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ISSN: 2278 2168

Milestone Education Review


(The Journal of Ideas on Educational & Social
Transformation)
Year 08, No.01 (April, 2017)

Chief-Editor: Desh Raj Sirswal


Guest-Editor: Manoj Kumar

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Milestone Education Review (2278-2168)

Milestone Education Review (The Journal of Ideas on Educational & Social Transformation)
is an online peer-reviewed bi-annual journal of Milestone Education Society (Regd.)
Pehowa (Kurukshetra). For us education refers to any act or experience that has a
formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. The role of
education must be as an instrument of social change and social transformation. Social
transformation refers to large scale of social change as in cultural reforms and
transformations. The first occurs with the individual, the second with the social system.
This journal offers an opportunity to all academicians including educationist, social-
scientists, philosophers and social activities to share their views. Each issue contains about
100 pages.

Milestone Education Society (Regd.), Pehowa (Kurukshetra)

Chief-Editor: Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal (Assistant Professor (Philosophy), P.G .Govt. College
for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh.

Guest-Editor: Dr. Manoj Kumar, Assistant Professor, Post Graduate Dept. of Sociology, P.G.
Government College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh.

Associate Editors: Dr. Merina Islam, Dr. Poonama Verma

Editorial Advisory Board:

Prof. K.K. Sharma (Former-Pro-Vice-Chancellor, NEHU, Shillong).

Prof. (Dr.) Sohan Raj Tater (Former Vice Chancellor, Singhania University, Rajasthan).

Dr. Dinesh Chahal (Department of Education, Central University of Haryana).

Dr. Manoj Kumar, (P.G. Department of Sociology, P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11,
Chandigarh).

Dr. Sudhir Baweja (University School of Open Learning,, Panjab University, Chandigarh).

Dr. K. Victor Babu (Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam).

Dr. Nidhi Verma (Department of Psychology, C.R.S. University, Jind (Haryana).

Dr. Jayadev Sahoo (Jr. Lecturer in Logic & Philosophy, GM Jr. College, Sambalpur, Odisha).

Declaration: The opinions expressed in the articles of this journal are those of the individual
authors, and not necessary of those of the Society or the Editor. Front page picture is downloaded
from the Internet.

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In this issue..

Title & Author Page No.


The Yajna-Aranyanka Sanskriti: Ecology Revisited in the light of 04-09
Indian Culture:Shivani Sharma
Impact of Social Media on Consumer and Consumer Protection : 10-19
Ranjay Vardhan
Importance of Peer Group in the Genesis of Juvenile Delinquency: 20-29
Amrinder Bhullar
Teaching Human Rights of Marginalized Groups: A Challenge: 30-34
Manoj Kumar
The Sacred Games: A Critique of Religious Radicalism in the 35-43
Context of Kiran Nagarkars Gods Little Soldier: Rajesh Kumar
Jaiswal
Understanding The Surrounding Colours For A Blissful Life: 44-50
Madhumita Bhattacharjee
Education and Social Change- with reference to Paulo Freires 51-58
Libertarian Education: Minakshi Rana
Workers Participation in Management: Pardeep Singh Walia 59-65
Stevia- A Natural Sweetener: Anurita Sharma 66-69
Relationship with Superordinates, Subordinates and Colleagues 70-79
with Relation to Job Satisfaction Among Police Officials in UT
Chandigarh: Sandeep Buttola
Career Maturity as Correlates of Occupational Aspirations of the 80-86
School Students: Lilu Ram Jakhar
Intelligence and Values as Related to Mental Health of Teachers: 87-94
Anjali Puri
CONTRIBUTORS OF THIS ISSUE 95

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The Yajna-Aranyanka Sanskriti: Ecology Revisited in the light of
Indian Culture
Shivani Sharma

The oldest trace of environmental concerns and issues with regard to Indian culture is
said to be found in the Rigveda. It is conceived to be connected and concerned with the deities
and gods and different ways adopted by the people for their worship. These gods were rather
personified powers existent in nature. Agni, Varun, Marutas, Indra , Savita, Ushas etc. are some
well known among them which were supposed to be the dominating natural forces. The Mantras
in the Rigveda were invocations to them and other deities, supposedly to be accompanied with
some kind of oblation differing in the case of different deities. The impact of this mutual and
interdependence is so intertwined in the philosophical tradition of India that even a school as
realistic as that of Vaisheshika upholds and establishes that all the Panchmahabhutas in their
subtle form exist in human physical organism. The finite form of the Sun (Agni) in us would be
eyes and similarly of Air would be the breath, of the Waters would be the Rasnaagra (tip of
tongue), of the Prithvi (Earth) would be Naasagra(the tip of nose) and that of Aakaasha would be
the Karna-randhra (the hollow space of ears). This representation of the cosmos in relation to
human body as such enables us to visualize a perspective and a background whereby an Indian
mind must have grown with and further must have epitomized the same idea in his or her life. It
must be mentioned here explicitly that even Brahma, Vishnu, Prajapati, Rudra etc. and Mahesh
are considered to be gods/deities and not God. In fact it would not be an exaggeration to say that
the Vedic thought depended much on the deities than on the concept of God as such. They have a
natural order and a course to follow that is called Rta. As the harmonious order followed by the
co-existent forces in nature is called Rta so followed by the humans is called Dharma.

Rta and Dharma are known to be the path of righteousness. Be it a natural event,
happening, occurring or a human endeavor, effort, action the path suggested by the tradition is
none other than of righteousness. Fire cannot leave its nature, for what it is known for and so is
expected of other deities similarly is expected of humans too. To be deceitful is unnatural and
thus must be rejected and be shunned. The Sanskrit term for deity has a derivation from the root
Divu, literally meaning to be shining, to be luminous. The suggestive meaning for such an
interpretation is to make the spirit be understood that every small little phenomenon in this
universe shines because of its unique identity, because it is different from the rest and has no
other identical existent to itself. Its existence must be accepted by others too. Yasya vakyam sa
rishih ya tenochyate saa devata (Rg Veda). One who records his experience is Rishi and the
object of his experience is devata. It would be significant to pick up the thread and develop the
idea of Rishis of the Vedas being primarily Kavis. Their empathetic approach to their
surroundings and accepting the external world as a part of their existence has led to the creation
of mantras. Thus, the subject of their revelations and observations are no manipulated versions
but rather articulated experiences of what they had felt.

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The Vedas being divided in to four sections i.e. Mantra, Brahmana, Aranyaka and the
Upanishads gives us a glimpse as to how human life divides itself at different scales and realms.
Humans enjoy a world of word and meaning whereby language acts not merely as a tool to
express and communicate but also express aesthetically. The Mantra portion of the Vedas dwells
on the outer form of linguistic domain of humans. Another important dimension of human
existence is their inbuilt relation to religion and performance of rituals attached to it. Brahamanas
of the Vedas is an exploration into the ritualistic domain. Purva Mimamsa is the philosophical
system that grounds its foundations on this aspect of the Vedas. It is believed that a ritualistic act
must be accompanied with Mantra and if does no, it would yield the result for which it is meant
to. Since Indian ideal was that of perusal of Purusharthas of Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha,
and life was divided into Asharamas , the Aranyakas primarily dealt with life to be lead by a
Sanyasin during his contemplative period in the forests. The last section of Upanishads represent
the intellectual quest and inquisitiveness and thus acts as a source of philosophical ideas for the
seekers of salvation. Man if has been viewed as a being with appetitive, conative and cognitive
desires by the Greeks then similarly his desires have been well represented by the four sects of
the Vedas too. We give meaning to our rituals, we also give meaning to our language and then
we also prepare ourselves to transgress what is given to us and then finally we attempt to
transcend by squeezing the outer world into oneself or by merging oneself into the eternal
cosmic reality.

It seems easy to pack up all the problems in to an ethical box and then seek solutions to it
from outside. Any issue gains ethical status not when it is beneficiary to few or a group of or to
the majority rather when it bypasses the path of righteousness. Avoiding the debate on the
concept of righteousness and assuming that morality has both the shades of customary and
reflective, I intend to explore the environmental concerns in the following way. Different
approaches have been adopted by the repudiated thinkers and scholars in interpreting and
understanding the ecological and environmental issues. Ecology may be overviewed from Sacred
viewpoint, from Ayurvedic perspective, from literary perspective, from Lawful standpoint but
the intent that remains is that of respecting and saving the surrounding we live in. A purely
philosophical distinction between an event and an action is that of unintentional occurring and
intentional performance. The Sun rises in the east and will continue to do same for all times to
come. This can trigger two attitudes in us. First, it is a scientific event that has enough of rational
grounds to be explained to any person with scientific temper. Second, it may be an event but it is
connected to my existence and I see myself as an extension of it. The cosmos is a part of me and
I am too a part of the same. I derive some sense in visualizing my relation and connectivity to the
environment I live in. The latter attitude helps me to be more proactive, concerned and
responsible for my deeds affecting all and one around me. The focus remains on the rightful
usage of the nature or the appropriateness of the human needs inadequate desires. The point I
intend to highlight is that my sensibility towards cosmic connectivity would not only help me in
cultivating values in general but also will help in initiating its protection and sustenance.

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The fundamental of any ethical issue arises from the dichotomy of is-ought. How
things are and how they should be are the two available perspectives. Science ventures into the
former and philosophy and more specifically axiology, into the later. The key to all the ethical
dilemmas is the individual. Therefore, be it technology or environment the use and abuse of the
two by the individual defines and identifies the personhood of an individual.

In order to formulate the foundation of this paper I intend to read some historical
references enabling to apprehend the backdrop in which ecological issues may be addressed.

1.Annadbhavanti bhutani parjanyadannasambhavah, Yagyadbhavati parjanyo yajnyah


karmasamudbhavah; Karma brahmoddbhavam vidhi brahmaakshrasamudbhavam,
Tasmatsarvagatam brahama nityam yajnye pratishthitam1 i.e.the spring source of living
beings is food and food is a product of rain that is further caused by Yajna. This verse
highlights the significance of the direct bond between humans and the nature by pointing out that
in order to be at receiving end humans must first learn to give and contribute. Indian society has
been primarily agrarian society that has believed in a survival on the basis of produce of the
fields and cattle product. For this purpose, Bhavadgita suggests that if one must need good
showers for ones field one must think ways to connect to cosmos as its extension by recognizing
it in a token form. This token form is said to be Yajna as it helps in the formation of clouds and
hence rains. Bhagvadgita also suggests that food that is cooked and eaten by oneself alone is like
enjoying demerit. Thus, a life lived for oneself is not worth and thus concern for others is to be
valued and practiced. To this Bhagvadgita terms as Lokasamgraha.

2. Vayuh pittam kaphasacoktah sariro doshasangrahah, Manasah punaruddishto


rajashca tama eva ca2 The science of Ayurveda views all diseases of the body generated
because of an imbalance in the natural biological system. The vata(wind), Pitta (bile), and Kapha
(phlegm) in the body and even the mental illness are found to be referred to a dislocation of order
and harmony among the gunas. It is believed that what so ever exists out in the universe exists
too in our bodies. Human body is a miniature form of the cosmos and thus embodies all those
Mahatattvas that constitute the outer universe. So far a balanced relation among the elements
sustains humans enjoy a healthy life and as soon as there is an imbalance it leads to rupture and
breakage in the co-existing elements leading to imbalance and disruption of the system. The
intent is that one must recognize that the human body is nothing but an extended part of the
cosmos and gets directly impacted by the external changes. The changes in the environment are
registered and token note of by the human body and thus shows in its signature form as
disproportionate volumes among the vital elements of our physico-biological existence, thus is
the view of Ayurveda.

3. Pansu nyase rathyamshtabhago dandah..pankodaka sannirodhe paadah rajmarge


dvigunah, punyasthanodaka sthana devagriha rajaparigraheshu panottara vishtha
dandah, mutreshu ardha dandah3No one shall throw dirt on the streets or let mud and
water collect there; no shall pass urine or feces in a holy place, a water reservoir, a temple, or a

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royal property, unless it is unavoidable for reasons such as illness, medication, or fear; no one
shall throw out dead bodies of animals or humans inside the city. Chankyas Arthashastra
extends a word of caution and shares a concern for the well being of the entire society. All that
belongs to public constitute a part of integral human life and adds dignity to human existence.
Order and system is the mark of reflection and rationality that pervades human intelligence and
thus, public property must not only be protected but restored so that it is equally available to
coming generations. Sensible and sensitive approach to the consumption of natural resources has
always been the concern of Indian culture.

4. Apushpah phalvanto ye te vanaspatayah smritah, pushpin phalinashcaiva vrikshastu


ubhayatah smritahGuccha gulmamam tu dvividham.Tamsa bahurupena veshtita
karma hetuna, antah samkhna bhavantyete sukh dukh samanvita4. The different categories
of flowering and non-flowering trees are considered because of their karmas in previous birth are
though laden with tamas yet they are recognized to be internally sensitive to the pain and
pleasure. The quote from Manu Smriti has stretched the idea of holistic existence of humans in
relation to their environment in a significant way. Firstly it is believed that all forms of life are
subject to Karma and the present birth is because of one previous Karmas and trees and plants
are no exception to this law. Thus, trees and entire forest life is equally potent as humans and
thus demanding empathetic reactions from the humans. Recognizing that trees and plants are
sensitive to touch must not be cut and thus protected.

5. Prarohi Shakhinam shakha skandha sarvavidarne, upjivyadrumanam ca vinshate


dviguno damah5. If a man cuts a branch of a tree, a tree or a creeper or a shrub should be forty
times fined. Yajnyavalkya smriti makes sure that the system of lawful practices prevail in human
society. That there is no breach of rules that are actually conducive to humanity and in doing this
it is recommended that punishment must be exercised in some form if humans violate and
disrespect nature and natural property.

6. Yancha mogha varamadhiune naadhame santaptanam tvamasi sharanam


tatpayodahpriyayah sandesham hara.6the Yaksha of text assumes the water loaded
clouds to be his friend and treats him to be a living messenger of his love towards his beloved.
The Yaksha regards that a request dismissed by a person (Megha in this context) is better than a
request granted by a person of low character. Kalidasa is said to be a poet of imagery that stands
highly symbolic and laden with powerful message. To turn a cloud into a messenger and
treatment of a cloud may be seen as mere personification but at the same time it indicates that
Indian mind has always been sensitive to its surrounding nature and nature assists in realizing
ones motives and aspirations. The poet assumes that even if a friend turns down ones request is
in many ways better than a wish accepted by a man with weak character.

The poet soars high while treating the cloud not only as his messenger and friend but also
visualize it as an embodiment of good character. With science at modern mans side it can be

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easily proved and rendered wrong that no cloud can be a messenger but it is the free-play of
poets imagination that through personification it links up the human and the natural world.

7. Kalidasa would compare the laughter of lord Siva with the snow clad Himalayas when he
proclaims Pratikshanmiva Trayambak Attahaasa7. The creative world of poetics can be
seen full with examples that treat gods as friends of humans and the natural environment and
thus a mutual relation is established. The godly features and characteristics of lord Shiva and lord
Vishnu are of high significance in this context. It must be mentioned here that each god in
Hinduism or in Indian culture has a specific vehicle of its own. For example, a Nandi-bull for
lord Shiva and a Sheshnaag for lord Vishnu and owl for goddess Laxmi, a peacock for goddess
Saraswati. The question is to seek insight into presuming such birds and animals associated with
the gods. Animals have been symbolically endowed with meanings. They are not to be tamed
and tortured to perform in circuces and be regarded as a means and sources of income. Rather,
they have a world of their own and they are co-existent partners. Their participation in our lives
enables humans to perform better and thus their existence must be honored and respected too.
Further it is interesting to note that the aesthetic attitude of Kalidas has been outstanding when it
comes to connecting nature with human gesture. Such a holistic stance with regard to nature and
its impact on human world is rightly pointed out by Indian culture.

Ecology, certainly can be understood primarily at two different levels. One of which
could be scientifically sliced and rationally defined further leading us to interpret the
constituting elements of atmosphere and environment and secondly, it could be considered as an
interactive element among living beings and other species or forms of life, which otherwise not
be fully rationally grown yet these forms of life contribute to human existence. The intent is to
understand this later domain of Ecology. The term Ecology is a derivation from the Greek work
Oikos meaning household and logos stands for a disciplined branch of knowledge. The term
Oekologie was first coined by the German biologist Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Therefore, in its
essence ecology refers to a knowledge that deals with the set up of nature. It is important here to
bring a comparative note on the usage of the term equivalent to ecology in Indian context.
Paryavarana is close to ecology as it is also concerned with the elements that surround not only
humans but entire universe. The universe is said to be covered from all sides by the
Panchmahabhutas i.e. Prithvi, Jala, Tejas, Vayu and Akasha. Prakriti (Nature) is the controlling
agent. The rule of Rta dominates and regulates the universe. Gases like Nitrogen and Oxygen
forms the major part of our atmosphere and so does many other gases like methane, hydrogen,
helium and other elements like vapor, sand particles, smoke etc. together forms our Atmosphere.
Depletion of Ozone layer is one of the concurrent issues our generation is faced with. The aim of
different layers like troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere etc. is to protect Life on
Earth. However, the aim is to interpret the meaning of Life on Earth in its philosophical
dimension. What it would mean to have a life and how planet Earth makes human life
precious and unique. The Vedic view upholds a cosmo-centric view of human existence. It is

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intended that humans are not the masters of the universe rather they constitute a fraction of the
cosmic reality. Each existent being is nothing but an extension of the cosmic order known as Rta.

Conclusion:

Scientific researches have already established that Earths atmosphere is not only
conducive to human form of life but it is the only planet with unique conditions that supports and
helps in sustenance of life. Considering this view each single creature on Earth is endowed with
equal right to life as these conditions comes to humans by default. The only contribution that is
expected of humans is to consider treat Earth as home and foster values that are conducive to its
atmospheric health. Empty theories must emerge out of conviction and regard for the right to life
for all. Probably it is for this reason the Vedic vision of Sarve Bhavanti Sukhinah Sarve
Santu Niramayah claims peace and happiness for all irrespective of caste and creed.
Therefore, it would not be wrong to say that Indian approach to environment primarily is an
empathetic take and formulates Yajna as a give and take principle. The principle of Yajna acts as
a reminder to humans that if they contribute towards the well being of their atmosphere and
environment they too may be showered with a blessed life and if not we might fall short of
oxygen and fresh air to breathe as we are now-a-days witnessing the phenomenon of smog has
hit human life. We need to invite nature in a metaphorical sense to participate than to compete
with it and recognize its magnanimity and respect for what it is.

References:

1. Bhagvadgita 3.14-15
2. Jnanabhashaya Manjari, xviii ed. R.K Sharma, Nag Publishers, Delhi, 1998
3. Artha Shastra 2.36.30-33
4. Manu Smriti I.47-49
5. Yajnavalkya Smriti, Vyavhara Adhyaya, 2.227-229
6. Kalidasa, Meghadoot, sloka 6th.
7. Kalidasa, Meghadoot, sloka 60th

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Impact of Social Media on Consumer and Consumer Protection

Ranjay Vardhan
Abstract

Social media is becoming an agent of change. It is changing the way information is


communicated to and from people around the world. The rapid use of social media such as blogs
and other social networking sites and media-sharing technology is changing the way companies
respond to consumers needs and wants and changing the way they respond to their competitors.
Marketers and marketing companies now have the opportunity to engage in broader and more
innovative forms of online mass media communications by using the social media marketing
tools. In the Indian market, International brands are becoming successful. Their goods are
successful to position themselves as strategic elements in certain product categories in terms of
quality and usefulness. The Indian consumers are spending much on consumer goods which is
generating huge demand of new goods and services irrespective of foreign or national market.
Based on secondary data, the paper is an attempt to study impact of social media on the
consumption pattern of the consumers in the society. The paper likes to conclude that with the
increased adoption ad fission of the Internet, World Wide Web is becoming gradually a standard
advertisement platform. The Web is offering business advertisement world with more rich media
tools, interactive services, and global reach. Social Media is going to be a powerful tool for
advertisers in future and we all have to decide whether to be guided by social media or by our
own knowledge.

Jean Baudrillard in The Consumer Society states:

There is all around us today a kind of fantastic conspicuousness of consumption and


abundance, constituted by multiplication of objects, services and material goods, and this
represents something of a fundamental mutation in the ecology of the human species. Strictly
speaking, the humans of affluence are surrounded not so much by other human beings, as they
were in all previous ages, but by objects. Their daily dealings are now not so much with fellow
men, but rather-on a rising statistical curve-with the reception and manipulation of goods and
messages. This runs from the very complex organization of the household, with its dozens of
technical slaves, to street furniture and the whole material machinery of communication; from
professional activities to the permanent spectacle of the celebration of the object in advertising
and the hundreds of daily messages from the mass media; from the minor proliferation of
vaguely obsessional gadgetry to the symbolic psychodramas fuelled by the nocturnal objects
which come to haunt us even in our dreams.

If we analyze what Jean Baudrillard has said is true for contemporary society.
Consumption has become the morality of our present world. It is currently destroying the
foundations of the human being, that is to say, the balance which European Thought has
maintained since the Greeks between our mythological roots and the world of the logos. We are

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being allured by advertisements- the booming interest in fitness; the desire for slimness and the
resulting dieting mania; obesity and the obsession for low calorie, low fat foods, fashion, buying
things which we do not require, and the burgeoning use of sexuality for commercial purposes.
What we consume is signs (messages, images) rather than commodities. This means that
consumers need to be able to read the system of consumption in order to know what to consume.
Commodities are no longer defined by their use but rather by what they signify. What people
seek in consumption is not so much a particular object as difference and search for the latter is
unending.

This trend is confirmed by the success of McDonalds, Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola, Rock
Music, Greek Salad, Hollywood movies, Revlon cosmetics, Sony televisions, and Pepe jeans,
etc. The High-touch products are present everywhere as high-tech. Starting from opposing
sides; the high-tech and the high-touch ends of the commercial spectrum gradually consume the
undistributed middle in their cosmopolitan orbit. Everyone is part of it and nothing can stop the
process. Everywhere everything is becoming more and more like everything else as the worlds
preference structure is relentlessly homogenized. The world is driven by powerful force toward a
converging commonality, and that force is technology. It has revolutionized communication,
transport, and travel. It has made isolated places and even common people enthusiastic for
modernitys allurements. Almost everyone everywhere wants all the things they have heard
about, seen, or experienced via the new technologies. The result is the emergence of global
markets for standardized consumer products on a previously unimagined scale of magnitude.
Multinational Corporations have geared to this new reality and benefitted from enormous
economies of scale in production, distribution, marketing, and management. By translating these
benefits into reduced world prices, they are decimating competitors that still work in old system.
The multinational and the global corporation are not the same thing. The multinational
corporation operates in a number of countries, and adjusts its products and practices in eachat
high relative costs. The global corporation operates with resolute constancyat low relative
costas if the entire world or major regions of it were a single entity; it sells the same things in
the same way everywhere.

In the Indian market, International brands are becoming successful. Their goods are
successful to position themselves as strategic elements in certain product categories in terms of
quality and usefulness. For instance, in lifestyle product segment such as beauty accessories and
ointments, international goods surpass country made products. A lackadaisical nature of both
manufacturing techniques and availability of raw materials is the primary reason of
incompetence of Indian brands in certain categories. Despite higher prices, International brands
are successful and gaining popularity because they can lure the high income section of Indian
consumers. It is notable that this section of buyers is on par with global buyers who have
adequate purchasing power to buy goods from the most expensive markets of the world.

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Consumer lifestyle in India is undergoing a massive transformation. This change in the country
is influenced by socio cultural factors, demographics, preferences, norms and behaviour of
consumers. Indian consumers now prefer a life full of luxury and comfort. The buying
preferences of Indian middle class have been influencing the consumer culture of the country.
The reason is; fast growth of services sector per capita income of the populace has increased.
Apart from this, rise of disposable income continues to drive increase spending on consumer
goods from foreign market. It is a notable point that goods from foreign markets tend to follow a
competitive pricing model in contrast to Indian products. This factor leads further impetus on
popularity of International brands as they become more affordable with competitive prices
against Indian products.

The Indian consumers are spending much on consumer goods which is generating huge
demand of new goods and services irrespective of foreign or national market. At this point,
goods from foreign markets are successful to achieve greater sales due to their quality as well as
due to the inclination of average Indians towards foreign goods. Consumption patterns depend on
liberalization of economic policies and buying habits of the upcoming generation and availability
of goods. The new generation is gaining economic independence at younger age. This has lead to
greater thrust on consumer goods of a typical foreign nature. Furthermore increase in number of
nuclear families is also the reasons of prominence of foreign brands in Indian market.

The current generation, care less about paying an extra for better quality, facility and
ambiance. Mass media, internet and communication have been the factors driving awareness
about international lifestyle and culture amongst Indian buyers. This awareness leads to further
want of goods and services as Indian consumers tend to follow international lifestyle. Therefore,
consumer culture has been reinforcing a globalized lifestyle within Indian buyers. International
brands are coming up as the mediator or this globalized living.
The Mckinsey & Co. report in 2007 suggested that India will grow to the fifth largest consumer
market in the world by 2025. A study by US-based networking solution giant CISCO, reveals
that in India, the second-largest Smartphone market globally, the number of smartphones is
expected to grow strongly to over 650 million by 2019. India continues to witness high rate of
mobile phone subscriptions. India added the highest number of net mobile phone subscriptions of
13 million during the third quarter of 2015, which was equal to the additions of China (7 million)
and US (6 million) combined, as per a report by Ericsson. The credit culture in India has been a
major driver of increasing proliferation of foreign goods. The credit system has assisted Indians
to buy expensive goods on easy loans and EMIs. The amenities provided by credit cards have put
a primary thrust on consumerism in India. Indian consumers value and admire global brands as a
status symbol. The emergence of international e-marketers in the Indian business has lead to a
growth of foreign brands. On the other hand busy lifestyle of Indians has become a common
place trait. Fitness and style accessories being related to modern lifestyle have become ingrained
with consumer behaviour. Globalization has led the entire world to become a single market. It is

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now a global village and the process of globalization immensely aided exchange of goods and
services. Furthermore, global competition has made companies to cater the local needs of diverse
geographies.

Social Media Driving Change in Consumerism

Social media is becoming an agent of change. It is changing the way information is


communicated to and from people around the world. The rapid use of social media such as blogs
and other social networking sites and media-sharing technology is changing the way companies
respond to consumers needs and wants and changing the way they respond to their competitors.
Marketers and marketing companies now have the opportunity to engage in broader and more
innovative forms of online mass media communications by using the social media marketing
tools. Social networking programs group individuals by interests, hometowns, employers,
schools and other commonalities and communicate effectively. Social networking helps
marketers to engage users in communication that benefit them. Social media such as Facebook,
Twitter and YouTube are dynamic tools that facilitate online relationships. It is a relatively low
cost form of effective marketing. With so many choices available to consumers and the
influential role of social media marketing, the brands and consumers are playing a significant
role in changing the organizations strategy. Brands influence customer choice. Customers
influence other customers. These chains of events affect purchases and repurchases which helps
a company increase awareness of its brand, generate leads, build its customer base, improve sales
and market share. If planned and executed properly, social media becomes a very cost effective
mode of online promotions.

Mobile text and application capabilities, such as SMS and Twitter, are becoming more
affordable and available, thus adoption of mobile social networking across India increasing.
Whatsapp has further revolutionized the communication. Subscriber growth in India will
continue, driven by rural expansion, entry of newer operators, 3G, 4G and cheaper handsets.
Technology, Media & Telecom represents approximately 5% of global GDP, and with the
growing population in India, Indians are expected to have a better chance of capitalizing on
developing social media mobile trends. Advancements and globalization of digital platforms and
social media technologies is empowering people across the globe to participate, and share
content online. India has experienced technology as a vehicle in aiding social change through
social media. The growth of social media outlets is changing behaviours, perceptions, and
attitudes as the ease and growth of online social technologies induce audiences to become digital
activists; changing user behaviour from passive to active, non-participatory to avid participation,
and enabling users with a voice that was otherwise unknown or untapped. The power of social
media and its impacts on individuals, businesses, and society in India has provided an equal
opportunity to voice thoughts, opinions, and share information. The increase of usage and ease of

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entry provides an attractive interface for anyone to become a creator or advocate of information
and ideas by using blogs, micro-blogs, social sharing, and networking sites.

Social media usage in India increased in leaps and bounds, as number of internet users in
India reached 302 million users by December 2014. India is a key market for social media giants
active social media users in India grew to around 106 million and India is among the top three
countries in terms of number of people using Facebook (100m+ users), whereas Twitter is seeing
an increased user base of over 33 million. The increased mobile web penetration is also seen as a
key contributor to increased growth in active social media usage 84% of 100 million users of
Facebook in India access it from their mobile devices. The popularity of social networks has
created a new trend of social sharing where individuals can recommend to groups of people
products, services, information and ideas. The online peer-influence factor virally spreads as
visible feedback channels engage, encourage and promote peers to be more participative and
interact. It is no surprise that micro-blogging sites like Twitter share the breaking news faster
than the traditional media channels, as more and more people are using it not only for live
streaming of their personal events but most importantly as an information sharing medium and a
collective knowledge sharing channel with other people across the world.

For brands and marketers, social media introduces both opportunities and challenges.
Brands are now able to listen to and address both compliments and complaints made by fellow or
future consumers enabling the brand or marketer to respond to and interact with the public. In
India, eight out of 10 people from urban areas who buy cars use the internet to search for
information on brands and products before making a purchase. A major driver for businesses to
use the social media marketing is the low-cost model compared to traditional marketing
channels. Predictions for Business to Consumer marketing via social media in India indicates
that more marketers will be adopting social media strategies as a new marketing medium and
engagement channel to interact with current and prospective consumers. For businesses in India,
monitoring social interaction behaviours, brand reputation, and current and prospective consumer
expectations will help the company to build long-term relationships, create loyal communities of
brand advocates, and engage in a dialogue with people interested in the product, brand, or
service.

Studies on Social Media

Sliva, Bhuptani, Menon & DSliva (2011) made an attempt to understand the usage
pattern of social media among youth in the city of Mumbai. It also aimed at assessing the
influence of social media on the consumer buying behaviour. Results from the analysis indicated
that social media is a very important tool for networking among youngsters.

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Bashar, Ahmad & Wasiq (2012) did an empirical research to understand the effectiveness
of social media as a marketing tool and an effort has been made to analyze the extent social
media helps consumers in buying decision making. Results of paper suggested that the medium
is growing very fast and holds huge potential but is still in its nascent stage in India. Therefore, it
is time for the companies to make effective strategies and execute them to win larger share of
business through this revolutionary medium and become the innovative firm of coming future.
Vij & Sharma (2013) did study on social media experience of consumers and marketers in the
State of Punjab. Based on the results of the study and reviewed literature, the paper suggested the
measures for effective Social Media Marketing (SMM) strategies that Above all, social media
marketing content should be interesting, informative, interactive and reliable. Marketers
should align their social media marketing effort with the changing tastes and preferences of
customers.

Yadav (2012) studied the significance of social networks as an advertising medium and
evaluated the existing advertising methods that are in trend via certain case studies and
concluded that social websites are not just a tool to interact with the different people but also
medium to reach the prospective customers.

Bhakuni & Aronkar (2012) tried to understand the usage pattern of social media among
the students of Gwalior city and also assessed the influence of social media advertising on the
purchasing intention of the students. The study concluded that social media is a rapidly growing
area with large number of young students associating with it and there is a strong positive
relationship between purchase intention and social media advertising.

Dash (2011) explored the relevant factors applicable for online marketing awareness,
Purpose of use and usage of social networking sites and concluded that college students are well
aware about different social networking sites and their use & popularity is increasing hence it is
serving as a very good medium to connect students. Therefore, marketing with the help of these
sites can play an important role for online marketing but it is necessary to ensure product quality
since user groups are educated.

Consumer Responsibility

Strange as it may seem, most consumers do not know that the law is on their side. It is for
the consumers to enforce the provisions of law by vitalizing enforcement. The machinery is
available. It has to be use effectively. Marilyn Ferguson writes in The Aquarian Conspiracy,
Countries like ours are full of people who have all the material comforts they desire, yet lead
lives of quiet (and at times noisy) desperation, understanding nothing but the fact that there is a
hole inside them and that however much food and drink they pour into it. Therefore, being aware
about rights a consumer should also understand his responsibilities for procuring the better

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outcomes. The globalization of markets makes it very difficult for the laws of nation states to
control the excesses of businesses operating outside of their physically defined territories.
Computer mediated communication networks afford new opportunities for transnational
marketing that may ignore the restrictions afforded by national consumer protection laws. How
then could consumers be protected in this new virtual marketplace? A few possibilities are
suggested, but none really offers promise of the level of protection which consumers receive
under national laws.

The Consumer Protection Act, 1986

The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 (68 of 1986) is a milestone in the history of socio-
economic legislation in the country. It is one of the most progressive and comprehensive piece of
legislations enacted for the protection of consumers. It was enacted after in-depth study of
consumer protection laws in a number of countries and in consultation with representatives of
consumers, trade and industry and extensive discussions within the Government. The main
objective of the act is to provide for the better protection of consumers. Unlike existing laws
which are punitive or preventive in nature, the provisions of this Act are compensatory in nature.
The act is intended to provide simple, speedy and inexpensive redressal to the consumers'
grievances, and relief of a specific nature and award of compensation wherever appropriate to
the consumer. The act has been subsequently amended both to extend its coverage and scope and
to enhance the powers of the redressal machinery. It confers upon consumers eight rights i.e.:
basic needs, safety, information, choice, representation, redress, consumer education, healthy
environment. It provides remedies to the aggrieved customer in form Replace, Remove, Refund,
Redress.

However, Consumer Protection Act, 1986 had limited impact on consumer empowerment
mainly due to lack of awareness about the Act and its provisions. Comparatively the impact has
been more on males than females. The urban consumers are much more aware about the Act than
their rural counterparts. It is also evident that higher the age group more the awareness about the
Act and its provisions. Similarly higher the education level and income level more the awareness
about the Act. The Act has much less impact on the marginalised sections of the society who
lack education and are living in the rural areas with low level of income. The awareness level
about the Consumer Protection Act and Consumer Rights is higher in areas where consumer
clubs have been set up in schools and colleges and are actively involved in consumer activities.
The limited impact and the ineffectiveness of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 to a large
extent is not due to inadequacy of the law or its provisions but it is due to the poor
implementation of the Act. However, this act has made consumer aware of their rights and they
are dragging defaulters to courts. This act has limited provision to regulate social media. Ads are
the major channel of communication in order to create awareness about goods and services
through print media, TV media, radio, etc. for example the ad of Axe it guides customers that if

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the men puts it on his body girls will fall behind him for its fragrance, but in real life its
impossible. It clearly misguiding to customers. Its clear that ad agencies have ignored the
consideration of Consumer protection. Therefore, there is an urgent need to check social media
and attempt has made to include online purchases in addition to offline purchases in The
Consumer Protection Bill, 2015.

The Consumer Protection Bill, 2015

Definition of consumer: A consumer is defined as any person who buys a good or hires
a service for a consideration. This includes the user of such good or service, but not one who
obtains the good for resale or commercial purposes. It covers transactions through all modes
including offline, online through electronic means, teleshopping, or multi level marketing.
Rights of consumers: The rights of consumers include the right to: (i) be protected
against marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property, (ii) be
informed of the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods or services, (iii) be
assured of access to a variety of goods or services at competitive prices, and (iv) to seek redressal
against unfair or restrictive trade practices.
Product liability: If defects in the manufacture, construction, design, testing, service
marketing etc. of a product results in any personal injury or property damage to a consumer, the
manufacturer is liable in a product liability action.
Penalties: Any person who fails to comply with an order of either of the Commissions
would be liable for imprisonment from one month to three years, or with a fine from 10,000
rupees to 50,000 rupees.

CONCLUSION
Social media has empowered people in Indian society to spread perspectives on social
causes and change, participation in digital activisms, and support and information sharing in
crisis situations. Cultural adoption and availability/understanding of technology prove to be an
obstacle for many in underdeveloped areas of India. Consumers of today use social media to
view online advertisements to keep themselves aware of the new products/services. They also
seek opinions about products/services via social media. Social media has revolutionized the
world of advertisement and has moved a far away from traditional advertising. It is agreed that
social media is more informative. Social media is Interactive and more reliable that traditional
marketing tools. Consumers analyze the past performance of product/services via social media
by checking likes and dislikes for it. Various subscriptions are made by consumers to keep
themselves updated with the new launches and the changes in the existing products/services.
They are of view that innovative firms use social media as their marketing tool. Public image of
the company is also build through social media. The digital world has bought the change in every
sphere. Its impact on consumers buying decisions cannot be nullified.

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It is felt that more guidelines are required because there are always two sides of a coin,
each instance of Consumer affairs could be easily termed as another Consumer mistreatment.
By the time market forces have time to operate, far too many consumers are dead, maimed, or
impoverished. Within a nation-state, national laws may prevent some of this harm, but once
national boundaries are crossed, their effectiveness is limited, and consumers can hope for very
limited protection, If online trade proliferates and consumer fraud becomes a major problem,
nation-states and commercial interests that provide online access are fairly restricted in the action
they may take to curb unacceptable and deleterious practices. Certainly if consumers perceive
online commerce as a hazardous place to make purchases, they will not choose this alternative,
and a major opportunity for electronic commerce may be forfeited. Consequently, there is strong
motivation for reputable business to observe high commercial standards of behaviour. To
conclude it can be said that with the increased adoption ad fission of the Internet, World Wide
Web is becoming gradually a standard advertisement platform. The Web is offering business
advertisement world with more rich media tools, interactive services, and global reach. The need
is to understand the target consumers and then strategize wisely in order to gain maximum out of
this new medium. Social Media is going to be a powerful tool for advertisers in future and we all
have to decide whether to be guided by social media or by our own knowledge.

References:
Anderson, R.E. & Srinivasan, S.S, (2003) E-Satisfaction and E-Loyalty: A Contingency
Framework, Psychology and Marketing, 20 (2), pp.123-138.

Baudrillard Jean (1998), The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures, London, Sage
Publications.

Baltas, G. (2003) Determinants of Internet Advertising Effectiveness: An Empirical


Study. International Journal of Market Research, 45(4), pp. 505513.

Bashar, A., Ahmad, I., & Wasiq, M. (2012), Effectiveness Of Social Media As A
Marketing Tool: An Empirical Study, International Journal Of Marketing, Financial
Services & Management Research, 1(11), 88-99.

Bhakuni, P., & Aronkar P. (2012)., Effect of Social Media Advertising on purchase
Intentions of Students-An Empirical Study conducted in Gwalior city. International
Journal of Applied Services Marketing Perspectives, 1 (1), 73-79.

Bhakuni, P., & Aronkar P. (2012), Effect of Social Media Advertising on purchase
Intentions of Students-An Empirical Study conducted in Gwalior city. International
Journal of Applied Services Marketing Perspectives, 1 (1), 73-79.

Chatterjee, P. Hoffman, D, L. Novak, T, P. (2003) Modelling the Clickstream:


Implications for Web-Based Advertising Efforts, Marketing Science, 22(4) , pp. 520-541

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Meenu Agrawal (2006), Consumer Behaviour and Consumer Protection in India, New
Delhi: New Century Publication.

Vij, S., & Sharma, J. (2013), An Empirical Study on Social Media Behaviour of
Consumers and Social Media Marketing Practices of Marketers, presented paper in 5th
IIMA Conference on Marketing in Emerging Economies, 9- 11 January 2013, 1-19.

Yadav, N. (2012). Social Networking Sites-A New Vehicle for Advertising, MIMT
Journal of IT & Management Research, 2 (1), 38-48.

Wikipedia- The Free Encyclopaedia.

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Importance of Peer Group in the Genesis of Juvenile Delinquency
Amrinder Bhullar

Abstract
The present paper brings out the role played by the peer-group as an important precipitating
factor in Juvenile Delinquency. Since Delinquency is a very complex phenomena, no single
theory exists that can explain all delinquency nor can one single cause be specifically determined
and applied to all the cases. Since no theory has been developed that can adequately account for
all forms of delinquent behaviour, it will be helpful to isolate the factors that contribute to
delinquency. When we talk of these factors peer group assumes great importance as a factor
contributing to delinquency. This paper is an attempt to analyse this important factor in detail
since it is a crucial factor in the genesis of delinquent behaviour as the social relationships of the
individuals in the intimacies of the age groups and interest groups are also as important as home
relationships.

INTRODUCTION

Juvenile Delinquency also known as "juvenile offending", is participation in illegal


behaviour by minors juveniles i.e. individuals younger than the statutory age of majority. Most
illegal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile
detention centers and courts.

According to Haney and Gold (1973) "a delinquent act is one that is illegal and one the
individual knows is illegal when he commits it". (quoted in Sandhu 1977). Tappan uses the
following definition 'Delinquency is any act, course of conduct, or situation which might be
brought before court and adjudicated whether in fact it comes to be treated there or by some
other resource or indeed remains untreated. The juvenile delinquent is a person who has been
adjudicated as such by a court of proper jurisdiction though he may be no different, up until the
time of court contact and adjudication, at any rate, from masses of children who are not
delinquent' (quoted in Sandhu, 1977).

The Children's Bureau, a formal federal agency in United States of America, defines the
different forms of juvenile delinquency in the following words:

'Juvenile Delinquency cases are those referred to courts for acts defined in the statuses of the
State as the violation of a sale law or municipal ordinance by children or youth of Juvenile Court
age, or for conduct so seriously antisocial as to interfere with the right of others or to menace the
welfare of the delinquent himself or of the community'.

According to some sociologists, sociology of deviance has collapsed under the impact of
new social conditions and under the weight of its own contradictions. The concept of deviance
emerged as part of the scientific search for ways to control population; leading to the creation of
new categories of people such as the 'insane' or the deviant. The development of industrial

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society resulted in an increase in the number of people who were unemployed, sick or mentally
unstable, and the rich sought to manage these problem groups by means of increased
administration. Concepts such as homosexuality, prostitution and drug use, therefore did not
refer to some absolute categories of abnormal behaviour but were developed through scientific
discourse, as societies developed new ways of dominating population. The concept of deviance
was therefore developed as part of the modernist approach, defining as inherently deviant those
activities which ran counter to the societal consensus. By the 1970s hardly any sociologist
employed the concept of deviance to define actions beyond the social consensus because such a
consensus did not exist. From 1970s onwards sociologists increasingly turned to the concepts of
crime and law rather then 'deviance'. Rather than scientific the concept had become ideological
and therefore of little scientific use. In the post modern world the dominant majorities felt
increasingly threatened by a society that is seemingly out of control' where previously quiet
minorities are now asserting their rights as full citizens; where immigration seems to be
undermining the way f life and where traditional moral order is breaking down.

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Before the British Rule i.e. during the Hindu and Mughal period, the laws dealing with
crime and delinquency were somewhat vague in nature. Moreover there were no separate laws
for the treatment of the delinquent children. When the British people conquered India, they
introduced English laws with some modifications in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. However in
the Western countries, particularly Europe and America, it was in the eighteenth century that
separate legislation was introduced. POPE XI for the first time brought forward the idea of
"correction and construction of profligate youth". Germany was influenced by this idea and
certain institutions were established in Germany. But as in the late eighteenth and nineteenth
century rapid industrialization and urbanization brought about changes in the social economic
structure of England. Child labour and exploitation of children became very common and
consequently resulted in an increase in juvenile delinquency in England. Australia established
the first juvenile court in 1899. But the Juvenile Court established in USA known as the Chicago
Juvenile Court is the first Juvenile Court in the real sense. The purpose or object behind separate
treatment of juvenile offenders has been laid down in the preamble of any children law. The law
provide for' the 'care custody. protection, training, education and rehabilitation of children and
juvenile offenders'.

Sporadic attempts were made in India also to separate juvenile offenders from adult
criminals. As India was a British Colony, the British laws were made applicable here with or
without modifications. For example the Apprentices Act of 1850', the Reformatory School Act of
1870', 'Penal Code'. 'Criminal Procedure Code' were closely related with their counter parts in
Great Britain. The Apprentice Act (India Act XIX of 1850) was the first legislation which
directly concerned juvenile delinquents in India. The main objective of this Act was to regulate
the relations between employers and the apprentices. The Reformatory School Act of 1870 was

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the second legislative effort relating to the treatment of Juvenile delinquents. But there was no
difference between a pr; on and a juveniIe reformatory in the nineteenth century. It was only
after the first world war that a separate legislation was introduced for dealing with delinquents. It
was in 1919 and 1920 that the India Jail Committee recommended for the enactment of a special
Children Act and at the same time for the establishment of Juvenile Court with special judicial
procedures and separate for the children. However it was not possible for the then government to
have a uniform legislation for juvenile offenders. So it became the responsibility of the
provincial governments to make separate legislations for the treatment of juvenile delinquents.
Thus after the First World War some provincial government passed separate legislations. The
Madras Children Act, 1920 was the first children act. Subsequently, West Bengal Children Act
of 1922 and Bombay Children Act 1924 were enacted. The provincial Acts made provisions for
Juvenile Courts, probation services, institutional treatment etc. It was in Madras that the first
Juvenile Court was established in 1939. Subsequently, great interest arose in the field of the
treatment of Juvenile delinquency since the country became independent. However, even after
independence the Central Legislature did not take any initiative to enact a uniform Act for the
whole Country. The Central Govt. has enacted a law relating to the care, protection and treatment
of children in 1960 which is enforceable only in the Union Territories. At the same time the
states which already has separate acts for dealing with delinquents have either passed new Acts
or modified the existing ones. For example Maharasthra has enacted its new Children Act, The
Bombay Children Act 1948. Similarly States like Andhra Pradesh Gujrat, Uttar Pradesh,
Haryana, Kerala have adopted separate laws for the juveniles.

LEGAL DEFINITION
There are multiple jurisdictions within any society. Each jurisdiction has its own status
for defining delinquent conduct. Every violation of federal, state or municipal laws committed
by a youth under a particular age (usually 18, 17 or 16 years) constitutes delinquency. Juvenile
Delinquency is therefore what the law describes it to, be. The Juvenile Justice (Care and
Protection of Children) Act, 2000 is the primary legal framework for juvenile justice in India.
The Act provides for a special approach towards the prevention and treatment of juvenile
delinquency and provides a framework for the protection, treatment and rehabilitation of children
in the purview of juvenile justice system. This law, brought in compliance of the 1989 UN
Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) repealed the earlier Juvenile Justice Act of
1986. This act has been further amended in 2006 and 2010. In the wake of Delhi gang rape (16
Dec., 2012), the law suffered a nationwide criticism owing to its helplessness against crimes
where juveniles get involved in heinous crimes like rape and murder. In 2015, responding to the
public sentiment, both the houses of parliament in India further amended the bill that lowered the
juvenile age to 16 and proposed adult like treatment for juveniles accused of heinous crimes.
The lower house i.e. Lok Sabha passed the bill on 7 May, 2015 and the upper house, i.e. Rajya
Sabha on 22 December, 2015. The bill was approved by President on 31 Dec., 2015.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Juvenile Delinquency is a very complex phenomenon. There is no single perspective


which is successful in incorporating all the factors associated with Delinquency and explaining
it. Yet we can summarize three possible explanations of Delinquency:-

(a) Biological (b) Psychological and (c) Sociological.

All the above mentioned explanations differ in the way they perceive and understand
delinquency. However, it is also very pertinent to mention two perspectives or schools of thought
on which these three explanations are based. One is the classical school of thought developed by
Cesare Beccaria an Italian conceived of man as a free agent, pursuing hedonistic aims and able to
rationally decide on all the most courses of action (Void, 1968). As the offender was viewed as
being very rational, the pleasure pain, principle was invoked as the major method of dealing with
him. The pleasuie pain principle proposed that if the punishment for the particular act
produced'negative consequences that were more severe than the pleasures derived from
committing the act, the potential offender would be discouraged from being deviant. The
offender was presumed to be rational enough to choose the right way since his behavior was
supposedly guided by his desire to seek pleasure and avoid pain. The Positive School of Thought
(Ferri positive school of Criminology; 1968) was founded by Cesare Lombroso, emphasises on
the delinquent's personal and background characteristics rather than his rational thought process
and "free Will" The Positive School rejected the Classical Schools belief that man exercises
reason, is capable of choice and free will and that the offender is no different from the non
offender (Matza, 1964, P-11). The School believed that man's behavior reflects his biological,
psychological, sociological, culture and physical environment. On the basis of these 2 schools of
thought the theories relating to delinquency can be divided into three categories I) Biological, II)
Psychological and III) Sociological.

I. Biological Explanations

Ernest Hooton in 1930s extensively studied Lombroso's principles and developed


biological typologies. Sheldon extended Lombroso's and Hooton's concept and incorporated
psychological factors. Sheldon arrived at three body classification-endomorph, mesomorph, and
ectomorph. The approach depends solely on biological aspects and ignores completely and other
aspects such as the psychological factors involved and the importance of the individual in-
precipitating delinquent behavior. Moreover these studies have been performed on
institutionalized populations and not on control groups.

II. Psychological Explanations to Delinquency

In order to overcome the shortcomings of the biological explanations, psychological


explanations have been provided. Whereas the biologists emphasis on physical characteristics,

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the psychologists take a more specific approach and consider the individual and his motivational
patterns in an attempt to describe delinquency for example.

Individual based Theory - MOSS (1975), Juvenile Delinquency and self-concept Frak
Scarpitti, Ellen Murray, Simon Dinitz and Walter Reckless, Multifactor Approach :
Sheldon and Glueck, 1967). In order to overcome the shortcomings of the biological approach
and psychological explanations, sociological explanations have been provided. Moreover the
different approaches, i.e. biological, sociological, psychological attempt to study delinquency
from different points of laW, though the underlying emphasis remains the same i.e. on
'delinquent behaviour'.

III. Sociological Explanations to Delinquency

The sociological approaches to delinquency are connected with the effects of the social
system or the environment on the development of the attitudes, group patterns of behavious and
other social factors. They emphasis on the importance of the group rather the individual in
fostering delinquent behaviour. Group and Structure Based Theory Moss (1976), Theory
of Anomie by Emile Durkheim (1951), Social Structure and Anomie Robert Merton
(1938), These macro theories primarily treat delinquency as a byproduct of modern societies,
with a loosened hold over the individuals and a lack of sense of community. But things may be
very different at the micro level. Empirical studies show that the societal changes produce
delinquents more in specific socio economic segments. e.g. the slums, the lower income groups
and so on. In Indian context, this may have a caste dimension too since there has traditionally
been a close correlation between caste and class situations. Following the same track, which
involves an emphasis on the social system, goals, means and institutionalized norms on one hand
and the resultant discrepancy, a study has been conducted by Chandra .(1967) of the University
of Lucknow. According to him" in our country juvenile maladjustments, truancy, vagarancy and
delinquency go together and constitute such a problem which is unknow in the west". He
believes that such a maladjustment is because of the rigid system of social stratification, stubborn
caste prejudice and differentiation of life's opportunities and goals between the haves and the
have-nots. It leads to frustration aggressiveness and revolt in the bustees of our cities. The study
revealed that 43% of the offenders belonged to upper and intermediate caste groups and the
remaining to the low caste. It showed that delinquency is related with low and backward caste
status. Moreover most of the delinquents are illiterate, it is clear that if a child living in slums, is
exposed through the mass media to success symbols and a lifestyle which is difficult for him to
attain because of the lack of the institutionalized means - such as adequate schools and
employment opportunities will create strain and frustration. This strain and frustration would
produce behavior that is contrary to the norms that govern general behavior and the result would
be delinquent behaviour. More recently a study by Cornkovich et. aI., on School Bonding, Race
and delinquency, Criminology (1992) also is in line with Durkheim's theory, i.e. whenever the
social control weakens, the result is delinquent behavior which he investigated through the

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suicide rates. Control theory suggests that lack of attachment to parents and teachers, as well as a
weak commitment to school and career goals, precede failure in sChool and subsequent
delinquency where these predictions were tested in an investigation of the effects of school
bonding on delinquency among Whites and Blacks, ,using interview data from a sample of 942
teenagers in Toledo, Ohio, Cultural Transmission - Clifford Shaw And Henry Mckay (1969),
Differential Association - Sutherland 1966, Self Role Theory-George Herbert Mead (1918),
Working class Boy and Middle Class Measuring Rod - Albert Cohen (1995), Success Goal
and Opportunity Structures - Lloyd Ohlin and Richard Cloward (1960), Lower Class Boy
and Lower Class Structure- Walter Miller (1958), A dissertation was conducted by Gupta
(1991) to study socio economic status, self esteem and adolescent problems. Similarly a study
was conducted by Sheth (1961) in Greater Bombay, Poona and Ahmedabad. According to her
with economic development and urbanization, the social structure and norms are undergoing
changes. With increased urbanisation and industrialization large number of people are now
migrating from villages to the industrialized cities. The problem is more acute in the lower strata
of the society. Similarly another study has been done by Archana Dassi and M.Z. Khan (2000) in
Delhi which throws light on family and the emergence of deviant behaviour.

Middle Class and Juvenile Delinquency-Edmund Vaz (1967) : Edmund Vaz is one of the few
theorists to focus on middle class delinquency. He states that the apparent inconsistency between
the protective upbringing of middle class children and their delinquencies is a result partly of m
fiddle class delinquency as viewed as a function of conformity to the expectations of the role of
adolescent in the middle class youth culture and to parentally favoured activities. As stated by
Tranjanowicz in his book "Juvenile Delinquency Concepts and Control", Vaz emphasizes youth
culture and particularly the youth culture of late and describes how certain activities are fostered,
perpetuated and supported by adults. Parents consider it important that there child participates in
these activities. At the same time the child feels that it is important to gain status with his peer
and be an active participant in group activities. It is from these activities that middle class
delinquency evolves. An example of such delinquency is shoplifting, an activity that has become
common place among the affluent middle class 'teenagers. Youngsters begin with shoplifting' as'
an activity which originates as a game but gradually acquires the shape of delinquency.

Delinquency and Drift - David Matza : Matza attempted to blend the classical schools' concept
of 'will to crime' with positive assumptions and methods of scientific investigation. He does not
totally agree with the deterministic orientation of the positive school that delinquent behaviour is
caused almost entirely by emotional and environmental factors. He feels that there are other
factors also which contribute to making a youngster choose the delinquent route. Matza feels that
man is neither totally free as the Classical School assumes nor totally constrained as the Positive
School assumes. He feels that everyone is somewhere between being controlled and being free
and that everyone drifts between these two states. Thus the above mentioned sociological
explanations of delinquency have their strengths and weaknesses. Merton and Durkheim have
shown how the discrepancy between institutional means available and goals desired can produce

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strain which can in turn lead to delinquency. Thrasher also emphasizes on strain as a result of
poverty and points out that an environment is conducive to delinquent behaviour when
ineffective social control and inadequate models for identification exist. Shaw and Mckay, and
Sutherland emphasize on the role of environment in producing delinquent behaviour. Mead
sheds' light on how a delinquent role is incorporated into ones lifestyle. Ohlin, Cloward and
Cohen's work also emphasise on strain of the social system which can lead to delinquency.
Miller and Vaz relate delinquency with class status. David Matza is important to the discussion
because of his attempt to combine the most relevant concepts of both the Positive and the
Classical Schools. In addition to the above mentioned theories and explanations there are some
other studies which emphasise on the importance of a particular geographical area to be linked
with delinquent behaviour. In almost every metropolitan city., there are certain areas which are
more likely to show high incidence of delinquency. Moreover the studies also highlight that there
is a link between poverty and delinquency. Another factor which comes out from these studies is
that most of the delinquents come from broken homes and maladjusted families. For example a
study was conducted by Srivastava (1963) in the cities of Kanpur and Lucknow. He used the
term 'vagrant' that is a child between 7-18 years of age who stays away from school or tends to
do so without the consent of his parents.

Thus, the subject of delinquency has been studied by various scholars both in India and
abroad. The studies have focused on different aspects of the problem. Some studies have adopted
. biological explanations which emphasise on the role of biological factors such as the body
types, facial features etc. Some studies have adopted sociological explanations which emphasise
on the role of the environmental factors in precipitating delinquent behaviour such as the concept
of 'anomie', 'social structure', the concept of 'gang', 'culture', 'differential association,' the concept
of 'self the importance of goals and success etc. A number of studies have adopted psychological
explanations which emphasise on psychological factors in fostering delinquency _such as the
'individual's ego,' that is, Freud's concept of 'id', 'ego' and 'superego' etc. Still others have adopted
a multi factors explanation which incorporates both psychological and sociological principles.
Almost all the perspectives discussed above focus upon the descriptions and explanation of
delinquency.

Theoretical Framework of the paper

The sociological approaches to delinquency are connected with the effects of the social
system or the environment on the development of the attitude, group patterns of behaviour and
other social factors. They emphasise on the importance of the group and the surrounding
environment in which the individual lives. Peer group plays a very important factor that
contributes to Delinquency. Therefore this paper within the framework of the sociological
approaches and more importantly social learning theory (Sutherland, 1949 and Akers, R) in
which role of environment in producing delinquent behaviour has been emphasised. This paper

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would analyse the role played by the peer group in as a factor in the genesis of juvenile
delinquency.

OBJECTIVE OF THE PAPER

To study the role of peer-group as a factor in the genesis of juvenile delinquency.

ROLE OF PEER GROUP

Companionship factor or the peer group provides an effective stimulus for the child's
behaviour. Influence of bad companions is the commonest and the most convenient explanation
offered by the parents for the delinquency of their children. "This, naturally is the preferred
suggestion fo the pained and anxious parent : back boy's mother blames some other mother's
son" (Burt, 1955). Juvenile Delinquency is often caused or made worse by peer pressure from
friends or other teens. When children become teens, they go through periods when relationships
with peers are more important than any others, including those with parents, siblings and
teachers. When teens listen to their friends more than they listen to experienced adults, they
often find themselves in compromising situations. Teens want to fit in with their peer groups
and this desire to be accepted can cloud good judgement. This is especially true for teens who
are facing different challenges at home. According to Joseph A. Wickliffe from the Yale New
Haven Teachers Institute, girls are especially at risk from the influence of peers when they loose
their emotional connection with parents or other family members.

The social relationship of the individuals in the intimacies of the age groups and interest
groups are almost as important as that of the home relationships. The interest group is stranger
in the modern city, largely because the family controls are more tenuous and the child makes his
own group adjustment without the consent, and with only partial knowledge of, the elders. The
interest groups takes up where the home control and interest breaks off. The child's companions
also provide him with a 'new world' his parents cannot or will not provide. Where the home
influence ceases, that of the interest group begins, so that the fading controls of the one are
carried on by the controls of the others. The influence of the interest group is as powerful as that
of the Home (Reckless and Smith, 1932).

Researches on Delinquency have indeed shown that the peer group plays a very
important role in shaping a child's life. Very often to a growing child, his companions mean
much more than does his family. They exert an amazing influence upon him in his use of
language, his likes and dislikes and his behaviour with and attitude towards others. And, it is in
the intimate association with his friends that the child at times acquires antisocial tendencies. It
is however, the child already disposed to delinquency who prefers to associate with others whose
values, habits, attitudes and conduct are similar. "To find an eternal influence of this kind at
work, without some inner predisposing factor, is far from usual; it is as rare as a seed sprouting
on base rock with no receptive soil to nourish it" (Burt, 1955).

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Another research was done by Jr. H., Robert, Aseltine (1995) in Massachusetts, Bosten
which was a reconsideration of parental and peer influence on adolescent deviance. The research
examined the relative influence of parents and peers on adolescent delinquency and marijuana
use, using interview data from a three wave panel study of youths in Boston who were paired
with a best friend. The study revealed that the friends were the primary source of influence on
youth behaviour. It also emphasized that although youth are socialised into delinquent behaviour
by peers, both selection and socialization influences played an important role in the formation of
drug using peer groups.

Moreover, one interesting factor which comes under observation is that a child who is
already involved in antisocial acts, prefers or has friends who have a similar kind of an
inclination. However, much depends also on the age group of the friends concerned. Literature
shows an association between similar age groups and delinquency. Making friends with the
adolescents of the same age means similar interests, attitudes, activities and mental level of the
adolescents. The high percentage of similar age group points towards the fact that there are
similar interests, attitudes, activities and mental level of the children having friends of same age.
However, companionship is crucial also due to the fact that it gives an easy outlet for various
pent up instincts which otherwise one tends to suppress. Having friends of the same age means
greater understanding and open support. Thus friendship that most commonly exert as harmful
influence are friendships such others of the same age and sex as the adolescent himself living
outside his own home but coming often from the same school and the same street and either
actively engaged in delinquency themselves, or else actively inciting or encouraging
delinquency.

Whether having friends of the same age that is either younger or older, the very fact that a
boy is surrendering to the lead of a bad one is in itself a psychological phenomenon and calls for
a closer scrutiny. Perhaps his home is dull, unsympathetic or distasteful. Perhaps the child
himself is strongly gregarious by nature. Possibly he is inferior in mentality or physique in age,
character or will.

The Gang and Delinquency

Boys and girls, seldom commit delinquency alone. They usually engage in such
activities in association with others. The strong influence exerted by the gang leads to group
activities. The demoralising process may begin with the boys entrance into the gang or even
earlier and it continues progressively as the boy groups older. The boys may start as a truant,
then commit minor delinquencies, followed by more serious offences and reckless daredevil
activities, and if the process is not checked, he develops into a seasoned gangster or a
professional criminal. His training may be interrupted by periodic institutionalisation, but upon
release he returns to the old gang and there is repetition of delinquency. The gang life tends to
invite truancy and to facilitate delinquency. In the Indian content, a study done by Mohan and

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Nalwa (1992) stated that given the importance of peers in adolescence most delinquency is
committed in pairs or groups.

Thus summarising the relation of gangs and companionship to delinquency. It should be


noted that gangs and the intimate friends exert the most powerful influence on boys and girls. As
Thrasher (1936), has ably put it, "Such underlying conditions as inadequate family life, poverty,
deteriorated neighbourhood, ineffective religion, education and recreation must be considered
together as situation complex which forms the matrix of gang development'.

CONCLUSION

In the era of globalization, every society or Nation wants to see itself as developed.
Actual Development implies, a peaceful state of affairs both inside and outside. In order to
achieve this stage of peace, there is a need to understand the major and minor social problems as
a whole. Juvenile Delinquency is a problem which directly effects our future generation that is
the youth of the country. Although with the passage of time a number of initiatives have been
taken by the government through legal amendments and other provisions, but still a lot needs to
be done at the grassroot level. Making legal amendments from time to time won't work until and
unless we ensure that they are implemented properly at every level. A deep desire to get
acceptance in the sub-cultural groups emerges as a strong factor tempting the juveniles to indulge
in different delinquent acts, which ultimately can lead them to conviction.

REFERENCES:

Burt Cyril., 1944, The young Delinquent, London: University of London Press.

Campbell, A., 1981, Girl Delinquent, Blackwell: Oxford Press.

Esiri, Omogho: May, 2016, Article, The influence of Peer Pressure on Criminal
Behaviour, Journal of Humanities and Social Science; Vol. 21.

Gold, M., 1966, 'Undetected Delinquent Behaviour, Journal of Research in Crime and
Delinquent: Vol. 3.

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Teaching Human Rights of Marginalized Groups: A Challenge
Manoj Kumar

Abstract

The ideas of marginality and denial of human rights are often complementary. Further, the
complexity of teaching the relation between the two often seems to lead us nowhere. In order to
teach the forces involved in the processes of marginalization, it is important to take into account
the social position of the learner. But the human right education today appears to have become
more and more technical. The author contents that the content of human rights education need to
be more focused on understanding and relating to the social background of the students. The
teachers have to be trained to keep away their individual biases while dealing with students
belonging to the marginalized sections. Further, the act of teaching human rights should lead us
towards emancipation of the downtrodden sections of the society. In all, the forces and factors
leading towards marginality need to be taken into account while designing the curriculum and
teaching of human rights of the marginalized groups in any country. The paper suggests that
Human rights should be taught in an inter-disciplinary fashion and its curricula and content
should not be restricted to the disciplinary boundaries of law, sociology, political science or
philosophy. Only integral perspectives and approaches can help in understanding and solving
the problems relating to human rights that impact the humanity as a whole regardless of caste,
colour or creed. Interdisciplinary approach can help in building human sensitivities towards
rights of others.

Introduction

The marginalized sections of society based upon economic or social situations are often
denied the basic rights of livelihood. The right to life with dignity has now been accepted as
human right which much be taught and given to every citizen by the civilized nations. The
learning that every individual is entitled to these human rights can inculcate the sense of self
respect among the children at the lower rungs of society. The aware members of the
marginalized sections of society can later work for protection of their rights. However, it is
often seen that the teachers are engrossed in just following the academic rituals of teaching as a
profession. They are not sensitive to the needs and aspirations of the weaker sections of society.
In this article, it is argued that an interdisciplinary approach should be followed while teaching
the human rights of marginalized groups particularly to these sections of society.

Marginalization
The jargon involved in defining social inclusion and marginalization sometimes blurs our
understanding of the real understanding of the process of marginalization. We know the process
of political, economic or social exclusion can be considered as co-terminus with
marginalization. The simplest explanation of marginalization can be found in understanding the
process of the pushing away from the mainstream of the society by those in power. This
invariably results from their direct or indirect dominance in political, social or economic realms
of society. For activists, the concept of marginalization can be understood in the process of
gradual denial of basic rights to the weaker sections of society. The weaker sections of society

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are excluded from leadership role of the political, economic and social activities, These sections
have to be satisfied by remaining as second class citizens of a country. The marginalization thus,
when economic leads to sharp economic inequalities and otherwise being social results into
graded inequalities in the society.

Marginality is culture specific


Almost all the societies of the world have some groups which are pushed to the margins.
These groups may be some particular tribes in a tribal society; they may be the people living in
slums in case of urban society.
Indian society has witnessed the caste based discriminations based upon the theories of
karma and theories of rebirth. Ghurye (1969) defines civil and political disabilities upon the
lower caste groups as basic feature of caste system in India. The overlapping of social exclusion
in terms of economic, political and social systems in India results in triple discrimination for the
weaker sections in India.

Education and Social Inclusion


The education in India has been guided by the idea of Brahmanism in India. The lower
castes were not given the right to write, teach or preach their perception of the world. The
education thus resulted in exclusion of the depressed sections from the academic and practical
world at the same time.
The same tool ie education can be used for empowerment of the sections at the lowest
strata in the society. The education should be able to help them question the hierarchy. This can
result only from the availability and free flow of liberal and scientific education towards the
weaker sections of society.
.
Teaching Human Rights of Marginalized Groups: A challenge
Teaching human rights of marginalized groups is not an easy task. It requires the
understanding of acceptable definition of Human rights; It requires understanding of practical
realities of the world. It requires knowledge of the institutions for the formulation of procedures
for complaint and it also requires the understanding of the risks involved in complaining against
the powerful. The understanding depends upon the social status of the teacher and the gap in
their status vis a vis the teachers and other students.

Philosophical issues
The perspective to be followed by teachers while teaching human rights is very important
and debatable. Whereas Hobbs and Locke considered the natural rights as the most important
rights of individuals. The Legal perspective gives more importance to the written laws as the
rights. Marxian perspective focuses more on the economic rights whereas the liberal perspectives
focus more on the political rights of the individuals. Kumar, Manoj (2008) argues that there is
need for an integrative perspective for understanding and teaching of the contents of human
rights.
The lack of a common perspective results in confusion regarding relative importance of
the rights. the importance of the groups and need of the students. The teaching also depends
upon the understanding and explanation of the various perspectives on human rights. The
perspectives on rights like Marxian, Philosophical, Liberal, and Positive, all have to be replaced
by Human rights perspective for the sake of marginalized groups.

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Dominant perspective of the times

The dominant ideologies and perspectives also colour the understanding and sharing of
the contents of human rights education. The perspectives are also dependent upon the countries
and world leaders of the period in history. It is assumed that the teachers will be following the
dominant perspectives formed and propagated by the intellectuals who share proximity with the
leaders in power. It is easy for the teachers to be fascinated by dominant perspectives of their
times and transfer to the students. This results in confusion amongst the students regarding their
rights and strategies for realizing the goal of egalitarian society.

Spatial location of the class room

The different societies have different philosophical positions with regard to the definition
of the human rights and duties. The definitions and relative importance of the weaker sections
of society varies from society to society. Whereas the western societies focus more on the
inequalities and social exclusion created on the bases of class, the countries like India are
characterized by graded inequalities like caste system. Thus the relative focus on the groups
which deserve human rights sometimes varies from society to society.

Background of the teacher

The background of teacher plays a very important role. It is commonly phenomenon


throughout the world that the upper sections of society are able to man the posts of faculty
members in schools and colleges either through competitions or through networking. The
public funded institutions generally have more of the students belonging to the weaker sections
of society. This results in a peculiar classroom situation where the students and teachers belong
to different strata. Both have had different lived experiences and often, opposite understanding
about the society. In India, for example, the concept of ideal human being as defined by a
general category and upper class teacher is always different from the ideal human being as
described by a teacher from lower sections of society. The role of ideal teacher as well as ideal
student is perceived differently by the teachers and students belonging to different class groups.

Background of the students

The students from different sections of society sometimes start believing in exclusion or
inclusion of the other groups as a normal fact. The upper and middle class students have to be
made sensitive towards the discriminations being faced by the other groups in the society. Such
a sensitization can bring about revolutionary change in their sensibility towards the rights of
others.
The other group which needs emancipation has to learn and understand about the way
their own cultural values and norms are hindering their progress in the society. They have to
learn to stand and question the system. The speed at which the realization can come to this
group results in the social position of the group in history. The students belonging to families
dominated by religious dogmas find it very difficult to take logical and rational stand in
understanding the concepts involved in perception and application of human rights.

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What are the contents of the curriculum?

The content of curriculum is also important. For the sake of good of any society, the
contents have to include the national and international covenants as well as local covenants. The
nation states however, do not like to sign on the International protocols and covenants which are
against their own culture. It is difficult for the teachers to get the other perspectives, institutions
and organisations included in the curriculum of their classes.

Practice what you teach

Teaching human rights to the people results in moral pressure on humans to behave
decently. The students and community frequently get judgmental and measure the attitudes and
actions of those who are not able to practice what they teach. It thus very difficult for the
ordinary teachers to be really effective in advocacy and teaching of human rights, particularly for
the marginalized sections of society.

Activism

Thus the very idea of teaching human rights to the weaker sections requires an
explanation of the practical mechanisms to uphold them. The teachers are expected to be experts
in advocating the rights of the marginalized sections of the society. The academicians may not
however always have interest in advocacy of human rights of the people. Thus, it is difficult for
the preachers to go to the classroom without being able to provide a practical guide for the
students belonging to the marginalized sections of society.

Interdisciplinary nature of the Discipline

The subject of Human Rights and Duties has seems to have attracted attention of the
academicians belonging to a variety of disciplines. We find people from commerce, sociology,
political science and human rights holding discussions, seminars and research projects in the
discipline of Human Rights and Duties. It also shows that the subject has to develop its
conceptual frame work and research methodology and so the teachers belonging to various
disciplines are try to and give something and also gain something from the subject.
There is a clear interdisciplinary relevance as well as overlapping of the approaches
followed in different disciplines regarding the human rights and duties. A comparative
understanding of the approaches followed in religion, political science, sociology, history and
public administration can give us a better understanding of the development and evolution of the
definitions and conceptualization of the human rights.

Conclusion

The task of teaching human rights of the marginalized sections to the students belonging to the
different sections of society is very difficult. The teacher, students and social situations act as
varying factors. There is need for the academicians to ponder over the issues involved in the
process. An integral approach with includes interdisciplinary perspectives can result in creating

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a model curriculum and practical guide for the teaching of human rights of the marginalized
sections of society.

Bibliography
Asirvatham Eddy and Misra KK, 2007 Political theory New Delhi: S Chand Publishers
Gauba O.P. 2003 An Introduction to Political Theory New Delhi, Macmillan India Ltd.
Ghurye. 1969. Caste and Race in India. Bombay. Popular Prakashn.
Habermas, Jurgeon 1984, The theory of communicative Action Boston: Beacon Press
Hunt Alan, 1978 The sociological movement in Law London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
Kumar Manoj 2008 The Limits in the content on Human Rights Education : The need for
Interdisciplinary Perspective Guru Nanak Journal of Sociology Amritsar Vol 29, pages
63-75
Lukac, George, 1968 History and class consciousness Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press,
originally published in 1922 .
Sankar Sen. 1998 Human Rights in a developing society New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing
corporation.
Tripathi, Bijai Narain Mani, 1988 Jurisprudence Allahabad: Allahabad Law Agency.
Turner, Jonathan 1978 The structure of Sociological theory Illionois : The Dorsey
Press.
A New Universalism Adamatia Pollis in Ed Adamtia Pollis and Peter Schwab 2002
Human Rights : New perspectives, new realities new delhi, viva books pvt ltd.
Globalizations impact on Human rights Peter Schwab & Adamatia Pollis in Ed
Adamtia Pollis and Peter Schwab 2002 Human Rights : New perspectives, new realities
new delhi, viva books pvt ltd .

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The Sacred Games: A Critique of Religious Radicalism in the
Context of Kiran Nagarkars Gods Little Soldier
Rajesh Kumar Jaiswal
Abstract

The paper examines motivations and mindsets of the religious radicalism often turning
into lethal acts of violence. The study is in the context of Gods Little Soldier (2006), a novel by
a Mumbai based writer, Kiran Nagarkar, who is a master narrator and an artful story teller. The
religious radicalism/extremism-- advocating ideological puritanism, religious militancy,
perpetrating atrocities on the different, communal killings, etc. -- stands in conflict with the
discourses/practices of secularization, liberalization and globalization. The study foregrounds
Lucens and Tejas, the two central characters in the novel, hailing from the two different faiths
i.e. Christianity and Hinduism, who consider themselves nothing less than the sentinels of their
religions and executioners of the Gods Grand Design. Despite their unshaken belief in being
the Gods chosen ones, the duo represents a corruption and mockery of their faiths. Their
religious impulses often incite them to indulge into massacre and destruction. There is nothing
sacred in their religious games. As religious radicals, Lucens and Tejas are resolute to attack on
the life and liberty of the non-believers and followers of other faiths. The novel thus exhibits a
potent critique of the militant religious world-views and its clash with that of the secular ones, as
the two involve the two mutually exclusive ways of being in and recognizing the world.
Nagarkar underscores the corrosive effects of religious radicalism and the novel may be
considered as a powerful means of effecting progressive politics and wringing change in
peoples perceptions and beliefs. By means of the novel, the writer has devised a cultural
critique of the hyper religious activism, manufacturing and conservation of communal
creeds/practices and a mania for the religious absolutism occasioning militancy and terrorism.
The paper also underscores freedom from the dictates of the organized religion and
manufactured religious creeds that fuel hostility, hatred, revenge and seek to endorse prohibitions
and restrictive life styles.

Key Terms: Radicalism/Extremism, Hinduism, Christianity, Apocalyptic World-View etc.

******
With very few exceptions, most religions become harmful only when taken incorrectly
or in over dosage (Eli Chesen 192:94).

The mind is a vessel. If you dont fill it with Jesus, the Devil will be only too happy to
move in (Kiran Nagarkar 394:2006).

Lucens: A Christian Insurgent


The novel presents Lucens as an uncompromising Christian, who joins a monastery as a
monk in America. He undergoes a rigorous religious training/orientation involving a lot of
austere measures. There was a manhole in his soul, and he had fallen into it (270). His

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consciousness is saddled with an extreme sense of guilt. To expiate, Lucens performs various
ascetic acts of self-flagellation. He picked up the tentacle flagellum and did not stop whipping
himself till he had stripped the flesh off his back. The devil had got into him and the devil had to
be cast out. He had to be taught that he would not find a warm welcome in Lucens (221).

Lucens undergoes entirely new and dislocating experiences. Several months living as a
monk, he realizes his place and purpose in the Gods scheme of things. Quickly he overcomes all
the bout of suicidal depression and sin consciousness and vehemently prepares himself for the
vacation ordained by the Lord Jesus. As a committed Christian Reconstructionist, he had an
obligation for remarking the world in terms of the Biblical injunctions, taken as to be the
infallible words of God. This comprises the refashioning of the individual, the family, the
church, the society and the state, etc. He assigns himself a religiously certified objective to
reclaim the Earth from the secular forces for Jesus Christ and to punish those how undertake to
flout Christian moral order. Lucens asserts that America should function as a Christian nation
and opposes such social evils of secular society as abortion on demand, fornication,
homosexuality, sexual entertainment, state usurpation of parental brides and God-given liberties
(Juergensmeyer 2000:27).

Holding a troubled view of the world fraught with consumerism, lust, adultery, home-
sexuality, child-pregnancy and abortion, Lucent is hell-bent to give a full stop to all these
immoral practices/activities. Expressing his stand on homo-sexuality, Lucens speaks: It would
defeat the very purpose of sexual congress, the transmission of life, that the Church has always
held sacred homosexuality [is] a mortal sin in the eyes of our Lord (331). As a soldier of
Christ, Lucens, subscribes and legitimates the use of violence for establishing the Gods
kingdom on the Earth. For Lucens God had always been a search for purity, simple and
absolute. How could he have forgotten that children were dearest to Jesus because they were the
purest amongst all of Gods creatures? From now on till he breathed his last, he would be the
defender of unborn children (346).

He forms a pro-life organization called The Initiative for the Protection of Unborn
Children, IPUC for short (341), whose objective is to protect the unborn children. The
organization organizes demonstration against abortion and maintains that killing unborn babies is
a crime against children, against humanity and against God (342). The pro-life organization
convenes meetings with pro-choicers (defenders of abortion in the pretext of mothers care, etc.)
to convince the latter for not performing the dismemberment of a foetus (349). To champion
the cause of the organization and for its abundant funding, Lucens goes for massive earnings
from the stock market. He says: I felt the market move under my skin, at the very core of my
being. I tested it first for fourteen days and then I played (277).

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Finding the crusade against abortion (347) not producing the desired effect and
considering the anti-abortion brigade as a lunatic fringe of Papist extremists (346), Lucens had
no choice but to say: The doctor would have to go (368). He began to bomb the abortion
providers and their clinics with RDX. For Lucens, the use of force is sometimes necessary to
extirpate injustice and subdue evil within a sinful world, and that small strategic acts of violence
are occasionally necessary to deter large acts of violence and injustice (Juersenmeyer 2000:26).

While launching his anti-abortion crusades, Lucens as a Christian activist abandons non-
violence and turns completely hostile against those whom he considers as the depraved and
promiscuous. He is fully convinced that moral persuasion is too weak means for the realization
of the social justice. Hence, as a religious extremist, Lucens sets aside Jesuss message to
love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you (Juergensmeyer 2000:25). Lucens
being exorbitantly possessed with warped religious ideologies, he had no other life-style as well-
meaning as his misconstrued truth of by the Bible. Extremely troubled with Lucens over self-
indulging religiosity, Father Augustine (whose observations and comments act as a corrective to
Lucenss conceited/misconstrued religiosity) of the Abbey remarks:

Our Lord Jesus is not an Olympic medal that you can wear around
your neck, Lucens. He must love us all equally, saint and sinners, or not love
at all. As with all extremes, there is a downside to your goodness, a kind of
schizophrenia that pushes you towards evil (316).

The father is pained at his intolerance and rage in the name of morality (316). Taking
note of his unbound arrogance, the father further reprimands:

Whence this boundless arrogance, Lucens? If you continue heedlessly


down this road, youll end up usurping the privileges and prerogatives of
God Himself. It is not up to you to judge or punish anyone including
yourself. It is the Lords right and the Lords alone to punish. And as He
made clear even on the cross, he prefers forgiveness to vengeance (317).

As a powerhouse of moral energy, inspiration and influence (404), Lucens is


completely and inescapably involved with his cleansing/ puritanical hunts. He issues injunctions
against premarital sex (413). He notices that adolescents today are so much more worldly-
wise, plugged-in and sex-savvy than any previous generation (413). He spurs them to be
different and take the pledge of purity (414).

Finding Lucens, caught up in the affairs of the temporal world (394) and especially
that of America and deviating and distracting from the ultimate destination i.e. Jesus Christ,
father Augustine again pulls him up: But the flag of God is not that of America. He does not fly
any flag but the flag of all those who are good and compassionate and will eschew all forms of

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violence. We are monks, and our flag is prayer. Let us fly it high so that both men and God will
heed it (419). Smelling malicious intent behind the IPUC campaign and its pernicious
injunctions to close the roads and paralyze the city (397) and suspecting Lucens brain behind
this, the two FBI agents reprimands Lucens that there is a corruption in him Hes a
biological menace to America and mankind (393).

The reading of this section of the novel should suffice to make it clear that despite
Lucenss pious and authentic beginning as a devout and committed Christian, his extreme mania
supplemented with Puritanism, intolerance towards the different (those not inspired and guided
by the dictate of the Bible and Christian spiritual moorings) and resorting violence to liquidate
the nonconformist and deviant, belie and betray the very cause of Christianity and its civilization
concerns. His fatal attraction to the extremist vision and version of Christian faith and redo-belief
that the whole of the world is in moral jeopardy as he finds people seeking pleasure and living
life on different plane of non-conforming individualism aspiring freedom from religion, produce
trouble to the world and severe threat to the life and liberty of his own Gods people.

Tejas Niranter: A Hindu Counterfeit

Hinduism, it is often maintained, is a way of life. It is too complex to allow any definitive
statement about it. Hinduism is not a homogeneous religion at all, but rather a potpourri of
religions, doctrines and attitudes towards life, rites and cults, moral and social norms, any claim
can be countered by its opposite. (Doniger1991:519). Unlike other major religions of the world
including Christianity, Islam and Judaism, Hinduism has no identifiable founder, no single
canonical text so acknowledged by one and all, no Church like organization and no
fundamentals of belief and practice (Madan1998:176). Almost a similar view is expressed by
Asgharali Engineer:

It is often maintained that the Semitic religions- Judaism,


Christianity, and Islam- are a rigidly doctrinaire, and non-Semitic religions
specifically Indian religions- Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism- are non-
doctrinaire and hence flexible. The former refuse to accommodate change,
whereas as the latterare inclined to accept change. (1998:1)

Keeping in view Hinduisms amorphous nature, it is very difficult to map-out the clear-
cut dichotomy between the sacred and secular domains and practices. Prof. Madan remarks
further on the issue:

Secularism does not mean in India that religion is privatized: such an


idea is alien to the indigenous religious traditions, which are holistic in
character and do not recognize such dualistic categories as scared versus

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profane, religious versus secular, or public versus private (in Ruthven
2007:109).

Even the reaction of Hindu religious organizations like the VHP and RSS against
secularization is very tangential. They are not as driven as protestant and Muslim
fundamentalists by changing gender roles, by the relegation of religious knowledge to the private
sphere or even by the secularity of the state ... (Bruce 2011:99).

Thanks to the diffused and non-essentialist character of Hinduism, it gets difficult for any
particular organization/ movement to identify the core of the faith. The diverse and varied
historic character of Hinduism gives little scope for enforcing strict conformity and criticizing
laxity. Hence, the issue of attributing fundamentalism to Hinduism does not hold as much
significance as in case of the monotheistic religions since there is no perceived threat of decline
in religious observance of Hindus. However, it should not be concluded that the practice of
Hindu religion stands clear of such stark conservative ideologies/practices as communalism,
casteism and gender-discriminations etc.

Kiran Nagarkar, in the third and last section of the novel, focuses on the delineation of
Hinduism and construction of the aggressive Hindu identity through the character of Tejas and
his counterfeit holy guru, Shakta Muni. Owing to the very evolving and unfathomable character
of Hinduism, even the novelists endeavor to construct Tejas as a Hindu character does not seem
as convincing and striking as that of Lucens.

Lucens being in the hit list of the FBI as a mastermind in bombing the abortion clinic
leading to the death of many doctors, he was faced with the prospect of having to reinvent
himself (385). Instead of being caught and tried by the American Security agency, Lucens takes
recourse to the vanishing trick (385). During this critical period, Lucens comes to take up with
the holy man, Shakta Muni, the Guru of James Cambray, a financer of the IPUC campaigns and
traders of arms. Despite Lucens initial reluctance, the holy charlatan is quite unmindful of
giving uncalled for advice (386) to Lucens. Shakt Muni with his unswerving resolve goes on
trying to psych Lucens:

The concept of conversion does not exist in Hinduism, Lucens, the


Muni smiled mischievously. You are the one whos into saving people.
Allow me to point out a few facts. You came here of your own free will. You
are just as welcome to leave as you are to stay. You seem to have a rather
simplistic notion of my ability to negotiate what lies beyond the ken of men.
Im not selling anything, nor is your choice of religion any concern of mine.
Unlike many other faiths, we do not need to exclude others to feel that we are
chosen (452).

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The miracle working Guru, the Muni, invites Lucens in the Ashram to teach him yoga-
meditation, an alternative medicine and health care mechanism.

The yogic aim is to awaken the energy lying dormant within you. We
do not ask you to give up anything because our aims are very different.
Yogic practices seek to heighten and intensify your receptivity, beliefs and
experiences. They are first and last a disciple and a way of life. Yoga opens
doors and becomes a voyage of discoveries. It frees you and allows you to
apprehend that there are skies beyond the one you perceive and that the
human potential for growth is infinite (452-3).

Shakta Muni initiates him into the Hath yoga, the pranayama (an art of breath control),
meditation, and Sidhi (an extraordinary psychic power) to reach a state of heightened
consciousness (1457). Through the rigorous tantric orientation, mortification and concentration,
the Muni ensures Lucens of Supreme knowledge and consequent immortality thereby:

Well graduate through the six chakras or centres of the kundalini


starting with the muladhara at the anus and then move on one by one to the
seventh one, the sahasrara, where the semen is transformed into nectar and
you gain immortality (457).

To make Lucens more self-assured, the tantric also strives to prove the superiority of the
oriental mystic wisdom over the western rational paradigm.

The West prides itself on its rationality. But it is doubtful if Aristotle


or Descartes can help you negotiate the mystery of the Holy Spirit or the
divine and the human in Jesus Christ. Its the same with Tantra (459-60).

Lucens also undergoes the holy naming ceremony (the upanayana) and is given a new
name, Tejas Nirantar (The Light Eternal). The ceremonial naming Samskara precedes a multiple
mortifying stages and processes, such as consumption of purifying soma (an emetic), rubbing the
body with sandalwood oil and laying the body for hours in a tube of warm perfumed water
(467). The purpose of serving soma is to make the past dead and to make his mind a tabula
rasa. (467) Tejas, thus, almost acquires a new Hindu life, like a newly born baby.

One of the key functions of a Guru is to provide healing to sufferers, and to introduce the
curative experiencesin to the disciples. S/he is supposed to be disapproving of the use of yogic
means for worldly gains and abandon all the worldly attachments. Despite his projection of being
a tantric and spiritual Guru, there is a lot dubious and shady about Shakta Muni. Instead of living
the life of an ascetic, the Muni promotes Tejas to be in [arms] business (456). He ropes Tejas
into business because he was younger, hungrier, and had the capacity to jolt the business out of

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its inertia with new marketing techniques and systems, and the nerve to go after much bigger
game (43).

Shakt Muni is an astute and canny man of the world (455). He easily notices the strong
will-power and aggressive qualities of Tejas, befitting requirements for grasping the mechanics
and machinations (487) of marketing and business world. A trader-in-arms, James Cambray
would not make any critical moves without the Munis consent (487). Shakta Munis ashram is
a safe haven for the miscreants. Instead of dwelling deep into spirituality and dealing with moral
values, he is driven by an extreme sense of hedonism, instrumentality and amoral politics. The
goals of [his] action are usually a mixture of religious objectives (pursuit and propagation of the
traditional way of life and of the Truth as stated by the proponents) and the furtherance of
politico-economic interests of ones own (Madan 1998:67).

The social-psychic frame of the mind of Tejas remains hardly different and higher from
that of his holy Guru. Despite his newly embrace of the Hinduism and its accompanying all the
paraphernalia of black magic and occult practices, self-mortification, celibacy and asceticism,
Tejas continues to remain committed to the religious radicalism and keeps drawing energy from
the fundamentalist world-views.

I keep reminding myself, hasten slowly. Revolutionary changes have


short lives, whereas incremental ones last. We are building a coalition of the
righteous, regardless of a persons political hue. Once we have the power,
well bend the government to our wishes and programmes. Rest assured we
will change the complexion of this country. No abortion, no gays and
lesbians, no same-sex marriages, no child sex, no sex shows, no dirty act. We
are going to build fine, upright, God-fearing citizens from scratch. You will
see a change at home, in school, in every aspect of life. But we wont stop
there. We will move into South America. We will take Europe. We will
remark the world in the image of our Lord (485).

The riches and resources of the newly acquired religion fail to give his life an order and
meaning. The anti-modern zealotry and ferocity of religious impulse continue to haunt his very
being. Hyper fanatic activism and baneful religious world-views keep him at miles distance from
the reach of stillness of the senses and perfect equilibrium of the mind. His cavernous immersion
into the religious mode of life does not hamper his shrewd hunt of the worldly/material gains.
Few people understand numbers, economics and finance as well as Tejas (484).

When Tejas sets his mind to something, he wont just wet his ankles,
or a part of his torso, hell immerse his entire self, body, mind and
soul, and will not surface till he has mastered the subject Tejas will
tell you that all animals stop eating once theyve had their fill. All

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animals except one, that is. Theres no such thing as enough for
human beings. The more they have, the more they want. Especially
the very very rich (484-485).

For Tejas, the arms trade is like any other business (497) and he says: If I dont,
someone else will. His new Hindu identity and its religious fervor does not deter Tejas from
signing a Faustian deal with a Kabul based crusader and mercenary, Nawaaz Irfan. Highlighting
the apocalyptic outlook of Irfan, Nagarkar writes:

We are the mujahidin, the guerrilla warriors of Allah and


Islam. We fight not for private gain but for justice and our way of life.
Which is why we fight for our brothers in Palestine, in Kashmir, in Croatia,
in any place where Islam is threatened. The resin that binds us is Allah. The
infidels in the West do not know this but we are the new Crusaders. We will
vanquish them (516).

The convergence of their militant religious ideologies and the subscription to a


missionary zeal to change the world in the light of their messianic theology, provoke Tejas and
Nawaaj Irfan to enter into interreligious brotherhood. The duo come close as the sentinels and
executioners of the Gods Grand Design (540).

The treatment/portrayal of Hinduism does not seem very authentic and convincing one.
However, the writer has attempted to highlight the travesty and sham of the contemporary
Hinduism through the figures of Tejas and his charlatan guru, Shakta Muni. Instead of attraction,
the duo evoke aversion. Despite the enunciation of Tejas into the sacred fold of Hinduism, he is
driven by desire and arrogance and enters into arms-trade without a qualm. Mechanical and
ritualistic Shakta Muni in the mantle of glory as a learned guru stands remotely connected with
spiritual matters of inner-self enlightenment. A guru in Hinduism is held in awe and supposed to
remove ignorance and facilitate liberation. As an icon of materialism and commodity fetishism,
Shakta Muni imitating the corporate life, does not instill in Tejas withdrawal from the worldly
objects. Shakta Muni rather promotes and facilitates Tejas in their business of arms. The guru
never condemns the religious radicalism and blighted religious world-views of his disciple,
Tejas.
To conclude, the preceding reading of the novel should make it clear that the religious
radicals as represented through the characters of Lucens and Tejas(representing Christianity and
Hinduism respectively) and their strong theological commitments marked by an ultra-orthodoxy,
are extremely dangerous to peoples life and society. Through their tactics and targets (including
indoctrination with an ideology of hatred, prohibitions and restricted life-styles, excessively
demanding religious practices, mobilization, holding an exaggerated view of the importance of
altruism, sacrifice, attack and revenge, weeding out the non-conformists and apostates, stringent

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norms, dress codes and restrictions on works, exotic beliefs, resisting the attractions of the
modern world, providing coordinated violence etc.) the religious radicals as core religionists
pose an existential threat to citizens and cause tremendous human suffering. There is nothing
sacred in their faiths as their religious impulses, intense piety and strong will power instead of
encouraging questioning and reflection, inspire evil. The novelist through the narrative
condemns and critiques the twisted rationalism and closed mindedness that inspire violence and
turns the faith into an ideology of hatred, discrimination and oppression. By giving a tongue-in-
cheek treatment to the ideologically ensnared protagonists and the misconstrued calls of their
faiths, the writer makes an appeal to awake and redefine the ways to look at the world.

Note: All page references are taken from the 2006 edition of Kiran Nagarkar's novel, God's Little
Soldier.

Works Cited:

Primary Source :

Nagarkar, Kiran . Gods Little Soldier. New Delhi : HarperCollins, 2006.


Secondary Sources :

1. Bruce, Steve. Fundamentalism. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000.


2. Chesen, Eli S. Religion May Be Hazardous to Your Health.New York: Peter H. Wyden,
1972.
3. Doniger, Wendy. Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism. Chicago: Chicago
University Press, 1991.
4. Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious
Violence.New Delhi: Oxford University, Press, 2000.
5. Madan, T.N. Modern Myths, Locked Minds: Secularism and Fundamentalism in India.
New Delhi: Oxford University, Press, 1998.

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Understanding The Surrounding Colours For A Blissful Life
Madhumita Bhattacharjee

Abstract

Colour is associated with every part of our life. Colours play an important role in setting
up ones mood, emotions, belief and state of mind. Colours may have soothing effect or it may
irritate our eyes. Colours in our surroundings can cause excitement or calmness. Every colour
has its own wavelength and frequency so corresponds with our energy. Colours also produce
some physiological effects on human beings .So by gaining adequate knowledge of properties
of different colours one can lead a enjoyable life.

Key words : Colours , visible spectrum , symbolize

Introduction :

Colours play a vital role in our daily lives. It acts upon the body as well as on the
mind. Artists and interior designers feel that colours are significant communication tools and can
be used to cause physiological reactions.

Sunlight is an important source of energy and light. The entire spectrum of colours is
derived from light. Each colour of visible light spectrum has unique wavelength and its own
unique frequency . Light enters through our eyes and triggers many hormone production, which
effects our entire complex biochemical system and so provide happiness in life. Each colours
unique wavelength has an equivalent vibration speed that works to complement the brain and
body, which are required to maintain a healthy body, mind and soul. Longer wavelength colours
make us feel arousing or warm, whereas shorter wavelength colours make us feel relaxing (
Nakashian , 1964, Crowley ,1993 ). In a study done by National Institute of Mental Health
proves that our mental health, behaviour, and general efficiency in life depend to a great extent
on normal colour balance. An appropriate colour may contribute to longer span of concentration
in learning, improving performance and influence positive emotion and perception to its
surrounding ( Jalil et.al. , 2012). A study was done by Kuller et.al. ( 2006 ) to determine the
effect of indoor lighting and colour on the mood of people working indoors. They found that .
the workers' mood was at its lowest in low light or in dark. The mood then reached its highest
level in the right light, it was again decline in too bright light.

We can experience effect of colour in our life. Bright colours like Yellow, orange and
red are linked with the heat of sun and fire. The light colours as blue, green and violet are
associated with the coolness. An experiment was done by Yildirima et. al. ( 2006 ) to assess
whether various colours across the room interiors evoke different mood and found that cool and
achromatic colours evoke calmer and more peaceful emotions. Each colour is connected to

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various areas of our body and will affect us emotionally, physically and mentally in different
ways. In a study done by Kaya et. al. ( 2004 ) ninety-eight college students were asked to
indicate their emotional responses to five principle colours (i.e., red, yellow, green, blue,
purple), five intermediate colours (i.e., yellow-red, green-yellow, blue-green, purple-blue, and
red-purple), and three achromatic colours (white, gray, and black) .The results revealed that the
principle colours comprised the highest number of positive emotional responses, followed by the
intermediate and the achromatic colours . Colour has the potential to increase chances of
environmental stimuli to be encoded, stored, and retrieved so the choice of colours can influence
human memory performance (Dzulkifli et.al ., 2013 ) .Every colour is symbolize for something.
By gaining knowledge how each colour influences us, we can efficiently use colour to enhance
the energy in proper way.

Influence of Various Colours on Human Beings

White :

White colour is light and neutral so goes with everything. It reflects the full strength of
the spectrum into our eyes. White is to symbolize cleanliness and decency so is used by doctors
and nurses. A research showed that people having hand tremors didnt shake much in white
rooms because the colour has a calming effect. It is a perfect colour with perfect balance and
harmony. It is also the Divine Light .Directing white into the aura helps to stimulate the person's
own divine nature to heal the self.

Symbolize : White colour is mainly symbolized for purity, innocence, cleanliness and neutrality.
In some cultures or societies white colour shows sorrow.

Red :

Being the longest wavelength, red is a commanding colour. The red colour is called "The
Great Energizer" and "The Father of Vitality." Red is a warm and vital colour. Red is the first
visible colour we see after the infra-red band is passed. Red colour shows positive, courage and
self confidence. It has many tendencies for promotion of cell growth and activity, corresponding
to the circulatory system. It is therefore indicated for pneumonia, bursitis, paralysis, arthritis,
anaemia, as a liver stimulant, an energy builder, for raising the blood pressure and increasing
circulation.

Red helps the adrenal glands to release adrenalin which results in greater strength. Red
increases haemoglobin so increase energy and raise body temperature. We should use red when
we need to meet a challenging day or when we feel drained of energy. Red colour provides the
control from the earth and provide energy on all the levels. It connects us to our physical body.
Red stimulates heartbeat, appetite and breathing. It is also symbol of love. Being an extreme

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colour, red clothes might not help people in negotiations . It stimulates body and mind . It is a
great colour for the living room or dining room because it will brings people together and to
start conversation. It has the property of appearing to be nearer than it is so it grabs our attention
first. Hence it is used in traffic lights the world over. According to Elliot et.al. (2008 ) the red
colour enhances males attraction to females. Red colour in comparison to other achromatic and
chromatic colours, leads men to view women more attractive. In a study done by Hill et.al. (
2005 ) red colour stimulates testosterone dependent signal in a variety of animals .

Symbolize : Red colour symbolize for love, romance, gentle comfort, energy, excitement,
intensity, life and blood.

Orange :

Orange is the colour of the sun. Studies have verified that orange colour enhances
concentration and gives the brain and nervous system a wake-up call. Just like red colour while
walking in an orange room one feels an increase in energy. However, excessive orange can
cause exhaustion. It is also helpful for speeding up of metabolism. Orange colour relieves
repressions.

Because orange is a combination of red and yellow, it combines physical energy with
mental perception, so referred to as "The Wisdom Ray." Orange is warm and a cheering colour.
Through orange, we are able to understand how the body may be kept in good repair. Orange
helps develop new ideas and stimulate mental illuminations.
Orange is associated with inflammation of the kidneys, gallstones, menstrual cramps, epilepsy,
wet cough and all sinus conditions. .

Symbolize : Orange is symbolize for happiness, vigorousness eagerness, wealth


,prosperity and sophistication.

Yellow :

Yellow is the highest of the physical colours. Yellow is a thought-provoking colour to the
nervous system so awake , inspire and stimulates higher mind. One should use yellow colour
to enhance confidence and happiness ,because yellow colour helps to release a chemical in the
brain called Serotonin which is essential for causing a happy mood. This is the reason smiley is
yellow in colour . Yellow also activates the anxiety portion of our brains , helps to strengthen the
nerves and the mind. Yellow colour gives us transparency of thought, increases attentiveness and
stimulates curiosity. Yellow enhances the ability to perceive and understand . It connects us to
our mental self. Yellow has a very elevating effect on the intellect and the brain. Important
diseases treated by yellow are constipation, gas, liver troubles, diabetes, eczema and skin
troubles, leprosy and nervous fatigue.

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Symbolize : Yellow colour is symbolize for happiness, smile, cheer, optimism, hunger,
anger and attention seeking.

Green :

Green is the colour of nature and the earth. It has a soothing effect on both mind and
body. It can reduce fatigue so called the colour of rest and relaxation. The green colour evoked
mainly positive emotions such as relaxation and comfort because it reminded most of the
respondents of nature ( Kaya et. al .2004 ). It is the universal healing colour. Green is in the
middle of the colour spectrum, so contains both physical and spiritual nature. Green affects
blood pressure and all conditions of the heart. It has both a stimulating and soothing effect in
balance and harmony.

Green heals many illnesses specifically heart diseases , decreasing blood-pressure, ulcers,
cancer, headaches, nervous disorders and influenza etc. It helps to relax muscles, nerves, and
thoughts. It is the great balancer of the heart and the emotions. Green has a strong sense of good
judgment. Green is also the colour of growth and restores depleted energy.

Symbolize : Green colour symbolize for growth, money, desire, harmony, calmness and
fertility.

Blue :

Blue is the world's favourite colour .Blue is at the last end of the visible spectrum so has
stimulating, cooling, and negative effect. The colour of sky ,lake ,river or sea is blue indicates
vastness and calmness . Blue light found to activate the melanopsin photoreceptor system,
which further activates the brain structures involved in sub-cortical arousal and higher-order
attention processing( Cajochemn et.al. , 2005 ; Lockley et.al. 2006 ). Blue is the colour of the
mind. Blue symbolizes loyalty so people wear blue to job interviews. People are more productive
in blue rooms. Blue light has capacity to stop bleeding of the lungs, decrease fevers, cure sore
throats, give relief to most inflammations of the skin and gums, and can be used with infants for
pain while teething. It can also be used for goitre, measles, chickenpox, cuts, bruises and burns..
Blue is a mentally-relaxing colour so can give peace to the mind that is worried. Viola et. al (
2008 ) investigated the effects of exposure to blue-enriched white light during daytime work
hours in an office setting and found that it improves subjective alertness, performance, and
evening fatigue. It is best colour for treatment of sleep disorders and hyperactive children. Blue
can be used for any type of ailments associated with speech, communication or the throat.

Symbolize : Blue is symbolize for calmness, cold, knowledge faithfulness, truth and
decisive.

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Violet:

The shortest wavelength of the visible spectrum is violet. Violet is the colour of the
divine Spirit. It is generally not used for physical conditions. Being the last visible wave length
,it has associations with time and space and the cosmos. Purple relates with luxury, wealth, and
sophistication. It is also feminine and romantic. Violet is rare in nature. Some colour experts
believe that it gives nourishment to the cells in the upper brain .

Leonardo da Vinci claimed that power of meditation can be amplified ten times by
meditating under Violet rays. Different ailments like sciatica, tumours, rheumatism, cerebro-
spinal meningitis, cramps and epilepsy can be cured by violet colour. Violet energy enhances
artistic endowment and creativity.

Symbolize : Violet symbolize for royalty, wealth, sophistication, wisdom and mainly
spiritualism.

Brown :

Brown is blend of of red yellow and a large proportion of black. It has the same
seriousness as black, but is warmer and softer. Nature is full of brown colour. Brown colour
described as supportive, safe and stabilizing colour. However, Brown can also be sad and
regretful .

Symbolize : Brown symbolize for stability, friendship, sadness, warmth, comfort and
security.

Black :

Black colour signifies power , authority, knowledge and intelligence. It is the most
popular colour in the fashion industry because of its association with style and it makes people
wearing it look thin. Black outfits can also be overwhelming sometimes. It creates shielding
barriers because it absorbs all the energy coming towards people. Black is really an absence of
light as no wavelengths are reflected.

Symbolize : Black is symbolized for authority, power, strength, evil, intelligence,


slimming . In some culture or society black colour is a symbol of death or mourning .

Gray :

Grey is an unemotional colour. It is detached, neutral, disinterested and indecisive. It is the


colour which creates an air of peacefulness and understated confidence. Its best combination is
with white and other neutrals. However, an excessive use of grey colour usually indicates

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deficiency of confidence and fear of exposure. Grey colour indicates condition to draw in and
get ready for hibernation.

Symbolize : The gray colour is symbolize for neutral, timeless and impartial.

Conclusion :

Colours are very important in every aspect of life . Human minds responds to the colour
it sees in its surrounding . Colour indeed has an effect on mood and health. Every colour has a
specific emotional effect. By exposing ourselves to different colours during most part of life, the
quality of life is greatly affected. According to colour therapists ,every organ system of human
body has its own vibration energy and disease can occur when this energy is short. By providing
the same colour by any ways the disease can be overcome and one can enjoy a wonderful life.

References :

Cajochen, C., Mnch, M., Kobialka ,S., Kruchi, K., Steiner, R., Oelhafen, P.
(2005). High sensitivity of human melatonin, alertness, thermoregulation, and heart rate
to short wavelength light.J. Clin. Endocr. Metab. 90 :13111316 .
Crowley, A. E. (1993). The two dimensional impact of color on shopping. Market.
Lett. 4: 5969
Dzulkifli, M.A., Mustafar, M.F.(2013).The influence of colour on memory performance :
A Review Malays J Med Sci. 20(2):3-9.
Elliot Andrew ,J. and Niesta , D. (2008 ) Romantic Red: Red Enhances Men's Attraction
to Women Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95 (5) : 11501164.
Hill, R. A., & Barton, R. A. (2005). Red enhances human performance in contests.
Nature : 435, 293.
Jalila , N. A. , Yunusb, R. M. &. Saidc , N. S. ( 2012). Environmental Colour Impact
upon Human Behaviour: A Review Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 35 : 54
62
Kaya, N., & Epps, H. H. (2004). Relationship between color and emotion: A study of
college students. College Student Journal 38: 396 405.
Kller, R., Ballal ,S., Laike, T., Mikellides, B.,Tonello, G.(2006)
The impact of light and colour on psychological mood: a cross-cultural study of indoor
work environments. Ergonomics 15;49(14):1496-507.
Lockley S. W., Evans E. E., Scheer F. A., Brainard G. C., Czeisler C. A., Aeschbach D.
(2006). Short-wavelength sensitivity for the direct effects of light on alertness, vigilance,
and the waking electroencephalogram in humans. Sleep 29 :161168.
Nakashian J. S. (1964). The effects of red and green surroundings on behavior. J. Gen.
Psychol. 70143162 .

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Viola A. U., James L. M., Schlangen L. J. M., Dijk D. J. (2008) Blue-enriched white
lightin the workplace improves self-reported alertness, performance and sleep
quality. Scan. J. Work Environ. Health 34 :297306.
Yildirima, K., Akalin-Baskayab, A., & Hidayetoglu, M. L. (2006). Effects of Indoor
Color on Mood and Cognitive Performance. Building and Environment 42 : 32333240.

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Education and Social Change- with reference to Paulo Freires
Libertarian Education

Minakshi Rana

Abstract
Education is considered as the most influential tool for bringing progressive social
change in society. Education has the capacity to make the persons able to think critically about
the reality and then take action. The system of education based on problem posing approach
where instructions are not prescribed but formulated through dialogue, is able to transform the
reality of oppressed people of the society. The cultural context and social conditions of the
learners play a vital role in the construction of their perception. The educators must take into
account the specific social conditions of the learners and their cultural context before initiating a
dialogue in the teaching and learning process. The existing social reality is never fixed and
permanent and can always be changed by the active members of the society. The Libertarian
education can transform the passive receiptants into active contributories through the process of
conscientization.

Introduction

Education can be described a systematic influence extended upon the persons through
instructions, discipline and various other strategies of teaching and learning. The institution of
education bears the major responsibility of socializing the members of the society and at the
same time preparing them for life with the help of including skills and attitude. Education plays
pivotal role in the preservation and transmission of cultural heritage.

Social change can be described as a change in the social structure of a society and
alteration may occur in the norms, value, habits, customs, relations, attitudes and behavior. The
society is made up of human beings and human beings are bound to change naturally. So society
is constantly changing and social change is inevitable. Education has the capability as the
institution of society to generate, reflect and guide social change. Education can lead the society
towards the planned directions so the democratic goals of the society can be attained well
through the system of quality education for all.

The society has scarce resources to offer to all the member of the society and the struggle
for the limited resources of society results into unequal distribution among the members. The
members who managed to attain the resources in large quantities always strive to maintain the
status quo for their benefits. On the other hand the less privileged members who couldnt manage
a big share of resources either constantly endeavor to earn more or accept their status as destiny.

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The modern society has the weapon of education to break the status quo of society which
generates inequalities, exploitation and marginalization of the weaker sections. Education can
provide the marginalized the opportunities to illuminate their life with efficient skill and
knowledge so as to compete for their share of resources in the society. But here the big question
arises, who is going to run the system of education in society so that education can achieve the
aim of optimum development of talent and capabilities of all. Although democracy has provided
the solution to a great extent where people choose their leaders, who frames policies & regulate
the institutions of society for common welfare. But social change to attain full humanity,
participation of the oppressed in the system of society and make the less privileged people self
sufficient, the role of Paulo Freires Libertarian Education is convincing and the people who are
responsible for running the system of education must take account of it.

Paulo Freire was involved with the popular education movement to deal with massive
illiteracy and he was responsible to make the poor illiterate peasants in Brazil to develop their
own identity in the world of oppression. Further he helped the oppressed men and women to
fight against the sense of powerlessness by actively participate in society and achieve libration.
According to Paula Freire, literacy is a weapon of social change to transform the world which is
full of oppression and exploitation, education should become the means by which people
perceive, interpret, criticize and finally transform the world for better. Education is the only
means which can help the men and women to discover the ways of active participation to
liberate themselves from oppression and marginalization. Education cannot be natural, it either
domesticates or liberates. Education can be used as a system to maintain status quo by the
privileged community for their own selfish interests but there is always a possibility for
education to become a means of social change.

Freire had asserted the following goals for any system of education in order to bring
progressive social changes favoring poor:

1. Education for Humanization:-


The axial problem for mankind is the problem of humanization. It is evident from
the history of the mankind that humanization and dehumanization are the two real
alternatives available and only humanization can be peoples vocation. Freire further
mentioned that although this vocation has been constantly negated by those who has
power but yet it has been affirmed also by the efforts of those who came forward for
freedom and justice. Dehumanization which generates unjust social order and inequalities
in society is not a given destiny to the poor. Those who are in power strive to maintain
the status quo and they use violence sometimes to overcome the hurdles that come in
their way. The members of the society who are endowed with better resources and
facilities endeavor to regulate the institution of the society in order to make the weaker
section realize that the distribution of the resources strictly depends on the merit and luck

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of the individuals. The weaker section of the society lives with the false generosity
fertilized by the privileged class.
The privileged class is always in search of the opportunity to express their
generosity in the form of merit, equality and destiny to perpetuate injustice and unjust
social orders. True generosity is the need of the time so that people fight to destroy the
causes of injustice, exploitation and suppression and transform the world into a better
place. The members of the society who have gone through the pain of exploitation,
violence and marginalization can better understand the significance and necessity of
liberation. But the weaker section aspires to be like the elite ones- to yearn to have and
have more .They internalize the image of the elites within themselves. There is a need
that the oppressed class struggle for their liberation. To struggle for the liberation, the
critical awareness of the reality and the capacity to transform the system has to be
developed and here comes the significant role of education. Education must guide the
weaker sections of the society to reflect upon the reality of their social conditions and
inculcate in them; the ability to plan their actions and come together in association to
create new situation. Development of critical knowledge to achieve humanization should
be the goal of education. The pursuit of full humanization can be achieved by educating
the weaker sections to have faith in their ability and capacities to transform the reality of
the world and making the privilege section realize that, to have is the universal
phenomenon for all and certainly is not their exclusive right.

2. Culture of silence must be attacked by education:-


Every country develops a system of education in accordance to the specific
cultural, political, geographical and economic status. The educational system of the
country caters the social, economic and political needs of the country. It is evident that in
most of the countries the political system is dominated by few groups and people who use
the system of education to maintain the culture of silence in the weaker and
disadvantaged sections of the society. Culture of silence generally curbs the creative
expression of the poor and they accept illiteracy and ignorance as valid as the nature.
Culture of silence is a deliberately created artificial culture which instills a negative,
silenced and suppressed self image into the oppressed. Education can play a significant
role here. The learners have to be educated to develop a critical awareness in order to
recognize that the culture of silence is deliberately promoted by the privileged class to
maintain their status of domination & power.

The learners must be educated with the conviction that the role of man is not only
to survive in the world but the man is made by nature to act and create. The belief in the
ones capability and talent can be aroused by the educators so that the poor people also
gain the confidence to contribute and participate actively in the society. The nave
consciousness nourished by the dominant class to maintain ignorance and passivity

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among the poor has to be replaced by critical consciousness. Accordingly to Paulo Freire,
Critical consciousness represents things and facts as they exist empirically, in their
casual and circumstantial correlations naive consciousnesses consider itself
superior to facts, in control of facts, and they free to understand them as it pleases. One of
the chief aim of education in order to change the social reality and bring progressing
social changes should be Conscientization i.e . to incite critical awareness in learners.
Freire explains critical consciousness as a socio political tool that engages learners in
questioning the nature of their historical and social situation which Freire addressed as
reading the world. Education must be directed to raise critical awareness among the
learners so that they not only understand their social situations but also feel confident
enough to change the social conditions and relationships for the better life. Education
should enhance the abilities of the learners to perceive social, economic and political
oppression and then actively participate against the dominate elements of oppression. The
oppressed and exploited ones need to be educated so that they may come out of the
culture of silence and help themselves too.

3. Banking system of Education must be discarded

Freire considered the modern system of education as based on banking system


where the teacher is the depositor of knowledge and the learners are the passive
depositories. The educators under the banking system choose the context of curriculum
and learners are expected to adapt it. The instructional program is prescribed and the
learners passively receive, memorize and repeat according to the required standards in
order to get promoted for the next instructional program. Banking system of education
itself promotes the culture of silence and strangles the creativity and critical ability of the
learners. Under the banking system of education, the scope of action granted to the
learners extends only as far as receiving, filing, retrieving and storing the information in
the prescribed format.

In the banking concept of education the educators consider themselves


knowledgeable upon the learners. They assumed that they are gifted with the wealth of
knowledge which cannot be questioned by the learners. The learners are projected as
absolute ignorant and this assumption negates the education and knowledge as a process
of inquiry. Under the banking system of education, the attitude and practices of the
educators reflect the nature of oppressive society. The learners are treated as manageable
object which would be made adapted to the needs of the oppressive society. When the
educated youth encountered with the problems of unemployment, exploitation,
discrimination and poverty then only they realize that they got trapped in the vicious
circle of oppressive society where the banking system of education is used to perpetuate
the interests of the privileged class. Freire has not only condemned the modern education

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based on banking system of education, but also suggested Problem Posing Education to
bring radical social change by transforming the relationship between the teacher and
learners. Knowledge is not considered as prescribed under the problem posing education
but knowledge is formulated through dialogue between the teacher and the learner.
Human beings are not treated as passive receiptants but they are considered as
conscious beings that are yet to understand the social reality and then participate in the
creation of social settings. Banking system of education keeps the learners away from
confrontation and education remains as an instrument to maintain the culture of silence to
benefit the dominant class. Problem posing education emphasize on representation of
knowledge rather than imposition. It consists of listening, dialogue and action. Learners
are allowed to shape the reality through their own method of knowing.

4. Pedagogy to be developed through cultural circles-

Freires Libertarian education is based on problem posing learning, dialogue and


participation in a cooperate learning environment where the teacher engages in learning
with the student to formulate knowledge and the student engages with other students in
addition to develop rich understanding of the social realities and relationships. Freirean
education promotes problematization of injustice and inequalities prevalent in the society.
If the people accept the unequal access and treatment in educational setting then they are
colonized by such unfair and discriminatory social and educational settings. By
problematising the concepts within the specific context and cultural issues, the power to
appropriate language can be gained and then utilize it to promote social change.
Appropriate language within the educational settings can provide the tools which can
help transformation. Culture circle starts from the important issues which affect the daily
lives of the participants. The common experiences relevant to participants realities
generate themes for the construction of problem. Then the groups can be involved in
collective problem solving where multiple perspective and acts would be considered. As
Freire (1998) proposed the critical educational process is not about importing the
pedagogy, but about recreating the process across contexts with regard to specific culture
and histories of each community in which it takes place. In culture circle, Freire
emphasized that prior experiences and community concerns of the students are the
starting point in the educational process of teaching and leaving. Schooling is necessary,
not only to learn how to read and write but the learners should know how the people,
their interests and expressions are different. All the educational experiences are
contextual to the specificities of the learners are basic to develop the curriculum for them.
The curriculum and teaching aids based on culture circles can only help in developing
conscientization among the learners.

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5. Participation and dialogue of the under privileged is must:-

Many educational plans have failed to bring a change in the status of the poor.
The weaker sections are just persuaded to take part in the educational process as
receiptants and then they left to fight against the ills of unemployment and poverty. Most
of the educational plans are designed by the authors who belong to the privileged
community. They design the educational plans, policies and strategies according to their
own personal views of reality, and no efforts are usually made to take into account the
situations of the community to whom the programs were directed. Education is a political
process and it cannot be neutral. It is specifically designed to serve a political agenda.
While formulating education, the conditions and perspectives of the underprivileged has
to be taken in account in order to make that education democratic in true sense. Their
participation through dialogue with educators is necessary, as only prescription in
education cannot help the poor to discover themselves.

6 Instructional program should be presented with love and humility

Most of the times the education consists of presenting idealistic situations to the
learners and the virtues set by the dominated class are put forward to the learners as the
moralistic standards which all should confirm with. The learners who belong to the poor
community may not identify themselves with the values and ideas suggested by the
system of education. In this case the learning remains limited only to the intake of
prescribed parameters of behavior. For the purpose of conscientization that is to ensure
active participation of the learners, the existential situations of the learners should be
codified so that they recognize themselves and set their own virtues. The instructions
should be given in the environment of love and humility so that the learners from the
poor families are able to develop faith in the education. When the contextual situations
are used to present the instructional program, the participants get the opportunity to
recognize themselves in the social realities and the atmosphere of love and humility will
enhance their ability to think critically and plan action towards humanization. The
instructional program should be a process of an inquiry where all the learners reject the
notion of adaptation and attain the ability to create social order free of oppression and
suppression. A faith in humankind should be restored through the process of education as
to be fully human is a birth right of all.

7 Liberation is the ultimate goal of education

The ultimate goal of education is to liberate the poor from all kind of exploitation
and and at the same time making the dominant class who has the tendency to suppress
the poor, more human. So humanization of all people must be achieved to liberate the

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poor from the pain of poverty and exploitation and to make privileged class realize that to
have is not their exclusive right. If the education is to be liberating, it has be developed
and practiced by those sections of the community which are exploited and marginalized.
Education should not be aimed at reproducing the existing social, political and economic
order. The purpose of education is to nurture the natural tendency of human beings; that
is to be fully human. Education should consist of experiential learning where the learners
investigate the social settings and relationships. Experience shape the thinking of the
learners and the curriculum must provide practical and appropriate experiences to the
learners so that they explore the social reality and develop critical awareness of their own
social status. Liberation aims to make the human beings realize their potential to change
the social reality for a better world.

Education is the weapon which has the ability to change the face of social reality. The
concept of libertarian Education by Paulo Freire is very significant and relevant for Indian
society too. India is a country of diversity, where millions of people are still living under the
poverty line. Unemployment and corruption are also damaging the structure of society. Many
sections of the Indian society are compelled to live a marginalized life as the social intuitions are
regulated by the dominated class that enjoys the privileges and exclusive rights. The dominant
class designs the structure of social institutions and they are distant from the realities of life of
the marginalized people. They control the system of education to maintain the status quo so that
their unjust social order may not be questioned.

The system of education designed to cater the specific needs of the weaker sections and
to nurture the diversity of culture can only bring progressive social change for marginalized in
India. The process of education must ensure participation of people from all sections of society
in the formulation and implementation of the pedagogy.

The pedagogy which is developed by taking into account the social, economic and
cultural specificities and previous experiences of the learners is only expected to transform the
world by developing critical awareness and ability to act in the learners.

References:

Freire, P. (1973). Education for Critical Consciousness. New York: Seabury.

Freire, P. (1978). Pedagogy in Process: The Letters to Guinea-Bisseau. New York:


Seabury.

Freire, P.(1988). "The Adult Literacy Process as Cultural Action for Freedom and
Education and Conscientizacao."In Perspectives on Literacy, ed. Eugene R. Kintgen,

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Barry M. Kroll, and Mike Rose, pp. 398409. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois
University Press.

Freire, P.(1993). Pedagogy of the City. New York: Continuum.

Freire, P. (1994). Pedagogy of Hope. New York: Continuum.

Freire, P.(1996). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum

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Workers Participation in Management
Pardeep Singh Walia
Abstract
The workers participation in management crystallizes the concept of industrial
democracy and indicates an attempt on the part of employees to build his employees into a team
which works towards the realization of common objectives. The involvement of employees in
the decision making process has been termed as industrial democracy, employees participation,
participative management and workers participation in management. Whatever term is used, the
objective is to involve the subordinates in the decision-making at various levels. Labor
participation in management is a means of bringing about a state of industrial democracy. Ever
since independence, the Indian government has been stressing the need to introduce WPM and
various schemes were notified from time to time. However, the results have fallen far short of
expectations. Government has tried to give due share of workers in participative management of
enterprises through series of measures and policies in the form of successive Five Year Plans
after independence. The results still fall short of expected results due to many reasons: economic,
Social, political, etc. This paper makes an attempt to articulate the various reforms and policies
of Indian Government in promoting Workers Participation in Management.
Key words: WPM, Industrial Democracy, Reforms, Legislations

Workers Participation in Management

The concept of workers participation in management (WPM) is not a new concept. It has
its origin in the democratic methods of the Greek city States, as well as the Indian village
republics, where the government were chosen by the citizens, who composed them, and the
administration was carried on in accordance with the decisions taken by them or their
representations embodying the will of the people.1 Since then workers participation in
management has grown from an infant to an adult. It is well established that with positive
participation the workers becomes an adult citizen instead of an impersonal subject of
managerial authority in the work place community. Widely debated concept of WPM has
evolved from the purely and ideological and imaginative plank to an organizational reality.2
Conventionally speaking workers participation in management is looked upon as a
means of permitting subordinates to take part in the decision making process and thus, to enlist
individual creativity and enthusiasm. Increased participation by substituting consensus based
decision making for traditional adversary system does not by itself provide an automatic solution
for better industrial relations and low productivity, but it does reduce alienation towards work
and is an important means of winning support for change.
Analytically, it is a process of delegation of authority and responsibility in the general
arena of managerial functions. Extensive participation may lead to slower decision making but it
is possible to make decision technically superior and to carry them out without bitter conflicts
after characteristics of systems based on the institutionalization of conflicts. Thus, though

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participates is not a perfect process, it is being used increasingly all over the world to supplement
the contract relationship as it provides a more rewarding work life and satisfies legislate
expectations of employees.3
The concept of workers participation in management is borrowed from the West
European Countries. From the earliest days of industrial revolution, many social reformers were
having strong belief that the workers should be involved in the management of an enterprise for
achieving social justice. The idea of labor participation rests on the fundamental premise that
workers is not a slave who has no right at all, he is a citizen employed in an industry and has
opinions of his own which, he thinks, should be taken into account when decisions are taken and
policies are formulated. The factory is not a mechanical entity which is governed by mechanical
principles and economic laws, but a social system which is subject to the democratic rights of
those who are involved in it. So, in general parlance workers participation in management and
industrial democracy has been used as inter-changeable terms. These terms connote wide ranging
meaning and for reaching implications.
The workers participation in management crystallizes the concept of industrial
democracy and indicates an attempt on the part of an employees to build his employees into a
team which works towards the realization of a common objectives.4 The involvement of
employees in the decision making process has been termed as industrial democracy, employees
participation, participative management and workers participation in management. Whatever
term is used, the objective is to involve the subordinates in the decision-making at various
levels.5
WPM is better described as continuum of management relations. In this continuum, on
one extreme, we have information sharing, and on the other extreme, we have self-management.
Between the two extremes, there are different degrees of participations represented by
consultation, joint decision-making and co-partnership.
The most common and lowest form of WPM is information sharing in which question,
explanation, and exchange of ideas takes place between workers and management.
Whereas the ultimate power always remain with the management. On the other extreme,
in co-partnership, workers share ownership interests with employers through equity participation.
They may also share the management control if they have enough equity participations. In case
of self-management the assets of the enterprise are collectively owned by the workers and thus
management and control rests with them.
The base of labor participation in management are economic, psychological and social. 6
Economically, management must be prepared to willingly accept workers claim that they
contribute substantially to the progress and prosperity of enterprise and hence have a legitimate
right to share equitably the gains of higher productivity and the prosperity of the undertaking in
which they are employed.
Psychologically, it must be realized that worker nourishes a desire to be partner in the
affairs of industry. There exists in the workers mind an urge for status and importance in the

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organization where he is employed. When he is made aware of the purpose of his work as linked
with the purposes and goals of the enterprise, he feels proud as a component of the
organizational structure and this motivates him to cooperate. On the other hand the employer has
a feeling that he is the master and the workers are servants, the spirit of co-operation is bound to
be on a wane. Where management thinks that the prosperity of the undertaking is the result of
good management alone and the depression thereof is due to the workers failure in their duty, a
feeling of participation is conspicuously absent and so is a sense of belonging. Then the very
basis of labor participation in management is found wanting. It is probably in this sense that one
industrialist remarked. If you treat the workers as machines they will give you the productivity
of machines only, but if you treat them as human being they will give you the productivity of
human being, with tremendous potentialities of increased productivity.
Socially, participation exists only if the industry is looked upon not as a private domain
of the employer or as an instrument of exploitation of the workers but a social institution in
which the employer the workers as well as the community and nation have equal interests, such
interests being independent. Industry must be thought of as a common endeavor, where
production and efficiency can be have only if there exists happy relations between labor and
management. To this and both the parties must have a feeling for a cause and a desire to give and
take and work unitedly for the prosperity of the industry.
Indian trade union leaders prefer a right sharing process of workers participation. The
opinion of a trade union leader regarding the present system of workers participation is the very
evidence of their attitudes towards the problem- the prevailing schemes are not really workers
participation. The right and duties of the councils show that it was just a question of getting
information and that too has not been done to the satisfaction of workers. What is expected
through these schemes of wokers participation is that the workers do free research for the
management and work as unpaid supervisors for increasing production and productivity.
Workers have no right particularly in private sector for the very reason that the councils have
been set up to exploit workers; the chances of workers participation are nil.7

Government Policy Regarding WPM

In India labor participation in management legislations had roots even prior to its
independence.

There are few instances of informal joint consultations as early as 1920s in the
Government Printing Press and Railways etc. But the scheme of bipartite forums, as an
instrument of participative management, could find its way formally only at the initiative of the
government in 1946. Governments seriousness in WPM became evident when the Bombay
Industrial Relations Act, 1946 and the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 provided for the
establishment of Joint Councils and Works Committees respectively. Subsequently, it was given
a concrete from in the Industrial Policy Resolution of 30th April, 1956. The resolution stated that
in a socialist democracy, labor is a partner in the common task of development and should

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participate in it with enthusiasm. There should be joint consultation and workers and technicians
should, wherever possible, be associated with it.8

The WPM received an official recognition in the second five year plan. The plan
envisaged that for successful implementation of the plan, increased association of labor with
management is necessary. It emphasized that such a measure would help in (a) promoting
increased productivity for the general benefit of the enterprise, the employees, and the
community, (b) giving employees a better understanding of their role in the working of industry
and of the process of production and (c) satisfying the workers urge for self-expression, thus
leading to industrial peace, better relations and increased cooperation. This could be achieved by
providing for council of management. Technicians and workers.9 As a preliminary of labor
and employment set up, a tripartite a study group consisting of representative of employers,
workers and government was formed.

The study groups recommendations were accepted by the Indian Labor Conference in
1957 and after discussions at a seminar in January 1958, the scheme of Joint Management
Council was formulated.

The seminar (1958) was convinced that Joint Council will create an atmosphere of
mutual confidence and good-will. It took note of the gradual improvement in the attitude of
employees and that there was a need for continuous educative work both on the side of the
management and the unions.

In the second five year plan it has been stated.

A socialist society is built not solely on monetary motives but an idea of service to
society and the willingness on the part of the latter to recognize such services.

The creation of such industrial democracy is the prerequisite for the establishment of a
socialist society. Increased association of labor with management is necessary. This could be
achieved by providing for council of management consisting of representatives of management,
technicians and workers.

The concept of joint management councils is implicit in the following statement in the
industrial policy resolution.

In a socialist democracy labor, as a partner in the common task of development, should


participate in it with enthusiasm, there should be joint consultation and workers and technicians
should whenever possible, be associated progressively with management.

The third five year plan (1966) considered it essential that workers participation in
management is accepted as a fundamental principle and as an urgent need. It further observed
that the large expansion of the public sector which is occurring and is being envisaged will
make a qualitative difference in the task set for the transformation of the social structure on the

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lines of the socialist pattern in view. It wanted that workers and management to join in
partnership to strive for common ends for the peaceful evolution of the economic system on a
democratic basis.

The third five year plan recommended the setting up of the JMC in all industrial under-
taking found suitable for the purpose so that, in due course, the scheme might become a normal
feature of the industrial system.

The fourth five year plan urged the extension of workmen participation to the public
sector undertakings and emphasised its importance as an essential functional link in the structure
of industrial relations.

Moreover, the WPM was one of the important points in the 20-point economic
programme declared by the Prime Minister during emergency period for the rapid economic
development of the country. Consequently the government incorporated the principle of workers
participation in the directive principles of state policy in the year 1976 by amending article 43 of
the constitution. Article 43A was added which states that the state shall take steps by suitable
legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of
undertakings, establishments or other organizations in any industry.

The sixth plan observed that at an enterprise level, workers participation in management
should become an integral part of the industrial relation system to observe as effective instrument
of management. In 1970, government started a plan to include labor representatives at the board
of directors level. This plan had the provision to select one representative out of the names
mentioned by recognized union.10

After including labor representative in board of directors and having a look at the
recommendations of National Labor Commission, a number of seminars were organized in order
to make plan of labor representative more effective. In this direction a step was taken by labor
ministry on 30th October, 1975 for introducing this plan in manufacturing industries and mining
industry having 500 or more workers in it.

Under this plan, on the ministry or the departmental level, workers councils were set up
and at industry levels joint councils were established.

Even though it had certain drawbacks it was launched on a huge scale and within one
year, by October 1976, it covered 9506 industrial organizations having 25 lac workers. In 1977,
the government of India constituted another committee to review the situation. Keeping in view
its recommendations, the labor ministry of government of India launched a new plan on 30 th
October 1983.

Eighth five year plan provided that besides legislation, proper education and training of
workers and co-operation from both employers and employees to overcome problems arising out

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of the existence of multiplicity of trade unions and inter-union rivalry will go a long way in
promoting the system of participative management.11

The government being the major shareholder in public sector enterprises was more
enthusiastic to introduce participative management in them. As for this reason the schemes of
WPM mentioned earlier, the worker-director (1970) and the scheme of 1983 were meant for the
public sector enterprises only. This was perhaps intentional as government wanted public sector
to play a trend setter in popularizing the concept of participative management. It was expected
that the public sector undertaking would provide a lead in the task of implementing the
programme of workers participation in decision making. The first five year plan had specific
remarks that a worker in public sector stands on a different footing from a worker in a private
undertakings. He has a duel role of the country and servant; master as a citizen of the country
and servant as a worker of the undertaking. He must be made to feel that the responsibility for
success or failure is as much his as that of the management.12

Conclusion:

Labor participation in management is a means of bringing about a state of industrial


democracy. Ever since Independence, the Government has been stressing the need to introduce
workers' participation in management and various schemes were notified from time to time.
However, the results have fallen far short of expectations. The need to bring forward a suitable
legislation for effective implementation of the scheme has been felt. Besides legislation, proper
education and training of workers and cooperation from both employers and employees will go a
long way in promoting the system of participative management. Proper mechanism should be
created to give an equal share in the decision making to the workers, at different levels of
managerial hierarchy by the companies. The objectives of the WPM should be clearly defined
and be aimed at sharing genuine decision making powers with workers to increase overall
productivity of the company. The workers should be educated and trained for the purpose.
Needless to say it requires strong willpower of management to amend the rules and regulations
of the company. But the time is ripe for such a change.

NOTES AND REFERENCES :


1. Mehtras, V.G., Labor Participation in Management, Manaketlas, Bombay, 1960, p. 8.
2. Mamoria, C.B, Mamoria Satish and Gankar, S.V., Dynamics of Industrial Relations,
Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai, 2000, Pp. 507.
3. Narian, Dr. Laxmi, Workers Participation in Public Enterprises, Himalaya Publishing
House, 1987, p. 1.
4. Kesari, J.P., The System of Workers Participation in Management, Indian Journal of
Social Work, Vol. XXI, No. 4, p. 2.

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5. Narain, Dr. Laxmi, op.cit, p.2.
6. Mehtras, V.G., op.cit, p.12.
7. Sethi, C. Krishan, Workers Participation and Industrial Relations in India; Some
Relations, Vol.5, No.3, July 1978, p.186.
8. Government of India, Planning Commission, Industrial Policy Resolution-1956, Para-
17.
9. Government of India, Planning Commission, Third Five Year Plan, p.25.
10. Government of India, Planning Commission, Sixth Five Year Plan, Vol. II.
11. Government of India, Planning Commission, Eighth Five Year Plan, Vol. II.
12. Government of India, Planning Commission, Third Five Year Plan, p.580

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Stevia- A Natural Sweetener
Anurita Sharma
Abstract

Stevia rebaudiana( Bert.) Bertoni( FamilyAsteraceae) is picking up notoriety as a herb


that is known to create a sweet taste and has no calorific value. Much research is going on its
substance and organic properties. A push to assemble the present status of utilization of this
natural sweetener has been done in this paper.

Key words: Stevia, natural sweetener.

Introduction

Stevia is a local to the valley of the Rio Monday in good countries of North-Eastern
Paraguay in South America. It develops well in sandy soils close streams on the edges of
marshland, acidic fruitless sand or sludge soils. Stevia was industrially developed without
precedent for Paraguay in 1964. Later on it was acquainted with various nations including Brazil,
Korea, Mexico, United States, Indonesia, Tanzania and Canada. At present it is primarily being
created in China and the real market is in Japan. Stevia is normally known as a sweet leaf or
confection leaf. It is an enduring plant up to 30cm in tallness. The surrenders are sessile over to
3-4cm long, prolong or spatulate fit as a fiddle. The upper surface of the leaf is marginally
glandular and pubescent.the reason for this examination paper is to investigate the late
amplification of Stevia , an utilitarian sustenance fixing utilized as a distinct option for sugar, or
other low calorie compound sweeteners.

Discussion

The compound structure of Stevia leaves comprises of glycosides, or blend of a non-


starch gathering and an appended sugar. In its leaves, there are nine to ten diverse steviol
glycosides observed that are available for extraction. Of those ten, Stevioside and Rebaudioside
are the main two noteworthy sweet tasting steviol glycosides that are utilized by sustenance
producers as a useful nourishment part. Be that as it may, these steviol glycosides are not suitable
to be added to sustenance items in the crude leaf structure. Stevia leaves are reaped and dried. At
that point the glycosides are removed by soaking the dried leaves in heated water, a procedure
much like the system utilized for tealeaf extraction. Next, the refinement segment of the
technique starts when the Stevia concentrate is broken down in ethanol and/or methanol where it
takes shape and is then sifted. An initiated carbon is utilized to help the solidified glycosides to a
wanted white or grayish shaded powder, firmly taking after granulated sugar. The concentrate is
at last dried and what remains is a high immaculateness type of the fundamental Stevia
concentrates, Stevioside or RebaudiosideA. The completed refined item is a decolorized, cleaned
and solidified type of Stevia. Stevia is utilized as a useful nourishment to sweeten a differing

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mixture of sustenance buyer items. Some of these items incorporate organic product juices, pop
drinks, yogurts, desserts, oats and prepared merchandise.

Understanding the main view points and weaknesses of Stevia is critical on the grounds
that extreme sugar admissions have turned into a noteworthy wellbeing concern here. This
implies that the lion's share of our general public is at danger for a high number of unsafe
wellbeing conditions with the two most serious being Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and coronary
illness. The real offender alongside strong fats is an overflow of sugar, which by and large gives
35 percent or about 800 calories for each individual, every day. These lopsided sums make lifted
levels of at danger individuals in our general public. There is a principal requirement for an
option sweetener set up of sugar, or other synthetic sweeteners. In spite of the fact that it has
existed in this locale for many years, the biosynthesis of its steviol glycosides has just been
scrutinized and distributed inside of the most recent forty years. One of the remarkable favorable
circumstances of Stevia concentrate is its effective sweet flavor. Truth be told, just a little sum is
fundamental with the end goal of sweetening in light of the fact that it is 250 to 300 times
sweeter than sucrose.

Advantages of the marvel sweetener that you may not have thought about

Brings down your glucose levels

Stevia is utilized as a substitute for sugar, particularly for diabetics. It settles your glucose
by expanding insulin resistance, represses the retention of glucose and advances the soundness of
the pancreas. People with low glucose ought to abstain from drinking Stevia tea as it could
prompt a radical drop in glucose levels.

Controls hypertension

As per a study distributed in the Brazilian Journal of Biology and Technology, Stevia can
bring down the pulse in individuals experiencing hypertension. In any case, the outcomes are
seen more than one to two years.

Serves to battle dandruff and skin inflammation

As Stevia has hostile to bacterial, against contagious and calming mixes, it can help you
to dispose of skin break out and dandruff. Aside from this, it is utilized to repair dry and harmed
hair.

Lessens wrinkles and fine lines


Stevia contains a compound called retinoic corrosive that eases off the movement of
wrinkles. It lives up to expectations by repressing the breakdown of cells particularly collagen

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and elastin. Additionally, it decreases sebum generation and even improves the life compass of
cells.

Aides in protecting your teeth and gums


Gingivitis is a contamination of the gums brought about by microbes. As Stevia contains
antibacterial and provocative mixes, it keeps the colonization of microscopic organisms in the
mouth and around the gums. This thus ruins the arrangement of pits and plaque that
overwhelmingly adds to the onset of gingivitis.

Assists in digestion
The vicinity of particular plant glycosides in Stevia mitigates an aggravated stomach
coating and along these lines, helps in the treatment of acid reflux and indigestion.

Helps in weight reduction


Stevia is awesome for weight reduction as it contains no calories and can be utilized a
sweetener. You can utilize it in prepared and cooked items as the glycosides present in it, don't
separate when cooked. An included point of interest of this leaf is that it has the ability of
diminishing your desires for greasy nourishments.

Recuperates wounds at a much speedier rate


Stevia restrains the development of hurtful microbes and consequently, goes about as a
capable common guide to treat wounds and minor skin contaminations.

Tumor
Stevia may advantage individuals at danger of specific tumors, yet the confirmation is
extremely constrained. Yasukawa K and his collaborators( (2002) disengaged four steviol (ent-
kaurene-sort diterpenoid) glycosides, stevioside, rebaudiosides An and C, and dulcoside A) from
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and they discovered an in number inhibitory impact of these steviols
on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetic acid derivation (TPA)- affected aggravation in mice.

Diseases
Stevia may have advantages of hostile to microbial exercises, yet the exploratory
confirmation is exceptionally constrained.

A percentage of the symptoms of Stevia are

1. An Allergen

A few individuals have reported having an unfavorably susceptible response to Stevia,


particularly for those individuals who as of now respond to normal allergens like

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chrysanthemums, marigolds, ragweed or daisies. A hypersensitive response may incorporate
shortness of breath, hives, trouble gulping, wheezing or shortcoming.

2. Queasiness and Nausea

Stevia sweeteners contain stevioside, which has been accounted for to bring about
queasiness, bloating, or agitated stomach in a few individuals.

3. Diabetes or Low Blood Pressure

Expending huge amounts of stevioside can adversely influence glucose or circulatory


strain levels.

Conclusion

With its general flavor agreeableness and dependability, I trust the utilization of Stevia as
a practical nourishment fixing has an important future. It may have required a long investment
for some nations to choose, however today, all through the world, Stevia has absolutely earned
the privilege to be viewed as a sheltered, normal sugar substitute and option sweetener. As I
would see it, I trust that Stevia shows solid prizes later on treatment of sort 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Furthermore, with continuous research and examinations, the uses of Stevia as a practical fixing
are boundless. So while there are numerous great motivations to utilize types of the Stevia plant,
keep on looking as further research is done on the mixed bag of distinctive ways this plant is
used.

References:

1. Brusick D. 2008. A critical review of the genetic toxicity of steviol and steviol
glycosides. Food ChemToxicol. ; 46(7):S83-S91.
2. Dar, K., Dang R, Khanam S and Shivananda B.G. 2004. Stevia in India- A Comparative
Study. Indian J. Nat. Prod. 20: 3-7
3. Lewis W.H. 1992. Early uses of Stevia rebaudiana ( Asteraceae ) leaves as a
sweetener in Paraguay. Econ Bot. 46: 336-337
4. RajiAkintundeAbdullateef, Mohamad Osman ( 2012). "Studies on effects of pruning on
vegetative traits in Stevia rebaudianaBertoni (Compositae)". International Journal of
Biology
5. Yasukawa K et al. ( 2002 ) Inhibitory effect of stevioside on tumor promotion by 12-O-
tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Pharm
Bull.;25(11):1488-90.
6. Amaro-Luis et al 1997Isolation, identification and antimicrobial activity of ombuoside
from Stevia triflora. Ann Pharm Fr.;55(6):262 84 (1). doi:10.5539/ijb.v4n1p146.

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Relationship with Superordinates, Subordinates and Colleagues with
Relation to Job Satisfaction Among Police Officials in UT Chandigarh
Sandeep Buttola
Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of work place relations of
police officials upon job satisfaction. The study was carried out at sixteen Police Stations in
Chandigarh. A prospective analysis was completed on 231 respondents which consist of 16
Inspectors, 31 Sub-Inspectors, 41 Assistant Sub-Inspectors and 143 Head Constables. Results
found that cordial relation with colleagues, subordinates and superordinates are significantly
related to the job satisfaction among police officials. The result further indicates that relations
with superordinates and colleagues are more uncongenial than relation with subordinates. It is
recommended that Police department should pay a large extent attention to the relationship of
police officials with their subordinates, superordinates and colleagues at work place to improve
the level of job satisfaction.

Keywords: Chandigarh, subordinates, superordinates, relation, satisfaction, colleagues

Introduction

Police have existed since immemorial, in fact, ever since human beings began to organise
themselves into groups. Police is the agency through which societies seek to regulate the
behaviour of their members. Even in the most primitive forms of society or community life, the
need to maintain social order among its members was felt. Hence all societies evolved certain
rule and regulation of conduct for the regulation of the behaviour of their members. After
evolving the set of rules it was inevitable to create an agency which would enforce those rules
and regulations. As societies grew, this agency also grew and concept of police came into
existence. Police as the most important protective arm of society, has not only to function as
fighter against the forces of lawlessness and destabilisation, but also to create a sense of safety
and confidence among the members of the society. The police is responsible for the prevention
of criminal activities, the protection of life and property, the preservation of peace, and public
compliance with countless laws.

Present Police system in India appears to be a unique and amalgam of various features of
Ancient, Mughal and British Police. The present Police structurally and functionally owes its
existence to the various Acts promulgated by the colonial administration. The Indian Police Act
1861 is the basic foundation of the present day Indian Police. Police in India is in the State List
of the Constitution and, therefore, police basically falls into the jurisdiction of the respective
State governments. Police organizations are identified by the name of the State to which they
belong, and even their nomenclatures are given after the names of the respective States, i.e.
Rajasthan Police, Assam Police, Bihar Police, Kerala Police etc. The police is organized,

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maintained and directed by the States and Union Territories of the India. The Indian Police
System is horizontally stratified just as military forces and is organized into various cadres.

Every official has to follow the order of the senior official. Senior officials feel satisfied
while commanding the subordinates but being commanded by their senior officials the
employees feel suppressed and exploited. Therefore, there is an absence of cordial relations
among superordinates. Cordial relations can enhance the level of job satisfaction. Every person
wants harmonious relationship with his colleagues, subordinates and superordinates but in the
absence of harmonious relationship an employee feels dissatisfaction in his job . Good relations
with colleagues ,subordinates and superordinates can create a positive atmosphere at work place,
which increases the efficiency of an employee weather he/she a colleague , superordinate or
subordinate and gives them good feeling at the work place. Every employee seeks to be treated
with respect by fellow worker. If employees are in touch with supportive colleagues they can do
their performance in a better and contented way to perform their duties effectively. Subordinates
need to know that their superior's door is always open for them to discuss the work related
issues. But in the absence of the congenial relations among colleagues, subordinates and
superordinates, the employees feel dissatisfied with their job.

Through socio-economic variables, it is easy to know the attitude, behavioural pattern,


socialization, life style , life opportunities and how an individual perceives the society. Socio-
economic variables help an individual in forming his/her belief towards the job. The present
study has been carried out to know the influence of the relations of the employee with
subordinates,colleagues and superordiantes upon his job satisfaction in the police officials
Chandigarh.Various variables such as age, education,income, marital status etc may cause
uncongenial relations with subordinates,colleagues and superordiantes . Therefore, it is pertinent
to get acquainted with the respondents socially and economically.This investigation seeks to
draw attention to the employees relation with colleagues, subordinates and superordinates and
employees job satisfaction. Employees relation with colleague , subordinate and superordinates
one of the most significant workplace attitudes therefore author focuses on job dissatisfaction as
an outcome of employees uncongenial relation with colleagues , subordinates and
superordinates.

Review of the literature:

Relation with colleagues, sub ordinates and super ordinates and job satisfaction

Robbins (1996) maintains that work provides an individual environment for social relations.
Thus, having supportive colleagues results in job satisfaction.Luthans (2005) job satisfaction is
achieved by having supportive relationships with co-workers. According to Ellickson and
Logsdon, (2001) the relationship with co-workers was one of the most important factors of job
satisfaction.Homogeneous relationship between subordinates and super ordinates can enhance

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job satisfaction level of the employees.Carrell, et al. (1999) states that Job satisfaction
significantly improves when supervisors are perceived to be helpful, competent and
effective.Heery and Noon (2001) define a supervisor as a front-line manager who is responsible
for the supervision of an employee. The supervision element reflects the extent to which a person
derives satisfaction from the relationship with their immediate superior. According to Herrbach
and Mignonac (2004), the perceptions of responsible behaviour of leaders favour more
cooperative behaviour among colleagues, which can further lead to a friendly atmosphere in the
work place. Ting (1997) found that workers who have supportive relationship with their
immediate supervisor experience higher levels of job satisfaction than those who do not. Reiss
(1967) reports that supervisory problems is found to be major factor that influence police job
satisfaction.

Main objectives of the study:

To study the socio-economic profile of the Police officials in U.T Chandigarh.

To examine the employees relations with subordinates, colleagues and superordinates


and its influence upon the level of job satisfaction among Police officials.

Methodology:

Unit of Analysis:
The unit of analysis consisted of the police officials including Inspector, Sub-Inspector,
Assistant Sub-Inspector and Head Constable in sixteen police stations of union territory of
Chandigarh. Half strength of the officials is involved in the present study.For the present study
16 Inspectors, 31 Sub-Inspectors, 41 Assistant Sub-Inspectors and 143 Head Constables were
included in the sample. In all 231 police officials were studied.

Techniques of Data Collection


Keeping in mind the nature of study, a structured interview schedule was used to collect
information.

Tabulation and analysis of Data


After collecting the data, using code design, cross tables were made. Collected data was coded
and analysed using (statistical package for social sciences software Version 20).Analysis of data
has been done in the context of the different rank of the Police officials i.e. Head
Constables,ASIs, Sub Inspectors and Inspectors and levels of the satisfaction.Chi square test was
used to see whether the difference in the responses of the different rank of the Police officials is
only due to sampling errors or it is significantly substantial.Statistical analysis is done to arrive
at conclusions.

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Findings

In this section, we provide a brief description of the data .Since the first objective was to study
socio-economic profile of the respondents and second objective was to examine the employees
relations with subordinates, colleagues and superordinates and its influence upon the level of
job satisfaction among police officials, therefore table no. I depict the socio- economic profile of
the respondents and table no.II shows respondents relations with colleagues and its influence
upon level of job satisfaction.Table no. III depicts the repondents relations with subordiantes
and its influence upon the level of job satisfaction while table no IV shows respondents relations
with superordinates and its influence upon the level of job satisfaction .

Socio-economic profile of the respondents

This table explores the socio-economic profile of the respondents by analyzing their social,
economic, religious and family background. Through these variables, it is easy to know the
attitude, behavioural pattern, socialization, life style , life opportunities and how an individual
perceives the society. Socio-economic variables help an individual in forming his/her belief
towards the life .Therefore, these socio economic variables should be adequately studied
before analysing the data. The commonly used demographic variables in police job satisfaction
are: age, gender, race, educational attainment, rank, and length of service (Zhao et al., 1999).The
present study has been carried out to know the job satisfaction level of the police officials in
Chandigarh. Therefore, it is pertinent to get acquainted with the respondents socially and
economically.

Table No. I

Rank wise distribution of the respondents on the basis of socio-economic profile

Designation
Age (Yrs) Head Sub
ASI Inspector Total
Constable Inspector

35-40 - 6 (14.6%) - 1 (6.2%) 3 (0.90%)

40-45 - 11 (26.8%) 4 (12.9%) 5 (31.2%) 14 (4.30%)

45-50 34 (23.8%) 5 (12.2%) 9 (29%) 1 (6.2%) 312 (94.80%)

Above 50 109 (76.2%) 19 (46.3%) 18 (58.1%) 9 (56.2%)

Religious
background

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100 (69.9%) 37 (90.2%) 26 (83.9%) 9 (56.2%)
Hindu 238 (72.3%)

13 (9.1%) 3 (7.3%) 1 (3.2%)


Muslim _ 27 (8.2%)

30 (21%) 1 (2.4%) 4 (12.9%) 7 (43.8%)


Sikh 62 (18.8%)

Caste
background

32 (22.4%) 11 (26.8%) 4 (12.9%) 3 (18.8%)


Reserved 65 (19.8%)

111 (77.6%) 30 (73.2%) 27 (87.1%) 13 (81.2%)


General 264 (80.2%)

Educational
qualification

51 (35.7%) 7 (22.6%)
Matriculation 14 (34.1%) _ (9.4%)

Senior 70 (49%) 10 (24.4%) 12 (38.7%)


1 (6.2%) (31.6%)
Secondary

21 (14.7%) 12 (29.3%) 10 (32.3%) 14 (87.5%)


Graduation 194 (59%)

Post graduation 1 (0.7) 5 (12.2%) 2 (6.5%) 1 (6.2%)

(100%) (100%) (100%)


Total 143 41 31 16 231 (100%)
(100%)

Results reveal that most of the respondents age is between 45-50 years .Further results reveal
that majority of the respondents are Hindu and followed by Sikhs. Results also indicate that
most of the respondents belong to general category and are graduates .

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Relation with colleagues

Cordial relations can enhance level of job satisfaction. Every person wants harmonious
relationship with his colleagues, but in the absence of harmonious relationship an employee
feels dissatisfaction in his job .Robbins (1996) maintains that work provides an individual
environment for social relations. Thus, having supportive colleagues results in job
satisfaction.Luthans (2005) job satisfaction is achieved by having supportive relationships with
co-workers . Ellickson and Logsdon (2001), the relationship with co-workers was one of the
most important factors of job satisfaction. In this context an attempt has been made to know the
relationship with colleagues and its effect on job satisfaction.

Table II

Distribution of the respondents showing association between relation with colleague and
levels of job satisfaction

Level of job satisfaction Relation with colleague


Yes No Total
Very low 28 (30.8%) 73 (31.6%)
45 (32.1%)

Low 22 (15.7%) 13 (14.3%)


35 (15.2%)

Average 40 (28.6%) 22 (24.2%) 62 (26.8%)

High 21 (15%) 15 (16.5%) 36 (15.6%)

Very High 12 (8.6%) 13 (14.3%)


25 (10.8%)

Total (100%) 91 (100%) 231 (100%)


140

2=2.246,df-4,P>.05

Results show that 32.1 percent respondents are very low satisfied ,15.7 percent respondents are
low satisfied , 28.6 percent respondents are average satisfied ,15 percent respondents are high
satisfied and 8.6 percent are very high satisfied amongst those respondents who have good
relation with colleagues. Further data indicates that amongst those respondents who have not
good relations with colleagues , 30.8 percent are very low satisfied , 14.3 percent are low
satisfied ,24.2 percent respondents are average satisfied and 14.3 percent are very high

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satisfied. Statistically, results were not found to be significant. These findings were similar to
the findings of the Robbins (1996), Luthans (2005) and Ellickson and Logsdon (2001).

Relations with subordinates

Good relations with subordinates can create a positive atmosphere at work place. Which
increases the efficiency of the subordinates and gives them good feeling at work place. But in
the absence of the friendly relations between subordinates and super ordinates, the employees
feel dissatisfied with their job. In this regard an attempt is made to know the relations with sub
ordinates and the level of job satisfaction of the respondents.

Table III

Distribution of the respondents showing association between relations with subordinates


and levels of job satisfaction

Level of job satisfaction Relation with subordinates


Yes No Total
Very low 9 (18%) 73 (31.6%)
64 (35.4%)

Low 29 (16%) 6 (12%)


35 (15.2%)

Average 37 (20%) 25 (50%) 62 (26.8%)

High 32 (17.7%) 4 (8%) 36 (15.6%)

Very high (10.5%) 6 (12%)


119 25 (10.8%)

Total (100%) 50 (100%) 231 (100%)


181

2=19.344,df-4,P<.05

Results reveal that very few respondents are dissatisfied with congenial relation with
subordinates .There are 18 percent respondents who are very low satisfied , 12 percent are low
satisfied ,50 percent respondents are average satisfied , 8 percent respondents are high satisfied
and 12 percent respondents are very high satisfied amongst those who are dissatisfied with
congenial relation with subordinates. Subordinates obeyed their seniors and this could be the
reason why most of the respondents has congenial relation with their subordinates. The value of

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the chi square was found to be significant at .05 level of significance Most of the respondents
are satisfied with congenial relation with subordinates.

Relation with supervisors

Homogeneous relationship between subordinates and super ordinates can enhance job
satisfaction level of the employees.Carrell, et al. (1999) states that Job satisfaction significantly
improves when supervisors are perceived to be helpful, competent and effective.Heery and
Noon (2001) define a supervisor as a front-line manager who is responsible for the supervision
of an employee. The supervision element reflects the extent to which a person derives
satisfaction from the relationship with their immediate superior. According to Herrbach and
Mignonac (2004), the perceptions of responsible behaviour of leaders favour more cooperative
behaviour among colleagues, which can further lead to a friendly atmosphere at the work place.
Ting (1997) found that workers who have supportive relationship with their immediate
supervisor experience higher levels of job satisfaction than those who do not. Reiss (1967)
reports that supervisory problems is found to be major factor that influence police job
satisfaction. In this regard an attempt has been made to know the relationship between
respondents and superordinates and its influence upon the level of job satisfaction.

Table IV

Distribution of the respondents showing association between relation with superordinates


and levels of job satisfaction
Level of job satisfaction Crodial relation with
superordinates
Yes No Total
Very low 44 (30.1%) 73 (31.6%)
29 (34.1%)

Low 12 (14.1%) 23 (15.8%)


35 (15.2%)

Average 19 (22.4%) 43 (29.5%) 62 (26.8%)

High 15 (17.6%) 21 (14.4%) 36 (15.6%)

Very high (11.8%) 15 (10.3%)


10 25 (10.8%)

Total (100%) 146 (100%) 231 (100%)


85

2=1.850,df-4,P>.05

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Results reveal that there are 34.1 percent respondents who are very low satisfied ,14.1 percent
respondents are low satisfied and 11.8 percent are very high satisfied among those respondents
who have good relation with superordinates.Data reveals that most of the respondents have no
cordial relation with their superordinates . Superordinates do not treat equally or with respect
which the subrodiantes could be the reason why most of the respondents had uncongenial
relation with their super ordinates. The value of the chi square was not found to be significant at
.05 level of significance indicating association between relation with supervisor and job
satisfaction. Results are similar to the findings of the Carrell, et al. (1999),Reiss (1967), Heery
and Noon (2001), Mignonac (2004) and Ting (1997) who reported that good relations with
supervisors can enhance the job satisfaction .

Discussion

Findings reveal that most of the respondents below to average satisfied with regard to their
relations with colleagues , which is similar to the findings of the Robbins (1996), Luthans
(2005) and Ellickson and Logsdon (2001) who maintains that, having supportive colleagues
results in job satisfaction.Further data indicates that most of the respondents have good relations
with their subordinates and they are satisfied with their job.Further results indicate tht most of
the respondents are not satisfied with regard to their relations with superordinates , which is
coincide with the findings of the findings of the Carrell, et al. (1999),Reiss (1967), Heery and
Noon (2001), Herrbach and Mignonac (2004) and Ting (1997) who found that workers who have
supportive relationship with their immediate supervisor experience higher levels of job
satisfaction than those who do not.

Conclusion

It is therefore recommended, based on the findings of the research, that there is a dire need to
improve the level of job satisfaction among police officials. It is revealed that most of the
employees are very lowly satisfied and they do not have cordial relations with their colleagues
and superordinates . The reasons could be senior officials are arrogant, not willing to help the
juniors and departmental policies that curb the congenial relations between seniors and
juniors.While on the other hand, large number of the respondents have cordial relation with
their sub ordinates.The possible reason could be that the lower rank officials have to follow the
instructions of the senior officials, therefore most of the respondents feel that they have
congenial relation with their subordinates. As far as job satisfaction is concerned police
department needs to focus upon employees relations with colleagues, subordinates and
superordinates at the work place. In this way, subordinates and superordinates would work
together and enhance their efficiency. Departmental policies are impediments which break
congenial relations among superordinates.For instance, circulars regarding holidays, salary hike,
promotion etc. are not allowed to share with subordinates, work plans are not discussed with
juniors and few officials get promotion without deserving conditions etc.Inspite of this,
subordinates suggestions should be welcomed in work plan and promotion policies should be

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transparent and more systematic so that without any wrangling over the promotion issues the
employee would secure the job and his work will not suffer.

References:

Buker, H. & Wiecko, F. (2007). Are causes of police stress global? Testing the effects of
common police stressors on the Turkish National Police. Policing: An International
Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 30(2), 291-309.

Carrell, M.R., Elbert, F.E., Hatfield, R.D., Grobler, P.A., Marx, M. and van der Schyf, S.
(1999). Human Resource Management in South Africa. Cape Town: Pearson Education
South Africa.

Ellickson, M. & Logsdon, K. (2001).Determinants of job satisfaction of municipal


government employees. State Local Government Review, 33, (3), pp.173-84.

Heery, E., & Noon, M. (2001), A dictionary of human resource management, New York:
Oxford University Press.

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York,
John Wiley & Sons.

Herrbach, O. & Mignonac, K. (2004). How organizational image affects employee


attitudes. Human Resource Management Journal, 14,(4).pp. 76-88.

Knoop, R. (1994). Work values and job satisfaction. Journal of Psychology.


Interdisciplinary and Applied, 128(6),pp. 683-691.

Luthans, F. (2005), Organizational behaviour, Tenth Edition, Irwin, McGraw-Hill.

Reiss, A.J. (1967). Career Orientations, Job Satisfaction, and the Assessment of Law
Enforcement Problems by Police Officers. In Studies in Crime and Law Enforcement in
Major Metropolitan Areas. 2. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Moyle, P. (1998). Longitudinal Influences of Managerial Support on Employee Well-


Being. Work and Stress, 12(1),pp. 29-49.

Pursley, R. D. (1974). Leadership and Community Identification Attitudes among Two


Categories of Police Chiefs: An Exploratory Inquiry. Journal of Police Science and
Administration, 2(4), 414-422.

Robbins, S.P. (1996). Organizational Behaviour. 7th ed. London: Prentice-Hall.

Ting, Y. (1997). Determinants of job satisfaction of federal government employees.


Public Personnel Management, 26, (3),pp. 313-34.

Zhao, J., Thurman, Q., & He, N. (1999). Sources of job satisfaction among police
officers: A test of demographic and work environment models. Justice Quarterly, 16,
pp.153-172.

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Career Maturity as Correlates of Occupational Aspirations of the
School Students
Lilu Ram Jakhar
Abstract
Career maturity is a lifelong process of focusing on identifying and acting on the goals.
Occupational aspiration refers to the level of aspiration of a person to accomplish a particular job
or a profession. The present study was designed to find significance of difference in career
maturity of senior secondary school boys and girls and also to find the significance of difference
in occupational aspiration of senior secondary school boys and girls as well as to study the
correlation between career maturity and occupational aspiration of senior secondary school
students. The results of the study show that there is significant difference in career maturity of
boys and girls of senior secondary school at 0.01 level of significance. The study also indicated
that there is no significant difference in the occupational aspiration of the boys and girls. The
study found that there is significant correlation between career maturity and occupational
aspiration of the secondary school students at 0.05 level of significance.
*******
INTRODUCTION
Climbing to the top demands strength, whether it is to the top of Mount Everest or to the top of
your career- Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

With ever growing competition there is a considerable pressure on senior secondary


school students to outperform each other to design a career path for themselves. But, under the
current scenario with percentages for admissions to various courses are touching as high as 95%
and above, it becomes very difficult for the average student to bag a seat in the college and
stream of their choice. Thus, the students are compelled by the circumstances to take up courses
and choose the colleges which may not be in their preferred list for career progression. Career
maturity is an individuals ability for effective decision making to resolve career difficulties.
Career maturity is a lifelong process of focusing on identifying and acting on the goals.
Occupational aspiration refers to the level of aspiration of a person to accomplish a particular job
or a profession. The students are not mature enough to understand the various career options as
regards to their occupational aspirations hence it becomes imperative to study the career maturity
in relation to occupational aspirations of the senior secondary school students.
CAREER MATURITY
The concept of career maturity was defined as the place reached on the continuum of
vocational development from exploration to decline (Super, 1955). Career maturity is thus the
degree which one has reached in cognitive, emotional and other psychological factors whereby
one acquires the capacity of making realistic and mature career choices.

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Career maturity is the extent to which the individual has mastered the vocational
development task including both knowledge and attitudinal components, appropriate to his or her
state of career development. It involves forming interest, making consistent and competent
choices and developing attitude towards career (Crites, 1978).
Career maturity is based on the direct assistance given to an individual to promote more
effective decision-making, intensive counseling to help resolve career difficulties; enhancement
of persons career development to enable him make more effective career decision. School
climate is a powerful force and plays a pivotal role in the all-round development of the child
(Spokane, 1991).
Career maturity is conceptualized as an individuals readiness to make well informed, age
appropriate career decision, and to shape ones career carefully in the face of existing societal
opportunities and constraints (Salami, 2008).
Since the educational and vocational choices are made by an individual , however they
are definitely influenced by many social and environmental factors such as socio-economic
status of the family, home and family environment, sex, age, rural and urban background and the
psychological factors such as intelligence, personality, achievement, motivation, interest,
aptitude, self-concept academic achievement etc.
OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION
Looker and McNutt (1989) argued that adolescents occupational aspirations are a cause
rather than an effect of educational and career attainment. Adolescents occupational aspirations
and expectations have been viewed as significant determinants of both short-term educational
and long-term career choices.
It is the expressions of occupational goals, leading several authors to regard them as
important career motivational variables, proving to be predictive of later career attainment levels
(Johnson, 1995).
Occupational aspiration refers to the level of aspiration of a person to achieve a particular
job or profession. (Oxford, 2007).
Therefore, the occupational aspirations are the thoughts, feelings, fantasies and goals that
people have about their work, that affect their motivation and decision making with respect to
their occupational choice and subsequent participation in their occupation.
RATIONALE OF THE STUDY
Occupational aspiration is the drive that greatly influence the personality of an individual
particularly students in the senior secondary stage as there is a huge fluctuations in their liking
and disliking. The factors contributing to this indecisiveness may be their exposure to new
technologies, curricula and other developments that are taking place in the education sector by
means of various workshops, seminars, presentations and guest lecturers conducted in the school
and also from various media channels from time to time. Such activities not only appraise the

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students of the latest and varied courses and career options to choose from, but also this exposure
further propels their career maturity. The students at secondary stage are reluctant to analyze
their key skills, strengths and weaknesses and thus they are not in a position to gauge the
suitability of their career maturity as regards their occupational aspiration. This result in a high
indecisive state of making a choice for further course of study and associated careers hence the
study Career maturity in relation to Occupational Aspiration of the Senior Secondary Students is
of utmost significance as of now.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


1. To study the significance of difference in career maturity of senior secondary school boys
and girls.
2. To study the significance of difference in occupational aspiration of senior secondary
school boys and girls.
3. To study the correlation between career maturity and occupational aspiration of senior
secondary school students.

HYPOTHESES
1. There exists no significant difference in career maturity of senior secondary school boys
and girls.
2. There exists no significant difference in occupational aspiration of senior secondary
school boys and girls.
3. There exists no significant correlation between career maturity and occupational
aspiration of senior secondary school students.

PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY


The present investigation was primarily designed to find relation between the career maturity and
the occupational aspirations of the secondary school students. Initially, the study was covered
200 students from the different Schools of Chandigarh. To study the career maturity of the
students Career Maturity Inventory by John O Crites and Indian adoption by Mrs. Nirmala
Gupta (1989) was used. To study the occupational aspiration by J.S.Grewal (2011) was used.the
two tools were administered to the students of senior secondary level. The data was collected
from the students after taking necessary permission from the authority concerned. After that,
answer sheets were collected and then scoring was done. The data collected was processed and
tabulated for its interpretation and testing the research hypothesis on the basis of responses given
by students. The data was tabulated, compared and interpreted.

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ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
The data and hence results are entered into different tables given in the proceeding paragraphs.
The data concerning career maturity of the boys and girls was analysed to find out the difference
and the same has been presented in the table 1.
Table 1: Difference in Career maturity of boys and girls

Variables Group N Mean S.D. t-value


Boys 100 62.57 11.12
Career Maturity 4.68**
Girls 100 56.89 9.16
**significant at 0.01 level of significance

(Critical values 1.97 at 0.05 and 2.60 at 0.01 level, df= 198)

A bar diagram was also drawn to substantiate the results of career maturity of boys and girls and
is given in the fig 1 below.

Fig 1: Bar diagram of mean scores of Career Maturity of boys and girls

The table 1 and fig. 1 shows that the mean scores of career maturity of boys and girls are 62.57
and 56.89 respectively. The S.D. of scores of boys and girls are 11.12 and 9.16 respectively. The
calculated t- value between their mean scores is 4.68, which is more than table value of 2.60 at
0.01 level of significance. Therefore, the hypothesis there exists no significant difference in
career maturity of senior secondary school boys and girls is rejected. Hence, the results
indicates that there is significant difference in career maturity of boys and girls of senior
secondary school at 0.01 level of significance.

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The data concerning the occupational aspiration of the boys and girls was analysed to find out
the difference and the same has been presented in the table 2.

Table 2: Difference in Occupational Aspiration of boys and girls

Variable Group N Mean S.D. t-value Remarks

Occupational Boys 100 50.19 9.97 Not


0.31
Aspiration significant
Girls 100 50.59 8.17
(Critical values 1.97 at 0.05 and 2.60 at 0.01 level, df= 198)

A bar diagram was also drawn to substantiate the results of occupational aspiration of boys and
girls and is given in the fig 2 below.

Fig. 2: Bar diagram of mean scores of Occupational Aspiration of boys and girls

The table 2 and fig 2 shows that the mean scores occupational aspiration of boys and girls are
50.19 and 50.59 respectively. The S.D. of scores of boys and girls are 9.97 and 8.17 respectively.
The calculated t-value between their mean score is 0.31, which is even less than the table value
of 1.97 at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, the hypothesis there exists no significant
difference in occupational aspiration of senior secondary school boys and girls is retained.
Hence, there is no significant difference in the occupational aspiration of the boys and girls.
The data concerning the career maturity and occupational aspiration of the total sample was
analysed and the coefficient of correlation computed and is depicted in table 3 below.

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Table 3: Correlation between Career Maturity and Occupational Aspiration

Variables N Mean r - value Level of significance


59.73
Career maturity 200 0.144*
50.39 0.05 level
Occupational
200
aspirations
*significant at 0.05 level; df= 199

(Critical values of r= 0.138 at 0.05 and 0.181 at 0.01 level, df= 199)

Table 3 reveals that the mean of career maturity is 59.73 and the mean of occupational
aspiration is 50.39, the coefficient of correlation between career maturity and occupational
aspiration is 0.144, which is more than the table values of 0.138 at 0.05 level of significance.
Hence the hypothesis there exists no significant correlation between career maturity and
occupational aspiration of senior secondary school students is rejected at 0.05 level of
significance. Thus, the results indicate that there is significant correlation between career
maturity and occupational aspiration of the secondary school students at 0.05 level of
significance.

FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION:


The results of the study reveal that the calculated t- value between the mean scores of
career maturity of boys and girls was 4.68, which was observed to be more than table value of
2.60 at 0.01 level of significance. Therefore, there is significant difference in career maturity of
boys and girls of senior secondary school at 0.01 level of significance. The calculated t-value
between the mean scores of occupational aspiration of the boys and girls was found to be 0.31,
which is even less than the table value of 1.97 at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, there is no
significant difference in the occupational aspiration of the boys and girls. The coefficient of
correlation between career maturity and occupational aspiration was found 0.144, which was
more than the table values of 0.138 at 0.05 level of significance. Thus, the results indicate that
there is significant correlation between career maturity and occupational aspiration of the
secondary school students at 0.05 level of significance.

REFERENCES:
Freeman, F. S. (1962). Theory and Practice of Psychological Testing, Bombay, Oxford:
IBH.
Garret, E.H.(2004). Statistics in Psychology and Education, New Delhi: Paragon
International Publisher.

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Gokak, V. K. (1964). English in India: Its present and Future. Bombay: Asia Publishing
House.
Kaur, M. (2001). Problems Faced by Pupil Teachers Teaching English During Teaching
Practice, M. Ed. Dissertation, Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Kohli, A.L. (1970). An Investigation into the Classroom Difficulties Faced by English
Teachers in the High/Higher Secondary Schools of Chandigarh, M. Ed. Thesis, Panjab
University, Chandigarh.
Koul, L (2009). Methodology of Educational Research. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing
House Pvt. Ltd.
Looker, E.D., & McNutt, K.L. (1989). The Effect of Occupational Aspirations on the
Educational Attainments of Males and Females. Canadian Journal of Education, 14, 8-
13.
Mackay, S. L. (2002). Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Oxford Advanced Learners dictionary of Current English (2005), Oxford University
Press, London.
Pushpam, A.M. (2003). Attitude towards teaching profession and job satisfaction of
women teachers in Coimbatore. Journal of Educational Research and Extension, 1,
40(2), 49.
Rojewski, J.W. (2005). Occupational Aspirations: Constructs, Meanings, and
Application, In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Career development and counseling:
Putting theory and research to work. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, pp. 132.
Singh, D. (1998). Creativity and Adjustment as Correlates of Attitude of Student
Teachers towards Teaching Profession, M.Ed. Dissertation (unpublished), Panjab
University, Chandigarh.
Sood, B. (2000). Adjustment of Student Teachers in Relation to their Attitude towards
Teaching Profession, M.Ed. Dissertation (unpublished), Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Teevno, R.A. (2011). Challenges in Teaching and Learning of English at Secondary
Level Class X, International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 1(2), 54.

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Intelligence and Values as Related to Mental Health of Teachers

Anjali Puri
Abstract

The present study was conducted to study the relationship of mental health of teachers
with intelligence and values. The sample consisted of 200 teachers randomly taken from Govt.
schools of Chandigarh. Descriptive survey method was used. Product moment co-efficient of
correlation was used to analyze the data. It was found that (i) Positive and significant correlation
exists between mental health and intelligence, aesthetic value, social value, democratic value,
knowledge value and health value. (ii) Negative and significant correlation exists between
mental health and economic value, power value and family prestige value. (iii) Positive but
insignificant correlation exists between mental health and religious value and hedonistic value.

INTRODUCTION:
The present era of Globalization, Open Market Economy and Liberalization is helping in
breaking the geographical boundaries financially and culturally; while the Information
Technology has opened the floodgates of knowledge. But the huge strides in technical progress
have not accompanied by human progress as represented by human relationships, which are
filled with too many hassles for our peace of mind. The social attitudes, value patterns, conduct
and behaviour of people have been radically changed in the inverse order. The never-ending race
after materials in the absence of channeled and moralized way of life has maligned the minds of
human beings by stirring in various impurities of selfish motives. The obscenity and vulgarity
shown uncensored by the mass media is polluting the minds of the people. This has resulted in
our modern era being dubbed as the age of rich anxiety and of poor health. Our entire thought
process takes place in mind, our all ideas originate from our mind, which guide, shape and
regulate our personal and social functioning. Hence mental health is vitally important.
Bhargava (2005a, 2005b) stated the concept of holistic health which may include
physical, mental, emotional, social, cultural health as every division is associated with each
other. A number of psychological problems, materialism, corruption, money mindedness,
selfishness, unmindfulness, sleepfulness, snatching tendency and possessiveness all have greatly
affected the total health of modern man. Singh (2002) defined mental health as the ability to
establish and nurture loving relationship with others, to discern and engage in rewarding work,
to continuously develop ones understanding of self and others, to meaningfully contribute ones
mite towards promotion of well-being of community to which one belongs without losing ones
own identity, independence and autonomy and to think and behave with an adequate blend of
objectivity and sensitivity in all kinds of situations which one happens to come across. Tripathi
et. al.(2006) stated the Indian perceptions which can make a positive contribution to the state of
mental health in modern life. Egolessness, the paradigm of sthitapragya and anasakti, the

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paradigm of Maitri, Karuna, Mudita and Upeksha are different perceptions as given by the Indian
wisdom, literature, compliment and supplement holistic view of our mental health. Mental
health, however, is the positive capacity for living and enjoying the good life.
Mental health is essential for us to think and feel about ourselves and about others and
how we interpret the world around us. It affects our capacity to manage, to communicate and to
form and sustain relationships. If the school is to be effective in fostering mental health, it is
necessary to enhance teachers character for contribution to mental health. Unless the teacher has
sound mental health, free from worries, anxieties, tensions and mental abnormalities, he cannot
discharge the most important duty of promoting the mental health of children. The mental health
is directly related to the work of classroom. Thus, good mental health of the teacher should be as
important qualification as academic competence. The teacher can maintain the climate for
healthy interaction if he/she is mentally healthy.
Mental health is not a single unified variable but rather a conglomeration of a number of
variables. Hence the need arises for relating mental health with certain variables. However in the
present study mental health of a teacher is studied in relation to intelligence and values.
According to Colmans dictionary of psychology (2001), The faculty of reasoning and
understanding, as distinct from feeling and wishing, a term used in general discourse for what in
psychology is usually called intelligence.
Wests Encyclopedia of American law (1998) states, Value in use is the utility of an
object in satisfying, directly, or indirectly the needs or desires of human beings. According to
Thomsons American Heritage Dictionary (2000), Value is the worth in usefulness or
importance to the possessor, utility of merit.
Some studies have been done to find the relationship between mental health, Intelligence
and Values as given below:
Dutta (1981) conducted a study on mental health in families. He revealed that the period
of transition from adolescence to an adult is more difficult; many may be victims of mental ill
health. Development of mind, body and mental health depends on certain independent factors
like intelligence, sex gonads, nutrition, fresh air and sunlight, injuries, race, culture, position in
family etc. Kaur (1982) found that intelligence neither correlates positively with mental health
totals nor with sub areas of mental health. But intelligence in combination with some of the
personality factors best determined the mental health of adolescent girls. Kaur G. (2002) studied
the mental health and intelligence of school adolescents and found that there was significant
positive relationship of intelligence with high level of mental health. But there was no significant
relationship of intelligence with average and low level of mental health. Gupta, A. (1980) found
that in general, Tibetan adolescents were found to be religious, mentally healthy and possessing
positive personality characteristics. The sub-dimensions of religiosity and measures of mental
health were significantly correlated. Bhatia, K.T. (1984) found that values of life have a
significant role in the mental health and adjustment. It was found that family atmosphere was
more tense and unhappy for girls in Indian environment. In many families parents were more

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favorably inclined towards boys. A large majority of adolescents prefer coeducational
institutions and mixed parties with members of both sexes. Anand, (1986) conducted a study on
mental health of schoolteachers using a mental health scale and observed that 59% of teachers
were mentally healthy. The state of working bears no relation to mental health while social
values were positively related to mental health of teachers. Sidhu, K. (1999) found that practice
of mental health principles was negatively correlated with classes of values other than theoretical
and social values. Significant differences were found in teachers with regard to different classes
of values.
Review of related studies indicates that results are contradictory regarding relationship of
mental health with intelligence and relationship of mental health with values. In view of
inconclusive and contradictory results, there emerges a need of further probing into the problem.

OBJECTIVES:

To study the relationship of mental health of teachers with intelligence.

To study the relationship of mental health of teachers with religious, social, democratic,
aesthetic, economic, knowledge, hedonistic, power, family prestige and health values.

HYPOTHESES:

1. There will be no significant relationship between mental health of teachers and their
intelligence.

2. There will be no significant relationship between mental health and values of teachers:

i. There will be no significant relationship between mental health and social value of
teachers.

ii. There will be no significant relationship between mental health and democratic
value of teachers.

iii. There will be no significant relationship between mental health and aesthetic value
of teachers.

iv. There will be no significant relationship between mental health and economic value
of teachers.

v. There will be no significant relationship between mental health and knowledge


value of teachers.

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vi. There will be no significant relationship between mental health and hedonistic
value of teachers.

vii. There will be no significant relationship between mental health and power value of
teachers. viii There will be no significant relationship between mental health and
family prestige value of teachers.

viii. There will be no significant relationship between mental health and health value of
teachers.

METHOD:
Descriptive survey method was used to conduct the present study.

POPULATION:
All the teachers working on regular basis in different Government schools of Chandigarh formed
the population for the sample.

SAMPLE:
A sample of 200 teachers was taken randomly from the population.

TOOLS USED:
The following tools were used to collect the data:
1. Mental Health Inventory (MHI) (1998) by Jagdish and Srivastva was used to measure
mental health of teachers.

2. Group test of General Mental Ability (1982) by Jalota and Singh was used to measure
intelligence of teachers.

3. Personal value Questionnaire (PVQ) (1997) by Sherry and Verma was used for value
determination of teachers.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:


Product moment method of correlation was used to analyze the data. Results are shown in the
following table:

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TABLE
Table showing co-efficient of correlation matrix between independent variables such as
intelligence, personal values: religious value, social value, democratic value, aesthetic value,
economic value, knowledge value, hedonistic value, power value, family prestige value and
health value and dependent variable that is mental health:-
Variables

Hedonisti
Intelligen

Religious

Aesthetic
Democra

Knowled
Economi
tic value

Prestige
Mental

Family

Health
Power
health

Social
Value

Value

Value

Value

Value

Value

Value

Value
value

ge
ce

c
Mental 1.000
health
Intelligenc 0.164 1.000
e **
Religious 0.116 0.017 1.000
value

Social 0.217 0.153 0.198 1.000


Value *

Democrati 0.237 0.157 0.169 0.149 1.000


c value *
Aesthetic 0.142 0.017 0.112 0.131 0.153 1.00
Value ** 0
Economic - 0.119 -0.139 -0.146 - 0.09 1.000
Value 0.192 0.174 1
*
Knowledge 0.152 0.185 0.151 0.119 0.127 0.04 0.125 1.000
Value ** 1
Hedonistic 0.091 0113 0.031 0.103 0.035 0.02 0.143 0.129 1.00
Value 3 0
Power - 0.102 -0.113 0.006 - 0.10 0.141 0.119 0.16 1.00
Value 0.143 0.159 8 8 0
**
Family - 0.115 0.147 0.126 - 0.09 0.153 0.117 0.10 0.13 1.000
Prestige 0.173 0.121 2 9 1
Value **
Health 0.278 0.141 0.113 0.128 0.133 0.10 0.035 0.139 0.13 0.08 0.091 1.000
Value * 7 4 1

NOTE: *implies significant at.01 level


**implies significant at .05 level

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Co-efficient of correlation is positive and significant between mental health and
intelligence. The reason for such result may be that intelligence is the faculty of
reasoning and thinking and that may help a person to sustain better relationships leading
to better mental health.
There is a significant and positive correlation of social, democratic, aesthetic,
economic, knowledge and health values with mental health. This trend may account for
the reason that these values help the individual to continuously develop understanding of
self and others, which in turn develops the ability to establish and nurture loving
relationships with others. As aesthetic value is characterized by harmony, it helps to
develop capacity in the individual to maintain harmony in relationships also. Health of
mind keeps the body in a fit state and healthy mind rests in a fit body. All this contributes
towards better mental health.
The economic, power and family prestige values were found to have negative but
significant correlation with mental health. The result implied that economic, power and
family prestige values inversely affect the correlation with mental health. A man with
high economic value is guided by consideration of money and material gains. Power
value is conceptualized as desirability of ruling over others and family prestige value is
the conception of desirability of such relationships as would become ones family status.
Person with high economic value, high power value, and high family prestige value may
not initiate and maintain mutually rewarding relationships.
The above table shows that there is a positive but insignificant relationship
between mental health and religious value and mental health and hedonistic value.
CONCLUSIONS:
On the basis of findings of the present study it can be concluded that higher the
intellectual state of teachers, higher is the level of mental health. It is also derived from
the statistical analysis that teachers who are in possession of aesthetic, social, democratic,
knowledge and health values have sound mental health whereas those equipped with high
economic, power and family prestige values have poor mental health. Religious and
hedonistic values are also seen to bear close relationship with mental health of the
teachers.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:


To improve the mental health of children we have to concentrate on teachers
mental health. A teacher with sound mental health can discharge the most important
duty of promoting the mental health of children. Sound mental health of the teacher
should be important consideration while recruiting a teacher. The school authorities
should provide conducive environment and rich experience for the inculcation of right
patterns of personal values which may help the teacher to improve their mental health.

92
REFERENCES:
Anand (1986) Research in psychology of education, a trend report, Fourth survey
of research in education, vol.1, pp 325.

Bhargava, M. (2005a) Forward of Book- Educating for spirituality and better


Mental Health by S.G. Mathur and Nita Das. Rakhi Parkashan, Agra.

Bhargava, M. (2005b) Positive psychology and Holistic Health. Presidential


Address- Section of Anthropological and Behavioural Sciences ,92nd Indian
Science Congress at Nirma Institute of Science & Technology, Ahmedabad, 4th
Jan. 2005.

Bhatia, K.T. (1984) Emotional personal and social problems of adjustment of


adolescent under Indian conditions with special reference to values of life, Ph. D.
Edu. Bombay university. Fourth survey of research in education vol. 1. pp 324.

Colman, A.M. (2001) Dictionary of Psychology. Oxford: University press, Great


Claredon street.

Dutta, R. (1981) Family and Mental problems (Editorial). Youth Health, 30(12),
195-196.

Gupta, A. (1980) Personality and mental health concomitant of religiousness in


the Tibetan students in the adolescent age group, Ph.D., Edu. P.U. Third survey
of research in education 1980,pp141.

Kaur, G. (2002) Moral judgement, Intelligence and Parental Behaviour as


correlates of Mental health. Ph.D. (education) Department of Education, Panjab
University, Chandigarh.

Kaur, S. (1982) Intelligence and personality as correlates of mental health.


Unpublished M.A.(Edu.) dissertation, Department of Education, Panjab
University, Chandigarh.

Sidhu, K. (1999) Awareness and practice of mental health principles on the part
of teachers in relation to values, job satisfaction and divergent disciplinary
orientation. Ph.D.(Education). Dissertation, Department of Education, Panjab
University Chandigarh.

Singh, S. (2002). Mental Health for promotion of happiness and peace in India.
Key note Address; 2nd Conference of Council of Behavioural Scientists, Oct. 17-
19, 2002. St. Jones college Agra Souvenir, 27-36.

93
Thomson (2000) The American heritage dictionary of English Language, Fourth
edition : New York; Houghton, Mifflin Company.

Tripathi, R.K.; Sokhi, R.K.and Tripathi, D.N. (2006) Mental Health: The Indian
perception. Paper presented at National Seminar on Psycho-physiology of well-
being. M.D.University, Rohtak, 28-29 March, 2006 Abstract,42.

West (1998) Legal Encyclopedia of American Law. The Gale Group,Inc. New
York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

94
CONTRIBUTORS OF THIS ISSUE

Dr. Shivani Sharma, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Panjab


University, Chandigarh.

Dr. Ranjay Vardhan, Associate Professor, Post Graduate Dept. of Sociology, P.G.
Government College for Girls, Sector- 42, Chandigarh.

Dr. Amrinder Bhullar, Assistant Professor, DAV College , Sector -10, Chandigarh.

Dr. Manoj Kumar, Assistant Professor, Post Graduate Dept. of Sociology, P.G.
Government College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh.

Dr. Rajesh Kumar Jaiswal, Assistant Professor, Department of English, USOL, Panjab
University, Chandigarh.

Dr. Madhumita Bhattacharjee, Associate Professor, Post Graduate Govt. College for
Girls , Sector -11, Chandigarh.

Ms. Minakshi Rana, Research Scholar, Department of Sociology, Panjab University,


Chandigarh.

Prof. Pardeep Singh Walia, Professor, Department of Commerce, P.G. Government


College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh.

Dr. Anurita Sharma, Department of Botany, P.G. Government College for Girls,
Sector-11, Chandigarh.

Dr. Sandeep Buttola, Assistant Professor in Sociology, Panjab University Constituent


College, Moga ,Punjab.

Dr. Lilu Ram Jakhar, Assistant Professor, Govt. College of Education, Sector 20-D,
Chandigarh.

Dr. Anjali Puri, Asstt. Professor, Govt. College of Education, Sector - 20 D,


Chandigarh.

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