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j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / i c h m t

Heat transfer model of slurry ice melting on external surface of helical coil

Sathaporn Thongwik a, Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat a,, Atipoang Nuntaphan b

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

b

Thermal Technology Research Laboratory, Mae Moh Training Center, Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Mae Moh, Lampang 52220, Thailand

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Available online 10 October 2008 This research studies the heat transfer phenomenon of melting slurry ice on external surface of a copper

helical coil. There is water owing inside the tube coil and exchanging heat with the slurry ice. In this

Keywords: experiment, the coil diameters are 6.35 mm and 9.53 mm each of 4.2 m coil length. The mass ow rate of

Convective heat transfer model water in the helical coil is between 0.01490.0562 kg/s, while the inlet temperature of water is varied in the

Slurry ice

range of 2327 C. The slurry ice has 60% ice and 40% water by mass at the starting.

Helical coil

The experimental results show that, with small coil diameter, high mass ow rate of circulating water and

Natural convection

low ice fraction, high heat transfer coefcient of the slurry ice at the warm helical coil surface is obtained. The

heat transfer models of slurry ice during melting and post-melting in terms of Nusselt number with the

pertinent parameters are also developed. The results agree very well with the experimental data.

2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction in a slurry ice storage tank for producing chilled water. In this case, the

heat transfer between the slurry ice and the external surface of coil

At present, the application of slurry ice enormously increases becomes external convection of which the heat transfer data are not

because of its high heat capacity and heat transfer rate associated with available. Therefore, this research focuses on the study of heat transfer

the phase change of ice [1]. The convective heat transfer coefcient of of the slurry ice melting at the outer surface of warm helical coil.

owing slurry ice in contact with warm surface is around 3 kW/m2 K

(530% ice) while the cooling capacity is 5-6 times higher than that of 2. Experimental set-up

chilled water [2,3]. The slurry ice could be implemented in food and

beverage industries, building cooling and other related applications. The schematic sketch of the experimental apparatus is shown in

In case of air-conditioning system, the produced slurry ice could be Fig. 1a. Water from a storage tank is owing through a rotameter and a

pumped into pipe line of fan coil unit and exchanges heat with warm control valve for measuring and controlling the ow rate of water.

air. There are many researchers reported the convective heat transfer Then, the water is owing into a helical coil submerged in slurry ice in

phenomenon of owing slurry ice. Knodel el al [3] investigated ice- another well-insulated tank and exchanging heat with the slurry ice.

water slurries owing turbulently in a 24.0 mm internal diameter, Fig. 1b shows a schematic sketch of the helical coil.

4.596 m long, horizontal, stainless steel tube and developed the In this experiment, the slurry ice is produced from a direct contact

models of heat transfer coefcient and pressure drop. Niezgoda- heat transfer technique by injecting low temperature CO2 into water

Zelasko [4] studied on heat transfer of slurry ice owing through in the storage tank. This technique follows the method of Thongwik

horizontal tubes and also developed the heat transfer coefcient et al [6]. At the initial state of experiment, the total mass of slurry ice is

models in case of laminar and turbulent ows. Lee et al. [5] presented at 15 kg with the mass fraction of ice: water of 60%:40%. The mass ow

the heat transfer characteristics of the ice slurry during melting rate of water in the helical coil which is made of copper is between

process in a tube ow. They found that the measured heat transfer 0.01490.0562 kg/s, while the inlet temperature of water is varied in

rates increased with the mass ow rate. the range of 2327 C. Two sizes of the helical coils in this experiment

Although, the using of slurry ice has many advantages, however, are 6.35 and 9.53 mm in diameter and each of 4.2 m in length. The

the major problem of feeding slurry ice owing in pipe line is its very external surface temperatures of the helical coils, the inlet and the

high pressure drop and high pumping power is consumed. The basic outlet temperatures of water in the coils and the temperature of slurry

method to avoid this problem is to feed water inside a coil submerged ice are measured by a set of K-type thermocouples having 0.01 C

accuracy. The volume ow rate of water is measured by a high

precision rotameter having 0.01 l/min accuracy.

Communicated by W.J. Minkowycz.

All data are recorded every 10 s and the experiment is carried out

Corresponding author. until all ice is melted and the bulk temperature of water in the storage

E-mail address: kiatsiriroat_t@yahoo.co.th (T. Kiatsiriroat). tank reaches 10 C.

0735-1933/$ see front matter 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2008.08.019

1336 S. Thongwik et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 35 (2008) 13351339

During the ice melting, from Eq. (1), the temperature of ice slurry is

Nomenclature constant at its freezing point and the mass of melting ice, Ms, during

a time interval could be predicted from

Ao External surface area of helical coil (m2)

:

Cpw Specic heat of water (J/kgK) mw iwi iwo

do Outer diameter of coil tube (m) Ms = t 2

s

Fo Fourier number

g Gravitational acceleration (m/s2) where s is latent heat of ice during melting. When all ice melts, the

hs Heat transfer coefcient of melting process (W/m2K) temperature of water in the storage tank increases with time. Eq. (1) is

is Enthalpy of slurry ice (J/kg) modied and the temperature of water in the storage tank in a

iwi Inlet enthalpies of circulated water (J/kg) numerical form could be

iwo Outlet enthalpies of circulated water (J/kg) :

mw iwi iwo

kw Thermal conductivity of water (W/mK) Tst + t = Tst + t 3

L Coil length (m) Ms Cpw

Ms Mass of slurry ice (kg) where, Ts is the temperature of water in a storage tank, Cpw is the

mw Mass ow rate of water (kg/s) specic heat of water.

Nu Nusselt number

Pr Prandtl number 4. Results and discussion

Q Heat transfer rate (W)

Ra Rayleigh number 4.1. Heat transfer of slurry ice

Ra Modied Rayleigh number

ro Outer radius of coil tube (m) Fig. 2 shows the heat transfer rate during ice melting with time for

Ste Stefan number different tube diameters and different water ow rates. The heat

t Time (min) transfer rate,Q, can be calculated from

Ta Temperature of surrounding (C)

Ts Temperature of slurry ice or water in a storage tank (C)

:

Q = mw Cpw Twi Two : 4

To External surface temperatures of helical coil (C)

(UA) Overall heat gain coefcient from the ambient (W/K) During ice melting, the temperature of slurry ice is at 0 C. In this

case, the mass ow rate of circulating water is between 0.0149

0.0562 kg/s. It is found that the heat transfer rate is approximately

Greek symbols 500900 W and nearly constant during ice melting. However, the heat

w Thermal diffusivity of water (m2/s) transfer rate drops quickly after all of ice already melts. For high mass

Thermal expansion coefcient of water (K-1) ow rate of circulating water, for example, at 0.04060.0562 kg/s (coil

s Latent heat of ice melting process (J/kg) diameter 6.35 mm), the heat transfer rates seem to be nearly constant

w Dynamics viscosity of water (N/m2s) for 60 min and tremendously decrease after 100 min. While for low

w Kinematics viscosity of water (m2/s) mass ow rate, at 0.01490.0171 kg/s (coil diameter 6.35 mm and

Ice fraction (by mass) 9.53 mm), the heat transfer rates are found to be nearly constant for

around 140 min and extremely reduce after 160 min. The undoubtedly

result shows that higher mass ow rate of circulating water gives

higher heat transfer rate. With higher coil diameter or higher heat

transfer area, higher heat transfer is also obtained.

3. Heat transfer analysis During the experiment, it is necessary to know the ice fraction

during melting. In this study, the ice fraction is evaluated by Eq. (2).

In the experiment, it is noted that the temperature of the ice/water Since the melting ice could not be measured directly, to verify the

slurry in the storage tank is nearly uniform. The temperature model, the usage time for melting all of ice in the slurry (from 60% to

difference at the top and the bottom is found to be less than 1.5 C. 0% mass fraction) is considered instead. Fig. 3 shows the comparison of

In our study, the uniform temperature model is used and the energy usage times from the experiment and those from the calculation at

balance at the slurry ice can be written as various conditions. The result shows that Eq. (2) can be used for

calculating the usage time quite well and 90% of experimental data can

d : be predicted with in 10% variation.

Ms is = mw iwi iwo + UATa Ts 1

dt The heat transfer coefcient at the outer surface of the coil during

where, t is time, MS is the mass of slurry ice, iS is the enthalpy of slurry ice melting is shown in Fig. 4. This heat transfer coefcient could be

ice, mw is the mass ow rate of water, iwi and iwo are the inlet and the calculated from

outlet enthalpies of circulating water inside helical coil, (UA) is the Q

overall heat gain coefcient from the ambient, Ta and T s are hs = 5

Ao To Ts

temperatures of the surrounding ambient and the slurry ice,

respectively. where hs is the heat transfer coefcient of melting process, Ao is outer

The left-hand side of the above equation is the enthalpy change of surface area of helical coil, To and Ts are the external surface tem-

the slurry ice with time while the rst and the second terms of the peratures of helical coil and the temperature of slurry ice respectively.

right-hand side are the rate of enthalpy change of the circulating water From Fig. 4, it is found that the heat transfer coefcient decreases

and the rate of heat gain from the surrounding ambient, respectively. with the increasing of ice fraction. At 0% ice fraction (no ice), the heat

In this work, the storage tank is well insulated with low thermal transfer coefcient is approximately between 400700 W/m2K. While

conductivity insulator. From the preliminary test, it is found that the at 60% ice fraction, the heat transfer coefcient is reduced around 40%.

rate of heat gain from the experiment is less than 2% compared to that This result comes from the heat transfer blockage of ice due to its low

of the rate of enthalpy change of the circulating water. Therefore, the thermal conductivity (1.88 W/mK). Actually, the heat transfer

second term of the right hand side of Eq. (1) could be neglected. phenomenon between the warm tube surface and the slurry ice is

S. Thongwik et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 35 (2008) 13351339 1337

Fig. 1. Schematic sketch of the experimental apparatus. a. Piping and instruments diagram. b. Detail of helical coil.

the combination of heat conduction (via ice) and convection (via surface of long horizontal cylinder in liquid. The model is as

water), therefore, higher fraction of ice trends to get lower heat follows:

transfer coefcient. 8 0 192

Fig. 4 also shows that higher mass ow rate of circulating water < 0:387Ra1=6 =

@

Nu = 0:60 + A ; 105 V Ra V 1012 ; 6

and lower tube diameter get higher heat transfer coefcient. These : 9=16 8=27 ;

1 + 0:559=Pr

phenomena can be explained by a heat transfer model developed

by Churchill and Chu [7] for natural heat convection from external

hs do

Nu = ; 7

kw

gTo Ts d3o

Ra = ; 8

w w

Cpw w

Pr = : 9

kw

number. It could be seen that the heat transfer coefcient (hs) is

directly proportional to Ra. In case of high mass ow rate of circulating

warm water results in higher heating surface temperature and then

higher values of Ra and hs are obtained. From Eqs.(6)(9), it is found

that hs is inversely proportional to tube diameter (do). Similarly, in our

result, lower coil diameter gets higher heat transfer coefcient.

heating surface and the slurry ice is also developed in this work.

The empirical models of this work are separated into 3 modes. The

Fig. 2. The heat transfer rates during ice melting. rst one is the model for predicting the natural convective heat

1338 S. Thongwik et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 35 (2008) 13351339

Fig. 3. The comparison of the usage time of ice melting calculated from Eq. (3) and that Fig. 5. Comparison of Nusselt number from experiment and model in case of the water

from the experiments. temperature higher than 3.984 C.

transfer coefcient when the water temperature is higher than In this case, the water temperature in the storage tank is between

3.984 C. At 3.984 C, the water has a highest density and most of 03.984 C. As mention above, the thermal expansion coefcient is

the heat transfer data for natural convection have been taken in a negative value, therefore, in this range, the calculated Rayleigh

range over this temperature. The second model is for the water number is taken from the absolute value as

temperature between 03.984 C. In this temperature range, the

RaV= jRaj: 10

thermal expansion coefcient () of water is negative value [8]. The

last model is the heat transfer coefcient model of slurry ice melting Ra is named as modied Rayleigh number.

on external surface of the helical coil. The detail of each model is In this case, the Nusselt number is the function of pertinent

shown in the following subsections. dimensionless terms as

In this part, the water temperature in the storage tank is between

410 C while the inlet temperature of water in the tube side is varied where, do / L is the aspect ratio of outside tube diameter and its length.

between 2327 C. Note that, the mass ow rate of the circulating By multiple regression technique, the empirical model of this part

water is between 0.01490.0562 kg/s. could be

The empirical model of Churchill and Chu [7] is used for predicting

Nuf = 3:4412x105 RaV0:0087905 Pr3:3765 do =L

0:57074

: 12

the Nusselt number for the above conditions. The comparison be-

tween the Nusselt number evaluated from the experimental data and Fig. 6 shows the comparison between Nu from the experimental

that from Churchill and Chu [7] is shown in Fig. 5. It is found that the data and from the model. It is found that the model can predict

model of Churchill and Chu [7] can be predicted 90% of the approximately 82.0% of experimental data within 5% variation.

experimental data within 10% variation.

Fig. 6. Comparison of Nusselt number from experiment and model in case of the water

Fig. 4. The heat transfer coefcients during ice melting. temperature between 03.984 C.

S. Thongwik et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 35 (2008) 13351339 1339

Fig. 7. Interrelation of the model of Churchill and Chu [7] and the model in Eq. (12). Fig. 8. Comparison of Nusselt number from the experimental data and the model in case

of the slurry ice during melting.

Fig. 7 shows the interrelation of the model of Churchill and Chu [7]

and the model in Eq. (12) in case of do = 6.35 mm and mw = 0.0158 kg/s. Ice fraction, coil diameter and mass ow rate of circulating water

The result shows that at 3.984 C, the calculation result from model in affect heat transfer coefcient between slurry ice and helical coil

Eq. (12) is close to that of Churchill and Chu [7]. surface. Small coil diameter, high mass ow rate of circulating

water and low ice fraction give high heat transfer coefcient.

4.2.3. Case of ice melting process (Ts = 0 C) The model of Churchill and Chu [7] can be used for predicting the

In this part, the empirical model of convective heat transfer natural convective heat transfer coefcient when the temperature

coefcient during ice melting is developed. At this condition, the of water in storage tank is higher than 3.984 C. However, in case of

Nusselt number is the function of dimensionless terms as the water temperature is between 0 - 3.984 C and in case of slurry

ice, the developed models could predict the heat transfer

Nus = f Ste; n; Fo; do =L 13

coefcient very well.

Cpw To Ts Acknowledgement

Ste = 14

w

The authors would like to thank Thermal Technology Research

w t Laboratory, Mae Moh Training Center, Electricity Generating Authority

Fo = 15

ro2 of Thailand for facilitating the testing equipments and the Commis-

sion on Higher Education, Thailand for funding this research study.

where, Ste is Stefan number, is ice fraction (by mass) and Fo is

Fourier number. The developed model is

References

h i

22 0:097084 0:0034767 3:6563 7:3018

Nus = Nuf 1:0942x10 1n Ste Fo do =L : [1] T.W. Davies, Slurry ice as a heat transfer uid with a large number of application

domains, International Journal of Refrigeration 28 (2005) 108114.

16 [2] J. Bellas, I. Chaer, S.A. Tassou, Heat transfer and pressure drop of ice slurries in plate

heat exchangers, Applied Thermal Engineering 22 (2002) 721732.

All properties are based on the properties of liquid water. Fig. 8 [3] B.D. Knodel, D.M. France, U.S. Choi, M.W. Wambsganss, Heat transfer and pressure

shows the comparison of Nusselt number from the experiments and drop in ice-water slurries, Applied Thermal Engineering 20 (2000) 671685.

[4] B. Niezgoda-Zelasko, Heat transfer of ice slurry ows in tubes, International Journal

the model. It is found that the model can predict approximately 97.8%

of Refrigeration 29 (2006) 437450.

of experimental data within 10% variation. It should be noted that [5] D.W. Lee, E.S. Yoon, M.C. Joo, A. Sharma, Heat transfer characteristics of the ice slurry

when ice fraction equals to 0, Nus Nuf and the heat transfer data for at melting process in a tube ow, International Journal of Refrigeration 29 (2006)

natural convection (Eq. (12)) could be implemented. 451455.

[6] S. Thongwik, N. Vorayos, T. Kiatsiriroat, A. Nuntaphan, Thermal analysis of slurry ice

production system using direct contact heat transfer of carbon dioxide and water

5. Conclusion mixture, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 36/6 (2008)

756761.

[7] S.W. Churchill, H.H.S. Chu, Correlating equations for laminar and turbulent free

From this research, it can be concluded as follows: convection from a horizontal cylinder, International Journal of Heat and Mass

Transfer 18 (1975) 1049.

The heat transfer rate between slurry ice and warm helical coil [8] F.P. Incropera, D.P. De Witt, Fundamental of heat and mass transfer, 3rd ed. John

Wiley & Sons, Singapore, 1990.

surface is nearly constant during ice melting and tremendously

decreases after all ice melts.

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