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13-1

Nomenclature

ACFM = actual cubic feet per minute (i.e. at process Subscripts

conditions)

Ap = cross sectional area of piston,sq in avg = average

Ar = cross sectional area of piston rod,sq in d = discharge

BHP = brake of shaft horsepower g = gas

C = cylinder clearance as a percent of piston is = isentropic process

displacement

Cp = specific heat at constant pressure, BTU/(lb L = standard conditions used for

F) calculation or contract

Cv = specific heat at constant volume, BTU/(lb F)

m = mechanical

D = cylinder inside diameter, in p = polytropic process

d = piston rod diameter, in S = standard conditions, usually 14.7

psia, 60F

E = overall efficiency s = suction

High speed reciprocating units 0.82 t = total or overall

Low speed reciprocating units 0.85

EP = extracted horsepower of expander 1 = inlet conditions

F = an allowance for interstage pressure drop, Eq 2 = outlet conditions

13-4

GHP = gas horsepower, actual compression

horsepower, excluding mechanical losses, BHP

H = head, ft lb/lb

h = enthalpy, Btu/lb

ICFM = inlet cubic feet per minute, usually at suction

conditions

k = Cp/Cv

MCp = molar specific heat at contant pressure, BTU/

(lb mole F)

MCv = molar specific heat at constant volume BTU/

(lb mole F)

MW = molecular weight, lb/lb mole

MN = machine mach number

N = speed, rpm

Nm = molar flow, moles/min

n = polytropic exponent or number of moles

P = pressure, psia

Pc = critical pressure, psia

PD = piston displacement, ft3/min

PL = pressure based used in the contract or

regulation, psia

pPc = pseudo critical pressure, psia

PR = reduced pressure, P/Pc

pTc = pseudo critical temperature, R ( (

)/ )/

Pv = partial pressure of contained moisture, psia

p = pressure, lb/ft^2

Q = inlet capacity (ICFM)

Qg = standard gas flow rate, MMSCFD

R = universal gas constant = 10.73 psia ft3/(lb mole R)

1545 lb/ft3 or ft lb

= lb mole R lb mole R

= 1.986 Btu/(lb mole R)

r = compression ratio, P2/P1

s = entropy, Btu/(lb R)

sm = surge margin

SCFM = cubic feet per minute measured at 14.7 psia

and 60F

stroke = length of piston movement, in

T = absolute temperature, R

Tc = critical temperature, R

TR = reduced temperature, T/Tc

t = temperature, F

U = impeller tip speed

V = specific volume, ft3/lb

v = velocity ft/s

VE = volumetric efficiency, percent

W = work, ft lb

w = weight flow, lb/min

X = temperature rise factor

y = mole fraction

Z = compressibility factor

Zavg = average compressibility factor = (Zs + Zd)/2

h = efficiency, expressed as a decimal

= density, lb/ft3

Example 13-1 -- Compress 2 MMcfd of gas at 14.4 psia and intake temparature through a compression ratio of 9 in a 2-

stage compressor. What will be the horsepower?

Given Data:

MMcfd = 2 MMcfd

Suction Pressre = 14.4 psia

Desired Ratio = 9

# of Stages = 2

F = 1.08 for 2 stage

(See Eq 13-4)

Solution Steps

(22) (3) (2) (2) (1.08) =

From Fig. 13-9, using a k of 1.15, we find the horsepower requirement to be 136 BHP/MMcfd or 272 BHP. For a k of 1.4, th

power requirement would be 147 BHP/MMcfd or 294 total horsepower.

The two procedures give reasonable agreement, particularly considering the simplifying assumptions necessary in reducing

compressor horsepower calculations to such a simple procedure.

The sample calculations, equations and spreaThe sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were develo

While every effort has been made to present While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical inform

The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided with

The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including

In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their mem

In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages w

These calculation spreadsheets are provided tThese calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an Operational level of a

ratio of 9 in a 2- Application 13-1 -- Compress 2 MMcfd of gas at 14.4 psia and intake temparature through a com

9 in a 2-stage compressor. What will be the horsepower?

Given Data:

MMcfd =

Suction Pressre =

Desired Ratio =

# of Stages =

F =

See Eq 13-4)

Solution Steps

BHP =

285 hp

2 BHP. For a k of 1.4, the From Fig. 13-9, using a k of 1.15, we find the horsepower requirement to be 136 BHP/MMcfd

the power requirement would be 147 BHP/MMcfd or 294 total horsepower.

s necessary in reducing The two procedures give reasonable agreement, particularly considering the simplifying assum

compressor horsepower calculations to such a simple procedure.

nted herein were developed using examples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Associati

reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such

nty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchanta

able for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising f

Operational level of accuracy calculation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to; temperatures, pressures, comp

cfd of gas at 14.4 psia and intake temparature through a compression ratio of

be the horsepower?

2 MMcfd

14.4 psia

9

2

1.08 for 2 stage

(See Eq 13-4)

Sqrt(9) = 3

22*(ratio/stage)*(# of stages)*(MMcfd)*(F)

(22) (3) (2) (2) (1.08) = 285 hp

we find the horsepower requirement to be 136 BHP/MMcfd or 272 BHP. For a k of 1.4,

BHP/MMcfd or 294 total horsepower.

o such a simple procedure.

Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation f

Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy

scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement of intellectual proper

from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to , reference to or reliance on the information in thes Pub

(including but not limited to; temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and ac

formation and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).

not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy or timeliness of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product

ement of intellectual property.

the information in thes Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the po

not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition o

ecific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise d

es, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.

anufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.

Example 13-2 -- Compress 2 MMscfd of gas measured at 14.65 psia and 60F. Intake pressure is 100 psia, and intake tempera

is 100F. Discharge pressure is 900 psia. The gas has a specific gravity of 0.80 (23 MW). What is the required horsepower?

Given Data:

k-value (Fig 13.8 @ S.G = 0.8 at 150F) k =

Zs1 (Section 23 - S.G.\Press\Temp = 0.8\100psia\100F) =

Zd1 (Section 23 - S.G.\Press\Temp = 0.8\300psia\220F) =

Zs2 (Section 23 - S.G.\Press\Temp = 0.8\295psia\120F) =

Zd2 (Section 23 - S.G.\Press\Temp = 0.8\900psia\244F) =

Bhp/MMcfd (Fig 13-12 @ r = 3, k = 1.21) =

Bhp/MMcfd (Fig 13-12 @ r = 3.05, k = 1.21) =

MMcfd =

Suction Temperature (Ts) =

Interstage Temperature (Ti) =

Flow Measurement Renerence Temperature (T L) =

Flow Measurement Renerence Pressure (PL) =

Suction Pressure (Ps) =

Discharge Pressure (Pd) =

# of Stages =

Pressure Drop between 1st stage discharge and 2nd stage suction (PSID) =

ASSUME multiplier from Fig 13-14 = 1 at compression ratio

E =

Calculations

r =

r =

Pd1 =

Ps2 =

r2 =

To determine 1st stage discharge temperature

Td1 =

Td2 =

Zavg =

BHP1 =

Z2avg =

BHP2 =

To determine total HP

BHP =

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Enginee

While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on t

The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of

In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, those

These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an Operational level of accuracy calculation based on rather broad ass

and 60F. Intake pressure is 100 psia, and intake temperature

ty of 0.80 (23 MW). What is the required horsepower?

1.21

0.98

0.97

0.94

0.92

63.5 Bhp/MMcfd

64.5 Bhp/MMcfd

2 MMcfd

100 F = 560

120 F = 580

520 R

14.65 psia

100 psia

900

2

5 psid

0.82

Ts * r^[(k-1)/k] = 218 F

Average cylinder temperature = 159 F

Ti * r2^[(k-1)/k] = 244 F

Average cylinder temperature = 182 F

(Zs1+Zd1)/2 = 0.975

(PL/TL) ((Pd/Ps)^((k-1)/k)-1)

(Zs2+Zd2)/2 = 0.93

(PL/TL) ((Pd/Ps)^((k-1)/k)-1)

were developed using examples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a serv

nical information and calculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information

nd including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitnes

damages whatsoever (including without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use

al level of accuracy calculation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to; temperatures, pressures, compositions, im

Application 13-2 -- Compress 2 MMscfd of gas measured at 14.65 psia and 60 F. Intake pressure is 100 psia, and intake tempe

Discharge pressure is 900 psia. The gas has a specific gravity of 0.80 (23 MW). What is the required horsepower? Assume E =

Given Data:

k-value (Fig 13.8 @ S.G = 0.8 at 150 F) k =

Zs1 (Section 23 - S.G.\Press\Temp = 0.8\100psia\100F) =

Zd1 (Section 23 - S.G.\Press\Temp = 0.8\300psia\220F) =

Zs2 (Section 23 - S.G.\Press\Temp = 0.8\295psia\120F) =

Zd2 (Section 23 - S.G.\Press\Temp = 0.8\900psia\244F) =

Bhp/MMcfd (Fig 13-12 @ r = 3, k = 1.21) =

Bhp/MMcfd (Fig 13-12 @ r = 3.05, k = 1.21) =

MMcfd =

Suction Temperature (Ts) =

Interstage Temperature (Ti) =

Flow Measurement Renerence Temperature (T L) =

Flow Measurement Renerence Pressure (PL) =

Suction Pressure (Ps) =

Discharge Pressure (Pd) =

# of Stages =

Pressure Drop between 1st stage discharge and 2nd stage suction (PSID) =

ASSUME multiplier from Fig 13-14 = 1 at compression ratio

E =

Calculations

r =

r =

Pd1 =

Ps2 =

r2 =

To determine 1st stage discharge temperature

Td1 =

Td2 =

Zavg =

BHP1 =

Z2avg =

BHP2 =

To determine total HP

BHP =

k as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formu

neering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, com

ntific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement of intellectual property.

lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to , reference to or reliance on the information in thes Publicat

uding but not limited to; temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurat

F. Intake pressure is 100 psia, and intake temperature is 100 F.

What is the required horsepower? Assume E = .82

1.21

0.98

0.97

0.94

0.92

63.5 Bhp/MMcfd

64.5 Bhp/MMcfd

2 MMcfd

100 F = 560

120 F = 580

520 R

14.65 psia

100 psia

900

2

5 psid

0.82

Ts * r^[(k-1)/k] = -460 F

Average cylinder temperature = -180 F

Ti * r2^[(k-1)/k] = ### F

Average cylinder temperature = ### F

(Zs1+Zd1)/2 = 0.975

(PL/TL) ((Pd/Ps)^((k-1)/k)-1)

(Zs2+Zd2)/2 = 0.93

(PL/TL) ((Pd/Ps)^((k-1)/k)-1)

industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).

A and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy or timeliness of such information. Reference herein to any specific com

or non-infringement of intellectual property.

o or reliance on the information in thes Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not a

ons etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipm

ssors Association (GPA).

e herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufactu

ons, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.

d service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA

by the GPA and/or GPSA.

Example 13-3 -- Determine the Suction and Discharge Bottle Volumes, respectively for the given data.

Given Data:

Suction Pressure Ps = 600

Suction Bottle Multiplier @ 600 psia Ms = 7.5

Discharge Pressure Pd = 1400

Discharge Bottle Multiplier @ 1400 psia Md = 8.5

Cylinder Bore Bore = 6

Cylinder Stroke Stroke = 15

Calculations

* ((6)^2/4) * 15

At 600 psi inlet pressure, the suction bottle multiplier is approximately 7.5

To determine Suction Bottle Volume

Vs = V * Ms = 424.115 * 7.5

NOTE: When more than one cylinder is connected to a bottle, the sum of the individual swept volumes is the size required for t

Vd = V * Md = 424.115 * 8.5

Having determined the necessary volume of the bottle, the proportioning of diameter and length to provide this volume requ

short and of as large diameter as is consistent with pressure conditions, space limitations, and appearance.

A good general rule is to make the manifold diameter 1-1/2 times the inside diameter of the largest cylinder connected to it,

involved.

Inside diameter of pipe must be used in figuring manifolds. This is particularly important in high-pressure work and in smal

cross sectional area. Minimum manifold length is determined from cylinder center distances and connecting pipe diameters. So

for saddle reinforcements and for welding of caps.

It is customary to close the ends of manifolds with welding caps which add both volume and length. Fig 13-20 gives approx

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Enginee

While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on t

The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of

In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, those

These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an Operational level of accuracy calculation based on rather broad ass

a.

psia

(Refer to Figure 13-19)

psia

(Refer to Figure 13-19)

in

in

= 424.11501 cu in

= 3180.86 cu in

s is the size required for the common bottle.

= 3605 cu in

provide this volume requires some ingenuity and judgement. It is desirable that manifolds be as

nce.

cylinder connected to it, but this is not always practicable, particularly where large cylinders are

ressure work and in small sizes where wall thickness may be a considerable percentage of the

ecting pipe diameters. Some additions must be made to the minimum thus determined to allow

published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing industr

n spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA and G

racy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or non

g without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to , reference to or rel

based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to; temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions etc

Application 13-3 -- Determine the Suction and Discharge Bottle Volumes, respectively for the given data.

Given Data:

Suction Pressure = 600 psia

Suction Bottle Multiplier @ 600 psia = 7.5

Discharge Pressure = 1400 psia

Discharge Bottle Multiplier @ 1400 psia = 8.5

Cylinder Bore = 6 in

Cylinder Stroke = 15 in

Calculations

* ((6)^2 * 1/4) * 15 =

At 600 psi inlet pressure, the suction bottle multiplier is approximately 7.5

To determine Suction Bottle Volume

Vs = V * Ms = 424.115 * 7.5 =

NOTE: When more than one cylinder is connected to a bottle, the sum of the individual swept volumes is the size required for t

Vd = V * Md = 424.115 * 8.5 =

Having determined the necessary volume of the bottle, the proportioning of diameter and length to provide this volume requ

desirable that manifolds be as short and of as large diameter as is consistent with pressure conditions, space limitations, and app

A good general rule is to make the manifold diameter 1-1/2 times the inside diameter of the largest cylinder connected to it,

particularly where large cylinders are involved.

Inside diameter of pipe must be used in figuring manifolds. This is particularly important in high-pressure work and in smal

considerable percentage of the cross sectional area. Minimum manifold length is determined from cylinder center distances and

additions must be made to the minimum thus determined to allow for saddle reinforcements and for welding of caps.

It is customary to close the ends of manifolds with welding caps which add both volume and length. Fig 13-20 gives approx

caps.

n as a service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Ga

nformation is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy or timeliness of such information. Re

ility, fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement of intellectual property.

om the use, inability to , reference to or reliance on the information in thes Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any othe

sitions, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process

e given data.

424.11501 cu in

3180.86 cu in

volumes is the size required for the common bottle.

3605 cu in

ditions, space limitations, and appearance.

rom cylinder center distances and connecting pipe diameters. Some

nd for welding of caps.

meliness of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name

warranty, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.

aking into account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitat

ocess, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recomm

ply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.

Example 13-4 --

Given:

Inlet CFM Q1 = 10,000 icfm

Inlet Temperature t1 = 0 F

Desired Ratio r = 10

k value k = 2

= 1.15 for 2 stage

Fig. 13-33 gives the approximate horsepower required for the compression. It includes overall compressor

efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70%.

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Enginee

While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on t

The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of

In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, those

These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an Operational level of accuracy calculation based on rather broad ass

Application 13-4 --

Given:

Inlet CFM Q = 10,000 icfm

Inlet Temperature t1 = 0 F

Desired Ratio r = 10.0

k value = 2.00

= 1.15 for 2 stage

Fig. 13-33 gives the approximate horsepower required for the compression. It includes overall compressor

efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70%.

es published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing indus

ion spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA and

uracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or no

ng without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to , reference to or r

n based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to; temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions e

overall compressor

the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Processors As

luntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy or timeliness of such information. Reference herein

a particular purpose or non-infringement of intellectual property.

ility to , reference to or reliance on the information in thes Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal theory a

curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditions, fluid

on with Gas Processors Association (GPA).

mation. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service

or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.

al process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.

me, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the G

ation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.

Example 13-5 --

Given:

Head = 70000 ft-lb/lb

Find: Horsepower

Fig. 13-36 predicts the approximate number of compressor wheels required to preoduce the head. If the number

of wheels is not a whole number, use the next highest number

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Enginee

While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on t

The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of

In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, those

These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an Operational level of accuracy calculation based on rather broad ass

Example 13-5 --

Given:

Head = 70000

Find: Horsepower

e head. If the number Fig. 13-36 predicts the approximate number of compressor wheels required to preoduce the head. If t

wheels is not a whole number, use the next highest number

xamples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing

alculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GP

of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpos

ncluding without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to , reference

culation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to; temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site condi

lb/min

ft-lb/lb

on as a service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with G

information is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy or timeliness of such information. R

bility, fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement of intellectual property.

rom the use, inability to , reference to or reliance on the information in thes Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any oth

ositions, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process

d and edited in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).

timeliness of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-nam

warranty, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.

taking into account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limit

s, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommenda

ndorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.

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