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# EE-211 Linear Circuit Analysis

Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, TOPI 23460

## November 25, 2017

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Overview

## 1 First order transient circuits

Circuit response
Natural response of RL circuit
Time constant
Step response of RL circuits
Example

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What are rst order circuits ?

Circuits with either capacitor or inductor are called rst order circuits.
1
Only one dierential equation of rst order.

2
Transient analysis make be because of closing or opening of one or more
switches in the circuit.

3
RL/C circuits have only resistance and inductance/capacitance in addition
to the independent sources and hence are called rst order circuits.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 3 / 22
Circuit response

1
Circuit response = Transient response + Steady state response.

2
Transient response = Natural response + step response

3
In Natural response the inductor or capacitor is abruptly disconnected from
the source to release energy to the circuit. In step response the
inductor/capacitor is connected to dc source to gain energy.

4
The procedure to nd the natural or step response is the same.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 4 / 22
Natural response of RL circuit

Assume that the given network consists of a passive elements and sources
whose initial state is known.
At a reference instance of time t=0 the system is disturbed.
Disturbance is such that it can be represented as a opening/closing of one
or more switches.
The objective is to nd the current, voltage, charge, etc in terms of time
measured from the instance of disturbance.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 5 / 22
Natural response of RL circuit
Consider the circuit shown in Fig. below.

At t=0 the switch is open so that inductor is disconnected form the source.
Before we begin our analysis we need to nd out the initial conditions in
this circuit.
The inductor under steady state dc excitation is a short circuit that means
the current through the inductor is I and v is zero.
s

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 6 / 22
Natural response of RL circuit
After t=0 the equivalent circuit of our interest is shown in Fig. below.

## Apply KVL for this circuit.

di
V + VR = L + iR = 0 (1)
L
dt
di Ri
= (2)
dt L
Multiplying both sides by dt and dividing by i on both sides.
di R
= dt (3)
i L
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 7 / 22
Natural response of RL circuit
( )
i t
dx R t
v = iR = RI e ( L )
R
(9)
Z Z t

= dy (4) 0

x L
( )
i t0 t0
V (0 )=0
Also according to initial conditions, V (0+ ) = I R 0

i (t ) = i (0)
0 The power is the product of current
and voltage
i (t ) R
ln = t (5)
i (0) L P = vi = I Re (
2
0
2
R )t
L (10)
R
i (t ) = i (0)e ( L ) t
(6) The negative sign shows that the
i (0 ) = i (0+ ) = I (7) power is dissipated in this circuit.
The energy dissipated is the
0

( R
i (t ) = I e
0
L )t (8) integration of power over time.
The voltage v is the drop across the 1 R )t
resistance and is given by W = LI (1 e (
2 2
L ) (11)
2 0

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Natural response of RL circuit

## Figure: Varying inductance

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Time constant
The general solution of the equation has a coecient namely . R
L

This coecient reveals important information about the rate at which the
current decays to zero.
The reciprocal of this coecient is called time constant and is denoted by
.
1 L
= timeconstant = = (12)
R
L
R
So in terms of the time constant , the expressions for current, voltage,
power and energy can be rewritten as
t
i (t ) = I e
0 (13)
t
v (t ) = RI e 0 (14)
t
p = I Re
2
2
0
(15)
L t
w = (1 e )
2
(16)
I2
0

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 10 / 22
Time constant
Time constant reveals important information about the rst order circuits.
The time elapsed after switching in terms of and its integer multiples
Thus, if the =1 which means that after one time constant the current in
t

1

## percent of its initial value.

By similar computation it can be shown that the current decreases to
approximately 2 percent of its initial value in four time constants.
t i
I0

0 1.0
1 0.37
2 0.14
3 0.05
4 0.018
5 0.0067

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Time constant
For most of the circuits the steady state is reached after ve time
constants.
The time constant provides information about the time required by current
to reach its nal state if the change in current is constant at its initial rate.
For example. Suppose we don't know about the time constant. Then the
extended slope (tangent at t=0) give information about .

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 12 / 22
Example 7.1 Nilsson
Find i (t ) for t 0, i (t ) for t 0+ ,v (t ) for t 0+ . In addition calculate
L o o

## the percentage of the total energy stored in the 2H inductor dissipated in

10 ohm resistor. Assume the circuit to be in steady state condition before
the switch is operated at t=0

At t=0 the inductor was short circuit and 20A of current was owing in it.
Therefore, at t=0+ the current through the inductor is 20A. By inspecting
the direction of current after t=0 the resistive circuit can be remodeled
with an equivalent resistance of 10 ohm. Because 2 ohm resistance comes
in series with the parallel combination of 10 and 40 ohm resistor.
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 13 / 22
Example 7.1 Nilsson

## Next, the time constant is calculated as = L

eq
R
= 0.2s . Therefore, the
expression for current is
i (t ) = 20e A
L
5t
t0 (17)
The current I is owing in 40 ohm resistance and it can calculated using
0

## the current divider rule.

10
i (t ) = i = 4e 5t t 0+ (18)

o L
10 + 40
To nd V + we can apply ohms law, therefore,
0

v (t ) = 40i
o 0 = 160e 5t t 0+ (19)

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Example 7.1 Nilsson
To nd the percentage of stored energy dissipated in the 10 ohm resistor
we need to rst nd the energy stored in the inductor before t=0.
1 1
w (0) = Li
= (2)(20) = 400J
2 2
(20)
2 2
To see how much energy is dissipated in 10 ohm resistance we need to nd
the power dissipation in 10 ohm resistor.
v2

p ( t) =
= 2560e W
o
t 0+
10t
(21)
10
10
Total energy dissipated is integration of power over time.
Z
w (
10 t) = 2560e dt = 256J
10t
(22)
0

## The percentage of energy dissipated in 10 ohm resistor is

25600
= 64% (23)
400
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Step response of RL circuits
In step response the source is abruptly connected to the inductor L. The
purpose of step response is to nd the behavior of inductor current and
voltage. Consider the Fig. below where the switch is closed at t=0.

## Apply KVL after t=0

di
V = iR + L (24)
s
dt
di Ri + V R V

= = i s s
(25)
dt L L R
Multiplying both sides by dt
R V
 
di = i s
dt (26)
L R
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 16 / 22
Step response of RL circuits
i (t ) s R
V

= e( L ) (30) R t

di R I s V

= dt (27)
0 R

i ( s) LV
V

V ( LR )

R
i (t ) = + I e (31) s s t

## then (31) becomes

dx R
Z ()i t
Z t

= dy (28)
x s L V
V V R
I0
R i (t ) = e ( L )
0
(32) s s t

R R
I is the current at t=0 and i(t) is the
0

## current at any t>0. Eq.(32) indicates that after the

switch is closed the inductor current
i (t ) V s
R will reach to a nal value of current
ln R
= t (29) (I = ) in exponential form.
I
0
V s L V
R
R
The time constant denes the rate of
increase.
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 17 / 22
Step response of RL circuits

After one time constant the current reaches 63% of its nal value. The
voltage across the inductor can be calculated from (31) using the
expression for V .
R V R
L

v = L( )(I )e ( L ) s t
(33)
L 0
R
R
v = (V s I R )e ( L )
0
t
(34)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 18 / 22
Step response of RL circuits

At t = 0 the voltage across the inductor was zero. After the switch is
closed at t=0 the voltage jumps to the value (V I R ) and then decays
S 0

to zero. The voltage across the inductor follows the theory that has been
discussed already. If the initial current in the inductor is zero then there is
no drop across the resistance and hence the voltage across the inductor will

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 19 / 22
Example 7.5 Nilsson

The switch in the circuit shown has been in position a for a long time. At t
= 0, the switch moves from position a to position b. Find the expression
for i(t) for t 0, voltage across inductor right after the switch was moved
to position b. Does this initial voltage make sense in terms of circuit
behavior? How many milliseconds after the switch has been moved does
the inductor voltage equal 24 V? Plot both i(t) and v(t) versus t.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 20 / 22
Example 7.5 Nilsson
The switch has been in position a for a long time, so the 200 mH inductor
is a short circuit across the 8 A current source. Therefore, the inductor
carries an initial current of 8 A. This current is oriented opposite to the
reference direction for i thus I =-8A.0

## When the switch is in position b, the nal value of i will be 24/2, or 12 A.

The time constant is 200m/2=100ms.
Substitute in eq.(31).
t
i = 12 + (8 12)e 0.1 = 12 20e 10t A t0 (35)
The voltage across the inductor is L di
dt

di
v =L = 0.2(200e 10t ) = 40e 10t t 0+ (36)
L
dt
Initial voltage across inductor is 40V

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 11 Resources November 25, 2017 21 / 22
Example 7.5 Nilsson
Yes; in the instant after the switch has been moved to position b, the
inductor sustains a current of 8 A counterclockwise around the newly
formed closed path. This current causes a 16 V drop across the 2
resistor. This voltage drop adds to the drop across the source, producing a
40 V drop across the inductor.
The time at which the inductor voltage equals 24 V by solving the (36).
24 = 40e 10t
(37)
solving for t
1 40
t = ln = 51.08ms (38)
10 24

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