Sie sind auf Seite 1von 17

CH.

6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

Fuel :
A fuel is defined as a substance (containing mostly carbon and
hydrogen) which on burning with oxygen in atmospheric air, produces a
large amount of heat.
The amount of heat generated is known as calorific value of the
fuel.

Classification of Fuels :

Types of gaseous fuels: (Any four)


1) Natural fuel
2) CNG
3) LPG
4) Water gas
5) Producer gas

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 1


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

6) Coal gas
7) Blast Furnace gas
8) Coke oven gas
9) Oil gas

Requirement of good fuel :


A good fuel should have;
1) Low ignition point.
2) High calorific value.
3) Freely burn with high efficiency.
4) Should not produce harmful gases.
5) Should be produce less quantity of smoke and gases.
6) Should be economical.
7) Easy to store.
8) Easy, safe and convenient for transportation.

Calorific value of fuels :


The calorific value (or) heating value of solid (or) liquid fuel may be
defined as amount of heat given out by complete combustion of 1 Kg. of
fuel.
It is expressed in Kcal/Kg. of fuel at N.T.P. in S.I. system J/Kg. KJ/Kg
(or) MJ/Kg.

Types of calorific values of fuels :


1. Higher calorific values of fuel (H.C.V.) (or) Gross C.V.
It is a total heat is liberated by complete burning of 1 kg or 1m 3 of
fuel including heat of steam formed by combustion of Hydrogen in the fuel.
OR
The amount of heat obtained by complete combustion of fuel, when
the products of its combustion are cooled down to temperature of
surrounding supplied air (i.e. 15oC) is called as higher calorific value.
If C, H, O and S are the percentage of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
and Sulphur by weight respectively present in a fuel then the higher
calorific value of fuel can be calculated from the following formula known
as Dulongs formula.

H.C.V.= (33800 C +144000 (H2 - O2/8) + 9270 S) KJ/Kg.

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 2


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

2. Lower calorific value of fuel (L.C.V.) (or) Net C.V.


It is a total heat is liberated by complete burning of 1 kg or 1m 3 of
fuel deducting heat of steam formed by combustion of Hydrogen in the
fuel.
OR
When heat absorbed (or) carried away by the products of
combustion is not recovered and steam is formed during combustion is not
condensed then amount of heat obtained per Kg of fuel is known as net
(or) lower calorific value.

If H.C.V. is known then L.C.V. is obtained by


L.C.V. = H.C.V. Heat of steam formed during combustion let.
mS= Mass of steam formed in KJ/Kg. of fuel = 9 H2

Since amount of heat per Kg. of steam is the latent heat of


vaporization of water corresponding to a standard temperature of 25 oC is
2466 KJ/Kg.
L.C.V. = H.C.V. ms x 2466
L.C.V. = H.C.V. 9 H2 x 2466 KJ/Kg.

Dulongs formula used to calculate the theoretical calorific value of fuel if


ultimate analysis is available and the calorific value of elementary
combustibles are known.

Theoretical calorific Value of fuel =33800 C + 144500 ( - ) + 9300 S kJ/kg


Where C, H2 O2 & S repents the mass of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and
sulfur in kJ/Kg

Analysis of solid fuels :


We know that in todays life coal is used as solid fuel and which is
generally found in nature which is not in a pure form. Also there is no
uniform composition. A definite chemical formula is not available for coal.
So following two methods are used to know composition of coal namely;

i) Ultimate analysis.
ii) Proximate analysis.

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 3


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

Ultimate analysis of solid fuels :

In ultimate analysis a complete breakdown of coal into its chemical


constituents is carried out by chemical process.

This analysis is important for large scale trials i.e. boiler trial.

This analysis useful for calculation of amount of air required for


complete combustion of 1 Kg. of coal.

This analysis gives percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur


and ash on mass basis their sum is taken as equal to 100%.

In this analysis moisture is consider as separate item.

This analysis is also used to determine calorific value of the coal.

Proximate analysis of solid fuels :


In this analysis separation of coal into its physical components. This
analysis made by means of chemical balance and temperature controlled
furnace.
In this analysis sample is heated into furnace. The components in
analysis are fixed, carbon, volatile matter, moisture and ash.
These components are expressed in percentage on mass basis and
their sum is taken as 100% sulphur is determined separately. This analysis
also used to determine heating value of the coal.

Sr.
No Ultimate analysis Proximate analysis
Ultimate analysis is coal is Proximate analysis is coal is
complete breakdown of coal into complete breakdown of coal into physical
01 chemical constituents constituents
This analysis gives percentage of This analysis gives percentage of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, Sulpher and moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and
02 ash. ash.

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 4


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

Advantages of liquid fuels over solid fuels used in boiler.


Advantages :
1) Liquid fuel having higher calorific value.
2) Less space is required for storage.
3) Easy control of combustion by stopping supply of fuel.
4) It is very clean fuel, dust free.
5) Reduction in cost of handling.
6) Easily transported through pipes.
7) During burning it does not form ash.

Disadvantages :
1) Cost of liquid fuel is high.
2) The storage tank specially designed.
3) It has higher cost.
4) Danger of explosion.
5) Liquid fuels mostly we import from other countries. So we depends
on other countries.

Advantages of gaseous fuels :


1. They are free from solid and liquid impurity.
2. Maximum complete combustion of gaseous fuel is possible.
3. The rate of combustion and temperature in the combustion
chamber can be easily controlled.
4. For complete combustion less amount of excess air is required.
5. Do not produce ash and smoke.
6. Large amount of heat and temperature is obtained at a moderate
cost.

Disadvantages :
1) They are readily inflammable.
2) They require large storage capacity.
3) The cost of gaseous fuel are more.

Advantages of solid fuel :


1. Solid fuel can be stored conveniently without any risk of explosion.

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 5


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

2. They can easily transported.


3. They have moderate ignition temperature.
4. Leakage problem is not takes place.

Disadvantages :
1. Rate of combustion of solid fuel cant be easily controlled.
2. Large amount of heat is wasted.
3. The ash content of solid fuel is very high.
4. The cost of handling of solid fuel is high.
5. After burning it produce large quantity of smoke.

Merits of liquid fuels over gaseous fuels: (Any four)

1. Required less space for storage.


2. Higher calorific value.
3. Easy control of consumption.
4. Easy handling & transportation.
5. Absences of danger from spontaneous combustion.

Sr.No. Natural liquid fuel Artificial liquid fuel


01 It is obtained from It is obtained by distillation process of
reservoirs in the earth. crude oil
02 Raw material of oil This is the final product of oil
industries. industries
03 Impure form of fuel. Pure form of fuel.
04 It is cheap. It is costly.
05 Crude petroleum. Gasoline, Kerosene, Diesel,
Lubricating oil, and grease.

Sr.No. Solid Fuels Gaseous Fuel


01 Required Large space Required Large space
02 Low calorific value Low calorific value
For combustion more air is
03 required For combustion less air is required
Produce ash & smoke after Do not Produce ash & smoke after
04 combustion combustion
05 Low cost High cost
06 Impure form Pure form

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 6


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

Bomb Calorimeter :
It is a apparatus used for finding the higher calorific value of solid
and liquid fuels. In this calorimeter, as shown in Fig. the fuel is burnt at a
constant volume and under a high pressure in a closed vessel called bomb.

Construction :
The bomb is made mainly of acid-resisting stainless steel, machined
from the solid metal, which is capable of withstanding high pressure (up to
100 bar), heat and corrosion. The cover or head of the bomb carries the
oxygen valve for admitting oxygen and a release valve for exhaust gases.
A cradle or carrier ring, carried by the ignition rods, supports and Silica
crucible, which in turn holds the sample of fuel under test. There is an
ignition wire of Tungston, Platinum or Chrome which dips into the crucible.
It is connected to a battery, kept outside, and can be sufficiently heated by
passing current through it so as to ignite the fuel.
The bomb is completely immersed in a measured quantity of water.
The heat, liberated by the combustion of fuel, is absorbed by this water,
the bomb and copper vessel. The rise in the temperature of water is
measured by a precise thermometer, known as Beckmann thermometer
which reads up to 0.01o C.

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 7


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

Procedure :
A carefully weighed sample of the fuel (usually one gram or so) is
placed in the crucible. Pure oxygen is then admitted through the oxygen
valve, till pressure inside the bomb rises to 30 atmosphere. The bomb is
then completely submerged in a known quantity of water contained in a
large copper vessel. This vessel is placed within a large insulated copper
vessel shown in the figure to reduce loss of heat by radiation. When the
bomb and its contents have reached steady temperature (this temperature
being noted), fuse wire is heated up electrically. The fuel ignites, and
continues to burn till whole of it is burnt. The heat released during
combustion is absorbed by the surrounding water and the apparatus itself.
The rise in temperature of water is noted.

Let mf = Mass of fuel sample bunt in the bomb in Kg.


H.C.V. = Higher calorific value of the fuel sample in KJ/Kg.
mw = Mass of water filled in the calorimeter in Kg.
me = Water equivalent of apparatus in kg.
t1 = Initial temperature of water and apparatus in o C &
t2 = Final temperature of water and apparatus in o C.

We know that heat liberated by fuel


= mf x H.C.V. (i)

and heat absorbed by water and apparatus


= (mw + me) x Cw x (t2 t1) (ii)

Since the heat liberated is equal to the heat absorbed (neglecting


losses), therefore equating equations (i) and (ii),

mf x H.C.V. = (mw + me) x Cw x (t2 t1)

H.C.V. = (mw + me) x Cw x (t2 t1)


mf

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 8


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

Theoretical (or) Minimum mass of air required for complete


combustion.
We know proper supply of oxygen is very essential for the complete
combustion of a fuel, for obtaining maximum amount of heat from a fuel.
The theoretical or minimum mass (or) volume of oxygen required
for complete combustion of 1 kg of fuel may be calculated from chemical
analysis of the fuel.The mass of oxygen, required by each of the
constituents of the fuel, may be calculated from the chemical equation.
Now consider 1 kg of a fuel.

Let;
Mass of the carbon = C kg
Mass of the hydrogen = H2
Mass of sulphur = S kg
we know that 1 kg of carbon requires 8/3 kg of oxygen for its complete
combustion similarly; 1 kg of hydrogen requires 8 kg of oxygen and 1 kg
of sulphur requires 1 kg of oxygen for its complete combustion
Total oxygen required for complete combustion of 1 kg of fuel.

= 8 C + 8 H2 + 5 kg -------------------1
3
If some oxygen (say O2 kg) is already present in the fuel, then total
oxygen for complete combustion of 1 kg of fuel.

= 8 C + 8 H2 + S - O2 kg -------------------2
3
Normally oxygen has to be obtained from atmospheric air which mainly
consist of nitrogen & oxygen along with of rare gases like argon, neon and
krypton etc. But for all calculations.

the compositions of air is taken as;

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 9


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

Nitrogen (N2) = 77% Oxygen (O2) = 23% --------(By mass)

and

Nitrogen (N2) = 79 % Oxygen (O2) =21% ---------(By volume)

for obtaining 1 kg of oxygen; amount of air required

= 100 = 4.35 Kg ----------(By mass)

23

Theoretical (or) minimum air required for complete combustion of 1 kg of


fuel,

= 100 8 C + 8 H2 + S - O2 Kg.

23 3

Excess air supplied :-

We know, minimum air required for complete combustion but many


times for complete combustion and rapid combustion of fuel. some
quantity of air in form of excess is supplied.
If just minimum amount of air is supplied a part of the fuel may not
burn properly.
The amount of excess air supplied varies with the type of fuel and
firing conditions. It may approach to a value of 100 percent; but in modern
days it uses 25 to 50% excess air.

Mass of excess air supplied :-

The mass of excess air supplied may determined by the mass of


unused oxygen found in a flue gases. we know that in order to supply one
kg of oxygen we need 100/23 kg of air.
Similarly;
Mass of excess air supplied = 100 x Mass of excess oxygen.
23

Total Mass of air supplied = Mass of necessary air + Mass of excess air.
R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 10
CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

IMPORTANT FORMULAES :

1. Theoretical C.V. of the fuel =33800 C +144000 (H2 O2/8) +9270 S


KJ/Kg.
2. L.C.V. = H.C.V. 9 H2 x 2466 KJ/Kg.
3. Mass of air required for complete combustion of 1 Kg. of fuel.
= 100/23 (2.67 C + 8 H2 +S O2) Kg.
4. Mass of excess air supplied = 100/23 x Mass of excess Oxygen.

Numerical on fuels and combustion :


TYPE1 :

Ex.1 A sample of coal has following composition on mass basis Carbon


82%, Hydrogen 8%, Sulphur 2%, Oxygen 4% and Ash 4%.
Calculate using Dulongs formula higher and lower calorific value of
fuel. (S-08,09,W-10,11)

Soln : Given
Composition of coal on mass basis.
Carbon (C) = 0.82
Hydrogen (H2) = 0.08
Sulphur (S) = 0.02
Oxygen (O2) = 0.04
Ash = 0.04

We know Dulongs formula.

H.C.V. of Coal = 33800 C+144000 (H2 - O2/8) + 9270 S KJ/Kg.

Putting above values in formula.

= 33800 x 0.82 + 144000 (0.08 0.04/8) + 9270 x 0.02

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 11


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

H.C.V. of coal = 27716 + 10800 + 185.4 = 38701.4 KJ/Kg.

L.C.V. = H.C.V. 9 H2 x 2466


= 38701.4 9 x (0.08) x 2466
= 38701.4 1775.52
L.C.V. =36925.88 KJ/Kg.

Ex.2 A sample of coal has the following composition by mass, carbon


76%, Hydrogen 5%, Oxygen 8.5%, Nitrogen 2%, Sulphur 1.5% and
Ash 7% calculate higher and lower calorific value of fuel per Kg.
(S-11)

Soln : Given
Composition of coal by mass.
Carbon (C) = 0.76
Hydrogen (H2) = 0.05
Oxygen (O2) = 0.085
Nitrogen (N2) = 0.02
Sulphur (S) = 0.015
Ash = 0.07

Now
We know Dulongs formula.
1) H.C.V. of Coal = 33800 C +144000 (H2 - O2/8) + 9270 S KJ/Kg.

= 33800 x 0.76 + 144000 (0.05 0.085/8) + 9270 x 0.015


= 25688 + 5670 + 139.05
= 31497.05 KJ/Kg.

2) L.C.V. = H.C.V. 9 H2 x 2466 KJ/Kg.


= 31497.05 9 x (0.05) x 2466
= 31497.05 1109.7
L.C.V. = 30387.35 KJ/Kg.

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 12


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

Ex.3 A sample of coal has the following composition by mass Carbon


75%, Hydrogen 6%, Oxygen 8%, Nitrogen 2.5%, Sulphur 1.5% and
Ash 7% calculate higher and lower calorific value of per Kg.

Soln : Given
Composition of coal by mass.
Carbon (C) = 0.75
Hydrogen (H2) = 0.06
Oxygen (O2) = 0.08
Nitrogen (N2) = 0.025
Sulphur (S) = 0.015
Ash = 0.07

We know Dulongs formula.


1) H.C.V. of Coal = 33800 C+144000 (H2 - O2/8) +9270 S KJ/Kg.

= 33800 x 0.75 + 144000 (0.06 0.085/8) + 9270 x 0.015


= 25350 + 7200 + 139.05
H.C.V. = 32689.05 KJ/Kg.

2) L.C.V. of Coal = H.C.V. 9 H2 x 2466 KJ/Kg.


= 32689.05 9 x (0.06) x 2466
= 32689.05 1331.64
L.C.V. = 31357.41 KJ/Kg.

Ex.4 A sample of coal has the following composition by mass Carbon


60%, Hydrogen 10%, Oxygen 15%, Nitrogen 4.5%, Sulphur 3.5%
and remaining is ash calculate H.C.V. and L.C.V. of per Kg.

Soln : Given
Composition of coal by mass.
Carbon (C) = 0.60
Hydrogen (H2) = 0.10

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 13


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

Oxygen (O2) = 0.15


Nitrogen (N2) = 0.045
Sulphur (S) = 0.035

We know Dulongs formula.

1) H.C.V. of Coal = 33800 C +144000 (H2 - O2/8) + 9270 S KJ/Kg.


= 33800 x 0.60 + 144000 (0.10 0.015/8) + 9270 x 0.035
= 20280 + 11700 + 324.45
= 32304.45 KJ/Kg.

2) L.C.V. of Coal = H.C.V. 9 H2 x 2466 KJ/Kg.


= 32304.45 9 x (0.10) x 2466
= 32304.45 2219.4
L.C.V. = 30085.05 KJ/Kg.

Ex 5.(S-14) A coal has the following composition by mass Carbon 80%,


Hydrogen 5%, Oxygen 6%, Nitrogen 2.5%, Sulphur 1.5% and Ash 5%.
Calculate HCV and LCV per kg of coal.

Data:
Carbon = C = 80% = 0.8
Hydrogen = H2 = 5% = 0.05
Oxygen = O2 = 6% = 0.06
Nitrogen = N = 2.5% = 0.025
Sulphur = S =1.5% = 0.015
Ash = 5% = 0.05

Dulongs formula:

H.C.V. of coal = 33800 C + 144000 ( H2 - O2/8 ) + 9270 S KJ / Kg


= 33800 x 0.8 + 144000 (0.05 - 0.06/8) + 9270 x 0.015
= 33299.05 KJ / Kg

L.C.V. of coal = H.C.V.- 9 H2 x 2466 KJ / Kg


= 33299.05 9 x 0.05 x 2466
= 32189.35 KJ / Kg

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 14


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

TYPE 2 :
Ex.1 The following is the percentage composition of a sample of coal on
mass basis.
C = 85, H2 = 4, O2 = 10 and remaining is ash find minimum mass of
air required for complete combustion of 1 Kg. of coal.
Soln : Given
Composition of coal on mass basis.
Carbon (C) = 0.85
Hydrogen (H2) = 0.04
Oxygen (O2) = 0.10

Minimum mass of air required for complete combustion of 1 Kg. of


fuel.
= 100/23 (2.67 C + 8 H2 + S O2) Kg.
= 100/23 (2.67 x 0.85 + 8 + 0.04 + 0 0.10)
= 100/23 (2.2695 + 0.32 0.1)
= 40.82 Kg. per Kg. of Coal burnt.

Ex.2 The following is the percentage composition of coal on mass basis.


C = 80, H2 = 3.3, O2 = 4 and S = 0.9 and remaining is ash.
Calculated theoretical air required to 1 Kg. of coal completely.

Soln : Given
Composition of coal on mass basis.
Carbon (C) = 0.80
Hydrogen (H2) = 0.033
Oxygen (O2) = 0.004
Sulphur (S) = 0.009
Minimum mass of air required for complete combustion of 1 Kg. of
fuel.
= 100/23 (2.67 C + 8 H2 + S O2) Kg.
= 100/23 (2.67 x 0.80 + 8 x 0.033 + 0.009 0.004)

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 15


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

= 100/23 (2.136 + 0.264+ 0.009 0.004)


= 10.456 Kg. per Kg. of Coal burnt.

Ex.3 During a boiler trial the coal analysis on mass basis was reported as
C = 62.4%, H2 = 4.2%, O2 = 4.5%, Moisture = 15% and Ash
13.9%. Calculated minimum air required to burn 1 Kg. of coal also
calculate H.C.V. & L.C.V.

Soln : Given
Composition of coal on mass basis.
Carbon (C) = 62.4 = 0.624
Hydrogen (H2) = 4.2% = 0.042
Oxygen (O2) = 4.2% = 0.045
Moisture = 15% = 0.15
Ash = 13.9 = 0.139
Now
Minimum mass of air required for complete combustion of 1 Kg. of
fuel.
= 100/23 (2.67 C + 8 H2 + S O2) Kg.
= 100/23 (2.67 x 0.624 + 8 x 0.042 + 0 0.044)
= 100/23 (2.136 + 0.264 + 0.009 0.004)
= 100/23 (1.666 + 0.336 0.045)
= 8.613 Kg. per Kg. of Coal burnt.

We know Dulongs formula.


H.C.V. of Coal = 33800 C +144000 (H2 - O2/8) + 9270 S KJ/Kg.
= 33800 x 0.624 + 144000 (0.042 0.045/8) + 9270 X 0
H.C.V. = 26329.2 KJ/Kg.

L.C.V. of Coal = H.C.V. 9 H2 x 2466 KJ/Kg.


= 263329.2 9 x 0.042 x 2466
= 26329.2 932.148
= 25397.052 KJ/Kg

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 16


CH. 6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION / 16 Marks HPE/17407/AE4G

Question bank : Ch.6 Fuel and Combustion 16 marks

1 How fuels are classified ? 2 m.


2 Define Calorific value of the fuel. 2 m.
3 Define L.C.V. & its unit 2 m.
4 What is calorific value of fuel. What is H.C.V. 2 m.
5 What is H.C.V. & L.C.V. ? 2 m.
6 Define fuel and state the type of fuel. 2 m.
7 Enlist any four types of gaseous fuels 2 m.
8 List the properties of fuel.(any 4 ) 2 m.
9 List out the merit of liquid fuel over gaseous fuels. 2 m.

10 State requirement of good fuel. 4 m.


11 Differentiate between Natural and Artificial liquid fuel. 4 m.
12 State & explain Dulongs formula for theoretical 8 m.
determination of calorific value of fuel.
13 Give the significance of ultimate analysis of fuel. How is % 8 m.
of carbon & hydrogen determined in this analysis.
14 Define calorific value of fuel. Differentiate between H.C.V.
and L.C.V. of the fuel. State which value is used in
calculation and why?
15 Explain Ultimate analysis and proximate analysis of coal 8 m.
Explain H.C.V. and L.C.V. of the fuels.
16 Describe with neat sketch construction and working of Bomb 8 m.
calorimeter. Write Dulongs formula and state its use.
17 Compare i) Solid fuel and Gaseous fuel
ii) Ultimate analysis and proximate analysis 8 m.

R.K.Yadav/Automobile Engg Dept/New Polytechnic Kolhapur. Page 17