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Pedestrian perception and preferences were

collected through questionnaire distribution and
interview with real pedestrians.

Survey Design
Two important steps were considered in order to
conduct perception and preference survey.

1. Selection of the target population and area

2. Development of a survey instrument

To get general attitudes towards walking and

pedestrian facilities, a survey was conducted in
different parts of Bhopal city. The location and
people were chosen randomly. In the next part of
the study, 12 prominent and highly- used sites in
Bhopal, India were selected for pedestrian
perception and preference study.

Bhopal is used as a case study because there is a

lack of planning for pedestrians in Indian cities
and Bhopal is one of them. The views of the
pedestrians regarding physical environment are
value- laden, and determine their behavior. Their
behavior depends on where they are, in what
capacity, and how they interpret their overall
experience of the pedestrian facilities. The gap
between what they like and how they perceive the
facility might impel them to avoid certain areas or
use them reluctantly.

Some needs are common to most people, such as

safe and comfortable accessibility. Therefore the
study focuses on aspects which are relevant to
most pedestrians, and investigates how these
aspects are reflected in their perception. Design
and maintenance of pedestrian facilities that
induce user perceptions which enhance peoples
attraction would encourage people to use facilities
willingly and frequently.

The pedestrians in this study are everyday

commuters who travel mainly by public transit.
The focus is their walking experience, observation
and preferences towards certain pedestrian
The development of the survey instrument met the
following criteria:

The important studies carried

out are: travel mode choice, walking purpose,

reasons for not walking, perception of traffic
speed, walking preference in use of footpaths,
reasons for not using footpaths, perception of
drivers reaction, perception of crossing safety at the intersection, pedestrian crossing patterns
reasons for crossing at not- designated location,
pedestrian/ vehicle priority, dangerous vehicles to
pedestrians and overall perception of the road
segment on the basis of comfort, convenience,
safety and attractiveness. Significant propo
of respondents have expressed preference to
walking mode for small distances. Some people do
not like walking because footpath
or surface is not good. Highest percentage of
responses (46.20%) was obtained for the reason of
footpath not provided followed by narrow
footpaths (18.48%) and presence of
(15.40%). While crossing at the intersections
few people (7.79%) feel safe and remaining feel
either little unsafe (53.85%) or very unsafe
(38.41%). The overall rating of the road segments
is average. The results obtained in this study can


. Indian cities struggle to reconcile the competing needs of mobility and liveability. As private motor
vehicle ownership grows and governments attempt to accommodate the additional vehicles, it is
becoming more and more difficult to retain adequate space for the social and economic activities that
traditionally have taken place in our streets. Over time, streets have come to function less as social
gathering spaces and market areas, and more as conduits for an everincreasing volume of traffic

Over time the meaning of streets and, roads, has changed from a simple traffic road into public
road(Woolley, 2003). The original purpose of roads was transporting of goods, animals, and people.
However, people used streets for many other purposes. Social encounters and exchanges happened in
streets. Socialising is one of the main reasons why people live in cities(Jacobs, 1993). In addition, people
used to meet their friends on streets, and watch others who walk through the streets. Streets used actively
are crucial elements to make liveable neighbourhoods ( Jacobs, 1961). Exchanges of services or goods
occur on streets. People get information about merchandises through show windows on street(Woolley,
2003). In some countries, such as South Korea, streets are considered as important space for the
traditional market. Small children used to use streets as play grounds(Woolley, 2003 ).

The propagation of private vehicle changed the priority of streets from people to cars. The explosive
increase in the number of vehicles changed the main users of streets from people to cars (Hamilton-Baillie,
2008). Policy makers and traffic engineers aimed to make streets faster and safer for more vehicles. To
achieve this aim, they introduced the segregated traffic road. The concept of road user segregation was
adopted by many developed countries (Hamilton-Baillie, 2008).

Since the middle of twentieth century, there has been criticism of car-oriented urban conditions. In recent
years, the Directorate-General (2004) announced ten negative effects of urban traffic and congestion
on urban quality of life; equity, economic efficiency, loss of urban living space, air pollution, accidents,
competitiveness, severance, energy consumption, noise and vibration, and visual intrusion. According to
the report, these problems have become increasingly worse by traditional approaches. Governments tried
to solve the congestion on existing road by providing more space for cars. However, new roads encourage
more people to drive their cars, resulting in governments providing more spaces for cars again. In other
words, there is a need of new perspective on streets(Directorate-General, 2004).

While streets were once a place where we stopped for conversation and
children played Even where sidewalks are present along highways and high-
speed streets, they feel inhospitable and out of place.

Traffic and road capacity are not the inevitable result of growth. They are the
product of very deliberate choices that have been made to shape our
communities around the private automobile. We have the ability to make
different choicesstarting with the decision to design our streets as comfortable
places for people. may have said it best: Streets have been the places where children first learned
about the world, where neighbors met, the social centers of towns and cities, the rallying points for
revolts, the scenes of repression.

Lars Gemze is associated partner at Gehl Architects in Copenhagen and a senior lecturer in
urban design at the Center for Public Space Research, School of Architecture, Royal Danish
Academy of Fine Arts, and at Denmarks International Study Programme in Copenhagen. He is
the author of Improving Public Spaces, New City Spaces and Public Spaces Public Life.

The successful pedestrianisation of Copenhagen city center over a forty year period has been
analysed, described and documented by Professor Lars Gemze and Jan Gehl.


1.0 Street Form and Composition
1.1 Describe its accessibility and connection to the broader street network?
1.2 To what extent is the street well maintained? How is safety addressed? Is there a
big disparity (i.e. activities, usage, etc.) between night and day?
1.3 How does it accommodate multiple users and activities (i.e. continuous and
unobstructed travel lanes, road-sharing measures, traffic calming measures, wide
sidewalks, median strips, bike lanes, etc.)?
1.4 How is parking handled?
1.5 Describe how the hardscape or landscape, street furniture, or other physical
elements (i.e. signage, public art) create a unique personality?
1.6 How do the physical features create or capture a sense of public space?
1.7 How does the street accommodate or encourage social interaction, or serve as a
social network? Is there regular pedestrian activity?
2.0 Street Character and Personality
2.1 What makes the street stand out? What makes it extraordinary or memorable?
What elements, features, and details set the street apart from other streets?
2.2 How is the community involved in adding vitality to the street (festivals,
parades, open-air markets, etc.)?
2.3 How does the street reflect the local culture or history?
2.4 Does the street provide interesting visual experiences, vistas, natural features, or
other qualities? How does the architecture of the buildings add to the street's visual
experience and public realm?
2.5 Is there consistency of scale between buildings (i.e. are buildings proportional to
one another), and are the buildings designed and scaled for pedestrians?
3.0 Street Environment and Sustainable Practices
3.1 How does the street promote or protect air and water quality and minimize or
manage stormwater runoff? For example, how much tree cover is provided? Are
there other forms of "green infrastructure"?
To sum up, there are several elements that should be considered in order to implement
successful pedestrian oriented street. Firstly, streets should be safe from traffic accidents and

crimes. For this, the speed of vehicles should be restricted and the pedestrian path should have
enough width and adequate lighting. Secondly, streets should be well-connected. At the small
scale, every street should connect to an important place, and public transport and public
facilities should be provided within walking distance. Lastly, streets need well-maintained
greenery. For this, more private gardens faced on streets and street trees are necessary.



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