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Eulers Equation

Elementary Functions The value of complex numbers was recognized but poorly understood
during the late Renaissance period (1500-1700 AD.) The number system
Part 5, Advanced Trigonometry
was explicitly studied in the late 18th century. Euler used i for the square
Lecture 5.7a, Eulers Marvelous Formula
root of 1 in 1779. Gauss used the term complex in the early 1800s.

Dr. Ken W. Smith The complex plane (Argand diagram or Gauss plane) was introduced
in a memoir by Argand in Paris in 1806, although it was implicit in the
Sam Houston State University doctoral dissertation of Gauss in 1799 and in work of Caspar Wessel
around the same time.
2013

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Eulers Equation Eulers Equation


Notice the following remarkable fact that if

3 1 Euler would explain why that was true. Using the derivative and infinite
z= + i = cos + i sin
2 2 6 6 series, he would show that
then z 3 = i. (Multiply it out & see!) Thus z 12 = 1 and so z is a twelfth
ei = cos + i sin (2)
root of 1.
Now the polar coordinate form for z is r = 1, = 6 , that is, z is exactly
one-twelfth of the way around the unit circle. z is a twelfth root of 1 and it By simple laws of exponents, (eiz )n = einz and so Eulers equation
is one-twelfth of the way around the unit circle. This is not a coincidence! explains DeMoivre formula.
DeMoivre apparently noticed this and proved (by induction, using sum of
angles formulas) that if n is an integer then This explains the coincidence we noticed with the complex number
z = cos 6 + i sin 6 which is one-twelfth of the way around the unit circle;
(cos + i sin )n = cos n + i sin n. (1) raising z to the twelfth power will simply multiply the angle by twelve
and move the point z to the point with angle 2: (1, 0) = 1 + 0i.
Thus exponentiation, that is raising a complex number to some power, is
equivalent to multiplication of the arguments. Somehow the angles in the
complex number act like exponents.
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Trig functions in terms of the exponential function Trig functions in terms of the exponential function
Eulers formula We wrote the exponential function in terms of cosine and sine
ei = cos + i sin
allows us to write the exponential function in terms of the two basic trig ei = cos + i sin
functions, sine and cosine. We may then use Eulers formula to find a
formula for cos z and sin z as a sum of exponential functions. and then wrote the trig functions in terms of the exponential function!
By Eulers formula, with input z,
eiz + eiz
eiz = cos(z) + i sin(z) = cos(z) i sin(z). cos z =
2
Add the expressions for eiz and eiz to get
eiz + eiz = 2 cos(z) eiz eiz
sin z =
and so 2i
eiz + eiz
cos z = . (3)
2 The exponential and trig functions are very closely related. Trig functions
If we subtract the equation eiz
= cos z i sin z from Eulers equation are, in some sense, really exponential functions in disguise!
and then divide by 2i, we have a formula for sine:
And conversely, the exponential functions are trig functions!
eiz eiz
Smith (SHSU) sinElementary
z = Functions . 2013 (4)
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2i
Some worked examples. Some worked examples.

Lets try out some applications of Eulers formula. Here are some worked
problems.

Put the complex number z = ei in the Cartesian form z = a + bi.


13
i
Solution. z = ei = 1(cos() + i sin()) = 1(1 + 0i) = 1 Put the complex number z = 2e 6 in the Cartesian form z = a + bi.

It seems remarkable that if we combine the three strangest math Solution.


13
constants, e, i and we get z = 2e 6 i = 2 cos( 13
6 ) + 2i sin( 13
6 ) = 2 cos(
6 ) + 2i sin(
6 ) = 3 + i.

ei = 1.

Some rewrite this in the form

ei + 1 = 0

(often seen on t-shirts for engineering clubs or math clubs.)

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Some worked examples. Some worked examples.
Find a cube root of the number z = 18 + 26i and put this cube root in the
Cartesian form z = a + bi. (Use a calculator and get an exact value for
this cube root.

Using the previous problem, we write z = 18 + 26i = 103 ei where
Put the complex number z = 18 + 26i in the polar form z = rei where = arctan( 26
18 ).
r, R and both r and are positive.
The cube root of 103 ei is
Solution. The modulus of z = 18 + 26i is 182 +262 = 1000.
10 ei 3
So the polar coordinate form of z = 18 + 26i is 103 ei where
26
= arctan( 18 ). (The angle is about 0.96525166319.) (The angle 3 is about 0.3217505544.) Using a calculator, we can see that
this comes out to approximately

10 cos( ) + i 10 sin( ) = 3 + i.
3 3

One could check by computing (3 + i)3 and see that we indeed get
18 + 26i.
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Some worked examples. Some worked examples.

A question found on the internet: What is ii ?


Find a complex number z such that ln(1) = z. We can find one answer if we write the base i in polar form i = e 2 i .

(More carefully, we might note that i = e 2 i+2ki , for any integer k.)
Solutions. Since 1 in polar coordinate form is 1 = ei then z = i is a
solution to ln(1). 2
Then ii = (e 2 i )i = e 2 i = e 2


0.207879576350761908546955619834978770033877841631769608075135...

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Complex numbers v. Real numbers Last Slide!
Here are some things one can do with the real numbers:
1 Show that f (x) = sin x is periodic with period 2, that is,
f (x + 2) = f (x). It is appropriate that we end our series of precalculus lectures with a
2 Find an infinite set of numbers, x, such that sin(x) = 1/2. presentation of Eulers marvelous formula, which brings together both the
trigonometric functions and the exponential functions into one form!
3 Find a number x such that ex = 200.
4 Compute ln(2). The applications of this formula appear in all the technology around us,
and simplify many complicated mathematical computations!
Here are some things that require complex numbers:
1 Show that f (x) = ex is periodic with period 2i, that is, ei = cos + i sin
f (x + 2i) = f (x).
2 Find an infinite set of numbers, x, such that ex = 1/2.
3 Find a number x such that sin(x) = 200. (End)
4 Compute ln(2).

These are all topics for further exploration in a course in complex variables.
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