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Proceedings of IMECE2007

2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition


November 11-15, 2007, Seattle, Washington, USA

IMECE2007-41441

SYNTHESIS AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A QUICK-RETURN


MECHANISM USING MATLAB AND SIMULINK

Ali Mohammadzadeh, Ph.D., P.E. Nael Barakat, Ph. D., P. Eng. Salim Haidar, Ph. D.
Associate Professor Assistant Professor Associate Professor
School of Engineering School of Engineering Department of Mathematics
Grand Valley State University Grand Valley State University Grand Valley State University
301 Fulton St. KEN 231 301 Fulton St. KEN 231 1 Campus Drive
Grand Rapids, MI. 49504 Grand Rapids, MI. 49504 Allendale, MI. 49401
Phone: 616.331.7268 Phone: 616-331.6825 Phone: 616-331-2042
Email: mohammaa@gvsu.edu Email: barakatn1@asme.org Email: haidars@gvsu.edu

Abstract calculates the reaction loads on the mechanism using the


The approach adopted in this work is an attempt to introduce concepts of Newtonian mechanics.
students, in kinematics and dynamics of machinery course, to
a complete design and analysis of function generation The project, though rigorous, is an excellent way to force
mechanisms via analytical methods. Although the approach students to practice their knowledge of dynamics and
implemented in this work is for function generation type of numerical methods. The project, certainly, meets the ABET
mechanisms, the concept is indeed extendable to the other criteria for implementing design in mechanical engineering
types of mechanisms as well. As a project in the kinematics curriculum. The author received positive feedbacks from his
and dynamics of machinery class, students designed, and students with regard to this project.
analyzed a four bar quick-return mechanism using MATLAB
and SIMULINK as the primary software tools. One of the Problem Statement
aims of this project was to abandon the traditional graphical Students in kinematics and dynamics of machinery class were,
synthesis and graphical analysis, covered in all the first, asked to design a four bar quick-return mechanism to
mechanisms textbooks, and to use the powerful combination meet a certain design specifications. Once the mechanism was
of MATLAB and SIMULINK to implement the entire design realized, students were then asked to analyze the synthesized
and analysis process. The project, given to an undergraduate mechanism- using Lagranges equations and Lagranges
class, serves also as a prologue to future advanced courses in multipliers method for constraint motion- to arrive at the
mechanical engineering, such as multi-body dynamics. positions, velocities and accelerations of the links. The
approach, instructed to the students and utilized by them in
In implementing the dimensional synthesis portion of the implementing this project, is based on the methods presented
project, students employed complex number arithmetic to by Erdman [1] and Crespo da Silva [2] in their respective
realize the design specifications. Once the design books. The author believes that the employed approach is an
specifications were met, a known motor torque was applied to excellent way to prepare students for future courses in multi-
the crank to drive the mechanism. With the known geometric body dynamics and computational dynamics. It also makes
and inertial properties of each link, Lagranges equations for students practice their knowledge of dynamics, numerical
constraint motion were then utilized to arrive at the second methods, and programming. Students feedback regarding this
order differential equations of motion. SIMULINK, as a user project was overwhelmingly positive.
friendly graphical interface, was used to carry out the
integration to obtain angular position, velocity, and The project required students to design a, four bar, quick-
acceleration of the designed mechanism. The project also return mechanism with a time ratio of 1.25 and a follower

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sweep angle of 50o. To check their work, students were asked Equation (3) represents a Standard Dyad Form. This equation
to trace the paths of points on the crank, the coupler and the is used to implement the design specifications described in this
follower of their respective designs. A motor torque Mmotor = project.
1.02sin (1.5t) N.m was then assumed to be applied to the
crank, and students were asked to find the angular positions, Given the follower sweep angle of 50o, one realizes that, at the
velocities, and accelerations of each link using MATLAB and two extreme range of the follower motion, the mechanism is in
SIMULINK. Students also built their model in the shop. toggle condition. That is the crank is lined up with the coupler.
Since this is the only given in the problem, one has a two
Mechanism Synthesis precision points description of the mechanism. This translates
The complex number approach of Standard Dyad Form [3, 4, itself into adopting some free choices in order to solve
5] is used to perform the dimensional synthesis. This would equation (3) for the desired links dimensions and orientations.
render the size and starting configuration of the four bar Realizing that angle j for the follower in its sweeping motion
function generation mechanism. is j = 50o and j and j angles are prescribed, once the applied
time ratio (1.25) for the mechanism is implemented, one
Figure 1 is a depiction of a typical function generation four bar chooses vectors Z3 and Z4 freely to reduce the number of
mechanism. By applying the Loop-closure method to the unknowns in equation (3) to one link only. The unknown
vectors representing the links, in successive positions, a (complex number) Z2 is obtained from equation (3). If the
standard dyad form is resulted. Solution of the resulted vector rotation angle of the crank in the forward motion of the
equations then renders the size of each link of the mechanism follower is taken as and in the backward motion of the
and its starting configuration. follower is taken as we have:

Z3 + = 360 o (4)

The prescribed time ratio results in:

j Z4
= 1.25 (5)

j
j Z2 Solution of (4) and (5) results in:
Z1
= 200 o and = 160 o (6)
Fig. 1: Complex vector depiction of four bar mechanism.
It can be easily shown that the angle, through which the
Figure 1 depicts the complex number vectors, Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, coupler rotates when the mechanism moves from the first
representing, the ground, the crank, the coupler and the toggle condition to the next toggle condition is:
follower links respectively, in the starting position. The red
lines in the diagram are the depiction of the links in a different

position as a result of the motion. The loop closure approach j = = 20 o (7)
for position 1 (dark Vector lines) is: 2

Z 2 + Z 3 Z 4 = Z1 (1) This is achieved through crank rotation of:

The loop closure equation written again for the position 2 (red j = = 200 o (8)
lines), in terms of the original position vectors, results in:
With j, j, and j known as described in the above, one
i j i j i j
Z 2e + Z 3e Z 4e = Z1 (2) chooses vectors Z4 and Z3 in order to reduce the number of
unknowns to one complex value for Z2 in equation (3).
Choosing:
Subtracting Equation (1) from Equation (2) renders:

Z 4 = 1e i 65 , Z 3 = 1.43e i 26.2
o o
i j i j i j (9)
Z 2 (e 1) + Z 3 (e 1) = Z 4 (e 1) (3)

Equation (3) after substitutions of the values renders:

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0
Z2 (ei 200 1) +1.43ei 26.2 (ei 20 1) = 1ei65 (ei50 1) (10)
o o o o

Solution of the above equation results in; Z2 = 0.3463 m at


26.2 o .
With Z2, Z3, Z4, known, equation (1) is used to find the ground
link Z1 to be, Z1 = 1.178 m.

A CAD drawing of the mechanism is shown in Figure 2.

Fig. 3: Traces of the crank-tip, coupler point (c), and the


follower tip.
The next task was to find the angular velocities and
Fig. 2: CAD representation of synthesized mechanism.
accelerations of each link as part of the kinematics analysis of
the mechanism. Differentiating equations (11) with respect to
Once the mechanism was realized students were asked to find time renders equations for angular velocities of links 3 and 4,
the position of each link and trace the crank curve, the curve given the angular velocity of the link 2. These equations are:
for a point on the coupler, and the follower rocking curve.
This was done numerically, through the application of r2 2 sin 2 r3 3 sin 3 + r4 4 sin 4 = 0
Newton-Raphson method [6] to the scalar form of the loop- (12)
closure equation (1). The scalar form of equation (1) is: r2 2 cos 2 + r3 3 cos 3 r4 4 cos 4 = 0

r2 cos 2 + r3 cos 3 r4 cos 4 r1 = 0 Where 2, 3, 4 are angular velocities of links 2, 3, and 4


(11) respectively. Solving equations (12) for 3, 4 in terms of 2
r2 sin 2 + r3 sin 3 r4 sin 4 = 0 one obtains:

Where r stands for length of each link and 2, 3, and 4 are the r3 sin 3 r4 sin 4 3 sin 2
angles of links 2, 3, and 4 respectively. r cos = r22 (13)
3 3 r4 cos 4 4 cos 2
Given 2 for the increments of motion of the crank shaft,
nonlinear equations (11) are solved for the coupler and the Equation (13) is solved for angular velocities of links 3 and 4,
follower angles. Figure 3 is the trace of the crank-tip, a given the angular position of link 2 and its angular
coupler point (point C), and the follower tip of the mechanism.
velocity 2 . This is accomplished in the MATLAB function
The program also confirms that the design meets the required
specification and indicates that the follower sweeps a 50o of the SIMULINK model, presented later in the text.
angle in its ensuing motion.
To arrive at angular acceleration of the links when the motor
torque is applied to the crank, one adopts Lagranges approach
to Figure (4) as follow:

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d T T f1 f 2
( ) = M + 1 + 2
C dt &2 2
motor
2 2
d T T f1 f 2 (17)
r3 ( ) = 1 + 2
dt &3 3 3 3
B 3 d T T f1 f 2
r4 ( ) = 1 + 2
&
dt 4 4 4 4
r2
Where 1, and 2 are Lagrange multipliers, due to the
constraint motion. Substituting the links moments of inertia in
2 4 terms of their lengths and masses (IA = (1/3)m2r22, ID =
A r1 r1
(1/3)m4r42, I3 = (1/12)m3r32) into the expression for the kinetic
energy, performing the partial derivatives of the constraint
D equations (16) with respect to 2, 3, and 4, and plugging the
Fig. 4: Nomenclature adopted for the four bar mechanism in results into equations (17); one arrives at the expressions for
Lagrangian approach. the angular accelerations of links 2, 3, and 4,
The Kinetic energy of the motion is obtained as: namely &&2 , &&3 , and&&4 . The outcome of these mathematical
operations would be 3 equations of (17) in terms of the 5
1 1 1 1
T = I A 22 + I 3 32 + I D 42 + m3 v cm
2
(14)
unknowns, &&2 ,&&3 ,&&4 , 1 , and2 .
3
2 2 2 2
In order to solve for the angular accelerations of the links 2, 3,
Where IA is the moment of inertia of link 2 about point A, ID is and 4, one needs to supplement the reduced form of the
the moment of inertia of link 4 about point D, and I3 is the equations (17) with two more equations. This is done by
moment of inertia of link 3 about the center of mass of the link differentiating the equations of constraints, equations (16),
3. Vcm3 is the velocity of the center of mass for link 3. In the twice with respect to time. The result of which is:
Cartesian coordinates Vcm3 is:
r r2&&2 sin 2 + r3&&3 sin 3 r4&&4 sin 4 + r2& 2 2 cos 2
v cm 3 = ( 3 sin 3 4 sin 4 ) i
r3 r4
2 2
(15)
+ r & 23 cos r & 2 4 cos = 0
r 3 3 4 4
(18)
+ ( r4 4 cos 4 23 3 cos 3 ) j
r
r2&&2 cos 2 + r3&&3 cos3 r4&&4 cos 4 r2& 2 2 sin 2

The virtual work on the system is simply:


r & 23 sin + r & 2 4 sin = 0
3 3 4 4

One should note that equations (18) are nonlinear and carry
W = M motor 2 (16)
the angular positions and velocities of the links 2, 3, and 4 in
them. This means that the angular positions and velocities of
Where Mmotor is the torque applied to the crank by the motor. the links 3, and 4 need to be known prior to the solution for
The generalized coordinates 2, 3, and 4 are constrained by the angular accelerations of all the links. Solution of these
the loop closure equations (11). For the ease of following equations (reduced form of equations (17) and (18)) would be
those equations are rewritten here: implemented by SIMULINK as shown below in figure 5.

f1 = r2 cos 2 + r3 cos 3 r4 cos 4 r1 = 0 The MATLAB functions with foreground colors, blue, orange
(16) and red, seen in the SIMULINK model, are MATLAB .m files
f 2 = r2 sin 2 + r3 sin 3 r4 sin 4 = 0 for finding positions, velocities and accelerations of the links
respectively. The program also animates the mechanism. A
Defining the Lagrangian as L = T V, where T is the kinetic snapshot of such an animation is shown in figure 6.
energy and V is the potential energy for the system.
Neglecting the weight of the links in comparison with their Figure 6 is the Auto-Scale Graph of the SIMULINK model,
respective inertia forces, the potential energy of the system is which is the plot of the angular position of link 4 ( 4 ) vs.
set to zero. With that in mind, the Lagranges equation for
time. Figure 6 confirms the rocking motion of the follower. It
each generalized coordinate is then written as follows:
also shows that the follower sweeps an angle of 50o in its
rocking motion.

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.

Fig. 6: SIMULINK model for position, velocity, and acceleration analysis of each link.

Fig. 6: Snapshot of the animated mechanism. Fig. 7: Angular position of link 4 (the follower) vs. time

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F32, x + F43, x = m3ac 3, x
F32, y + F43, y = m3ac 3, y (19)
r3 r r r
Load Analysis F43, x sin( 3 ) + F43, y 3 cos( 3 ) F32, x 3 cos( 3 ) + F32, y 3 sin( 3 )
2 2 2 2
Once the kinematics analysis is done, the kinetic analysis of
= I 3c&&3
the mechanism is accomplished. Figures 8 and 9 depict the
Free Body Diagrams and Inertia Response Diagrams for links
2 and 3 respectively. Like wise the equations of motion for link 4 is derived. These
equations are:

F 14 ,x F 43 , x = m 4 a c 4 , x
F32,y
F 14 ,y F 43 , y = m 4 a c4,y
F32,x
m2ac2,y F 43 , x r 4 sin( 4 ) + F 43 , y r 4 cos( 4 ) (20)
C.M I2c &&2 r 42 && 1
m2ac2,x = (I 4c + m 4 ) 4 = m 4 r 42 &&4
4 3
Mmotor 2
2 Equations (18), (19), and (20) can be written in matrix form in
F12,x terms of unknown forces, as follows:
F12,y m2 a c 2, x
1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 F12, x
m a
0 0 0 F12, y
2 c 2, y
1 0 1 0 0
Fig. 8: Free Body and Inertia Response Diagrams for Link 2. m3 a c 3, x
0 0 1 0 1 0
0 0 32, xF
m 3 a c 3, y
0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 F32, y
= m a
1 0 F43, x
4 c 4, x
0 0 0 0 1 0
m a
4 c 4, y
F43,y 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 F43, y 1
2 &&
0 0 r2 sin 2 r2 cos 2 0 0
0 0 F14, x m 2 r2 2 M motor
3
m3ac3,y r4 sin 4 r4 cos 4 0 0 F14, y 1
F43,x 0 0 0 0 2 &&
m4 r4 4
3
C.M I3c &&3
3 m3ac3,x The kinematics analysis in the above provided the angular
3 positions, velocities, and accelerations of each link, as it is
F23,x F23,y demonstrated in the SIMULINK model. To arrive at the
acceleration of each links center of mass, the kinematics
equations for rotation about a fixed point and plane motion are
Fig. 9: Free Body and Inertia Response Diagrams for Link 3.
employed. The procedure is as follow.
Where F23,x ,for instance, is the x component of force exerted For link 2 rotation about fixed point A (see Figure 4) the
by link 2 to link 3, and likewise F43,y is the y component of acceleration of the center of mass is due to vector sum of
force exerted by link 4 to link3. I2c and I3c are Moments of normal and tangential acceleration of center of mass relative to
inertia of links 2 and 3 about their center of masses, fixed point A, due to rotational motion of the link. Having that
respectively. The accelerations of center of masses are in mind the x and y component of ac2 are:
indicated as aci ,where i takes value of 2 for link 2 and value
of 3 for link 3. It is assumed that the center of mass for all r2 && r
links located at the middle of each link. The equations of a c 2, x = 2 sin 2 2 &2 2 cos 2
motion for links 2 then become: 2 2 (21)
r r 2
F 12 + F 32 = m 2a c2,x a c 2, y = 2 &&2 cos 2 2 &2 sin 2
,x ,x
2 2
F 12 ,y + F 32 ,y = m 2a c2,y (18)
F 32 , x r 2 sin( 2 ) + F 32 , y r 2 cos( 2 ) + M motor
Link 4 is also in rotational motion about fixed point D (see
2 Figure 4). Following the rational in writing equations (21), one
r 1
= ( I 2c + m 2 ) &&2 =
2
m 2 r 22 &&2 can deduce the components of acceleration of the center of
4 3 mass of link 4 as:
Noting that, F23,x = - F32,x and F23,y = - F32,y then the equations
of motion for link 3 are derived as follow:

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r4 && r of mass of link 3 about B. With this in mind the x and y
a c 4, x = 4 sin 4 4 &4 2 cos 4 components of center of mass of link 3 are:
2 2 (22)
r r 2 r r 2
= 4 &&4 cos 4 4 &4 sin 4 ac3, x = r2&&2 sin 2 r2&2 cos 2 3 &&3 sin3 3 &3 cos3
2
a c 4, y
2 2 2 2 (23)
r2 && r2 & 2 r3 && r3 & 2
ac3, y = 2 cos 2 2 sin 2 + 3 cos3 3 sin3
Link 3 is in plane motion and accordingly one can write (see 2 2 2 2
Figure 4):
r r r r r r Substituting components of accelerations of centers of mass of
ac3 = aB + (ac3/ B )rotation= aB + (ac3/ B )rotation,normal+ (ac3/ B )rotation,tangentia the links 2, 3, and 4 in the matrix equation, one can solve for
the reaction forces in the mechanism. SIMULINK is used to
r solve for these forces as in figure10. Notice that the
Where a B is the acceleration of the point B and SIMULINK model shown in figure 10 has been augmented by
r another MATLAB function to solve for the unknown
(a c 3 / B ) rotation is the acceleration of center of mass of link 3
reactions.
relative to B due to rotation of link 4 about B.
r r
(a c 3 / B ) rotation ,normal and (a c 3 / B ) rotation , tan gential are normal Notice also that once the forces are calculated, the results are
and tangential components of rotational acceleration of center being transferred into MATLAB, using a workspace block.

Fig. 10: SIMULINK model for force analysis.

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Below is a copy of the result transferred to MATLAB the values transferred into MATLAB Workspace by the block
workspace, for time periods between 20 and 25 seconds. named Load in figure 10. This graph is shown in figure 13.

Time F12,x F12,y F32,x F32,y F43,x F43,y F14,x F14,y

20.002 3.8746 -0.85387 -1.4855 -2.1414 -0.66473 -2.984 0.15607 -3.8265


20.491 4.4118 0.66185 -1.9824 -1.0326 -1.0209 -1.034 -0.05938 -1.0354
21.104 5.9094 3.5452 -3.0353 -2.4299 -2.007 -1.8425 -0.97857 -1.2551
21.717 1.6765 2.8161 -3.3691 0.39552 -1.2413 0.5314 0.8865 0.66727
22.23 -3.687 4.8586 -0.20099 -0.28224 -0.01136 -2.449 0.17826 -4.6157
22.333 -13.648 4.9406 5.111 3.9295 1.5321 2.8108 -2.0468 1.6921
22.436 -42.489 -14.573 25.359 13.235 7.0675 19.133 -11.224 25.03
22.531 -18.295 -19.768 13.673 5.5013 4.2518 7.9579 -5.1695 10.414
22.626 -6.8813 -14.145 5.4738 3.4198 1.7324 2.8252 -2.009 2.2307
22.891 3.4141 -9.3643 -0.18004 0.6479 -0.07572 -1.5588 0.028604 -3.7655
23.271 28.47 6.6312 -11.508 -6.5263 -6.4679 -4.8229 -1.4279 -3.1195
23.509 -6.4385 -7.6435 4.3541 23.77 10.256 26.789 16.157 29.809
23.746 -4.3188 -0.07837 -1.8876 3.5866 -0.08622 2.5941 1.7152 1.6016
23.991 -3.7093 -1.5338 0.21406 2.5404 0.16629 0.75264 0.11852 -1.0352
24.283 -8.7342 -2.2078 4.2417 4.839 1.0392 4.4379 -2.1633 4.0369
24.576 -3.4399 -7.8825 3.3413 2.5587 0.77483 3.3285 -1.7917 4.0982

Fig. 11: Links forces in Newton during time period 20 to 25


seconds.

For instance at 24.576 seconds, the reaction force on Link 2


from Link 1 (ground) is:
Fig. 13: Force exerted by ground to the crank as a function of
F12 = F 2
12, x +F 2
12, y = (3.4399) + (7.8825) = 8.6N
2 2 time

7.8825 Notice that this plot confirms the magnitude of force F12 at
= tan1 ( ) = 246.420 24.58 seconds, to be 8.6 N, as was calculated in the above.
3.4399
r
F12 = 8.6 N @ 246.460 It is also interesting to see the angular acceleration of link 2
vs. time by opening scope1 in the SIMULINK model, as
One can also plot calculated forces vs. time, from this data. shown in figure 14.
Figure 12 shows F12,x as a function of time using scope2 in the
SIMULINK model.

Fig. 12: Force F12,x (N) vs. time (s) Fig. 14: Angular acceleration of link 2(rad/s2) vs. time (s).

As it can be seen the maximum x component of the force from Conclusion


link 1 to link 2 is about 205 N. The total force from link1 to The project significantly helped students understand the
link 2, F12 can be plotted using MATLAB plot command for abstract concepts in dynamics. This was reflected in the result

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of the follow up exam. Majority of the students exhibited a [3] Erdman, Arthur G, Three and Four Precision Point
very thorough understanding of Lagranges equations. Kinematics Synthesis of Planar Linkages, Mechanism and
Students enjoyed the animation part of the project and built Machine Theory, 16, pp. 227-45.
their models in the shop. The principal author received [4] Erdman, Arthur G, Three Position Synthesis by Complex
positive feedback from the students regarding this exercise. Numbers, In Monograph on Mechanical Design, Paper No.
49, 1977.
[5] Erdman, Arthur G, and Carlson, W. L., Teaching Unit on
REFERENCES Complex Numbers as Applied to Linkage Modeling, In
[1] Erdman, Arthur G., Sanders, George N., Mechanism Monograph on Mechanical Design, NSF report No. GK36624,
Design Analysis and Synthesis Prentice Hall, 2001. Paper No. 12, 1977.
[2] Crespo da Silva, M. R.M., Intermediate Dynamics, [6] Moore, Holly MATLAB for Engineers, Prentice Hall,
McGraw Hills, 2004. 2007.

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