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You are on page 1of 36

MINOR PROJECT

ON

RCC DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF

SHOPPING COMPLEX

SESSION 2016-17

RAHUL SATBHAIYA

(HOD civil Dept.)

1. NABAM BAPU

2. TARH AMA

3. GOLLO MEENA

4. MARNU CHIRAM

5. NABAM TANGU

6. BIRI TARA

7. GUMKU TANA

8. NANGBIA TATUP DUI

9. THORUNG BAGANG

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT INFINITY MANAGEMENT & ENGINEERING COLLEGE

SAGAR (M.P )SESSON 2014-15

An Institution under the Govt. of M. P., Approved by All India Council for Technical Education, New Delhi.

CANDIDATES DECLARATION

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT INFINITY MANAGEMENT & ENGINEERING COLLEGE

SAGAR (M.P.) SESSON 2016-17

An Institution under the Govt. of M. P., Approved by All India Council for Technical Education, New

Delhi. Affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal M.P. India.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

describing our deeply felt indebtedness to the people involved in

the successful completion of our project.

guidance of our beloved Guide, Akash Pathak sir whose

excellence in the field of knowledge & constant inspiration all

through the course helped us a lot, without whom we would have

not reached the shore of Success.

RAHUL SATBHAIYA, for providing us this wonderful

opportunity.

constant inspiration.

CONTENT

CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

1. Abstract..

2. Introduction..

3. Design specification.

4. Assumptions..

5. Importance of hand calculation.

6. Design of structural elements of RCC structure:

a. Design of column..

b. Design of slabs

c. Design of beams.

7. Reference..

1. ABSTRACT

our minor project. The structural analysis and design of structural elements of

shopping complex for any city, anywhere in India, is described herein. This is a

result of a project completed by seven students, Tarh Ama, Gollo Meena,

Marnu Chiram, Nabam Bapu, Biri Tara, Nabam Tangu , Gumku Tana Thorung

Bagang of 7th sem. Civil Department, INFINITY MANAGEMENT AND

ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PATHERIYA JATH, SAGAR(M.P).

This project was a life changing experience for us, as we have learnt about

design of structural elements of shopping complex in India, and relating to this

we have also cleared some basic concepts. As we have selected the design of

structural elements of shopping complex as our minor project, an assumption is

made for the location and the building but the plan and design procedure is

carried out as per IS code. The project was executed successfully and the results

were according to the expectations.

2. INTRODUCTION

presented with a problem unfamiliar to most of us: The mechanics of

members consisting of two materials. To compound this problem,

one of the materials (concrete) behaves differently in tension than in

compression, and may be considered to be either elastic or inelastic, if

it is not neglected entirely. Although we will encounter some peculiar

aspects of behaviour of concrete members, we will usually be close to

a solution for most problems if we can apply the following three basic

ideas:

given types of loading; i.e., moment will always cause strain to

vary linearly with distance from neutral axis, etc.

resisted by internal moment, external axial load will be equal to the

sum of internal axial forces. (Many new engineers overly impressed

speed and apparent accuracy of modern structural analysis

computational procedures think less about equilibrium and details).

We will use some or all of these ideas in solving most of the analysis

problems we will have in this project. Design of members and

structures of reinforced concrete is a problem distinct from but closely

related to analysis. Strictly speaking, it is almost impossible to exactly

analyze a concrete structure, and to design exactly is no less difficult.

Fortunately, we can make a few fundamental assumptions which

make the design of reinforced concrete quite simple, if not easy.

the need to detail each member throughout. Steel structures, in

general, require only the detailed design of connections. For concrete

structures, we must determine not only the area of longitudinal and

lateral reinforcement required in each member, but also the way to

best arrange and connect the reinforcement to insure acceptable

structural performance. This procedure can be made reasonably

simple, if not easy.

behaviour of reinforced concrete structures, then to develop method

used in current practice and to achieve familiarity with codes and

specifications governing practical design.

design, we will be able to:

following a black box; and

faster.

The overall goal is to be able to design reinforced concrete structures

that are:

Safe

Economical

Efficient

engineered structures because:

Low cost

Formability

All these criteria make concrete an attractive material for wide range

of structural applications such as buildings, dams, reservoirs, tanks,

etc.

3. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS :

properties of the structure included a maximum length spanning 49

meters, and a maximum depth of 20.40 meters. The building

comprised of 3.5 meter floors.

A wall beam was provided 0.75 meter below grade to support the

earth pressure against supporting columns above the footings of the

structure. Both typical floor consisted of 16 shops.

both floor, and the loading was accounted for in the floor beam

design. The Indian code IS 456-2000 was used using the concrete mix

with 30 MPa and 415 MPa reinforcing steel.

soil layer boundary with a strength of 150 KN/m2. As indicated, the

height to width ratio of the structure did not exceed 2, therefore a

wind analysis was not required according to the Indian Code.

4.ASSUMPTIONS MADE :

Only centre line dimensions are taken.

depth of 3.35 m below ground level.

the symmetric axis suitable boundary conditions are applied.

load b) live load c) 1.5 dead load + 1.5 live load. Since the

design is carried out using limit state design load factor of 1.5 is

used.

The live load on the slab is assumed as 3 kN/sq.m and the self

weight of slab + floor finish is taken as 4 kN/sq.m and the total

load on the slab is taken as 7 kN/sq.m for all floors except roof

for which 10kN/sq.m is considered. Based on slab load and 45

degrees distribution the loads for beams for all floors are

considered.

as 20 kN/cu.m is taken as 13.34 kN/m for full brick wall and

6.67 kN/m for half brick wall.

are assumed as 230 x 450 mm or 230 x 400 mm as the case may

be and the concrete columns are assumed to be 230x380 and

some columns are assumed to be 230 x 450 . The columns in the

stair portion are assumed to be 230 x 230.

5. IMPORTANCE OF HAND CALCULATIONS :

and design programs offer great benefits to the design engineer.

However, the computer programs can be easily misused without

proper precautions in analysis and design procedures. If the design of

any structure is based on the results obtained from erroneous

computer analysis, it can lead to structural failures, costly disputes

and poor performing structures.

Performing the following procedures can eliminate many of the

errors:-

boundary conditions.

hand calculations.

slab panel, a randomly selected set of three beams and columns,

one critical footing supporting the highest column load in the

structure, and a typical combined footing. The purpose of the

hand design calculation was to verify manually, the analysis

from the finite element software package.

6. DESIGN OF RCC STRUCTURE

Design of Various Structural Components

After load calculation & analysis for vertical & horizontal loads,

design & of various structural components e.g.

Columns,

Foundations,

Beams,

Slabs & staircase etc are carried out as per various clauses of IS

codes with help from charts & tables given in BIS handbooks.

A.DESIGN OF COLUMNS

After obtaining

(i) Vertical load,

(ii) Moments due to horizontal loads on either axis &

(iii) Moments due to vertical loads on either axis, acting on each

column, at all floor levels of the building,

the roof, varying the amount of steel reinforcement for suitable groups

for ease in design. Slenderness effects in each storey are also

considered for each column group.

Column

A compression member, the effective length > three times the least

lateral dimension.

When both slenderness ratios lex/D and ley/b are <12

If more than 12, then it is long or slender column.

Clause 39.7 of IS456

For effective column height refer Table 28 (Annexure E) of

IS:456:2000

Important Considerations:

(i) Unsupported Length In beam-slab construction, it is the clear

distance between the floor & under side of shallower beam

framing into columns in each direction at next higher floor

level.

between end restraints shall not exceed 60 times the least lateral

dimension of a column.

emin l/500+ D/30 20 mm Where l= Unsupported length of

column in mm. D= Lateral dimension of column in the direction

under consideration in mm.

Design Approach

The design of column is complex as it is subjected to axial loads &

moments which may very independently. Column design requires

The area of longitudinal steel & its distribution.

Transverse steel.

The maximum axial load & moments acting along the length of

column are considered for design of the column section.

The transverse reinforcement is provided to impart effective lateral

support against buckling to every longitudinal bar.

A. Longitudinal reinforcement

Area of longitudinal reinforcement shall be not less than 0.8% nor

more than 6% of cross sectional area of the column.

However maximum area of steel should not exceed 4% to avoid

practical difficulties in placing & compacting concrete.

In pedestals, in which the longitudinal reinf. is not taken int o

account in strength calculations, nominal reinforcement should be not

be less than 0.15% of cross sectional area.

Minimum dia of longitudinal bar should be 12 mm .

The minimum number of bars shall be four in rectangular columns

& six in circular columns. B. Transverse reinforcement (STIRRUPS)

Diameter of lateral ties should not be less than 1/4th of dia of the

largest longitudinal bar & in no case should be less than 6 mm.

Least lateral dimension of the column.

16 times the smallest diameter of longitudinal bars to be tied.

300 mm.

Design of Column

Clear Height l = 3000 mm

Effective height

for both ends

fixed leff = 2100 mm

Design

Constants:

Fck = 30 N/mm

Fy = 415 N/mm

Loadings:

from Beams = 470.12 KN

Dead Load = 5.90625 KN

Total load = 541.28 KN

Total Axial

force = 0.4fckAc+0.67fyAsc

Assume Area of steel= 1% of Ag

Ac = 99% Ag

Asc = 1%Ag

Ag = 50586.8241 mm

Size of Column

Let Width = 230 mm

Depth = 219.942713

Provided Depth = 300 mm

Provided Ag = 69000

Area of

Concrete = 68310 mm

Slenderness

Ratio

= 9.13043478

As k<12 so Short Column

Minimum

eccentricity

emin = l/500+ D/30

= 16

emin/D = 0.05333333

satisfactory to short column

Reinforcement:

Provide

16mm bar 4

no.

Lateral ties:

/4 = 4

5mm

Spacing :

Least of

following:

Least Lateral

dimension = 230 mm

16 x = 192

300

Provide 6mm ties

@190mm c/c

B. SLAB DESIGN

TYPES OF SLABS

Based on Ratio of long span to short span

One way slab Long span (ly)/Short span (lx ) > 2

Two way slab Long span (ly)/Short span (lx ) < 2

Simply supported

Restrained Edge Conditions of supporting edge

Cantilever

Clause 24.4 &

Clause 37.1.2 & Annexure D of IS:456-2000 .

27 of BIS code

Bending moment is calculated & reinforcement steel is obtained

from charts given in SP-16

Effective Span of slab or beam to be considered in design is based

on support condition- simply supported, continuous, cantilever etc. &

width of support.

For RCC frame construction, generally centre to centre distance is

considered.

Effective depth of beam or slab = distance between centroid of area

of tension reinf. & maximum comp. fiber,

Excluding thickness of finishing material not placed monolithically

with member and the thickness of any concrete provided to allow for

wear.

Final deflection < span/250 (Due to all loads & measured from as-

cast level of supports of floors, roofs and all other horizontal

members.)

Final deflection < span/350 or 20mm whichever is less (Including

effects of temperature, creep & shrinkage occurring after erection of

partitions & application of finishes.).

satisfied provided that span/depth ratio are not greater than the value

obtained as below

(a)Basic values of span/effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m:

Cantilever 7

Simply supported 20

Continuous 26

meters,

Modification Factors are applied

Based on area & type of steel for tension reinforcement (As per Fig.

4 of IS456)

Based on area of compression reinforcement (As per Fig. 5 of

IS456)

For flanged beams (As per Fig. 6 of IS456)

The provisions of 23.2 for beams apply to slabs also.

For slabs spanning in two directions shorter of the two spans to be

used for span/effective depth ratios.

For two-way slabs of shorter spans ( 3.5 m) with mild steel reinf.,

span/depth ratios given below may generally be assumed to satisfy

vertical deflection limits for loading class up to 3 kN/m 2 .

Simply supported slabs 35

Continuous slabs 40

For HYSD bars grade Fe 415 & Fe500, values

given above to be multiplied by 0.8.

Mild steel reinf. in either direction in slabs 0.15 % of total cross

sectional area.

For high strength deformed bars 0.12 % of total (Fe415/Fe500

bars) cross sectional area.

26.5.2.2 Maximum diameter

The dia of reinforcing bars < 1/8th of total thickness of slab.

The horizontal distance between parallel main reinforcement

bars 3d or 300 mm.

The horizontal distance between parallel reinforcement bars

provided against shrinkage and temperature 5d or 300 mm

whichever is smaller.

Step 1: Selection of preliminary depth of slab

Step 2: Calculate design loads, bending moments

Step 3: Determination/checking of the effective and total depths of

slabs

Step 4: Determination of areas of steel

Step 5: Selection of diameter & spacing of reinforcing bars.

Torsion reinforcement is provided at any corner where the slab

is simply supported on both edges meeting at that corner.

It consist of top and bottom reinforcement, each with layers of

bars placed parallel to sides of slab & extending from edges a

minimum distance of one fifth of the shorter span.

Area of reinf. in each of these four layers is three-quarter of the

area required for maximum mid-span moment in slab.

DESIGN OF SLAB

Length along X-

3500

axis (lx) = mm

Length along y-

4500

axis (ly) = mm

Thickness (lx

140

25) = d = mm

Effective span :

Lx = lx + d = 3640 mm

Ly = ly + d = 4640 mm

D = 160 mm

way or two way 1.29

slab = Ly Lx r

= two-way slab

Design

Constants:

fck = 20 N/mm

fy = 415 N/mm

xu lim = 0.48 x d = 67.2

Mu lim (0.36x fck

x b Xulim [d-

0.42Xulim] = 54.08 KN-m

Design Moment

and Shear:

Loads

Self weight = 40 KN/m

Finishing Load = 1 KN/m

Live Load = 2.5 KN/m

Total Load = 43.5 KN/m

Factored Load = 65.25 KN/m

Bending

Moment:

y = 0.0604 456)

Mu = (x X Wu X

Lx) = 70.03 KN-m

My = (y X Wu X

Ly) = 84.85 KN-m

Maximum Shear

Vu = W.(

r[1+r]).(Lx 2) = 86.94 KN

= 175.34

d provided = 140.00 mm

Design Of

Reinforcement: =

0.5fckfy{1-1-(4.6xMuX10)(fck.b.d)}b.d

Main

reinforcement in

X-direction: = 1949.22 mm

Main

reinforcement in

Y-direction: 3152.08 mm

Spacing :

= 12 mm

1000(4)/Ast 57.9924622

Spacing In X-

Direction = 100.00 mm

Provide 10 mm

Bar @ 100 mm c/c

Spacing In Y-

direction = 100.00 mm

Provide 10 mm

Bar @ 100 mm c/c

v = Vu/b.d

= 0.621

Percentage Of

Steel = Astx100/b. d

= 2.25 %

c>v = Not OK

Check For

Deflection L/dprovided < L/d max

Fs = 0.58fy.Astreq./Ast prov.

415.05

F1 = 1.6

L/d max = 41.60

max = OK

C. BEAMS

Any structure member which cross section is much

smaller compare to its length and undergoes lateral load, known as

beam.

In other words beam is a horizontal bar witch undergoes lateral load

or couple which tends to bend it or a horizontal bar undergoes

bending stress known as beam.

BEAM DESIGN

26.5.1.1 Tension reinforcement

a) Minimum reinforcement

As/ bd = 0.85/fy

Where,

AS =minimum area of tension reinforcement

b =breadth of beam or the breadth of the web

d =effective depth of T-beam

fy =characteristic strength of reinforcement in N/mm2 &

b) Maximum reinforcement - The maximum area of tension

reinforcement not to exceed 0.04 bD.

Compression reinforcement

The maximum area of compression reinforcement not to exceed

0.04 bD

Side face reinforcement

Where depth of web in a beam >750 mm, side face reinf is to be

provided along the two faces.

The total area of such reinf. should not < 0.1 percent of web area

and

It shall be distributed equally on two faces at a spacing not > 300

mm or web thickness whichever is less.

Also to be provided in beams having torsion & with width or

depth >450mm

Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups shall be

provided such that:

Asv = 0.4

bsv 0.87fy

The maximum spacing of shear reinforcement measured along

axis of member shall be < 0.75 d for vertical stirrups and d for

inclined stirrups at 45 degrees.

In no case shall the spacing to be >300 mm.

beam

Step 2: Calculate design loads, bending moments & shear force

Step 3: Determination/checking of the effective and total depths

of beam/ Revise if necessary.

Step 4: Determination of areas of steel for flexure

Step 5: Determination of shear reinforcement

Step 6: Detailing as per IS 456 & IS13920 provisions

DESIGN OF BEAM(side beam)

Width of beam b = 230 Mm

Depth Of Beam D = 380 Mm

D = 340 Mm

cover d' = 40 Mm

Clear span = 5.5 M

Effective Span = 5.8 M

Design Constants:

Fck = 30 N/mm

Fy = 415 N/mm

xu lim = 0.48 x d = 163.2

Mu lim

(0.138fck.b.d) = 110.07 KN-m

Shear:

Loads

Self weight=

(bxdx1x25) = 2.185 KN/m

Super Imposed

Load = 35.33 KN/m

Total Load = 37.52 KN/m

Factored Load 'Wu' = 56.27 KN/m

Design Factored

Moment:

Mu = Wu . (l8)

= 239.90 KN-m

Design Shear = 1/2 Wu . l

Vu = 164.32 KN

Limitting

Moment:

Mu lim = 110.07 KN-m

Dreq = {Mu/(0.138fck.b)}

= 501.940 Mm

NOT OK

Doubly Reinforced Beam (As Mulim<Mu)

Area Of Steel =

Ast = 0.36fck.b.Xulim/(0.87fy)

= 1122.81 mm

Ast = Mu/(0.87fy(d-d')

= 1198.60 mm

sc = 0.0035(Xulim-d')/Xulim

= 0.0026

fy/1.15 = 360.87

Asc = Ast(0.87fy)/fsc

= 1202.10

Reinforcement:

Dia Of Bar = 16.00 Mm

No. Of Bars = 12

Provide 4no. Top 16mm bars And 2 no. main steel 16mm

bars

v = Vu/bd

= 2.10

Percentage Pt = Ast/b.dx100

= 2.97 %

c = 0.82 456}

c max = 3.5

Shear Reinforcement should be provided

Vus = Vu- c.b.d

= 100191.70 N

strips: 8 mm dia bars

= 0.87fyAsv.d/Vus

= 123.11

Max. spacing

permitted 0.75.d or

300 = 255

near

Provide 8 mm dia bar @ 123.11 the

supports and gradually increase to 300mm towards centre of the

span

Check For

Deflection L/dprovided < L/d max

L/d basic = 20

fs = 0.58fy.Astreq./Ast prov.

= 240.58

F1 = 1 456}

Pc = Ascx100/b.d

= 1.54 %

IS code

modification factor

steel F2 = 1.15

Maximum L/d

permitted = F1F2 basic L/d

= 23

L/d provided = 17.18 < L/d permited 23

Deflection Control is

Satisfactory

Design of Beam(long beam)

Width of beam b = 230 mm

Depth Of Beam D = 450 mm

d = 410 mm

cover d' = 40 mm

Clear span = 6.5 m

Effective Span = 6.9 m

Design Constants:

fck = 30 N/mm

fy = 415 N/mm

xu lim = 0.48 x d = 196.8

Mu lim

(0.138fck.b.d) = 160.06 KN-m

Shear:

Loads

Self weight=

(bxdx1x25) = 2.5875 KN/m

Super Imposed

Load = 30.00 KN/m

Total Load = 32.59 KN/m

Factored Load 'Wu' = 48.88 KN/m

Design Factored

Moment:

Mu = Wu . (l8)

= 291.75 KN-m

Design Shear = 1/2 Wu . l

Vu = 168.88 KN

Limitting

Moment:

Mu lim = 160.06 KN-m

dreq = {Mu/(0.138fck.b)}

= 553.529 mm

NOT OK

Doubly Reinforced Beam (As Mulim<Mu)

Area Of Steel =

Ast = 0.36fck.b.Xulim/(0.87fy)

= 1353.97 mm

Ast = Mu/(0.87fy(d-d')

= 985.74 mm

Total Ast = 2339.71 mm

sc = 0.0035(Xulim-d')/Xulim

= 0.0028

fy/1.15 = 360.87

Asc = Ast(0.87fy)/fsc

= 988.62

Reinforcement:

Dia Of Bar = 20.00 mm

No. Of Bars = 7

Provide 4no. Top 16mm bars And 2 no. main steel 16mm bars

v = Vu/bd

= 1.79

Percentage Pt = Ast/b.dx100

= 2.48 %

c = 0.82 456}

c max = 3.5

Shear Reinforcement should be provided

Vus = Vu- c.b.d

= 91558.72 N

strips: 8 mm dia bars

= 0.87fyAsv.d/Vus

= 162.45

Max. spacing

permitted 0.75.d or

300 = 307.5

near

Provide 8 mm dia bar @ 162.45 the

supports and gradually increase to 300mm towards centre of the span

Check For

Deflection L/dprovided < L/d max

L/d basic = 20

Fs = 0.58fy.Astreq./Ast prov.

= 240.58

F1 = 1 456}

Pc = Ascx100/b.d

= 1.05 %

IS code

modification factor

steel F2 = 1.15

Maximum L/d

permitted = F1F2 basic L/d

= 23

L/d provided = 16.85 < L/d permited 23

Deflection Control is

Satisfactory

Design of Beam(short beam)

Width of beam b = 230 mm

Depth Of Beam D = 350 mm

D = 310 mm

cover d' = 40 mm

Clear span = 3.5 m

Effective Span = 3.8 m

Design Constants:

Fck = 30 N/mm

Fy = 415 N/mm

xu lim = 0.48 x d = 148.8

Mu lim (0.138fck.b.d) = 91.51 KN-m

Design Moment and Shear:

Loads

Self weight= (bxdx1x25) = 2.0125 KN/m

Super Imposed Load = 20.00 KN/m

Total Load = 22.01 KN/m

Factored Load 'Wu' = 33.02 KN/m

Design Factored Moment:

Mu = Wu . (l8)

= 59.91 KN-m

Design Shear = 1/2 Wu . l

Vu = 62.90 KN

Limitting Moment:

Mu lim = 91.51 KN-m

Check For Depth:

Dreq = {Mu/(0.138fck.b)}

= 250.840 mm

OK

Singly Reinforced Beam

Area Of Steel

Ast = 0.36fck.b.Xulim/(0.87fy)

= 549.01 mm

Reinforcement:

Dia Of Bar = 16.00 mm

No. Of Bars = 3

Provide 3no. Top 16mm bars And 2 no. main steel 16mm

bars

Check For Shear:

v = Vu/bd

= 0.88

Percentage Pt = Ast/b.dx100

= 0.35 %

{ Table no. 19

c = 0.42 IS-456}

c max = 3.5

Shear Reinforcement should be provided

Ultimate Shear Force

Vus = Vu- c.b.d

= 32954.72 N

mm

Spacing for vertical dia

strips: 8 bars

= 0.87fyAsv.d/Vus

= 341.26

Max. spacing permitted

0.75.d or 300 = 232.5

near

Provide 8 mm dia bar @ 341.26 the

supports and gradually increase to 300mm towards centre of the

span

Check For Deflection L/dprovided < L/d max

L/d basic = 20

Fs = 0.58fy.Astreq./Ast prov.

= 240.58

{use

IS-

Modification Factor F1 = 1 456}

IS code modification

factor steel F2 = 1.15

= 23

< L/d

L/d provided = 12.29 permitted 23

Deflection Control is

Satisfactory

REFERENCES :

1. Anonymous, Bureau of Indian Standards Indian Standards Code of

Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete (Fourth Revision) IS 456 2000 ,

New Delhi,2000.

Concrete to IS: 456-2000, New Delhi,2000

4. Batch mate.

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