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INFINITY MANAGEMENT & ENGINEERING COLLEGE

SAGAR, MADHYA PRADESH

MINOR PROJECT
ON
RCC DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF
SHOPPING COMPLEX

SESSION 2016-17

SUBMITTED TO:- SUBMITTED BY:-


RAHUL SATBHAIYA
(HOD civil Dept.)
1. NABAM BAPU
2. TARH AMA
3. GOLLO MEENA
4. MARNU CHIRAM
5. NABAM TANGU
6. BIRI TARA
7. GUMKU TANA
8. NANGBIA TATUP DUI
9. THORUNG BAGANG
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT INFINITY MANAGEMENT & ENGINEERING COLLEGE
SAGAR (M.P )SESSON 2014-15

INFINITY MANAGEMENT & ENGINEERING COLLEGE


An Institution under the Govt. of M. P., Approved by All India Council for Technical Education, New Delhi.

Affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal M.P. India.

CANDIDATES DECLARATION

We hereby declare that this dissertation titled RCC

DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF SHOPPING

COMPLEX is my own work conducted under the supervision

of Er. Akash Pathak.

We further declare that to the best of our knowledge and

belief that no part of report is plagiarized from other sources. All

information included from other sources has been duly

acknowledged. We aver that if any part of the report is found to

be plagiarized, we shall take full responsibility for it.


CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT INFINITY MANAGEMENT & ENGINEERING COLLEGE
SAGAR (M.P.) SESSON 2016-17

INFINITY MANAGEMENT & E NGINEERING C OLLEGE


An Institution under the Govt. of M. P., Approved by All India Council for Technical Education, New
Delhi. Affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal M.P. India.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

These few words of gratitude cannot be in any way


describing our deeply felt indebtedness to the people involved in
the successful completion of our project.

I shall be deeply obliged by the unflinching support & the


guidance of our beloved Guide, Akash Pathak sir whose
excellence in the field of knowledge & constant inspiration all
through the course helped us a lot, without whom we would have
not reached the shore of Success.

We avail this opportunity to thank our H.O.D, Mr.


RAHUL SATBHAIYA, for providing us this wonderful
opportunity.

I also take this opportunity to thank our parents for their


constant inspiration.
CONTENT
CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

1. Abstract..
2. Introduction..
3. Design specification.
4. Assumptions..
5. Importance of hand calculation.
6. Design of structural elements of RCC structure:
a. Design of column..
b. Design of slabs
c. Design of beams.
7. Reference..
1. ABSTRACT

We have opted to do Design of Structural Elements of shopping complex as


our minor project. The structural analysis and design of structural elements of
shopping complex for any city, anywhere in India, is described herein. This is a
result of a project completed by seven students, Tarh Ama, Gollo Meena,
Marnu Chiram, Nabam Bapu, Biri Tara, Nabam Tangu , Gumku Tana Thorung
Bagang of 7th sem. Civil Department, INFINITY MANAGEMENT AND
ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PATHERIYA JATH, SAGAR(M.P).

This project was a life changing experience for us, as we have learnt about
design of structural elements of shopping complex in India, and relating to this
we have also cleared some basic concepts. As we have selected the design of
structural elements of shopping complex as our minor project, an assumption is
made for the location and the building but the plan and design procedure is
carried out as per IS code. The project was executed successfully and the results
were according to the expectations.
2. INTRODUCTION

In the design and analysis of reinforced concrete members, we are


presented with a problem unfamiliar to most of us: The mechanics of
members consisting of two materials. To compound this problem,
one of the materials (concrete) behaves differently in tension than in
compression, and may be considered to be either elastic or inelastic, if
it is not neglected entirely. Although we will encounter some peculiar
aspects of behaviour of concrete members, we will usually be close to
a solution for most problems if we can apply the following three basic
ideas:

Geometry of deformation of sections will be consistent under


given types of loading; i.e., moment will always cause strain to
vary linearly with distance from neutral axis, etc.

Mechanics of materials will allow us to relate stresses to strains.

Sections will be in equilibrium: external moments will be


resisted by internal moment, external axial load will be equal to the
sum of internal axial forces. (Many new engineers overly impressed
speed and apparent accuracy of modern structural analysis
computational procedures think less about equilibrium and details).
We will use some or all of these ideas in solving most of the analysis
problems we will have in this project. Design of members and
structures of reinforced concrete is a problem distinct from but closely
related to analysis. Strictly speaking, it is almost impossible to exactly
analyze a concrete structure, and to design exactly is no less difficult.
Fortunately, we can make a few fundamental assumptions which
make the design of reinforced concrete quite simple, if not easy.

A problem unique to the design of reinforced concrete structures is


the need to detail each member throughout. Steel structures, in
general, require only the detailed design of connections. For concrete
structures, we must determine not only the area of longitudinal and
lateral reinforcement required in each member, but also the way to
best arrange and connect the reinforcement to insure acceptable
structural performance. This procedure can be made reasonably
simple, if not easy.

Purpose of this project is to establish a firm understanding of


behaviour of reinforced concrete structures, then to develop method
used in current practice and to achieve familiarity with codes and
specifications governing practical design.

If we understand the basic concepts behind code provisions for


design, we will be able to:

Approach the design in a more knowledgeable fashion, not like


following a black box; and

Understand and adapt the changes in code provisions better and


faster.
The overall goal is to be able to design reinforced concrete structures
that are:

Safe

Economical

Efficient

Reinforced concrete is one of the principal building materials used in


engineered structures because:

Low cost

Weathering and fire resistance

Good compressive strength

Formability
All these criteria make concrete an attractive material for wide range
of structural applications such as buildings, dams, reservoirs, tanks,
etc.

3. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS :

The plan view is given in figure. The geometrical


properties of the structure included a maximum length spanning 49
meters, and a maximum depth of 20.40 meters. The building
comprised of 3.5 meter floors.

A wall beam was provided 0.75 meter below grade to support the
earth pressure against supporting columns above the footings of the
structure. Both typical floor consisted of 16 shops.

A corridor or passage for movement or circulation was attached to


both floor, and the loading was accounted for in the floor beam
design. The Indian code IS 456-2000 was used using the concrete mix
with 30 MPa and 415 MPa reinforcing steel.

The surrounding conditions indicated a low seismic, and a strong


soil layer boundary with a strength of 150 KN/m2. As indicated, the
height to width ratio of the structure did not exceed 2, therefore a
wind analysis was not required according to the Indian Code.
4.ASSUMPTIONS MADE :
Only centre line dimensions are taken.

The base joints are assumed to be hinged and assumed to be at a


depth of 3.35 m below ground level.

Half of the structure is considered because of symmetry and on


the symmetric axis suitable boundary conditions are applied.

The following three loading conditions are considered a) dead


load b) live load c) 1.5 dead load + 1.5 live load. Since the
design is carried out using limit state design load factor of 1.5 is
used.

The live load on the slab is assumed as 3 kN/sq.m and the self
weight of slab + floor finish is taken as 4 kN/sq.m and the total
load on the slab is taken as 7 kN/sq.m for all floors except roof
for which 10kN/sq.m is considered. Based on slab load and 45
degrees distribution the loads for beams for all floors are
considered.

In addition, the wall load assuming the self-weight of masonry


as 20 kN/cu.m is taken as 13.34 kN/m for full brick wall and
6.67 kN/m for half brick wall.

The slab is assumed to be 120mm thick , floor and roof beams


are assumed as 230 x 450 mm or 230 x 400 mm as the case may
be and the concrete columns are assumed to be 230x380 and
some columns are assumed to be 230 x 450 . The columns in the
stair portion are assumed to be 230 x 230.

The safe bearing capacity of the soil is taken as 150 kN/sq.m


5. IMPORTANCE OF HAND CALCULATIONS :

We have been asked to perform hand calculations. Computer analysis


and design programs offer great benefits to the design engineer.
However, the computer programs can be easily misused without
proper precautions in analysis and design procedures. If the design of
any structure is based on the results obtained from erroneous
computer analysis, it can lead to structural failures, costly disputes
and poor performing structures.
Performing the following procedures can eliminate many of the
errors:-

Model the structure as closely to the real structure as possible.

Recognize the important structural reactions.

Check the input and understand the material behaviour and


boundary conditions.

Perform simple equilibrium and compatibility checks using


hand calculations.

Know and understand the limitations of the software.

A series of hand design calculations were performed on a typical


slab panel, a randomly selected set of three beams and columns,
one critical footing supporting the highest column load in the
structure, and a typical combined footing. The purpose of the
hand design calculation was to verify manually, the analysis
from the finite element software package.
6. DESIGN OF RCC STRUCTURE
Design of Various Structural Components

After load calculation & analysis for vertical & horizontal loads,
design & of various structural components e.g.

Columns,
Foundations,
Beams,
Slabs & staircase etc are carried out as per various clauses of IS
codes with help from charts & tables given in BIS handbooks.

A.DESIGN OF COLUMNS
After obtaining
(i) Vertical load,
(ii) Moments due to horizontal loads on either axis &
(iii) Moments due to vertical loads on either axis, acting on each
column, at all floor levels of the building,

Columns are designed by charts of SP-16(Design Aids).

Design of each column is carried out from the top of foundation to


the roof, varying the amount of steel reinforcement for suitable groups
for ease in design. Slenderness effects in each storey are also
considered for each column group.

Column
A compression member, the effective length > three times the least
lateral dimension.

Short and Slender Compression Members


When both slenderness ratios lex/D and ley/b are <12

Column is short column.


If more than 12, then it is long or slender column.

Slender columns are designed for Additional Moments as per


Clause 39.7 of IS456

Effective height of column:-


For effective column height refer Table 28 (Annexure E) of
IS:456:2000

Important Considerations:
(i) Unsupported Length In beam-slab construction, it is the clear
distance between the floor & under side of shallower beam
framing into columns in each direction at next higher floor
level.

(ii) Slenderness limits for columns The unsupported length


between end restraints shall not exceed 60 times the least lateral
dimension of a column.

(iii) (iii) Minimum Eccentricity All columns shall be designed for


emin l/500+ D/30 20 mm Where l= Unsupported length of
column in mm. D= Lateral dimension of column in the direction
under consideration in mm.

Design Approach
The design of column is complex as it is subjected to axial loads &
moments which may very independently. Column design requires

Determination of the cross sectional dimension.


The area of longitudinal steel & its distribution.
Transverse steel.
The maximum axial load & moments acting along the length of
column are considered for design of the column section.
The transverse reinforcement is provided to impart effective lateral
support against buckling to every longitudinal bar.

Reinforcement Provisions as per IS:456-


A. Longitudinal reinforcement
Area of longitudinal reinforcement shall be not less than 0.8% nor
more than 6% of cross sectional area of the column.
However maximum area of steel should not exceed 4% to avoid
practical difficulties in placing & compacting concrete.
In pedestals, in which the longitudinal reinf. is not taken int o
account in strength calculations, nominal reinforcement should be not
be less than 0.15% of cross sectional area.
Minimum dia of longitudinal bar should be 12 mm .

Spacing between bars < 300mm along periphery of column


The minimum number of bars shall be four in rectangular columns
& six in circular columns. B. Transverse reinforcement (STIRRUPS)
Diameter of lateral ties should not be less than 1/4th of dia of the
largest longitudinal bar & in no case should be less than 6 mm.

Spacing of lateral ties should not > least of the following:-


Least lateral dimension of the column.
16 times the smallest diameter of longitudinal bars to be tied.
300 mm.
Design of Column
Clear Height l = 3000 mm
Effective height
for both ends
fixed leff = 2100 mm

Design
Constants:
Fck = 30 N/mm
Fy = 415 N/mm

Loadings:
from Beams = 470.12 KN
Dead Load = 5.90625 KN
Total load = 541.28 KN

Total Axial
force = 0.4fckAc+0.67fyAsc
Assume Area of steel= 1% of Ag
Ac = 99% Ag
Asc = 1%Ag
Ag = 50586.8241 mm

Size of Column
Let Width = 230 mm
Depth = 219.942713
Provided Depth = 300 mm
Provided Ag = 69000
Area of
Concrete = 68310 mm

Area of Steel = 690 mm

Check For = Leff/b


Slenderness
Ratio
= 9.13043478
As k<12 so Short Column

Minimum
eccentricity
emin = l/500+ D/30
= 16
emin/D = 0.05333333
satisfactory to short column

Reinforcement:
Provide
16mm bar 4
no.

Lateral ties:

Dia of bar should not be less than

/4 = 4
5mm

Hence use 6mm dia bar

Spacing :
Least of
following:
Least Lateral
dimension = 230 mm
16 x = 192
300
Provide 6mm ties
@190mm c/c
B. SLAB DESIGN
TYPES OF SLABS
Based on Ratio of long span to short span
One way slab Long span (ly)/Short span (lx ) > 2
Two way slab Long span (ly)/Short span (lx ) < 2

Based on Edge Conditions


Simply supported
Restrained Edge Conditions of supporting edge
Cantilever

The design of floor slab is carried out as per


Clause 24.4 &
Clause 37.1.2 & Annexure D of IS:456-2000 .

The Bending moment coefficients are taken from Table- 26 or Table


27 of BIS code

depending on support conditions


Bending moment is calculated & reinforcement steel is obtained
from charts given in SP-16

Clause 22.2 Effective Span


Effective Span of slab or beam to be considered in design is based
on support condition- simply supported, continuous, cantilever etc. &
width of support.
For RCC frame construction, generally centre to centre distance is
considered.

EFFECTIVE DEPTH Clause 23.0


Effective depth of beam or slab = distance between centroid of area
of tension reinf. & maximum comp. fiber,
Excluding thickness of finishing material not placed monolithically
with member and the thickness of any concrete provided to allow for
wear.

Clause 23.2 CONTROL OF DEFLECTION

The deflection shall generally be limited to following:


Final deflection < span/250 (Due to all loads & measured from as-
cast level of supports of floors, roofs and all other horizontal
members.)
Final deflection < span/350 or 20mm whichever is less (Including
effects of temperature, creep & shrinkage occurring after erection of
partitions & application of finishes.).

For beams, vertical deflection limits may generally be assumed to be


satisfied provided that span/depth ratio are not greater than the value
obtained as below
(a)Basic values of span/effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m:
Cantilever 7
Simply supported 20
Continuous 26

For spans >10m, values in (a) may be multiplied by 10/span in


meters,
Modification Factors are applied
Based on area & type of steel for tension reinforcement (As per Fig.
4 of IS456)
Based on area of compression reinforcement (As per Fig. 5 of
IS456)
For flanged beams (As per Fig. 6 of IS456)

Clause 24.1 Control of Deflection


The provisions of 23.2 for beams apply to slabs also.
For slabs spanning in two directions shorter of the two spans to be
used for span/effective depth ratios.
For two-way slabs of shorter spans ( 3.5 m) with mild steel reinf.,
span/depth ratios given below may generally be assumed to satisfy
vertical deflection limits for loading class up to 3 kN/m 2 .
Simply supported slabs 35
Continuous slabs 40
For HYSD bars grade Fe 415 & Fe500, values
given above to be multiplied by 0.8.

26.5.2 Requirement of Reinforcement SLABS

26.5.2.1 Minimum reinforcement


Mild steel reinf. in either direction in slabs 0.15 % of total cross
sectional area.
For high strength deformed bars 0.12 % of total (Fe415/Fe500
bars) cross sectional area.
26.5.2.2 Maximum diameter
The dia of reinforcing bars < 1/8th of total thickness of slab.

26.3.3 Maximum distance between bars


The horizontal distance between parallel main reinforcement
bars 3d or 300 mm.
The horizontal distance between parallel reinforcement bars
provided against shrinkage and temperature 5d or 300 mm
whichever is smaller.

Steps for Design of Slabs


Step 1: Selection of preliminary depth of slab
Step 2: Calculate design loads, bending moments
Step 3: Determination/checking of the effective and total depths of
slabs
Step 4: Determination of areas of steel
Step 5: Selection of diameter & spacing of reinforcing bars.
Torsion reinforcement is provided at any corner where the slab
is simply supported on both edges meeting at that corner.
It consist of top and bottom reinforcement, each with layers of
bars placed parallel to sides of slab & extending from edges a
minimum distance of one fifth of the shorter span.
Area of reinf. in each of these four layers is three-quarter of the
area required for maximum mid-span moment in slab.
DESIGN OF SLAB
Length along X-
3500
axis (lx) = mm
Length along y-
4500
axis (ly) = mm
Thickness (lx
140
25) = d = mm
Effective span :
Lx = lx + d = 3640 mm
Ly = ly + d = 4640 mm
D = 160 mm

Condition for one


way or two way 1.29
slab = Ly Lx r
= two-way slab

Design
Constants:
fck = 20 N/mm
fy = 415 N/mm
xu lim = 0.48 x d = 67.2
Mu lim (0.36x fck
x b Xulim [d-
0.42Xulim] = 54.08 KN-m

Design Moment
and Shear:

Loads
Self weight = 40 KN/m
Finishing Load = 1 KN/m
Live Load = 2.5 KN/m
Total Load = 43.5 KN/m
Factored Load = 65.25 KN/m
Bending
Moment:

x = 0.081 (table 26, IS


y = 0.0604 456)

Mu = (x X Wu X
Lx) = 70.03 KN-m
My = (y X Wu X
Ly) = 84.85 KN-m

Maximum Shear
Vu = W.(
r[1+r]).(Lx 2) = 86.94 KN

Check For Depth: = (Mu/0.138fck.b)


= 175.34
d provided = 140.00 mm

Design Of
Reinforcement: =
0.5fckfy{1-1-(4.6xMuX10)(fck.b.d)}b.d
Main
reinforcement in
X-direction: = 1949.22 mm
Main
reinforcement in
Y-direction: 3152.08 mm

Spacing :
= 12 mm
1000(4)/Ast 57.9924622

Spacing In X-
Direction = 100.00 mm

Provide 10 mm
Bar @ 100 mm c/c
Spacing In Y-
direction = 100.00 mm

Provide 10 mm
Bar @ 100 mm c/c

Check For Shear:


v = Vu/b.d
= 0.621

Percentage Of
Steel = Astx100/b. d
= 2.25 %

c = 0.6 {Use IS-456}

c>v = Not OK

Check For
Deflection L/dprovided < L/d max

L/d provided = 26.00

Fs = 0.58fy.Astreq./Ast prov.
415.05

F1 = 1.6
L/d max = 41.60

L/dprovided < L/d


max = OK
C. BEAMS
Any structure member which cross section is much
smaller compare to its length and undergoes lateral load, known as
beam.
In other words beam is a horizontal bar witch undergoes lateral load
or couple which tends to bend it or a horizontal bar undergoes
bending stress known as beam.

BEAM DESIGN
26.5.1.1 Tension reinforcement
a) Minimum reinforcement
As/ bd = 0.85/fy

Where,
AS =minimum area of tension reinforcement
b =breadth of beam or the breadth of the web
d =effective depth of T-beam
fy =characteristic strength of reinforcement in N/mm2 &
b) Maximum reinforcement - The maximum area of tension
reinforcement not to exceed 0.04 bD.

Compression reinforcement
The maximum area of compression reinforcement not to exceed
0.04 bD
Side face reinforcement
Where depth of web in a beam >750 mm, side face reinf is to be
provided along the two faces.
The total area of such reinf. should not < 0.1 percent of web area
and
It shall be distributed equally on two faces at a spacing not > 300
mm or web thickness whichever is less.
Also to be provided in beams having torsion & with width or
depth >450mm

Minimum shear reinforcement (Clause 26.5.1.6)


Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups shall be
provided such that:

Asv = 0.4
bsv 0.87fy

Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement (Clause 26.5.1.5)


The maximum spacing of shear reinforcement measured along
axis of member shall be < 0.75 d for vertical stirrups and d for
inclined stirrups at 45 degrees.
In no case shall the spacing to be >300 mm.

Steps for Design of beams

Step 1: Selection of preliminary cross sectional dimension of


beam
Step 2: Calculate design loads, bending moments & shear force
Step 3: Determination/checking of the effective and total depths
of beam/ Revise if necessary.
Step 4: Determination of areas of steel for flexure
Step 5: Determination of shear reinforcement
Step 6: Detailing as per IS 456 & IS13920 provisions
DESIGN OF BEAM(side beam)
Width of beam b = 230 Mm
Depth Of Beam D = 380 Mm
D = 340 Mm
cover d' = 40 Mm
Clear span = 5.5 M
Effective Span = 5.8 M
Design Constants:
Fck = 30 N/mm
Fy = 415 N/mm
xu lim = 0.48 x d = 163.2
Mu lim
(0.138fck.b.d) = 110.07 KN-m

Design Moment and


Shear:
Loads
Self weight=
(bxdx1x25) = 2.185 KN/m
Super Imposed
Load = 35.33 KN/m
Total Load = 37.52 KN/m
Factored Load 'Wu' = 56.27 KN/m
Design Factored
Moment:
Mu = Wu . (l8)
= 239.90 KN-m
Design Shear = 1/2 Wu . l
Vu = 164.32 KN

Limitting
Moment:
Mu lim = 110.07 KN-m

Mu = Mu-Mulim = 129.83 KN-m

Check For Depth:


Dreq = {Mu/(0.138fck.b)}
= 501.940 Mm
NOT OK
Doubly Reinforced Beam (As Mulim<Mu)
Area Of Steel =
Ast = 0.36fck.b.Xulim/(0.87fy)
= 1122.81 mm

Ast = Mu/(0.87fy(d-d')
= 1198.60 mm

Total Ast = 2321.41 mm

sc = 0.0035(Xulim-d')/Xulim
= 0.0026

fy/1.15 = 360.87

Fsc = 360 {Use IS-456}

Asc = Ast(0.87fy)/fsc
= 1202.10
Reinforcement:
Dia Of Bar = 16.00 Mm
No. Of Bars = 12

Provide 4no. Top 16mm bars And 2 no. main steel 16mm
bars

Check For Shear:


v = Vu/bd
= 2.10

Percentage Pt = Ast/b.dx100
= 2.97 %

{ Table no. 19 IS-


c = 0.82 456}

c max = 3.5
Shear Reinforcement should be provided

Ultimate Shear Force


Vus = Vu- c.b.d
= 100191.70 N

Spacing for vertical


strips: 8 mm dia bars
= 0.87fyAsv.d/Vus
= 123.11
Max. spacing
permitted 0.75.d or
300 = 255

near
Provide 8 mm dia bar @ 123.11 the
supports and gradually increase to 300mm towards centre of the
span

Check For
Deflection L/dprovided < L/d max

L/d provided = 17.18


L/d basic = 20
fs = 0.58fy.Astreq./Ast prov.
= 240.58

Modification Factor {use IS-


F1 = 1 456}

Pc = Ascx100/b.d
= 1.54 %

IS code
modification factor
steel F2 = 1.15

Maximum L/d
permitted = F1F2 basic L/d
= 23
L/d provided = 17.18 < L/d permited 23

Deflection Control is
Satisfactory
Design of Beam(long beam)
Width of beam b = 230 mm
Depth Of Beam D = 450 mm
d = 410 mm
cover d' = 40 mm
Clear span = 6.5 m
Effective Span = 6.9 m
Design Constants:
fck = 30 N/mm
fy = 415 N/mm
xu lim = 0.48 x d = 196.8
Mu lim
(0.138fck.b.d) = 160.06 KN-m

Design Moment and


Shear:
Loads
Self weight=
(bxdx1x25) = 2.5875 KN/m
Super Imposed
Load = 30.00 KN/m
Total Load = 32.59 KN/m
Factored Load 'Wu' = 48.88 KN/m
Design Factored
Moment:
Mu = Wu . (l8)
= 291.75 KN-m
Design Shear = 1/2 Wu . l
Vu = 168.88 KN
Limitting
Moment:
Mu lim = 160.06 KN-m

Mu = Mu-Mulim = 131.68 KN-m

Check For Depth:


dreq = {Mu/(0.138fck.b)}
= 553.529 mm
NOT OK
Doubly Reinforced Beam (As Mulim<Mu)
Area Of Steel =
Ast = 0.36fck.b.Xulim/(0.87fy)
= 1353.97 mm

Ast = Mu/(0.87fy(d-d')
= 985.74 mm
Total Ast = 2339.71 mm

sc = 0.0035(Xulim-d')/Xulim
= 0.0028

fy/1.15 = 360.87

fsc = 360 {Use IS-456}

Asc = Ast(0.87fy)/fsc
= 988.62
Reinforcement:
Dia Of Bar = 20.00 mm
No. Of Bars = 7

Provide 4no. Top 16mm bars And 2 no. main steel 16mm bars

Check For Shear:


v = Vu/bd
= 1.79

Percentage Pt = Ast/b.dx100
= 2.48 %

{ Table no. 19 IS-


c = 0.82 456}

c max = 3.5
Shear Reinforcement should be provided

Ultimate Shear Force


Vus = Vu- c.b.d
= 91558.72 N

Spacing for vertical


strips: 8 mm dia bars
= 0.87fyAsv.d/Vus
= 162.45
Max. spacing
permitted 0.75.d or
300 = 307.5

near
Provide 8 mm dia bar @ 162.45 the
supports and gradually increase to 300mm towards centre of the span

Check For
Deflection L/dprovided < L/d max

L/d provided = 16.85


L/d basic = 20

Fs = 0.58fy.Astreq./Ast prov.
= 240.58

Modification Factor {use IS-


F1 = 1 456}

Pc = Ascx100/b.d
= 1.05 %

IS code
modification factor
steel F2 = 1.15

Maximum L/d
permitted = F1F2 basic L/d
= 23
L/d provided = 16.85 < L/d permited 23

Deflection Control is
Satisfactory
Design of Beam(short beam)
Width of beam b = 230 mm
Depth Of Beam D = 350 mm
D = 310 mm
cover d' = 40 mm
Clear span = 3.5 m
Effective Span = 3.8 m
Design Constants:
Fck = 30 N/mm
Fy = 415 N/mm
xu lim = 0.48 x d = 148.8
Mu lim (0.138fck.b.d) = 91.51 KN-m
Design Moment and Shear:
Loads
Self weight= (bxdx1x25) = 2.0125 KN/m
Super Imposed Load = 20.00 KN/m
Total Load = 22.01 KN/m
Factored Load 'Wu' = 33.02 KN/m
Design Factored Moment:
Mu = Wu . (l8)
= 59.91 KN-m
Design Shear = 1/2 Wu . l
Vu = 62.90 KN
Limitting Moment:
Mu lim = 91.51 KN-m
Check For Depth:
Dreq = {Mu/(0.138fck.b)}
= 250.840 mm
OK
Singly Reinforced Beam
Area Of Steel
Ast = 0.36fck.b.Xulim/(0.87fy)
= 549.01 mm
Reinforcement:
Dia Of Bar = 16.00 mm
No. Of Bars = 3
Provide 3no. Top 16mm bars And 2 no. main steel 16mm
bars
Check For Shear:
v = Vu/bd
= 0.88
Percentage Pt = Ast/b.dx100
= 0.35 %
{ Table no. 19
c = 0.42 IS-456}
c max = 3.5
Shear Reinforcement should be provided
Ultimate Shear Force
Vus = Vu- c.b.d
= 32954.72 N
mm
Spacing for vertical dia
strips: 8 bars
= 0.87fyAsv.d/Vus
= 341.26
Max. spacing permitted
0.75.d or 300 = 232.5
near
Provide 8 mm dia bar @ 341.26 the
supports and gradually increase to 300mm towards centre of the
span
Check For Deflection L/dprovided < L/d max

L/d provided = 12.29


L/d basic = 20

Fs = 0.58fy.Astreq./Ast prov.
= 240.58

{use
IS-
Modification Factor F1 = 1 456}

IS code modification
factor steel F2 = 1.15

Maximum L/d permitted = F1F2 basic L/d


= 23
< L/d
L/d provided = 12.29 permitted 23

Deflection Control is
Satisfactory
REFERENCES :
1. Anonymous, Bureau of Indian Standards Indian Standards Code of
Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete (Fourth Revision) IS 456 2000 ,
New Delhi,2000.

2. Anonymous, Bureau of Indian Standards Design Aids for Reinforced


Concrete to IS: 456-2000, New Delhi,2000

3. B.C punmia," Structural Reinforcement Cement Concrete Design .

4. Batch mate.