and stored files for users, particularly those who move between workstations or
those who must periodically work offline.
22. What’s the major difference between FAT and NTFS on a local machine?
FAT and FAT32 provide no security over locally logged-on users. Only native
NTFS provides extensive permission control on both remote and local files.
23. How do FAT and NTFS differ in approach to user shares? They don’t, both
have support for sharing.
24. Explan the List Folder Contents permission on the folder in NTFS. Same as
Read & Execute, but not inherited by files within a folder. However, newly
created subfolders will inherit this permission.
25. I have a file to which the user has access, but he has no folder permission to
read it. Can he access it? It is possible for a user to navigate to a file for which
he does not have folder permission. This involves simply knowing the path of the
file object. Even if the user can’t drill down the file/folder tree using My
Computer, he can still gain access to the file using the Universal Naming
Convention (UNC). The best way to start would be to type the full path of a file
into Run… window.
26. For a user in several groups, are Allow permissions restrictive or permissive?
Permissive, if at least one group has Allow permission for the file/folder, user will
have the same permission.
27. For a user in several groups, are Deny permissions restrictive or permissive?
Restrictive, if at least one group has Deny permission for the file/folder, user will
be denied access, regardless of other group permissions.
28. What hidden shares exist on Windows Server 2003 installation? Admin$,
Drive$, IPC$, NETLOGON, print$ and SYSVOL.
29. What’s the difference between standalone and fault-tolerant DFS
(Distributed File System) installations? The standalone server stores the Dfs
directory tree structure or topology locally. Thus, if a shared folder is inaccessible
or if the Dfs root server is down, users are left with no link to the shared
resources. A fault-tolerant root node stores the Dfs topology in the Active
Directory, which is replicated to other domain controllers. Thus, redundant root
nodes may include multiple connections to the same data residing in different
shared folders.
30. We’re using the DFS fault-tolerant installation, but cannot access it from a
Win98 box. Use the UNC path, not client, only 2000 and 2003 clients can access
Server 2003 fault-tolerant shares.
31. Where exactly do fault-tolerant DFS shares store information in Active
Directory? In Partition Knowledge Table, which is then replicated to other
domain controllers.
32. Can you use Start->Search with DFS shares? Yes.
33. What problems can you have with DFS installed? Two users opening the
redundant copies of the file at the same time, with no file-locking involved in
DFS, changing the contents and then saving. Only one file will be propagated
through DFS.
34. I run Microsoft Cluster Server and cannot install fault-tolerant DFS. Yeah,
you can’t. Install a standalone one.
35. Is Kerberos encryption symmetric or asymmetric? Symmetric.
36. How does Windows 2003 Server try to prevent a middle-man attack on
encrypted line? Time stamp is attached to the initial client request, encrypted
with the shared key.
37. What hashing algorithms are used in Windows 2003 Server? RSA Data
Security’s Message Digest 5 (MD5), produces a 128-bit hash, and the Secure
Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1), produces a 160-bit hash.
38. What third-party certificate exchange protocols are used by Windows 2003
Server? Windows Server 2003 uses the industry standard PKCS-10 certificate
request and PKCS-7 certificate response to exchange CA certificates with third-
party certificate authorities.
39. What’s the number of permitted unsuccessful logons on Administrator
account? Unlimited. Remember, though, that it’s the Administrator account, not
any account that’s part of the Administrators group.
40. If hashing is one-way function and Windows Server uses hashing for storing
passwords, how is it possible to attack the password lists, specifically the ones
using NTLMv1? A cracker would launch a dictionary attack by hashing every
imaginable term used for password and then compare the hashes.
41. What’s the difference between guest accounts in Server 2003 and other
editions? More restrictive in Windows Server 2003.
42. How many passwords by default are remembered when you check "Enforce
Password History Remembered"? User’s last 6 passwords.

Categories: Windows

| Windows Server 2003 interview and certification questions Windows Server 2003 IIS
and Scripting interview questions |
All categories: .NET | C++ | Database | General | Hardware | Java | Networking |
SAP ABAP | Testing | Unix/Linux | VB | Web dev | Windows

16 Responses to “Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Security


questions”

1. Shahid Afridi Said:


June 12th, 2004 3:03 pm

I really surprize to read this fruit full matter. Plz update and change all these
information day by day……

2. Ben Runda Said:


December 11th, 2004 9:16 pm

When I create a user folder in server 2003 and set the share and security
permissions it allows the user read permissions only . They cannot write to the
folder no matter what permissions I set.How do I get around this?

3. M. Vinoth Kumar Said:


March 15th, 2005 12:42 am

Sir,

Im need of geting the manual for

HOW TO INSTALL
ACTIVE DIRECTORY ON WINDOWS SERVER 2003?
APPLYING GROUP POLICIES,
CREATING USERS,
GIVING PERMISSIONS

4. G.Madhu Sudhan Said:


March 16th, 2005 6:02 am
I am very happy when i have seen these questions, it is really usefull for the
interviews. If you can publish same sort of questions for citrix & exchange server
2003, that will be usefull to the techies.

5. Myles Said:
March 19th, 2005 4:53 pm

“What’s the difference between local, global and universal groups? Domain local
groups assign access permissions to global domain groups for local domain
resources. Global groups provide access to resources in other trusted domains.
Universal groups grant access to resources in all trusted domains.”

After reading that id probably not trust this site for too much, according to that
both universal and global groups are the same! What about server modes? mixed,
native or 2003 mode? universal groups cant be assigned in mixed or non native /
2003 modes.

Plus if you need to be reading a site like this to pass an interview you really dont
diserve the job you have wrongly applied for.

6. Rajesh D. Bodhe Said:


March 28th, 2005 2:16 am

When i search this website i m very happy ,i got what i want b’coz i m in the
search
such a website which give me the basic knowledge of Windows server 2003 and
this site give
very much intersting facts about it and this site is also very much useful for the
candidate
who want do interview preperation And improve their Knowledge.

7. trilochan panda Said:


August 6th, 2005 2:22 am

sir, what is the difference between local policy and group policy. and where the
local policy is applied. plz mention it. thanks.

regards
trilochan

8. Muddu krishna Said:


September 30th, 2005 12:49 am

sir .
i have a one problm , i am having Windows 2003 server ,as well as 40 clients ,
My clients is differnt OS I mean redhat or sun or windows ,eventhough I want to
apply ip address for all clients ,How i can assingh the ip address

9. Vitaliy Said:
October 4th, 2005 1:49 pm

Hello. Please explain:


Is it possible to create user with Administrator access and deny permission to
open specific folder. Windows Server 2003 Web Edition (member, not domen).
Thanx a lot.

10. Hariharan Said:


August 18th, 2006 3:12 am

Information about windows server 2003 was useful. But this is not for the basic
users i guess. The person who doesn’t know what is schema, global catelog like
that information should also be given. pls include that.

11. Sandeep Yadav Said:


September 20th, 2006 4:35 am

sir Please explain


1.how to give permissions to user could not use control panel,delete folders,files,
2.how to use all installed software on server through client pc.

12. pavi Said:


October 29th, 2006 3:12 am

site was good, I had practically implemted domain 2000 & 2003 in enterprise with
more than 6000 users . implemented group policy, password policy, profiles,
home drives ,concorrent login etc… but many a times you don’t get into the
basics which are required for interviews. and this questions provides many basic
question which even i never thought to read.

I have one suggestion to all, first parctically learn how domain work then read the
interview question, it will be much easier

Thax a lot , to person who hosted the sites

13. umesh Kharad Said:


February 12th, 2007 2:47 am

Information about windows server 2003 was useful. But this is not for the basic
users i guess. The person who doesn’t know what is schema, global catelog like
that information should also be given. pls include that.
please gv some detail information on server 2003.
thanks

14. Chip Gehrke Said:


April 11th, 2007 1:26 pm

I have one thing that I have not been able to fix for months. I have a domain and
the domain name is not the same as the “pre-windows 2000 domain name”. When
users go to login they see this old name. Nothing is wrong but this old name is not
the current domain name they login to. How do I change this pre Windows 2000
name to make it the same as what this pre Windows 2000 name points to?

15. Rajesh E Nair Said:


July 31st, 2007 6:59 am

Sir,I have a simple DHCP network environment in my office with a central point
switch also switch has a connectivity with internet modem.here we are using
windows xp as operating system and we have no proxied or firewall as a
gateway.i just want to handle the network but since it is dhcp i am facing
difficulties in tracing or blocking some one from preveting from internet.how can
we work out this in such a simple networking enviornment.also i wanna send
messages to them.what are the possibilities.

16. tj Said:
November 16th, 2007 7:48 pm

You have the technical support manager of a major bank on the other line, and he
is very upset because his server is down, and he wants the problem resolved in 1
hour. And you know that it would take at least 3 hours to get it resolved.

Tell me about the steps that you would take