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Earths History and Diversity of Life

By Zach Benson
Claim Extinction can help other species of
animals evolve.
Reason 1
The first reason that extinction can help animals evolve is the fact that if the
dominant species doesnt go extinct, a new one will not evolve to become the
dominant species.
Evidence 1
While extinction marks the end of a species (or multiple, or possible
mass extinction) some scientists theorize that without extinction,
new life is not able to prosper. According to (www.telegraph.co.uk),
In fact, humans, along with a host of other mammals, wouldn't be here at
all if dinosaurs hadn't gone extinct. While it is only a theory, it is a reason
for why extinction is a good thing.
Reason 2

Another reason that extinction can help species evolve is the extinction or
pathogens such as diseases, these diseases hinder the evolution process for
animal species as it kills them, with it gone, it no longer hinders them.
Evidence 2
Extinction applies to all living creatures, but most people dont think of pathogens
such as diseases when they think of extinction. Extinction of a disease would be
very beneficial to humans, as it would no longer serve as a threat to us and other
animals. Richard Grays quote mentioned in (science.howstuffworks.com), The
last known case of smallpox was recorded in 1979, and the disease is now
considered extinct, and Most people would probably agree that the extinction of
smallpox is a good thing.
Reason 3

Without extinction there isnt evolution, for example, scientists say that without
the extinction of the dinosaurs, mammals would have not evolved to become the
new dominant species on earth, and would have stayed in their place on the food
chain.
Evidence 3
Scientists have said that evolution and extinction cannot happen without each other, and
one is necessary for the other to exist. An excerpt from Robert Brownlee and Peter
Ward found at (www.stuff.co.nz) states this as well In effect, a mass extinction cleans
the slate, creating new evolutionary niches which promote a wide range of species,
increasing biodiversity,. This proves that without extinction we may have never existed
at all, because life would have not have produced such advanced creatures as us.
R 4
Scientists say that extinction must take place for the new species to evolve or
even develop, That without extinction new life cannot be created at all, let alone
be selected by natural selection.
Evidence 4
While it may be the end for a species, Extinction, as many people and scientists say, Is
just another part of life, like death. A museum exhibits epigraph, quoted at
(www.newscientist.com) reads Extinction, like death, is a natural part of life, Extinction
isn't necessarily the end of the world, it could be just the beginning...". This line provides
an example for why extinction must happen for the new species to rise from the ashes of
an extinct one.
Reason 5

Extinction can help humans evolve, this was proven when they discovered the
effects of mass extinction applied to A.I. proved that when tested, the A.I. had
evolved, and surpassed the dominant species in abilities.
So r 5
Extinction isnt just beneficial to new species, it can be applied to
our technology today. Joel Lehman and Risto Miikkulainen were
working on a simulation of mass extinction with various models and
mutations and different evolutions that could happen with the
artificial intelligence they had created. At one point, they did
something similar to a mass extinction and wiped out 90% of all
A.I. they created, the ones who did survive showed them how they
could use extinctions to help artificial intelligence break boundaries
and become more advanced. This proves how beneficial extinction
is for advances in A.I. Joel and Risto claim on
(www.dailymail.co.uk), Sometimes you have to develop something
that seems objectively worse in order to develop the tools you
need to get better.
Question 1: How can new life prosper from
extinction?

The site (www.telegraph.co.uk) gives us the


fact that new life can prosper from another
species extinction, The Source says that
when a dominant species falls, the creatures
surpassing it after its extinction will evolve
and become the new dominant species, in
fact, Source 1 says that even humans would
not exist if the dinosaurs had not gone extinct.
Question 2: How Can Extinction help other species?

Extinction of the dominant species on the food chain could help another animal
become the dominant species after the previous one has fallen. This is proven by
the fact that (www.telegraph.co.uk) says that Extinction has driven the earths
biodiversity and is the reason why we have the variety of life around us today. It can
be a creative force just as much as a destructive one.
Qu s o 3: How xi c he h s
no ?

As (science.howstuffworks.com)
says, Extinction can refer to
even pathogens, such as
diseases like smallpox which
went extinct as its last known
appearance being in 1979, this
proves the fact that extinction
can help us now if deadly
pathogens cannot survive our
vaccinations and cures.
Question 4: How can scientists find
examples of beneficial extinction?

Scientists can find examples of beneficial extinction in advancements of


artificial intelligence. On the website (www.dailymail.co.uk) it says that
Joel Lehman and Risto Miikkulainen were able to recreate a mass
extinction and used it to make advancements in A.I, Sometimes you
have to develop something that seems objectively worse in order to
develop the tools you need to get better. This proves that extinction
can be used to help us now.
Question 5: How can animals evolve from
extinction?

Animals can become the dominant species from


another becoming extinct, but it can also evolve
from it. The evidence from (www.stuff.co.nz)
makes the point that when a extinction of an
animal species takes place, its successor goes
through natural selection, and the flaws that
killed the previous species will not carry over to
the new dominant species.
Question 6: How does
extinction fix problems with
the ecosystem?
Mass Extinction can clear the slate as
(www.stuff.co.uk) says and can reset
the environmental problems of the
ecosystem at that time such as
overpopulation, food shortages, or loss
of plant life. This proves that life
evolving from extinctions is creating
biodiversity
Question 7: How can extinction be
something that we accept?
Most people and scientists do not
agree with extinction at all, It is
something that marks the end for a
species, but can it be accepted to us
as a natural part of life? Sources
from (www.newscientist.com) says
that extinction is a natural part of life,
and must take place in order for new
species to arise.
Question 8: Can species
learn from each other?

Based off of the evidence gathered from (www.newscientist.com)


we can say that animals learn from other animals extinctions, and
natural selection evolves them to not make the same biological
mishaps. The site says that extinction has to happen as a natural
part of life so the new species can evolve, but it also learns from
the mistakes that other animals make through these evolutions
as they become smarter and smarter through natural selection.
Question 9: How can humans benefit from previous
mass extinctions?
Artificial Intelligence has made
advancements through mass extinctions,
but how do these developments help us
now? The site (www.dailymail.co.uk) has
scientists determining that these leaps in
technology could help us prevent or even
survive the next mass extinction by showing
us how we could evolve to survive these
conditions. This proves that we can learns
from previous mass extinctions.
Question 10: How can we
evolve based on previous mass
extinctions?
Humans can learn from other animals, Artificial Intelligence, and known research, but how
can we evolve from the revelations? Website (www.dailymail.co.uk) says that Humans can
evolve if they no longer become the dominant species and the new dominant species fails,
as natural selection will evolve us to become the dominant species again. They proved this
when Joel Lehman and Risto Miikkulainen used A.I to simulate the results of a mass
extinction and found that most of the A.I that survived mutated to survive the events of the
extinction event.
Sources
Site:
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3203572/Are-mass-extinctions-GOOD-thing-Die
-offs-speed-evolution-introduce-useful-adaptations-walking-robots.html, Website Title: Daily
Mail Online, Article Title: Are mass extinctions a GOOD thing? Die-offs can speed up
evolution and introduce useful adaptations in walking robots, Date Published: August 19,
2015

Site: https://www.newscientist.com/blogs/culturelab/2013/03/extinction.html , Website Title:


New Scientist, Article Title: Is extinction really such a bad thing?

Site: https://science.howstuffworks.com/life/evolution/is-extinction-ever-good-thing.htm,
Website Title: HowStuffWorks Science, Article Title: Is extinction ever a good thing?, Date
Published: May 06, 2015

Site:
http://www.stuff.co.nz/science/78842694/why-mass-extinctions-are-good-for-evolution-and-wh
at-may-cause-the-next-one , Website Title: Stuff about Science, Article Title: Why mass
extinctions are good for evolution and what may cause the next one
Sources Continued
Site:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/wildlife/9828809/Extinction-is-not-always-a-bad-thing-say-scientists
.html. Website Title: The Telegraph, Article Title: Extinction is not always a bad thing, say scientists, Date
Published: January 27, 2013