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wireless mobile telecommunications

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Mobile networks generations
Contents

1 GSM 1
1.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Technical details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.1 Network structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.2 Base station subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.3 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.4 Phone locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 GSM security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4 Standards information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5 GSM open-source software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5.1 Issues with patents and open source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.8 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2 3GPP 10
2.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2 Organizational Partners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.3 Market Representation Partners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.4 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.5 Specication groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.6 Standardization process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.7 Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

3 3G 15
3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.1.1 Break-up of 3G systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.3 Adoption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

i
ii CONTENTS

3.3.1 Market penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


3.4 Patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.5 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.5.1 Data rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.5.2 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.5.3 Applications of 3G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.6 Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

4 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 21


4.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

5 UMTS 22
5.1 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.2 Air interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.1 W-CDMA (UTRA-FDD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.2 UTRA-TDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.3 Radio access network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.4 Core network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.5 Frequency bands and channel bandwidths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.5.1 UARFCN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.5.2 Spectrum allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.6 Interoperability and global roaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.6.1 Handsets and modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.7 Other competing standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.8 Migrating from GSM/GPRS to UMTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.9 Problems and issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.9.1 Security issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.10 Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.10.1 Release '99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.10.2 Release 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.10.3 Release 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.10.4 Release 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.10.5 Release 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.10.6 Release 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.10.7 Release 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.11 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.12.1 Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
CONTENTS iii

5.12.2 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.13 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.14 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

6 High Speed Packet Access 42


6.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.2 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.2.1 User Equipment (UE) categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.2.2 Adoption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6.3 High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.3.1 Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.3.2 User Equipment (UE) Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.4 Evolved High Speed Packet Access (HSPA+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
6.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
6.7 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
6.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

7 4G 48
7.1 Technical understandings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.3 IMT-Advanced requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.4 System standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.4.1 IMT-2000 compliant 4G standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.4.2 Forerunner versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.4.3 Discontinued candidate systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.5 Principal technologies in all candidate systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.5.1 Key features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.5.2 Multiplexing and access schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.5.3 IPv6 support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.5.4 Advanced antenna systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.5.5 Open-wireless Architecture and Software-dened radio (SDR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.6 History of 4G and pre-4G technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.7 Beyond 4G research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

8 LTE (telecommunication) 59
8.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
8.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
8.2.1 3GPP standard development timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
iv CONTENTS

8.2.2 Carrier adoption timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62


8.3 LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
8.3.1 History of LTE-TDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
8.4 LTE Direct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
8.5 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
8.6 Voice calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
8.6.1 Enhanced voice quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
8.7 Frequency bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
8.8 Patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
8.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
8.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
8.11 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.12 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
8.12.1 White papers and other technical information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
8.13 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.13.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.13.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
8.13.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Chapter 1

GSM

For other uses, see GSM (disambiguation).

The GSM logo is used to identify compatible handsets and equipment. The dots symbolize three clients in the home network and one
roaming client.[1]

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spcial Mobile) is a standard developed by
the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital
cellular networks used by mobile devices and mobile telephones, rst deployed in Finland in December 1991.[2] As
of 2014, it has become the global standard for mobile communications with over 90% market share, operating in
over 219 countries and territories.[3]
2G networks developed as a replacement for rst generation (1G) analog cellular networks, and the GSM standard
originally described as a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. This expanded
over time to include data communications, rst by circuit-switched transport, then by packet data transport via GPRS
(General Packet Radio Services) and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution, or EGPRS).
Subsequently, the 3GPP developed third-generation (3G) UMTS standards, followed by fourth-generation (4G) LTE
Advanced standards, which do not form part of the ETSI GSM standard.
GSM is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. It may also refer to the (initially) most common voice codec
used, Full Rate.

1
2 CHAPTER 1. GSM

1.1 History

In 1983, work began to develop a European standard for digital cellular voice telecommunications when the European
Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) set up the Groupe Spcial Mobile committee
and later provided a permanent technical-support group based in Paris. Five years later, in 1987, 15 representatives
from 13 European countries signed a memorandum of understanding in Copenhagen to develop and deploy a common
cellular telephone system across Europe, and EU rules were passed to make GSM a mandatory standard.[4] The
decision to develop a continental standard eventually resulted in a unied, open, standard-based network which was
larger than that in the United States.[5][6][7][8]
In February 1987, Europe produced the very rst agreed GSM Technical Specication. Ministers from the four big
EU countries cemented their political support for GSM with the Bonn Declaration on Global Information Networks
in May and the GSM MoU was tabled for signature in September. The MoU drew in mobile operators from across
Europe to pledge to invest in new GSM networks to an ambitious common date.
In this short 38-week period, the whole of Europe (countries and industries) had been brought behind GSM in a
rare unity and speed guided by four public ocials: Armin Silberhorn (Germany), Stephen Temple (UK), Philippe
Dupuis (France), and Renzo Failli (Italy).[9] In 1989, the Groupe Spcial Mobile committee was transferred from
CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).[6][7][7][8]
In parallel, France and Germany signed a joint development agreement in 1984 and were joined by Italy and the
UK in 1986. In 1986, the European Commission proposed reserving the 900 MHz spectrum band for GSM. The
former Finnish prime minister Harri Holkeri made the worlds rst GSM call on July 1, 1991, calling Kaarina Suonio
(mayor of the city of Tampere) using a network built by Telenokia and Siemens and operated by Radiolinja.[10] In
the following year, 1992, saw the sending of the rst short messaging service (SMS or text message) message, and
Vodafone UK and Telecom Finland signed the rst international roaming agreement.
Work began in 1991 to expand the GSM standard to the 1800 MHz frequency band and the rst 1800 MHz network
became operational in the UK by 1993, called and DCS 1800. Also that year, Telecom Australia became the rst
network operator to deploy a GSM network outside Europe and the rst practical hand-held GSM mobile phone
became available.
In 1995, fax, data and SMS messaging services were launched commercially, the rst 1900 MHz GSM network
became operational in the United States and GSM subscribers worldwide exceeded 10 million. In the same year, the
GSM Association formed. Pre-paid GSM SIM cards were launched in 1996 and worldwide GSM subscribers passed
100 million in 1998.[7]
In 2000, the rst commercial GPRS services were launched and the rst GPRS-compatible handsets became available
for sale. In 2001, the rst UMTS (W-CDMA) network was launched, a 3G technology that is not part of GSM.
Worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded 500 million. In 2002, the rst Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) were
introduced and the rst GSM network in the 800 MHz frequency band became operational. EDGE services rst
became operational in a network in 2003, and the number of worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded 1 billion in
2004.[7]
By 2005, GSM networks accounted for more than 75% of the worldwide cellular network market, serving 1.5 billion
subscribers. In 2005, the rst HSDPA-capable network also became operational. The rst HSUPA network launched
in 2007. (High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) and its uplink and downlink versions are 3G technologies, not part of
GSM.) Worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded three billion in 2008.[7]
The GSM Association estimated in 2010 that technologies dened in the GSM standard served 80% of the mobile
market, encompassing more than 5 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories, making GSM the
most ubiquitous of the many standards for cellular networks.[11]
GSM is a second-generation (2G) standard employing time-division multiple-Access (TDMA) spectrum-sharing,
issued by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The GSM standard does not include the 3G
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) code division multiple access (CDMA) technology nor the
4G LTE orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) technology standards issued by the 3GPP.[12]
GSM, for the rst time, set a common standard for Europe for wireless networks. It was also adopted by many
countries outside Europe. This allowed subscribers to use other GSM networks that have roaming agreements with
each other. The common standard reduced research and development costs, since hardware and software could be
sold with only minor adaptations for the local market.[13]
Telstra in Australia shut down its 2G GSM network on December 1, 2016, the rst mobile network operator to
1.2. TECHNICAL DETAILS 3

decommission a GSM network.[14] The second mobile provider to shut down its GSM network (on January 1, 2017)
was AT&T Mobility from the United States.[15] Optus in Australia completed the shut down its 2G GSM network on
August 1, 2017, part of the Optus GSM network covering Western Australia and the Northern Territory had earlier
in the year been shut down in April 2017.[16] Singapore will phase out 2G services by April 2017.

1.2 Technical details

Structure of a GSM network 1 2 3

PSTN
4 5 6

7 8 9

# 0 *

PSTN

ME: Mobile 1 2 3
VLR
CS: Circuit
4 5 6

Equipment
7 8 9

# 0 *

MT/TE Switched G
GMSC
B
MSC: Mobile
D
Switching Centre Nc HSS
Um
C
Abis Nb E
1 2 3 1 2 3

H
4 5 6 4 5 6

7 8 9 7 8 9

# 0 * # 0 *

A Mc HLR AuC
CS-MGW MSC server
SIM-ME BSC: F
BTS: Base Base Station
Transceiver Controller Gb Gf,Sv
EIR
SIM Station Gc
Gd
ICC
GERAN: GSM EDGE Radio Gn
UE: User
Access Network SGSN SMS-GMSC
Equipment Gi
BSS: Base Station System GPRS PS: PS & CS
MS: Mobile Station Packet Switched Gp GGSN
AN: Access Network CN: Core Network

Internet

The structure of a GSM network

Main article: GSM services

1.2.1 Network structure


The network is structured into a number of discrete sections:

Base station subsystem the base stations and their controllers explained
Network and Switching Subsystem the part of the network most similar to a xed network, sometimes just
called the core network
GPRS Core Network the optional part which allows packet-based Internet connections
Operations support system (OSS) network maintenance

1.2.2 Base station subsystem


Main article: Base station subsystem
GSM is a cellular network, which means that cell phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity.
There are ve dierent cell sizes in a GSM networkmacro, micro, pico, femto, and umbrella cells. The coverage
area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where
the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average rooftop level. Micro cells are cells whose
antenna height is under average rooftop level; they are typically used in urban areas. Picocells are small cells whose
4 CHAPTER 1. GSM

GSM cell site antennas in the Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany

coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they are mainly used indoors. Femtocells are cells designed for use in
residential or small business environments and connect to the service providers network via a broadband internet
connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and ll in gaps in coverage between
those cells.
Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain, and propagation conditions from a couple of
hundred meters to several tens of kilometres. The longest distance the GSM specication supports in practical use is
1.2. TECHNICAL DETAILS 5

35 kilometres (22 mi). There are also several implementations of the concept of an extended cell,[17] where the cell
radius could be double or even more, depending on the antenna system, the type of terrain, and the timing advance.
Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station, or an
indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an
antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system. These are typically deployed when signicant
call capacity is needed indoors, like in shopping centers or airports. However, this is not a prerequisite, since indoor
coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from any nearby cell.

GSM carrier frequencies

Main article: GSM frequency bands

GSM networks operate in a number of dierent carrier frequency ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for
2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G), with most 2G GSM networks operating in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands.
Where these bands were already allocated, the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands were used instead (for example in
Canada and the United States). In rare cases the 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries
because they were previously used for rst-generation systems.
For comparison, most 3G networks in Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequency band. For more information on
worldwide GSM frequency usage, see GSM frequency bands.
Regardless of the frequency selected by an operator, it is divided into timeslots for individual phones. This allows
eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency. These eight radio timeslots (or burst periods)
are grouped into a TDMA frame. Half-rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate
for all 8 channels is 270.833 kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms.
The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM 850/900 and 1 watt in GSM
1800/1900.

Voice codecs

GSM has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3.1 kHz audio into between 6.5 and 13 kbit/s. Originally, two
codecs, named after the types of data channel they were allocated, were used, called Half Rate (6.5 kbit/s) and Full
Rate (13 kbit/s). These used a system based on linear predictive coding (LPC). In addition to being ecient with
bitrates, these codecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio, allowing the air interface layer
to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal. GSM was further enhanced in 1997[18] with the Enhanced
Full Rate (EFR) codec, a 12.2 kbit/s codec that uses a full-rate channel. Finally, with the development of UMTS,
EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowband, which is high quality and robust against
interference when used on full-rate channels, or less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio
conditions on half-rate channel.

1.2.3 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

Main article: Subscriber Identity Module

One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module, commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a
detachable smart card containing the users subscription information and phone book. This allows the user to retain
his or her information after switching handsets. Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the
handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM,
or only a SIM issued by them; this practice is known as SIM locking.

1.2.4 Phone locking

Main article: SIM lock


6 CHAPTER 1. GSM

Sometimes mobile network operators restrict handsets that they sell for use with their own network. This is called
locking and is implemented by a software feature of the phone. A subscriber may usually contact the provider to
remove the lock for a fee, utilize private services to remove the lock, or use software and websites to unlock the
handset themselves. It is possible to hack past a phone locked by a network operator.
In some countries (e.g., Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Iran, Lebanon, Malaysia,
Nepal, Pakistan, Poland, Singapore, South Africa, Thailand) all phones are sold unlocked.[19]

1.3 GSM security


GSM was intended to be a secure wireless system. It has considered the user authentication using a pre-shared key
and challenge-response, and over-the-air encryption. However, GSM is vulnerable to dierent types of attack, each
of them aimed at a dierent part of the network.[20]
The development of UMTS introduced an optional Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM), that uses a longer
authentication key to give greater security, as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user, whereas GSM
only authenticates the user to the network (and not vice versa). The security model therefore oers condentiality
and authentication, but limited authorization capabilities, and no non-repudiation.
GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. The A5/1, A5/2, and A5/3 stream ciphers are used for
ensuring over-the-air voice privacy. A5/1 was developed rst and is a stronger algorithm used within Europe and the
United States; A5/2 is weaker and used in other countries. Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: it
is possible to break A5/2 in real-time with a ciphertext-only attack, and in January 2007, The Hackers Choice started
the A5/1 cracking project with plans to use FPGAs that allow A5/1 to be broken with a rainbow table attack.[21] The
system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one.
Since 2000, dierent eorts have been made in order to crack the A5 encryption algorithms. Both A5/1 and A5/2
algorithms have been broken, and their cryptanalysis has been revealed in the literature. As an example, Karsten Nohl
developed a number of rainbow tables (static values which reduce the time needed to carry out an attack) and have
found new sources for known plaintext attacks.[22] He said that it is possible to build a full GSM interceptor...from
open-source components but that they had not done so because of legal concerns.[23] Nohl claimed that he was able
to intercept voice and text conversations by impersonating another user to listen to voicemail, make calls, or send text
messages using a seven-year-old Motorola cellphone and decryption software available for free online.[24]
GSM uses General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for data transmissions like browsing the web. The most commonly
deployed GPRS ciphers were publicly broken in 2011.[25]
The researchers revealed aws in the commonly used GEA/1 and GEA/2 ciphers and published the open-source
gprsdecode software for sning GPRS networks. They also noted that some carriers do not encrypt the data
(i.e., using GEA/0) in order to detect the use of trac or protocols they do not like (e.g., Skype), leaving customers
unprotected. GEA/3 seems to remain relatively hard to break and is said to be in use on some more modern networks.
If used with USIM to prevent connections to fake base stations and downgrade attacks, users will be protected in the
medium term, though migration to 128-bit GEA/4 is still recommended.

1.4 Standards information


The GSM systems and services are described in a set of standards governed by ETSI, where a full list is maintained.[26]

1.5 GSM open-source software


Several open-source software projects exist that provide certain GSM features:

gsmd daemon by Openmoko[27]

OpenBTS develops a Base transceiver station

The GSM Software Project aims to build a GSM analyzer for less than $1,000[28]
1.6. SEE ALSO 7

OsmocomBB developers intend to replace the proprietary baseband GSM stack with a free software implementation[29]
YateBTS develops a Base transceiver station [30]

1.5.1 Issues with patents and open source


Patents remain a problem for any open-source GSM implementation, because it is not possible for GNU or any other
free software distributor to guarantee immunity from all lawsuits by the patent holders against the users. Furthermore,
new features are being added to the standard all the time which means they have patent protection for a number of
years.
The original GSM implementations from 1991 may now be entirely free of patent encumbrances, however patent
freedom is not certain due to the United States rst to invent system that was in place until 2012. The rst to
invent system, coupled with patent term adjustment can extend the life of a U.S. patent far beyond 20 years from its
priority date. It is unclear at this time whether OpenBTS will be able to implement features of that initial specication
without limit. As patents subsequently expire, however, those features can be added into the open-source version. As
of 2011, there have been no lawsuits against users of OpenBTS over GSM use.

1.6 See also


Cellular network
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
Enhanced Network Selection (ENS)
GSM forwarding standard features codes list of call forward codes working with all operators and phones
GSM frequency bands
GSM services
Cell Broadcast
GSM localization
Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
NITZ Network Identity and Time Zone
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
GSM-R (GSM-Railway)
GSM USSD codes Unstructured Supplementary Service Data: list of all standard GSM codes for network
and SIM related functions
Hando
High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
Long Term Evolution (LTE)
MSISDN Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number
Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT)
Personal communications network (PCN)
RTP audio video prole
Simulation of GSM networks
Standards
8 CHAPTER 1. GSM

Comparison of mobile phone standards


GEO-Mobile Radio Interface
GSM 02.07 - Cellphone features
GSM 03.48 Security mechanisms for the SIM application toolkit
Intelligent Network
Parlay X
RRLP Radio Resource Location Protocol
Um interface
Visitors Location Register (VLR)

1.7 References
[1] Sauter, Martin (21 Nov 2013). The GSM Logo: The Mystery of the 4 Dots Solved. Retrieved 23 Nov 2013. [...]
heres what [Yngve Zetterstrom, rapporteur of the Maketing and Planning (MP) group of the MoU (Memorandum of
Understanding group, later to become the GSM Association (GSMA)) in 1989] had to say to solve the mystery: '[The dots
symbolize] three [clients] in the home network and one roaming client.' There you go, an answer from the prime source!

[2] Anton A. Huurdeman, The Worldwide History of Telecommunications, John Wiley & Sons, 31 juli 2003, page 529

[3] GSM Global system for Mobile Communications. 4G Americas. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014.
Retrieved 2014-03-22.

[4] EU Seeks To End Mandatory GSM for 900Mhz - Source

[5] Leader (7 September 2007). Happy 20th Birthday, GSM. zdnet.co.uk. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on
5 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011. Before GSM, Europe had a disastrous mishmash of national analogue standards in
phones and TV, designed to protect national industries but instead creating fragmented markets vulnerable to big guns from
abroad.

[6] GSM. etsi.org. European Telecommunications Standards Institute. 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Re-
trieved 5 May 2011. GSM was designed principally for voice telephony, but a range of bearer services was dened...allowing
circuit-switched data connections at up to 9600 bits/s.

[7] History. gsmworld.com. GSM Association. 2001. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
1982 Groupe Speciale Mobile (GSM) is formed by the Confederation of European Posts and Telecommunications (CEPT)
to design a pan-European mobile technology.

[8] Cellular History. etsi.org. European Telecommunications Standards Institute. 2011. Archived from the original on 5
May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011. The task was entrusted to a committee known as Groupe Spcial Mobile (GSMTM),
aided by a permanent nucleus of technical support personnel, based in Paris.

[9] Who created GSM?". Stephen Temple. Retrieved 7 April 2013. Before GSM, Europe had a disastrous mishmash of
national analogue standards in phones and TV, designed to protect national industries but instead creating fragmented
markets vulnerable to big guns from abroad.

[10] Maailman ensimminen GSM-puhelu [Worlds rst GSM call]. yle.. Yelisradio OY. 22 February 2008. Archived from
the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011. Harri Holkeri made the rst call on the Radiolinja (Elisas subsidiary)
network, at the opening ceremony in Helsinki on 07.01.1991.

[11] GSM World statistics. gsmworld.com. GSM Association. 2010. Archived from the original on 21 May 2010. Retrieved
8 June 2010.

[12] Mobile technologies GSM. Retrieved 7 November 2013.

[13] Martin Sauter (23 June 2014). From GSM to LTE-Advanced : An Introduction to Mobile Networks and Mobile Broadband
(Second ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. ISBN 9781118861929.

[14] Telstra switches o GSM network. TeleGeography. 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-02.

[15] 2G Sunset (PDF). ATT Mobility. Retrieved 10 August 2016.

[16] Optus to complete 2G network turn o. Optus. 2017-08-01. Retrieved 2017-08-01.


1.8. FURTHER READING 9

[17] Motorola Demonstrates Long Range GSM Capability 300% More Coverage With New Extended Cell. Archived 19
February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.

[18] GSM 06.51 version 4.0.1 (ZIP). ETSI. December 1997. Retrieved 5 September 2007.

[19] Victoria Shannon (2007). iPhone Must Be Oered Without Contract Restrictions, German Court Rules. The New York
Times. Retrieved 2 February 2011.

[20] Solutions to the GSM Security Weaknesses, Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Next Gener-
ation Mobile Applications, Services, and Technologies (NGMAST2008), pp.576581, Cardi, UK, September 2008,
arXiv:1002.3175

[21] Steve. The A5/1 Cracking Project. scribd.com. Retrieved 3 November 2011.

[22] Kevin J. O'Brien (28 December 2009). Cellphone Encryption Code Is Divulged. New York Times.

[23] A5/1 Cracking Project. Archived from the original on 25 December 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2009.

[24] Owano, Nancy (27 December 2011). GSM phones -- call them unsafe, says security expert. Archived from the original
on 28 December 2011. Retrieved 27 Dec 2011. Nohl said that he was able to intercept voice and text conversations by
impersonating another user to listen to their voice mails or make calls or send text messages. Even more troubling was
that he was able to pull this o using a seven-year-old Motorola cellphone and decryption software available free o the
Internet.

[25] Codebreaker Karsten Nohl: Why Your Phone Is Insecure By Design. Forbes.com. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August
2011.

[26] GSM UMTS 3GPP Numbering Cross Reference. ETSI. Retrieved 30 December 2009.

[27] Gsmd Openmoko. Wiki.openmoko.org. 8 February 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010.

[28] The Hackers Choice Wiki. Retrieved 30 August 2010.

[29] OsmocomBB. Bb.osmocom.org. Retrieved 22 April 2010.

[30] YateBTS. Legba Inc. Retrieved 30 October 2014.

1.8 Further reading


Redl, Siegmund M.; Weber, Matthias K.; Oliphant, Malcolm W (February 1995). An Introduction to GSM.
Artech House. ISBN 978-0-89006-785-7.

Redl, Siegmund M.; Weber, Matthias K.; Oliphant, Malcolm W (April 1998). GSM and Personal Communica-
tions Handbook. Artech House Mobile Communications Library. Artech House. ISBN 978-0-89006-957-8.

Hillebrand, Friedhelm, ed. (December 2001). GSM and UMTS, The Creation of Global Mobile Communica-
tions. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-84322-2.

Mouly, Michel; Pautet, Marie-Bernardette (June 2002). The GSM System for Mobile Communications. Telecom
Publishing. ISBN 978-0-945592-15-0.

Salgues, Salgues B. (April 1997). Les tlcoms mobiles GSM DCS. Hermes (2nd ed.). Hermes Sciences Publi-
cations. ISBN 2866016068.

1.9 External links


GSM AssociationOcial industry trade group representing GSM network operators worldwide

3GPP3G GSM standards development group


Chapter 2

3GPP

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration between groups of telecommunications as-
sociations, known as the Organizational Partners. The initial scope of 3GPP was to make a globally applicable
third-generation (3G) mobile phone[1] system specication based on evolved Global System for Mobile Commu-
nications (GSM) specications within the scope of the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 project of
the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The scope was later enlarged to include the development and
maintenance of:[2]

GSM and related "2G" and "2.5G" standards, including GPRS and EDGE

UMTS and related "3G" standards, including HSPA

LTE and related "4G" standards, including LTE Advanced and LTE Advanced Pro

Next generation and related "5G" standards

An evolved IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) developed in an access independent manner

3GPP standardization encompasses Radio Access Network, Services and Systems Aspects, and Core Network and
Terminals.[3] The project was established in December 1998 and should not be confused with 3rd Generation Part-
nership Project 2 (3GPP2), which species standards for another 3G technology based on IS-95 (CDMA), commonly
known as CDMA2000.[4] The 3GPP support team (also known as the Mobile Competence Centre) is located at
the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) headquarters in the Sophia Antipolis technology park
in France.[5]

2.1 History
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project initiative eventually arose from a strategic initiative between Nortel Networks
and AT&T Wireless. In 1998 AT&T Wireless was operating an IS-136 (TDMA) wireless network in the United
States. In 1997 Nortel Networks Wireless R&D center in Richardson, Texas, the wireless division of Bell Northern
Research had developed a vision for an all Internet Protocol (IP)" wireless network that went under the internal name
Cell Web. As the concept progressed, Nortel launched the industry vision as Wireless Internet. AT&T Wireless,
poised to evolve its network in the United States, took a strong interest in Wireless Internet and its promise of Internet
Protocol (with Nortel Networks as the potential supplier). Within 12 months or so, AT&T launched a global initiative
that they named 3GIP, a third generation wireless standard that was natively Internet Protocol based.[6] Initially,
principal participants included British Telecom, France Telecom, Telecom Italia, and Nortel Networks, but were
eventually joined by NTT DoCoMo, BellSouth, Telenor, and Lucent, Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and others.[7] A
3GIP standards forum was instituted and standards began to be developed. The forum progressed into the 2000 time
frame, up until AT&T Wireless and British Telecom formed a strategic partnership project to facilitate global
roaming between U.S. and European markets. With this business arrangement, GSM, the prevailing European
standard was adopted as the basis of AT&T Wireless network evolution for North America. Very specically, this
included the deployment of GSM data capabilities, i.e. GPRS, EDGE, and its evolution to UMTS.

10
2.2. ORGANIZATIONAL PARTNERS 11

2.2 Organizational Partners


The seven 3GPP Organizational Partners are from Asia, Europe and North America. Their aim is to determine the
general policy and strategy of 3GPP and perform the following tasks:

The approval and maintenance of the 3GPP scope;

The maintenance of the Partnership Project Description;

Take the decision to create or cease a Technical Specication Groups, and approve their scope and terms of
reference;

The approval of Organizational Partner funding requirements;

The allocation of human and nancial resources provided by the Organizational Partners to the Project Co-
ordination Group;

Act as a body of appeal on procedural matters referred to them.

Together with the Market Representation Partners (MRPs) perform the following tasks:

The maintenance of the Partnership Project Agreement;

The approval of applications for 3GPP partnership;

Take the decision against a possible dissolution of 3GPP.

The Organizational Partners are:

2.3 Market Representation Partners


The 3GPP Organizational Partners can invite a Market Representation Partner to take part in 3GPP, which:

Has the ability to oer market advice to 3GPP and to bring into 3GPP a consensus view of market requirements
(e.g., services, features and functionality) falling within the 3GPP scope;

Does not have the capability and authority to dene, publish and set standards within the 3GPP scope, nationally
or regionally;

Has committed itself to all or part of the 3GPP scope;

Has signed the Partnership Project Agreement.

As of June 2017, the Market Representation Partners are:

2.4 Standards
3GPP standards are structured as Releases. Discussion of 3GPP thus frequently refers to the functionality in one
release or another.
Each release incorporates hundreds of individual standards documents, each of which may have been through many
revisions. Current 3GPP standards incorporate the latest revision of the GSM standards.
The documents are available freely on 3GPPs Web site. While 3GPP standards can be bewildering to the newcomer,
they are remarkably complete and detailed, and provide insight into how the cellular industry works. They cover not
only the radio part ("Air Interface") and Core Network, but also billing information and speech coding down to source
code level. Cryptographic aspects (authentication, condentiality) are also specied in detail. 3GPP2 oers similar
information about its system.
12 CHAPTER 2. 3GPP

2.5 Specication groups


The 3GPP specication work is done in Technical Specication Groups (TSGs) and Working Groups (WGs).[18]
There are three Technical Specications Groups, each of which consists of multiple WGs:

RAN (Radio Access Network): RAN species the UTRAN and the E-UTRAN. It is composed of six working
groups.

SA (Service and System Aspects): SA species the service requirements and the overall architecture of the
3GPP system. It is also responsible for the coordination of the project. SA is composed of six working groups.

CT (Core Network and Terminals): CT species the core network and terminal parts of 3GPP. It includes the
core network terminal layer 3 protocols. It is composed of ve working groups.

GERAN (GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network):

The closure of GERAN was announced in January 2016.[19] The specication work on legacy GSM/EDGE system
was transferred to a new RAN WG, RAN6.
The 3GPP structure also includes a Project Coordination Group, which is the highest decision-making body. Its
missions include the management of overall timeframe and work progress.

2.6 Standardization process


3GPP standardization work is contribution-driven. Companies (individual members) participate through their
membership to a 3GPP Organizational Partner. As of April 2011, 3GPP is composed of more than 370 individual
members.[20]
Specication work is done at WG and at TSG level:[21]

the 3GPP WGs hold several meetings a year. They prepare and discuss change requests against 3GPP speci-
cations. A change request accepted at WG level is called agreed.

the 3GPP TSGs hold plenary meetings quarterly. The TSGs can approve the change requests that were
agreed at WG level. Some specications are under the direct responsibility of TSGs and therefore, change
requests can also be handled at TSG level. The approved change requests are subsequently incorporated in
3GPP specications.

3GPP follows a three-stage methodology as dened in ITU-T Recommendation I.130:[22]

stage 1 specications dene the service requirements from the user point of view.

stage 2 specications dene an architecture to support the service requirements.

stage 3 specications dene an implementation of the architecture by specifying protocols in details.

Test specications are sometimes dened as stage 4, as they follow stage 3.


Specications are grouped into releases. A release consists of a set of internally consistent set of features and speci-
cations.
Timeframes are dened for each release by specifying freezing dates. Once a release is frozen, only essential cor-
rections are allowed (i.e. addition and modications of functions are forbidden). Freezing dates are dened for each
stage.
The 3GPP specications are transposed into deliverables by the Organizational Partners.
2.7. DEPLOYMENT 13

2.7 Deployment
3GPP systems are deployed across much of the established GSM market.[23][24] They are primarily Release 6 systems,
but as of 2010, growing interest in HSPA+ and LTE is driving adoption of Release 7 and its successors. Since 2005,
3GPP systems were seeing deployment in the same markets as 3GPP2 systems (for example, North America[25] ).
With LTE the ocial successor to 3GPP2s CDMA systems, 3GPP-based systems will eventually become the single
global mobile standard.

2.8 See also


Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)

3GPP Long Term Evolution

Evolution to 3G

IP Multimedia Subsystem

3GP

3GPP2 The 3GPPs counterpart in the CDMA2000 sphere.

GSM services

Telecoms & Internet converged Services & Protocols for Advanced Networks (TISPAN)

Open Mobile Alliance

Service layer

European Telecommunications Standards Institute

2.9 References
[1] 3GPP Specications - Releases (and phases and stages)

[2] 3GPP Scope and Objectives, 31 August 2007

[3] About The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)

[4] 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2

[5] Mobile Competence Centre

[6] 3G.IP Mission Statement. 3G.IP. 2000. Archived from the original on 2000-08-31. Retrieved 2014-01-17.

[7] 3G.IP Membership List. 3G.IP. 2000. Archived from the original on 2000-08-31. Retrieved 2014-01-17.

[8] Releases

[9] Overview of 3GPP Release 99, Summary of all Release 99 Features. ETSI Mobile Competence Centre, Version xx/07/04

[10] Overview of 3GPP Release 4, Summary of all Release 4 Features, v.1.1.0 (draft) ETSI Mobile Competence Centre 2004

[11] Summary of all Release 5 Features, ETSI Mobile Competence Centre, Version 9 September 2003

[12] Overview of 3GPP Release 6, Summary of all Release 6 Features, Version TSG #33, ETSI Mobile Competence Centre
2006

[13] Review of the Work Plan at Plenaries #31, 3GPP, SP-060232 3GPP TSG SA#31 Sanya, 1316 March 2006

[14] Highlights of 3GPP Release 12. Retrieved 20 November 2014.

[15] Release 13 priorities. Retrieved 20 November 2014.


14 CHAPTER 2. 3GPP

[16] Portal, 3GPP. 3GPP Portal > Specications. portal.3gpp.org. Retrieved 2016-10-27.

[17] Portal, 3GPP. 3GPP Portal > Specications. portal.3gpp.org. Retrieved 2016-10-27.

[18] Specication Groups

[19] closure of GERAN

[20] 3GPP membership

[21] 3GPP TR 21.900 Technical Specication Group working methods

[22] ITU-T Recommendation I.130

[23] GSM/3G Fast Facts. GSM Suppliers Association, 10 December 2006

[24] Resources: 3G/UMTS Commercial Deployments, Table listing commercially launched 3G/UMTS networks based on
WCDMA technology, UMTS Forum

[25] Cingular to Deliver 3G Wireless Broadband Services, Press Release, Cingular Wireless, MediaRoom 30 November 2004

2.10 External links


3GPP website
3GPP Standards List of Acronyms & Terminology

3GPP freely published, detailed technical specications

3GPP releases descriptions


ETSI GSM UMTS 3GPP Numbering Cross Reference

TS/TR
specication numbering

Tool for visualizing multiple inter-related 3gpp standards


Tool for visualizing, decoding, encoding network protocol messages dened by 3gpp

LTE-3GPP.info: online 3GPP messages decoder fully supporting Rel.14


Chapter 3

3G

For other uses, see 3G (disambiguation).

3G, stands for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology. This
is based on a set of standards used for mobile devices and mobile telecommunications use services and networks
that comply with the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specications by the International
Telecommunication Union. 3G nds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, xed wireless
Internet access, video calls and mobile TV.
3G telecommunication networks support services that provide an information transfer rate of at least 2 Mbit/s. Later
3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones
and mobile modems in laptop computers. This ensures it can be applied to wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet
access, xed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV technologies.
A new generation of cellular standards has appeared approximately every tenth year since 1G systems were intro-
duced in 1981/1982. Each generation is characterized by new frequency bands, higher data rates and nonbackward-
compatible transmission technology. The rst 3G networks were introduced in 1998 and fourth generation 4G net-
works in 2008.

3.1 Overview
Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G, indicating that the advertised
service is provided over a 3G wireless network. Services advertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical
standards, including standards for reliability and speed (data transfer rates). To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a
system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s (about 0.2 Mbit/s). However, many services
advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service. Recent 3G releases,
often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile
modems in laptop computers.
The following standards are typically branded 3G:

the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service) system, rst oered in 2001, standardized by
3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a dierent radio interface) and other regions
predominated by GSM (Global Systems for Mobile) 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically
UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are oered, sharing the same infrastructure:

The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple
Access).
The TD-SCDMA radio interface was commercialized in 2009 and is only oered in China.
The latest UMTS release, HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory
(28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink.

the CDMA2000 system, rst oered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2, used especially in North America and

15
16 CHAPTER 3. 3G

South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and
IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev B oers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstream.

The above systems and radio interfaces are based on spread spectrum radio transmission technology. While the
GSM EDGE standard (2.9G), DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulll the IMT-
2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based on
completely dierent technologies.
The following common standards comply with the IMT2000/3G standard:

EDGE, a revision by the 3GPP organization to the older 2G GSM based transmission methods, utilizing the
same switching nodes, base station sites and frequencies as GPRS, but new base station and cellphone RF
circuits. It is based on the three times as ecient 8PSK modulation scheme as supplement to the original
GMSK modulation scheme. EDGE is still used extensively due to its ease of upgrade from existing 2G GSM
infrastructure and cell-phones.
EDGE combined with the GPRS 2.5G technology is called EGPRS, and allows peak data rates in the
order of 200 kbit/s, just as the original UMTS WCDMA versions, and thus formally fullls the IMT2000
requirements on 3G systems. However, in practice EDGE is seldom marketed as a 3G system, but a 2.9G
system. EDGE shows slightly better system spectral eciency than the original UMTS and CDMA2000
systems, but it is dicult to reach much higher peak data rates due to the limited GSM spectral bandwidth
of 200 kHz, and it is thus a dead end.
EDGE was also a mode in the IS-136 TDMA system, today ceased.
Evolved EDGE, the latest revision, has peaks of 1 Mbit/s downstream and 400 kbit/s upstream, but is not
commercially used.
The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, created and revised by the 3GPP. The family is a full
revision from GSM in terms of encoding methods and hardware, although some GSM sites can be retrotted
to broadcast in the UMTS/W-CDMA format.
W-CDMA is the most common deployment, commonly operated on the 2,100 MHz band. A few others
use the 850, 900 and 1,900 MHz bands.
HSPA is an amalgamation of several upgrades to the original W-CDMA standard and oers speeds
of 14.4 Mbit/s down and 5.76 Mbit/s up. HSPA is backward-compatible with and uses the same
frequencies as W-CDMA.
HSPA+, a further revision and upgrade of HSPA, can provide theoretical peak data rates up to 168
Mbit/s in the downlink and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink, using a combination of air interface improve-
ments as well as multi-carrier HSPA and MIMO. Technically though, MIMO and DC-HSPA can be
used without the "+" enhancements of HSPA+
The CDMA2000 system, or IS-2000, including CDMA2000 1x and CDMA2000 High Rate Packet Data (or
EVDO), standardized by 3GPP2 (diering from the 3GPP), evolving from the original IS-95 CDMA system,
is used especially in North America, China, India, Pakistan, Japan, South Korea, Southeast Asia, Europe and
Africa.
CDMA2000 1x Rev. E has an increased voice capacity (in excess of three times) compared to Rev. 0
EVDO Rev. B oers downstream peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s while Rev. C enhanced existing and new
terminal user experience.

While DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulll the IMT-2000 requirements, they
are not usually considered due to their rarity and unsuitability for usage with mobile phones.

3.1.1 Break-up of 3G systems


The 3G (UMTS and CDMA2000) research and development projects started in 1992. In 1999, ITU approved ve
radio interfaces for IMT-2000 as a part of the ITU-R M.1457 Recommendation; WiMAX was added in 2007.[1]
There are evolutionary standards (EDGE and CDMA) that are backward-compatible extensions to pre-existing 2G
networks as well as revolutionary standards that require all-new network hardware and frequency allocations. The
3.2. HISTORY 17

cell phones utilise UMTS in combination with 2G GSM standards and bandwidths, but do not support EDGE. The
latter group is the UMTS family, which consists of standards developed for IMT-2000, as well as the independently
developed standards DECT and WiMAX, which were included because they t the IMT-2000 denition.
While EDGE fullls the 3G specications, most GSM/UMTS phones report EDGE (2.75G) and UMTS (3G)
functionality.

3.2 History
3G technology was the result of research and development work carried out by the International Telecommunication
Union (ITU) in the early 1980s. 3G specications and standards were developed in fteen years. The technical
specications were made available to the public under the name IMT-2000. The communication spectrum between
400 MHz to 3 GHz ws allocated for 3G. Both the government and communication companies approved the 3G
standard. The rst pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1998,[2] branded as
FOMA. It was rst available in May 2001 as a pre-release (test) of W-CDMA technology. The rst commercial
launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on 1 October 2001, although it was initially somewhat limited in
scope;[3][4] broader availability of the system was delayed by apparent concerns over its reliability.[5]
The rst European pre-commercial network was an UMTS network on the Isle of Man by Manx Telecom, the operator
then owned by British Telecom, and the rst commercial network (also UMTS based W-CDMA) in Europe was
opened for business by Telenor in December 2001 with no commercial handsets and thus no paying customers.
The rst network to go commercially live was by SK Telecom in South Korea on the CDMA-based 1xEV-DO
technology in January 2002. By May 2002 the second South Korean 3G network was by KT on EV-DO and thus the
South Koreans were the rst to see competition among 3G operators.
The rst commercial United States 3G network was by Monet Mobile Networks, on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technol-
ogy, but this network provider later shut down operations. The second 3G network operator in the USA was Verizon
Wireless in July 2002 also on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO. AT&T Mobility was also a true 3G UMTS network, having
completed its upgrade of the 3G network to HSUPA.
The rst commercial United Kingdom 3G network was started by Hutchison Telecom which was originally behind
Orange S.A..[6] In 2003, it announced rst commercial third generation or 3G mobile phone network in the UK.
The rst pre-commercial demonstration network in the southern hemisphere was built in Adelaide, South Australia
by m.Net Corporation in February 2002 using UMTS on 2,100 MHz. This was a demonstration network for the 2002
IT World Congress. The rst commercial 3G network was launched by Hutchison Telecommunications branded as
Three or 3 in June 2003.[7]
Emtel launched the rst 3G network in Africa.

3.3 Adoption
Nepal Telecom adopted 3G Service for the rst time in Asia. However its 3G was relatively slow to be adopted
in Nepal. In some instances, 3G networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G so mobile operators must
build entirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies, especially so to achieve high data transmission rates.
Other countries delays were due to the expenses of upgrading transmission hardware, especially for UMTS, whose
deployment required the replacement of most broadcast towers. Due to these issues and diculties with deployment,
many carriers were not able to or delayed acquisition of these updated capabilities.
In December 2007, 190 3G networks were operating in 40 countries and 154 HSDPA networks were operating in
71 countries, according to the Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA). In Asia, Europe, Canada and the USA,
telecommunication companies use W-CDMA technology with the support of around 100 terminal designs to operate
3G mobile networks.
Roll-out of 3G networks was delayed in some countries by the enormous costs of additional spectrum licensing fees.
The license fees in some European countries were particularly high, bolstered by government auctions of a limited
number of licenses and sealed bid auctions, and initial excitement over 3Gs potential. This led to a telecoms crash
that ran concurrently with similar crashes in the bre-optic and dot.com elds.
The 3G standard is perhaps well known because of a massive expansion of the mobile communications market post-2G
18 CHAPTER 3. 3G

and advances of the consumer mobile phone. An especially notable development during this time is the smartphone
(for example, the iPhone, and the Android family), combining the abilities of a PDA with a mobile phone, leading to
widespread demand for mobile internet connectivity. 3G has also introduced the term "mobile broadband" because its
speed and capability make it a viable alternative for internet browsing, and USB Modems connecting to 3G networks
are becoming increasingly common.

3.3.1 Market penetration

By June 2007, the 200 millionth 3G subscriber had been connected of which 10 million were in Nepal and 8.2 million
in India. This 200 millionth is only 6.7% of the 3 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide. (When counting
CDMA2000 1x RTT customersmax bitrate 72% of the 200kbit/s which denes 3Gthe total size of the nearly-
3G subscriber base was 475 million as of June 2007, which was 15.8% of all subscribers worldwide.) In the countries
where 3G was launched rst Japan and South Korea 3G penetration is over 70%.[8] In Europe the leading country
for 3G penetration is Italy with a third of its subscribers migrated to 3G. Other leading countries for 3G use include
Nepal, UK, Austria, Australia and Singapore at the 32% migration level.
According to ITU estimates,[9] as of Q4 2012 there were 2096 million active mobile-broadband subscribers worldwide
out of a total of 6835 million subscribersthis is just over 30%. About half the mobile-broadband subscriptions
are for subscribers in developed nations, 934 million out of 1600 million total, well over 50%. Note however that
there is a distinction between a phone with mobile-broadband connectivity and a smart phone with a large display
and so onalthough according[10] to the ITU and informatandm.com the USA has 321 million mobile subscriptions,
including 256 million that are 3G or 4G, which is both 80% of the subscriber base and 80% of the USA population,
according[9] to ComScore just a year earlier in Q4 2011 only about 42% of people surveyed in the USA reported they
owned a smart phone. In Japan, 3G penetration was similar at about 81%, but smart phone ownership was lower at
about 17%.[9] In China, there were 486.5 million 3G subscribers in June 2014,[11] in a population of 1,385,566,537
(2013 UN estimate).

3.4 Patents
It has been estimated that there are almost 8,000 patents declared essential (FRAND) related to the 483 technical
specications which form the 3GPP and 3GPP2 standards.[12][13] Twelve companies accounted in 2004 for 90% of
the patents (Qualcomm, Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola, Philips, NTT DoCoMo, Siemens, Mitsubishi, Fujitsu, Hitachi,
InterDigital, and Matsushita).
Even then, some patents essential to 3G might have not been declared by their patent holders. It is believed that
Nortel and Lucent have undisclosed patents essential to these standards.[13]
Furthermore, the existing 3G Patent Platform Partnership pool has little impact on FRAND protection, because it
excludes the four largest patents owners for 3G.[14][15]

3.5 Features

3.5.1 Data rates

ITU has not provided a clear denition of the data rate that users can expect from 3G equipment or providers. Thus
users sold 3G service may not be able to point to a standard and say that the rates it species are not being met. While
stating in commentary that it is expected that IMT-2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a minimum data
rate of 2 Mbit/s for stationary or walking users, and 348 kbit/s in a moving vehicle,[16] the ITU does not actually
clearly specify minimum required rates, nor required average rates, nor what modes of the interfaces qualify as 3G,
so various data rates are sold as '3G' in the market.
In market implementation, 3G downlink data speeds dened by telecom service providers vary depending on the un-
derlying technology deployed; up to 384kbit/s for WCDMA, up to 7.2Mbit/sec for HSPA and a theoretical maximum
of 21.6 Mbit/s for HSPA+ (technically 3.5G, but usually clubbed under the tradename of 3G).
Compare data speeds with 3.5G and 4G.
3.6. EVOLUTION 19

3.5.2 Security
See also: Mobile security Attacks based on the GSM networks

3G networks oer greater security than their 2G predecessors. By allowing the UE (User Equipment) to authenticate
the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. 3G
networks use the KASUMI block cipher instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher. However, a number of serious
weaknesses in the KASUMI cipher have been identied.[17]
In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security, end-to-end security is oered when application frameworks
such as IMS are accessed, although this is not strictly a 3G property.

3.5.3 Applications of 3G
The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to
mobile phone users. Some of the applications are:

Global Positioning System (GPS)


Location-based services
Mobile TV
Telemedicine
Video Conferencing
Video on demand.

3.6 Evolution
Both 3GPP and 3GPP2 are working on extensions to 3G standard that are based on an all-IP network infrastructure
and using advanced wireless technologies such as MIMO. These specications already display features characteristic
for IMT-Advanced (4G), the successor of 3G. However, falling short of the bandwidth requirements for 4G (which
is 1 Gbit/s for stationary and 100 Mbit/s for mobile operation), these standards are classied as 3.9G or Pre-4G.
3GPP plans to meet the 4G goals with LTE Advanced, whereas Qualcomm has halted development of UMB in favour
of the LTE family.[18]
On 14 December 2009, Telia Sonera announced in an ocial press release that We are very proud to be the rst
operator in the world to oer our customers 4G services.[19] With the launch of their LTE network, initially they are
oering pre-4G (or beyond 3G) services in Stockholm, Sweden and Oslo, Norway.

3.7 See also


List of mobile phone generations
Mobile radio telephone (also known as 0G)
Mobile broadband
1G
2G
4G
5G
LTE (telecommunication)
20 CHAPTER 3. 3G

3.8 References
[1] ITU. ITU Radiocommunication Assembly approves new developments for its 3G standards. press release. Archived from
the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2009.

[2] A Brand New Mobile Millennium Ericsson/CATT/DoCoMo jointly demonstrate pioneering W-CDMA technology at
PT/Wireless | Press Center | NTT DOCOMO Global. Nttdocomo.com. 9 November 1999. Retrieved 30 October 2012.

[3] Worlds rst 3G launch on 1 October severely restricted (hktdc.com)".

[4] "broadbandmag.co.uk/3G grinds to a start.

[5] DoCoMo Delays 3G Launch. Wired. 24 April 2001.

[6] 3G in UK. 3g.co.uk.

[7] About Hutchison. Hutchison Telecommunications (Australia) Limited. 11 June 2008. Retrieved 2012-04-07.

[8] Plus 8 Star presentation, Is 3G a Dog or a Demon Hints from 7 years of 3G Hype in Asia"". Plus8star.com. 11 June
2008. Retrieved 2010-09-06.

[9] Global mobile statistics 2013 Part A: Mobile subscribers; handset market share; mobile operators. mobiThinking. May
2013. Retrieved 2013-10-15.

[10] The 100 million club: the top 10 mobile markets by number of mobile subscriptions. mobiThinking. 2012-12-13.
Retrieved 2013-10-15.

[11] Steven Millward (2014-07-29). China now has 486.5 million 3G subscribers, but only 14 million on new 4G network.
Tech In Asia. Retrieved 2014-08-04.

[12] 3G CELLULAR STANDARDS AND PATENTS. engpaper.com. 13 June 2005. Retrieved 2012-06-24.

[13] David J. Goodman (13 June 2005). 3G CELLULAR STANDARDS AND PATENTS (PDF). IEEE Wireless com.
Polytechnic Institute of New York University. Retrieved 2012-06-24.

[14] Study on the Interplay between Standards and Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)" (PDF). European Commission. 18
July 2009. Retrieved 2012-06-24. Pools that cover only a fraction of the actual IPR for a standard are not very useful. It is
essential that the large licensees sign up. Examples of pools that have little impact are the 3G Licensing pool (which excludes
the four largest IPR owners for 3G) and the 802.11 pool by ViaLicensing.

[15] Possible 'showstoppers shadow 3G patent pool. eetimes.com. 21 May 1999. Retrieved 2012-06-24. Even so, Qualcomm
(San Diego) is still a wild card in the patent-pooling eort. Qualcomm was a member of the UMTS group when it was formed
in February 1998, but deactivated its membership last September.

[16] Cellular Standards for the Third Generation. ITU. 1 December 2005. Archived from the original on 24 May 2008.

[17] Security for the Third Generation (3G) Mobile System (PDF). Network Systems & Security Technologies.

[18] Qualcomm halts UMB project, Reuters, 13 November 2008

[19] rst in the world with 4G services. TeliaSonera. 14 December 2009. Retrieved 2010-09-06.

3.9 External links


Verizon has quietly stopped throttling unlimited 3G data
Chapter 4

3rd Generation Partnership Project 2

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) is a collaboration between telecommunications associations
to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specication within the scope of the ITU's
IMT-2000 project. In practice, 3GPP2 is the standardization group for CDMA2000, the set of 3G standards based
on the earlier cdmaOne 2G CDMA technology.
The participating associations are ARIB/TTC (Japan), China Communications Standards Association, Telecommunications
Industry Association (North America) and Telecommunications Technology Association (South Korea).
The agreement was established in December 1998.
Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) was a 3GPP2 project to develop a fourth-generation successor to CDMA2000. In
November 2008, Qualcomm, UMBs lead sponsor, announced it was ending development of the technology, favoring
LTE instead.[1]
3GPP2 should not be confused with 3GPP; 3GPP is the standard body behind the Universal Mobile Telecommuni-
cations System (UMTS) that is the 3G upgrade to GSM networks, while 3GPP2 is the standard body behind the
competing 3G standard CDMA2000 that is the 3G upgrade to cdmaOne networks used mostly in the United States
(and to some extent also in Japan, China, Canada, South Korea and India).
GSM/GPRS/EDGE/W-CDMA is the most widespread wireless standard in the world. A few countries (such as
China, the United States, Canada, India, South Korea and Japan) use both sets of standards, but most countries use
only the GSM family.

4.1 References
[1] Qualcomm halts UMB project, Reuters, 13 November 2008

4.2 External links


3GPP2 Ocial Web site
About 3GPP2

TIA - U.S. 3GPP2 Standards Developer

21
Chapter 5

UMTS

The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for net-
works based on the GSM standard. Developed and maintained by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project),
UMTS is a component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard set and compares with
the CDMA2000 standard set for networks based on the competing cdmaOne technology. UMTS uses wideband code
division multiple access (W-CDMA) radio access technology to oer greater spectral eciency and bandwidth to
mobile network operators.
UMTS species a complete network system, which includes the radio access network (UMTS Terrestrial Radio
Access Network, or UTRAN), the core network (Mobile Application Part, or MAP) and the authentication of users
via SIM (subscriber identity module) cards.
The technology described in UMTS is sometimes also referred to as Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access (FOMA)[1]
or 3GSM.
Unlike EDGE (IMT Single-Carrier, based on GSM) and CDMA2000 (IMT Multi-Carrier), UMTS requires new
base stations and new frequency allocations.

5.1 Features

UMTS supports maximum theoretical data transfer rates of 42 Mbit/s when Evolved HSPA (HSPA+) is implemented
in the network.[2] Users in deployed networks can expect a transfer rate of up to 384 kbit/s for Release '99 (R99)
handsets (the original UMTS release), and 7.2 Mbit/s for High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) handsets
in the downlink connection. These speeds are signicantly faster than the 9.6 kbit/s of a single GSM error-corrected
circuit switched data channel, multiple 9.6 kbit/s channels in High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD) and 14.4
kbit/s for CDMAOne channels.
Since 2006, UMTS networks in many countries have been or are in the process of being upgraded with High-Speed
Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), sometimes known as 3.5G. Currently, HSDPA enables downlink transfer speeds
of up to 21 Mbit/s. Work is also progressing on improving the uplink transfer speed with the High-Speed Uplink
Packet Access (HSUPA). Longer term, the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) project plans to move UMTS to 4G
speeds of 100 Mbit/s down and 50 Mbit/s up, using a next generation air interface technology based upon orthogonal
frequency-division multiplexing.
The rst national consumer UMTS networks launched in 2002 with a heavy emphasis on telco-provided mobile
applications such as mobile TV and video calling. The high data speeds of UMTS are now most often utilised for
Internet access: experience in Japan and elsewhere has shown that user demand for video calls is not high, and
telco-provided audio/video content has declined in popularity in favour of high-speed access to the World Wide
Webeither directly on a handset or connected to a computer via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or USB.

22
5.2. AIR INTERFACES 23

Structure of an UMTS network 1 2 3

PSTN
4 5 6

7 8 9

# 0 *

PSTN

ME : Mobile 1 2 3
VLR
CS : Circuit
4 5 6

Equipment
7 8 9

# 0 *

MT/TE cell Switched G


B
GMSC Nc D
Iur MSC HSS
Uu
Nb E C
1 2 3 1 2 3

4 5 6 4 5 6

Iub
7 8 9 7 8 9

* *

H
# 0 # 0

IuCS Mc
HLR AuC
CS-MGW MSC server
Cu RNC F
Node B
IuPS Gf,Sv
EIR
USIM Gd
UICC UTRAN : Universal Terrestrial Gc
Radio Access Network / SGSN Gn
UE : User RNS : Radio
Equipment
Gi SMS-GMSC
Network System GPRS PS : PS & CS
MS : Mobile Station Packet Switched Gp GGSN
AN : Access Network CN : Core Network

Internet

UMTS network architecture

5.2 Air interfaces


UMTS combines three dierent terrestrial air interfaces, GSM's Mobile Application Part (MAP) core, and the GSM
family of speech codecs.
The air interfaces are called UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA).[3] All air interface options are part of ITU's
IMT-2000. In the currently most popular variant for cellular mobile telephones, W-CDMA (IMT Direct Spread) is
used.
Please note that the terms W-CDMA, TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA are misleading. While they suggest covering
just a channel access method (namely a variant of CDMA), they are actually the common names for the whole air
interface standards.[4]

5.2.1 W-CDMA (UTRA-FDD)


W-CDMA or WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access), along with UMTS-FDD, UTRA-FDD, or
IMT-2000 CDMA Direct Spread is an air interface standard found in 3G mobile telecommunications networks. It
supports conventional cellular voice, text and MMS services, but can also carry data at high speeds, allowing mobile
operators to deliver higher bandwidth applications including streaming and broadband Internet access.[5]
W-CDMA uses the DS-CDMA channel access method with a pair of 5 MHz wide channels. In contrast, the com-
peting CDMA2000 system uses one or more available 1.25 MHz channels for each direction of communication.
W-CDMA systems are widely criticized for their large spectrum usage, which delayed deployment in countries that
acted relatively slowly in allocating new frequencies specically for 3G services (such as the United States).
The specic frequency bands originally dened by the UMTS standard are 18852025 MHz for the mobile-to-base
(uplink) and 21102200 MHz for the base-to-mobile (downlink). In the US, 17101755 MHz and 21102155 MHz
are used instead, as the 1900 MHz band was already used.[6] While UMTS2100 is the most widely deployed UMTS
band, some countries UMTS operators use the 850 MHz and/or 1900 MHz bands (independently, meaning uplink
and downlink are within the same band), notably in the US by AT&T Mobility, New Zealand by Telecom New
Zealand on the XT Mobile Network and in Australia by Telstra on the Next G network. Some carriers such as T-
Mobile use band numbers to identify the UMTS frequencies. For example, Band I (2100 MHz), Band IV (1700/2100
MHz), and Band V (850 MHz).
UMTS-FDD is an acronym for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) - frequency-division duplex-
24 CHAPTER 5. UMTS

3G sign shown in notication bar on an Android powered smartphone.

ing (FDD) and a 3GPP standardized version of UMTS networks that makes use of frequency-division duplexing for
duplexing over an UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) air interface.[7]
W-CDMA is the basis of Japans NTT DoCoMo's FOMA service and the most-commonly used member of the
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) family and sometimes used as a synonym for UMTS.[8] It
uses the DS-CDMA channel access method and the FDD duplexing method to achieve higher speeds and support
more users compared to most previously used time division multiple access (TDMA) and time division duplex (TDD)
schemes.
While not an evolutionary upgrade on the airside, it uses the same core network as the 2G GSM networks deployed
worldwide, allowing dual mode mobile operation along with GSM/EDGE; a feature it shares with other members of
the UMTS family.

Development

In the late 1990s, W-CDMA was developed by NTT DoCoMo as the air interface for their 3G network FOMA.
Later NTT DoCoMo submitted the specication to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as a candidate
for the international 3G standard known as IMT-2000. The ITU eventually accepted W-CDMA as part of the IMT-
2000 family of 3G standards, as an alternative to CDMA2000, EDGE, and the short range DECT system. Later,
W-CDMA was selected as an air interface for UMTS.
As NTT DoCoMo did not wait for the nalisation of the 3G Release 99 specication, their network was initially
5.2. AIR INTERFACES 25

UMTS base station on the roof of a building

incompatible with UMTS.[9] However, this has been resolved by NTT DoCoMo updating their network.
Code Division Multiple Access communication networks have been developed by a number of companies over the
years, but development of cell-phone networks based on CDMA (prior to W-CDMA) was dominated by Qualcomm,
the rst company to succeed in developing a practical and cost-eective CDMA implementation for consumer cell
phones and its early IS-95 air interface standard has evolved into the current CDMA2000 (IS-856/IS-2000) standard.
Qualcomm created an experimental wideband CDMA system called CDMA2000 3x which unied the W-CDMA
26 CHAPTER 5. UMTS

(3GPP) and CDMA2000 (3GPP2) network technologies into a single design for a worldwide standard air interface.
Compatibility with CDMA2000 would have benecially enabled roaming on existing networks beyond Japan, since
Qualcomm CDMA2000 networks are widely deployed, especially in the Americas, with coverage in 58 countries as
of 2006. However, divergent requirements resulted in the W-CDMA standard being retained and deployed globally.
W-CDMA has then become the dominant technology with 457 commercial networks in 178 countries as of April
2012.[10] Several CDMA2000 operators have even converted their networks to W-CDMA for international roaming
compatibility and smooth upgrade path to LTE.
Despite incompatibility with existing air-interface standards, late introduction and the high upgrade cost of deploying
an all-new transmitter technology, W-CDMA has become the dominant standard.

Rationale for W-CDMA

W-CDMA transmits on a pair of 5 MHz-wide radio channels, while CDMA2000 transmits on one or several pairs
of 1.25 MHz radio channels. Though W-CDMA does use a direct sequence CDMA transmission technique like
CDMA2000, W-CDMA is not simply a wideband version of CDMA2000. The W-CDMA system is a new design
by NTT DoCoMo, and it diers in many aspects from CDMA2000. From an engineering point of view, W-CDMA
provides a dierent balance of trade-os between cost, capacity, performance, and density; it also promises to achieve
a benet of reduced cost for video phone handsets. W-CDMA may also be better suited for deployment in the very
dense cities of Europe and Asia. However, hurdles remain, and cross-licensing of patents between Qualcomm and
W-CDMA vendors has not eliminated possible patent issues due to the features of W-CDMA which remain covered
by Qualcomm patents.[11]
W-CDMA has been developed into a complete set of specications, a detailed protocol that denes how a mobile
phone communicates with the tower, how signals are modulated, how datagrams are structured, and system interfaces
are specied allowing free competition on technology elements.

Deployment

The worlds rst commercial W-CDMA service, FOMA, was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 2001.
Elsewhere, W-CDMA deployments are usually marketed under the UMTS brand.
W-CDMA has also been adapted for use in satellite communications on the U.S. Mobile User Objective System using
geosynchronous satellites in place of cell towers.
J-Phone Japan (once Vodafone and now SoftBank Mobile) soon followed by launching their own W-CDMA based
service, originally branded Vodafone Global Standard and claiming UMTS compatibility. The name of the service
was changed to Vodafone 3G (now SoftBank 3G) in December 2004.
Beginning in 2003, Hutchison Whampoa gradually launched their upstart UMTS networks.
Most countries have, since the ITU approved of the 3G mobile service, either auctioned the radio frequencies to
the company willing to pay the most, or conducted a beauty contestasking the various companies to present what
they intend to commit to if awarded the licences. This strategy has been criticised for aiming to drain the cash of
operators to the brink of bankruptcy in order to honour their bids or proposals. Most of them have a time constraint
for the rollout of the servicewhere a certain coverage must be achieved within a given date or the licence will be
revoked.
Vodafone launched several UMTS networks in Europe in February 2004. MobileOne of Singapore commercially
launched its 3G (W-CDMA) services in February 2005. New Zealand in August 2005 and Australia in October
2005.
AT&T Wireless (now a part of Cingular Wireless) has deployed UMTS in several cities. Though advancements in
its network deployment have been delayed due to the merger with Cingular, Cingular began oering HSDPA service
in December 2005.
Rogers in Canada March 2007 has launched HSDPA in the Toronto Golden Horseshoe district on W-CDMA at
850/1900 MHz and plan the launch the service commercial in the top 25 cities October, 2007.
TeliaSonera opened W-CDMA service in Finland October 13, 2004 with speeds up to 384 kbit/s. Availability only
in main cities. Pricing is approx. 2/MB.
SK Telecom and KTF, two largest mobile phone service providers in South Korea, have each started oering W-
5.2. AIR INTERFACES 27

CDMA service in December 2003. Due to poor coverage and lack of choice in handhelds, the W-CDMA service has
barely made a dent in the Korean market which was dominated by CDMA2000. By October 2006 both companies
are covering more than 90 cities while SK Telecom has announced that it will provide nationwide coverage for its
WCDMA network in order for it to oer SBSM (Single Band Single Mode) handsets by the rst half of 2007. KT
Freecel will thus cut funding to its CDMA2000 network development to the minimum.
In Norway, Telenor introduced W-CDMA in major cities by the end of 2004, while their competitor, NetCom,
followed suit a few months later. Both operators have 98% national coverage on EDGE, but Telenor has parallel
WLAN roaming networks on GSM, where the UMTS service is competing with this. For this reason Telenor is
dropping support of their WLAN service in Austria (2006).
Maxis Communications and Celcom, two mobile phone service providers in Malaysia, started oering W-CDMA
services in 2005.
In Sweden, Telia introduced W-CDMA March 2004.

5.2.2 UTRA-TDD

UMTS-TDD, an acronym for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) - time-division duplexing
(TDD), is a 3GPP standardized version of UMTS networks that use UTRA-TDD.[7] UTRA-TDD is a UTRA that uses
time-division duplexing for duplexing.[7] While a full implementation of UMTS, it is mainly used to provide Internet
access in circumstances similar to those where WiMAX might be used. UMTS-TDD is not directly compatible with
UMTS-FDD: a device designed to use one standard cannot, unless specically designed to, work on the other, because
of the dierence in air interface technologies and frequencies used. It is more formally as IMT-2000 CDMA-TDD
or IMT 2000 Time-Division (IMT-TD).[12][13]
The two UMTS air interfaces (UTRAs) for UMTS-TDD are TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA. Both air interfaces use
a combination of two channel access methods, code division multiple access (CDMA) and time division multiple
access (TDMA): the frequency band is divided into time slots (TDMA), which are further divided into channels
using CDMA spreading codes. These air interfaces are classied as TDD, because time slots can be allocated to
either uplink or downlink trac.

TD-CDMA (UTRA-TDD 3.84 Mcps High Chip Rate (HCR))

TD-CDMA, an acronym for Time-division-Code division multiple access, is a channel access method based on
using spread spectrum multiple access (CDMA) across multiple time slots (TDMA). TD-CDMA is the channel access
method for UTRA-TDD HCR, which is an acronym for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access-Time Division Duplex
High Chip Rate.[12]
UMTS-TDDs air interfaces that use the TD-CDMA channel access technique are standardized as UTRA-TDD
HCR, which uses increments of 5 MHz of spectrum, each slice divided into 10 ms frames containing fteen time
slots (1500 per second).[12] The time slots (TS) are allocated in xed percentage for downlink and uplink. TD-CDMA
is used to multiplex streams from or to multiple transceivers. Unlike W-CDMA, it does not need separate frequency
bands for up- and downstream, allowing deployment in tight frequency bands.[14]
TD-CDMA is a part of IMT-2000, dened as IMT-TD Time-Division (IMT CDMA TDD), and is one of the
three UMTS air interfaces (UTRAs), as standardized by the 3GPP in UTRA-TDD HCR. UTRA-TDD HCR is
closely related to W-CDMA, and provides the same types of channels where possible. UMTSs HSDPA/HSUPA
enhancements are also implemented under TD-CDMA.[15]

TD-SCDMA (UTRA-TDD 1.28 Mcps Low Chip Rate (LCR))

Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA) or UTRA TDD 1.28 mcps low chip
rate (UTRA-TDD LCR)[13][16] is an air interface[13] found in UMTS mobile telecommunications networks in China
as an alternative to W-CDMA.
TD-SCDMA uses the TDMA channel access method combined with an adaptive synchronous CDMA component[13]
on 1.6 MHz slices of spectrum, allowing deployment in even tighter frequency bands than TD-CDMA. It is standard-
ized by the 3GPP and also referred to as UTRA-TDD LCR However, the main incentive for development of this
Chinese-developed standard was avoiding or reducing the license fees that have to be paid to non-Chinese patent
28 CHAPTER 5. UMTS

owners. Unlike the other air interfaces, TD-SCDMA was not part of UMTS from the beginning but has been added
in Release 4 of the specication.
Like TD-CDMA, TD-SCDMA is known as IMT CDMA TDD within IMT-2000.
The term TD-SCDMA is misleading. While it suggests covering only a channel access method, it is actually the
common name for the whole air interface specication.[16]
TD-SCDMA / UMTS-TDD (LCR) networks are incompatible with W-CDMA / UMTS-FDD and TD-CDMA /
UMTS-TDD (HCR) networks.

Objectives TD-SCDMA was developed in the Peoples Republic of China by the Chinese Academy of Telecom-
munications Technology (CATT), Datang Telecom, and Siemens AG in an attempt to avoid dependence on Western
technology. This is likely primarily for practical reasons, since other 3G formats require the payment of patent fees
to a large number of Western patent holders.
TD-SCDMA proponents also claim it is better suited for densely populated areas.[13] Further, it is supposed to cover
all usage scenarios, whereas W-CDMA is optimised for symmetric trac and macro cells, while TD-CDMA is best
used in low mobility scenarios within micro or pico cells.[13]
TD-SCDMA is based on spread spectrum technology which makes it unlikely that it will be able to completely escape
the payment of license fees to western patent holders. The launch of a national TD-SCDMA network was initially
projected by 2005[17] but only reached large scale commercial trials with 60,000 users across eight cities in 2008.[18]
On January 7, 2009, China granted a TD-SCDMA 3G licence to China Mobile.[19]
On September 21, 2009, China Mobile ocially announced that it had 1,327,000 TD-SCDMA subscribers as of the
end of August, 2009.
While TD is primarily a China-only system, it may well be exported to developing countries. It is likely to be replaced
with a newer TD-LTE system over the next 5 years.

Technical highlights TD-SCDMA uses TDD, in contrast to the FDD scheme used by W-CDMA. By dynamically
adjusting the number of timeslots used for downlink and uplink, the system can more easily accommodate asymmetric
trac with dierent data rate requirements on downlink and uplink than FDD schemes. Since it does not require
paired spectrum for downlink and uplink, spectrum allocation exibility is also increased. Using the same carrier
frequency for uplink and downlink also means that the channel condition is the same on both directions, and the
base station can deduce the downlink channel information from uplink channel estimates, which is helpful to the
application of beamforming techniques.
TD-SCDMA also uses TDMA in addition to the CDMA used in WCDMA. This reduces the number of users in each
timeslot, which reduces the implementation complexity of multiuser detection and beamforming schemes, but the
non-continuous transmission also reduces coverage (because of the higher peak power needed), mobility (because of
lower power control frequency) and complicates radio resource management algorithms.
The S in TD-SCDMA stands for synchronous, which means that uplink signals are synchronized at the base
station receiver, achieved by continuous timing adjustments. This reduces the interference between users of the same
timeslot using dierent codes by improving the orthogonality between the codes, therefore increasing system capacity,
at the cost of some hardware complexity in achieving uplink synchronization.

History On January 20, 2006, Ministry of Information Industry of the Peoples Republic of China formally an-
nounced that TD-SCDMA is the countrys standard of 3G mobile telecommunication. On February 15, 2006, a
timeline for deployment of the network in China was announced, stating pre-commercial trials would take place
starting after completion of a number of test networks in select cities. These trials ran from March to October, 2006,
but the results were apparently unsatisfactory. In early 2007, the Chinese government instructed the dominant cel-
lular carrier, China Mobile, to build commercial trial networks in eight cities, and the two xed-line carriers, China
Telecom and China Netcom, to build one each in two other cities. Construction of these trial networks was scheduled
to nish during the fourth quarter of 2007, but delays meant that construction was not complete until early 2008.
The standard has been adopted by 3GPP since Rel-4, known as UTRA TDD 1.28Mbps Option.[13]
On March 28, 2008, China Mobile Group announced TD-SCDMA commercial trials for 60,000 test users in eight
cities from April 1, 2008. Networks using other 3G standards (WCDMA and CDMA2000 EV/DO) had still not
5.2. AIR INTERFACES 29

been launched in China, as these were delayed until TD-SCDMA was ready for commercial launch.
In January 2009 the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) in China took the unusual step of
assigning licences for 3 dierent third-generation mobile phone standards to three carriers in a long-awaited step that
is expected to prompt $41 billion in spending on new equipment. The Chinese-developed standard, TD-SCDMA, was
assigned to China Mobile, the worlds biggest phone carrier by subscribers. That appeared to be an eort to make sure
the new system has the nancial and technical backing to succeed. Licences for two existing 3G standards, W-CDMA
and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO, were assigned to China Unicom and China Telecom, respectively. Third-generation, or
3G, technology supports Web surng, wireless video and other services and the start of service is expected to spur
new revenue growth.

Frequency bands & Deployments The following is a list of mobile telecommunications networks using third-
generation TD-SCDMA / UMTS-TDD (LCR) technology.

Unlicensed UMTS-TDD

In Europe, CEPT allocated the 2010-2020 MHz range for a variant of UMTS-TDD designed for unlicensed, self-
provided use.[26] Some telecom groups and jurisdictions have proposed withdrawing this service in favour of licensed
UMTS-TDD,[27] due to lack of demand, and lack of development of a UMTS TDD air interface technology suitable
for deployment in this band.

Comparison with UMTS-FDD

Ordinary UMTS uses UTRA-FDD as an air interface and is known as UMTS-FDD. UMTS-FDD uses W-CDMA for
multiple access and frequency division for duplexing, meaning that the up-link and down-link transmit on dierent
frequencies. UMTS is usually transmitted on frequencies assigned for 1G, 2G, or 3G mobile telephone service in the
countries of operation.
UMTS-TDD uses time division duplexing, allowing the up-link and down-link to share the same spectrum. This
allows the operator to more exibly divide the usage of available spectrum according to trac patterns. For ordinary
phone service, you would expect the up-link and down-link to carry approximately equal amounts of data (because
every phone call needs a voice transmission in either direction), but Internet-oriented trac is more frequently one-
way. For example, when browsing a website, the user will send commands, which are short, to the server, but the
server will send whole les, that are generally larger than those commands, in response.
UMTS-TDD tends to be allocated frequency intended for mobile/wireless Internet services rather than used on ex-
isting cellular frequencies. This is, in part, because TDD duplexing is not normally allowed on cellular, PCS/PCN,
and 3G frequencies. TDD technologies open up the usage of left-over unpaired spectrum.
Europe-wide, several bands are provided either specically for UMTS-TDD or for similar technologies. These are
1900 MHz and 1920 MHz and between 2010 MHz and 2025 MHz. In several countries the 2500-2690 MHz band
(also known as MMDS in the USA) have been used for UMTS-TDD deployments. Additionally, spectrum around
the 3.5 GHz range has been allocated in some countries, notably Britain, in a technology-neutral environment. In the
Czech Republic UTMS-TDD is also used in a frequency range around 872 MHz.[28]

Deployment

UMTS-TDD has been deployed for public and/or private networks in at least nineteen countries around the world,
with live systems in, amongst other countries, Australia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand,
South Africa, the UK, and the USA.
Deployments in the US thus far have been limited. It has been selected for a public safety support network used by
emergency responders in New York,[29] but outside of some experimental systems, notably one from Nextel, thus far
the WiMAX standard appears to have gained greater traction as a general mobile Internet access system.
30 CHAPTER 5. UMTS

Competing Standards

A variety of Internet-access systems exist which provide broadband speed access to the net. These include WiMAX
and HIPERMAN. UMTS-TDD has the advantages of being able to use an operators existing UMTS/GSM infras-
tructure, should it have one, and that it includes UMTS modes optimized for circuit switching should, for example,
the operator want to oer telephone service. UMTS-TDDs performance is also more consistent. However, UMTS-
TDD deployers often have regulatory problems with taking advantage of some of the services UMTS compatibility
provides. For example, UMTS-TDD spectrum in the UK cannot be used to provide telephone service, though the
regulator OFCOM is discussing the possibility of allowing it at some point in the future. Few operators considering
UMTS-TDD have existing UMTS/GSM infrastructure.
Additionally, the WiMAX and HIPERMAN systems provide signicantly larger bandwidths when the mobile station
is in close proximity to the tower.
Like most mobile Internet access systems, many users who might otherwise choose UMTS-TDD will nd their needs
covered by the ad hoc collection of unconnected Wi access points at many restaurants and transportation hubs, and/or
by Internet access already provided by their mobile phone operator. By comparison, UMTS-TDD (and systems like
WiMAX) oers mobile, and more consistent, access than the former, and generally faster access than the latter.

5.3 Radio access network


Main article: UTRAN

UMTS also species the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN), which is composed of multiple
base stations, possibly using dierent terrestrial air interface standards and frequency bands.
UMTS and GSM/EDGE can share a Core Network (CN), making UTRAN an alternative radio access network to
GERAN (GSM/EDGE RAN), and allowing (mostly) transparent switching between the RANs according to available
coverage and service needs. Because of that, UMTSs and GSM/EDGEs radio access networks are sometimes
collectively referred to as UTRAN/GERAN.
UMTS networks are often combined with GSM/EDGE, the latter of which is also a part of IMT-2000.
The UE (User Equipment) interface of the RAN (Radio Access Network) primarily consists of RRC (Radio Re-
source Control), PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol), RLC (Radio Link Control) and MAC (Media Access
Control) protocols. RRC protocol handles connection establishment, measurements, radio bearer services, security
and handover decisions. RLC protocol primarily divides into three ModesTransparent Mode (TM), Unacknowl-
edge Mode (UM), Acknowledge Mode (AM). The functionality of AM entity resembles TCP operation whereas UM
operation resembles UDP operation. In TM mode, data will be sent to lower layers without adding any header to SDU
of higher layers. MAC handles the scheduling of data on air interface depending on higher layer (RRC) congured
parameters.
The set of properties related to data transmission is called Radio Bearer (RB). This set of properties decides the
maximum allowed data in a TTI (Transmission Time Interval). RB includes RLC information and RB mapping. RB
mapping decides the mapping between RB<->logical channel<->transport channel. Signaling messages are sent on
Signaling Radio Bearers (SRBs) and data packets (either CS or PS) are sent on data RBs. RRC and NAS messages
go on SRBs.
Security includes two procedures: integrity and ciphering. Integrity validates the resource of messages and also makes
sure that no one (third/unknown party) on the radio interface has modied the messages. Ciphering ensures that no
one listens to your data on the air interface. Both integrity and ciphering are applied for SRBs whereas only ciphering
is applied for data RBs.

5.4 Core network


Main article: Mobile Application Part

With Mobile Application Part, UMTS uses the same core network standard as GSM/EDGE. This allows a simple
5.5. FREQUENCY BANDS AND CHANNEL BANDWIDTHS 31

migration for existing GSM operators. However, the migration path to UMTS is still costly: while much of the core
infrastructure is shared with GSM, the cost of obtaining new spectrum licenses and overlaying UMTS at existing
towers is high.
The CN can be connected to various backbone networks, such as the Internet or an Integrated Services Digital Net-
work (ISDN) telephone network. UMTS (and GERAN) include the three lowest layers of OSI model. The network
layer (OSI 3) includes the Radio Resource Management protocol (RRM) that manages the bearer channels between
the mobile terminals and the xed network, including the handovers.

5.5 Frequency bands and channel bandwidths

5.5.1 UARFCN

A UARFCN (abbreviation for UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number, where UTRA stands for UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access) is used to identify a frequency in the UMTS frequency bands.
Typically channel number is derived from the frequency in MHz through the formula Channel Number = Frequency
* 5. However, this is only able to represent channels that are centered on a multiple of 200 kHz, which do not align
with licensing in North America. 3GPP added several special values for the common North American channels.

5.5.2 Spectrum allocation

Main article: UMTS frequency bands

Over 130 licenses have already been awarded to operators worldwide (as of December 2004), specifying W-CDMA
radio access technology that builds on GSM. In Europe, the license process occurred at the tail end of the technology
bubble, and the auction mechanisms for allocation set up in some countries resulted in some extremely high prices be-
ing paid for the original 2100 MHz licenses, notably in the UK and Germany. In Germany, bidders paid a total 50.8
billion for six licenses, two of which were subsequently abandoned and written o by their purchasers (Mobilcom
and the Sonera/Telefonica consortium). It has been suggested that these huge license fees have the character of a
very large tax paid on future income expected many years down the road. In any event, the high prices paid put some
European telecom operators close to bankruptcy (most notably KPN). Over the last few years some operators have
written o some or all of the license costs. Between 2007 and 2009, all three Finnish carriers began to use 900 MHz
UMTS in a shared arrangement with its surrounding 2G GSM base stations for rural area coverage, a trend that is
expected to expand over Europe in the next 13 years.
The 2100 MHz band (downlink around 2100 MHz and uplink around 1900 MHz) allocated for UMTS in Europe
and most of Asia is already used in North America. The 1900 MHz range is used for 2G (PCS) services, and 2100
MHz range is used for satellite communications. Regulators have, however, freed up some of the 2100 MHz range
for 3G services, together with a dierent range around 1700 MHz for the uplink.
AT&T Wireless launched UMTS services in the United States by the end of 2004 strictly using the existing 1900 MHz
spectrum allocated for 2G PCS services. Cingular acquired AT&T Wireless in 2004 and has since then launched
UMTS in select US cities. Cingular renamed itself AT&T Mobility and rolled out[30] some cities with a UMTS
network at 850 MHz to enhance its existing UMTS network at 1900 MHz and now oers subscribers a number of
dual-band UMTS 850/1900 phones.
T-Mobile's rollout of UMTS in the US was originally focused on the 1700 MHz band. However, T-Mobile has been
moving users from 1700 MHz to 1900 MHz (PCS) in order to reallocate the spectrum to 4G LTE services.[31]
In Canada, UMTS coverage is being provided on the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands on the Rogers and Bell-Telus
networks. Bell and Telus share the network. Recently, new providers Wind Mobile, Mobilicity and Videotron have
begun operations in the 1700 MHz band.
In 2008, Australian telco Telstra replaced its existing CDMA network with a national UMTS-based 3G network,
branded as NextG, operating in the 850 MHz band. Telstra currently provides UMTS service on this network, and
also on the 2100 MHz UMTS network, through a co-ownership of the owning and administrating company 3GIS.
This company is also co-owned by Hutchison 3G Australia, and this is the primary network used by their customers.
Optus is currently rolling out a 3G network operating on the 2100 MHz band in cities and most large towns, and the
32 CHAPTER 5. UMTS

900 MHz band in regional areas. Vodafone is also building a 3G network using the 900 MHz band.
In India, BSNL has started its 3G services since October 2009, beginning with the larger cities and then expand-
ing over to smaller cities. The 850 MHz and 900 MHz bands provide greater coverage compared to equivalent
1700/1900/2100 MHz networks, and are best suited to regional areas where greater distances separate base station
and subscriber.
Carriers in South America are now also rolling out 850 MHz networks.

5.6 Interoperability and global roaming


UMTS phones (and data cards) are highly portablethey have been designed to roam easily onto other UMTS
networks (if the providers have roaming agreements in place). In addition, almost all UMTS phones are UMTS/GSM
dual-mode devices, so if a UMTS phone travels outside of UMTS coverage during a call the call may be transparently
handed o to available GSM coverage. Roaming charges are usually signicantly higher than regular usage charges.
Most UMTS licensees consider ubiquitous, transparent global roaming an important issue. To enable a high degree
of interoperability, UMTS phones usually support several dierent frequencies in addition to their GSM fallback.
Dierent countries support dierent UMTS frequency bands Europe initially used 2100 MHz while the most carriers
in the USA use 850 MHz and 1900 MHz. T-Mobile has launched a network in the US operating at 1700 MHz
(uplink) /2100 MHz (downlink), and these bands also have been adopted elsewhere in the US and in Canada and
Latin America. A UMTS phone and network must support a common frequency to work together. Because of the
frequencies used, early models of UMTS phones designated for the United States will likely not be operable elsewhere
and vice versa. There are now 11 dierent frequency combinations used around the worldincluding frequencies
formerly used solely for 2G services.
UMTS phones can use a Universal Subscriber Identity Module, USIM (based on GSMs SIM) and also work (including
UMTS services) with GSM SIM cards. This is a global standard of identication, and enables a network to identify
and authenticate the (U)SIM in the phone. Roaming agreements between networks allow for calls to a customer to
be redirected to them while roaming and determine the services (and prices) available to the user. In addition to user
subscriber information and authentication information, the (U)SIM provides storage space for phone book contact.
Handsets can store their data on their own memory or on the (U)SIM card (which is usually more limited in its phone
book contact information). A (U)SIM can be moved to another UMTS or GSM phone, and the phone will take on
the user details of the (U)SIM, meaning it is the (U)SIM (not the phone) which determines the phone number of the
phone and the billing for calls made from the phone.
Japan was the rst country to adopt 3G technologies, and since they had not used GSM previously they had no
need to build GSM compatibility into their handsets and their 3G handsets were smaller than those available else-
where. In 2002, NTT DoCoMo's FOMA 3G network was the rst commercial UMTS networkusing a pre-release
specication,[32] it was initially incompatible with the UMTS standard at the radio level but used standard USIM cards,
meaning USIM card based roaming was possible (transferring the USIM card into a UMTS or GSM phone when
travelling). Both NTT DoCoMo and SoftBank Mobile (which launched 3G in December 2002) now use standard
UMTS.

5.6.1 Handsets and modems

All of the major 2G phone manufacturers (that are still in business) are now manufacturers of 3G phones. The early
3G handsets and modems were specic to the frequencies required in their country, which meant they could only
roam to other countries on the same 3G frequency (though they can fall back to the older GSM standard). Canada
and USA have a common share of frequencies, as do most European countries. The article UMTS frequency bands
is an overview of UMTS network frequencies around the world.
Using a cellular router, PCMCIA or USB card, customers are able to access 3G broadband services, regardless of
their choice of computer (such as a tablet PC or a PDA). Some software installs itself from the modem, so that in
some cases absolutely no knowledge of technology is required to get online in moments. Using a phone that supports
3G and Bluetooth 2.0, multiple Bluetooth-capable laptops can be connected to the Internet. Some smartphones can
also act as a mobile WLAN access point.
There are very few 3G phones or modems available supporting all 3G frequencies (UMTS850/900/1700/1900/2100
MHz). Nokia has recently released a range of phones that have Pentaband 3G coverage, including the N8 and E7.
5.7. OTHER COMPETING STANDARDS 33

The Nokia 6650, an early (2003) UMTS handset

Many other phones are oering more than one band which still enables extensive roaming. For example, Apples
iPhone 4 contains a quadband chipset operating on 850/900/1900/2100 MHz, allowing usage in the majority of
countries where UMTS-FDD is deployed.

5.7 Other competing standards


The main competitor to UMTS is CDMA2000 (IMT-MC), which is developed by the 3GPP2. Unlike UMTS,
CDMA2000 is an evolutionary upgrade to an existing 2G standard, cdmaOne, and is able to operate within the same
frequency allocations. This and CDMA2000s narrower bandwidth requirements make it easier to deploy in existing
spectra. In some, but not all, cases, existing GSM operators only have enough spectrum to implement either UMTS
or GSM, not both. For example, in the US D, E, and F PCS spectrum blocks, the amount of spectrum available is
5 MHz in each direction. A standard UMTS system would saturate that spectrum. Where CDMA2000 is deployed,
it usually co-exists with UMTS. In many markets however, the co-existence issue is of little relevance, as legislative
hurdles exist to co-deploying two standards in the same licensed slice of spectrum.
Another competitor to UMTS is EDGE (IMT-SC), which is an evolutionary upgrade to the 2G GSM system, lever-
aging existing GSM spectrums. It is also much easier, quicker, and considerably cheaper for wireless carriers to
bolt-on EDGE functionality by upgrading their existing GSM transmission hardware to support EDGE rather than
having to install almost all brand-new equipment to deliver UMTS. However, being developed by 3GPP just as
UMTS, EDGE is not a true competitor. Instead, it is used as a temporary solution preceding UMTS roll-out or as
a complement for rural areas. This is facilitated by the fact that GSM/EDGE and UMTS specication are jointly
developed and rely on the same core network, allowing dual-mode operation including vertical handovers.
Chinas TD-SCDMA standard is often seen as a competitor, too. TD-SCDMA has been added to UMTS' Release 4
as UTRA-TDD 1.28 Mcps Low Chip Rate (UTRA-TDD LCR). Unlike TD-CDMA (UTRA-TDD 3.84 Mcps High
Chip Rate, UTRA-TDD HCR) which complements W-CDMA (UTRA-FDD), it is suitable for both micro and macro
cells. However, the lack of vendors support is preventing it from being a real competitor.
34 CHAPTER 5. UMTS

While DECT is technically capable of competing with UMTS and other cellular networks in densely populated, urban
areas, it has only been deployed for domestic cordless phones and private in-house networks.
All of these competitors have been accepted by ITU as part of the IMT-2000 family of 3G standards, along with
UMTS-FDD.
On the Internet access side, competing systems include WiMAX and Flash-OFDM.

5.8 Migrating from GSM/GPRS to UMTS


From a GSM/GPRS network, the following network elements can be reused:

Home Location Register (HLR)

Visitor Location Register (VLR)

Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

Mobile Switching Center (MSC) (vendor dependent)

Authentication Center (AUC)

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) (vendor dependent)

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

From a GSM/GPRS communication radio network, the following elements cannot be reused:

Base station controller (BSC)

Base transceiver station (BTS)

They can remain in the network and be used in dual network operation where 2G and 3G networks co-exist while
network migration and new 3G terminals become available for use in the network.
The UMTS network introduces new network elements that function as specied by 3GPP:

Node B (base transceiver station)

Radio Network Controller (RNC)

Media Gateway (MGW)

The functionality of MSC and SGSN changes when going to UMTS. In a GSM system the MSC handles all the
circuit switched operations like connecting A- and B-subscriber through the network. SGSN handles all the packet
switched operations and transfers all the data in the network. In UMTS the Media gateway (MGW) take care of all
data transfer in both circuit and packet switched networks. MSC and SGSN control MGW operations. The nodes
are renamed to MSC-server and GSN-server.

5.9 Problems and issues


Some countries, including the United States, have allocated spectrum dierently from the ITU recommendations, so
that the standard bands most commonly used for UMTS (UMTS-2100) have not been available. In those countries,
alternative bands are used, preventing the interoperability of existing UMTS-2100 equipment, and requiring the
design and manufacture of dierent equipment for the use in these markets. As is the case with GSM900 today,
standard UMTS 2100 MHz equipment will not work in those markets. However, it appears as though UMTS is not
suering as much from handset band compatibility issues as GSM did, as many UMTS handsets are multi-band in
both UMTS and GSM modes. Penta-band (850, 900, 1700 , 2100, and 1900 MHz bands), quad-band GSM (850,
5.10. RELEASES 35

900, 1800, and 1900 MHz bands) and tri-band UMTS (850, 1900, and 2100 MHz bands) handsets are becoming
more commonplace.
In its early days, UMTS had problems in many countries: Overweight handsets with poor battery life were rst to
arrive on a market highly sensitive to weight and form factor. The Motorola A830, a debut handset on Hutchisons
3 network, weighed more than 200 grams and even featured a detachable camera to reduce handset weight. Another
signicant issue involved call reliability, related to problems with handover from UMTS to GSM. Customers found
their connections being dropped as handovers were possible only in one direction (UMTS GSM), with the handset
only changing back to UMTS after hanging up. In most networks around the world this is no longer an issue.
Compared to GSM, UMTS networks initially required a higher base station density. For fully-edged UMTS incor-
porating video on demand features, one base station needed to be set up every 11.5 km (0.620.93 mi). This was
the case when only the 2100 MHz band was being used, however with the growing use of lower-frequency bands
(such as 850 and 900 MHz) this is no longer so. This has led to increasing rollout of the lower-band networks by
operators since 2006.
Even with current technologies and low-band UMTS, telephony and data over UMTS requires more power than on
comparable GSM networks. Apple Inc. cited[33] UMTS power consumption as the reason that the rst generation
iPhone only supported EDGE. Their release of the iPhone 3G quotes talk time on UMTS as half that available when
the handset is set to use GSM. Other manufacturers indicate dierent battery lifetime for UMTS mode compared to
GSM mode as well. As battery and network technology improve, this issue is diminishing.

5.9.1 Security issues

As early as 2008 it was known that carrier networks can be used to surreptitiously gather user location information.[34]
In August 2014, the Washington Post reported on widespread marketing of surveillance systems using Signalling
System No. 7 (SS7) protocols to locate callers anywhere in the world.[34]
In December 2014, news broke that SS7s very own functions can be repurposed for surveillance, because of its lax
security, in order to listen to calls in real time or to record encrypted calls and texts for later decryption, or to defraud
users and cellular carriers.[35]
Deutsche Telekom and Vodafone declared the same day that they had xed gaps in their networks, but that the
problem is global and can only be xed with a telecommunication system-wide solution.[36]

5.10 Releases
The evolution of UMTS progresses according to planned releases. Each release is designed to introduce new features
and improve upon existing ones.

5.10.1 Release '99

Bearer services

64 kbit/s circuit switch

384 kbit/s packet switched

Location services

Call service: compatible with Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), based on Universal Sub-
scriber Identity Module (USIM)

Voice quality features Tandem Free Operation

Frequency 2.1 GHz


36 CHAPTER 5. UMTS

5.10.2 Release 4

Edge radio

Multimedia messaging

MExE (Mobile Execution Environment)

Improved location services

IP Multimedia Services (IMS)

TD-SCDMA (UTRA-TDD 1.28 Mcps low chip rate)

5.10.3 Release 5

IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)

IPv6, IP transport in UTRAN

Improvements in GERAN, MExE, etc.

HSDPA

5.10.4 Release 6

WLAN integration

Multimedia broadcast and multicast

Improvements in IMS

HSUPA

Fractional DPCH

5.10.5 Release 7

Enhanced L2

64 QAM, MIMO

Voice over HSPA

CPC continuous packet connectivity

FRLC Flexible RLC

5.10.6 Release 8

Dual-Cell HSDPA

5.10.7 Release 9

Dual-Cell HSUPA
5.11. SEE ALSO 37

5.11 See also


List of Deployed UMTS networks
3GPP: the body that manages the UMTS standard.
3GPP Long Term Evolution, the 3GPP project to evolve UMTS towards 4G capabilities.
GAN/UMA: A standard for running GSM and UMTS over wireless LANs.
Opportunity Driven Multiple Access, ODMA: a UMTS TDD mode communications relaying protocol
HSDPA, HSUPA: updates to the W-CDMA air interface.
PDCP
Subscriber Identity Module
UMTS-TDD: a variant of UMTS largely used to provide wireless Internet service.
UMTS frequency bands
UMTS channels
W-CDMA: the primary air interface standard used by UMTS.
W-CDMA 2100
TD-SCDMA

Other, non-UMTS, 3G and 4G standards

CDMA2000: evolved from cdmaOne (also known as IS-95 or CDMA), managed by the 3GPP2
FOMA
WiMAX
GSM
GPRS
EDGE
ETSI

Other information

3G, 4G, IMT-2000


Cellular frequencies
CDMA
Comparison of wireless data standards
DECT
Dynamic TDMA
Evolution-Data Optimized/CDMA2000
FOMA
GSM/EDGE
HSPA
38 CHAPTER 5. UMTS

PN sequences

Spectral eciency comparison table

UMTS frequency bands

WiMAX

Telecommunications industry in China

Communications in China

Standardization in China

Mobile modem

Spectral eciency comparison table

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

Common pilot channel or CPICH, a simple synchronisation channel in WCDMA.

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is the major issue of multiple antenna research.

Wi-Fi: a local area wireless technology that is complementary to UMTS.

List of device bandwidths

Operations and Maintenance Centre

Radio Network Controller

UMTS security

Huawei SingleRAN: a RAN technology allowing migration from GSM to UMTS or simultaneous use of both

5.12 References

5.12.1 Citations
[1] Draft summary minutes, decisions and actions from 3GPP Organizational Partners Meeting#6, Tokyo, 9 October 2001
(PDF). 3GPP. p. 7.

[2] Tindal, Suzanne (8 December 2008). Telstra boosts Next G to 21Mbps. ZDNet Australia. Retrieved 2009-03-16.

[3] 3G Glossary UTRA. 3GNewsroom.com. 2003-11-29. Archived from the original on 2011-04-06.

[4] ITU-D Study Group 2. Guidelines on the smooth transition of existing mobile networks to IMT-2000 for developing
countries (GST); Report on Question 18/2 (PDF). pp. 4, 2528. Retrieved 2009-06-15.

[5] What is 3G/WCDMA?". GSMA.com. Retrieved 2014-06-24.

[6] The FCCs Advanced Wireless Services bandplan

[7] 3GPP. TS 25.201. Retrieved 2009-02-23.

[8] 3GPP notes that there currently existed many dierent names for the same system (eg FOMA, W-CDMA, UMTS, etc);
3GPP. Draft summary minutes, decisions and actions from 3GPP Organizational Partners Meeting#6, Tokyo, 9 October
2001 (PDF). p. 7.

[9] Hsiao-Hwa Chen (2007), The Next Generation CDMA Technologies, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 105106, ISBN 978-0-470-
02294-8

[10] GSM Association HSPA Market update April 2012

[11] Qualcomm says it doesn't need Nokia patents


5.12. REFERENCES 39

[12] Forkel; et al. (2002). Performance Comparison Between UTRA-TDD High Chip Rate And Low Chip Rate Operation.
Retrieved 2009-02-16.

[13] Siemens (2004-06-10). TD-SCDMA Whitepaper: the Solution for TDD bands (PDF). TD Forum. pp. 69. Archived
from the original (pdf) on 2014-03-30. Retrieved 2009-06-15.

[14] UMTS World TD-CDMA information. umtsworld.com. Retrieved 2008-02-28.

[15] IPWireless Ships First Commercial 3GPP Chipset with Full HSDPA Implementation. ipwireless.com. Archived from
the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2008-02-28.

[16] ITU-D Study Group 2. Guidelines on the smooth transition of existing mobile networks to IMT-2000 for developing
countries (GST); Report on Question 18/2 (PDF). pp. 4, 2528. Retrieved 2009-06-15.

[17] 3G in China still held up, EE Times Asia, Global Sources

[18] China Mobile to Test Td-scdma on 60,000 Phones from April 1,, Cellular News

[19] China issues 3G licences to main carriers The Reuters UK

[20] China Mobile Said to Begin Closing Its 3G Base Stations. CaixinOnline. 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-12-17.

[21] China Mobiles Dead End on the 3G Highway. CaixinOnline. 2014-12-15. Retrieved 2016-12-17.

[22] China Mobile Announces Commercial Deployment of TD-SCDMA Technology. Spreadtrum Communications, Inc.
2008-03-28. Retrieved 2014-07-17.

[23] Xinwei belatedly launches as CooTel in Nicaragua. TeleGeography. 2016-04-29. Retrieved 2016-04-29.

[24] Xinwei nally stages user trials; will trade under CooTel brand. TeleGeography. 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2016-01-20.

[25] Xinwei outlines November launch plan for Nicaragua. TeleGeography. 2015-10-14. Retrieved 2015-10-14.

[26] ERC/DEC/(99)25 EU Recommendation on UMTS TDD (PDF). ero.dk. Retrieved 2008-02-28.

[27] Award_of_available_spectrum:_2500-2690_MHz,_2010-2025_MHz_and_2290-2300_MHz (PDF). ofcom.org.uk. Archived


from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2008-02-28.

[28] T-Mobile launches UMTS TDD network in the Czech Republic. 21 June 2005.

[29] Northrop Grumman Wins $500 Million New York City Broadband Mobile Wireless Contract. ipwireless.com. Retrieved
2008-02-28.

[30] Vries, Lloyd. From AT&T To Cingular And Back Again. CBS News. Retrieved 30 June 2017.

[31] T-Mobile shifting 1700 MHz HSPA+ users to 1900 MHz band. TeleGeography. 2015-06-24. Retrieved 2016-04-07.

[32] Hsiao-Hwa Chen (2007), The Next Generation CDMA Technologies, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 105106, ISBN 978-0-470-
02294-8

[33] iPhone 'Surng' On AT&T Network Isn't Fast, Jobs Concedes

[34] Craig Timberg (24 August 2014). For sale: Systems that can secretly track where cellphone users go around the globe.
Washington Post. Retrieved 20 December 2014.

[35] Craig Timberg (18 December 2014). German researchers discover a aw that could let anyone listen to your cell calls..
The Switch- Washington Post. Washington Post. Retrieved 20 December 2014.

[36] Peter Onneken (18 December 2014). Sicherheitslcken im UMTS-Netz. Tagesschau (in German). ARD-aktuell /
tagesschau.de. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
40 CHAPTER 5. UMTS

5.12.2 Bibliography
Martin Sauter: Communication Systems for the Mobile Information Society, John Wiley, September 2006, ISBN
0-470-02676-6

Ahonen and Barrett (editors), Services for UMTS (Wiley, 2002) rst book on the services for 3G, ISBN 978-
0-471-48550-6

Holma and Toskala (editors), WCDMA for UMTS, (Wiley, 2000) rst book dedicated to 3G technology, ISBN
978-0-471-72051-5

Kreher and Ruedebusch, UMTS Signaling: UMTS Interfaces, Protocols, Message Flows and Procedures Ana-
lyzed and Explained (Wiley 2007), ISBN 978-0-470-06533-4

Laiho, Wacker and Novosad, Radio Network Planning and Optimization for UMTS (Wiley, 2002) rst book on
radio network planning for 3G, ISBN 978-0-470-01575-9

Muratore, Flavio. UMTS: mobile communications for the future. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000. ISBN
978-0-471-49829-2.

5.13 Documentation
3GPP specication series 25Radio aspects of 3G, including UMTS

TS 25.201 Physical Layer - General Description - Describes basic dierences between FDD and TDD.

TS 25.211 Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels (FDD)

TS 25.221 Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels (TDD)

TS 25.212 Multiplexing and channel coding (FDD)

TS 25.222 Multiplexing and channel coding (TDD)

TS 25.213 Spreading and modulation (FDD)

TS 25.223 Spreading and modulation (TDD)

TS 25.214 Physical layer procedures (FDD)

TS 25.224 Physical layer procedures (TDD)

TS 25.215 Physical layer - Measurements (FDD)

TS 25.225 Physical layer - Measurements (TDD)

5.14 External links


3gpp.org - 3rd Generation Partnership Project Standard

3GPP Specications Numbering Schemes

Vocabulary for 3GPP Specications, up to Release 8

UMTS LTE Link Budget Comparison

UMTS FAQ on UMTS World

Worldwide W-CDMA frequency allocations on UMTS World

UMTS TDD Alliance The Global UMTS TDD Alliance

3GSM World Congress


5.14. EXTERNAL LINKS 41

UMTS Provider Chart

LTE Encyclopedia
TD-SCDMA Forum

TD-SCDMA Industry Alliance


Chapter 6

High Speed Packet Access

HSPA+ indicator shown in notication shade on an Android smartphone running version 6.0.1 (Marshmallow).

High Speed Packet Access (HSPA)[1] is an amalgamation of two mobile protocols, High Speed Downlink Packet
Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), that extends and improves the performance of
existing 3G mobile telecommunication networks using the WCDMA protocols. A further improved 3GPP standard,

42
6.1. OVERVIEW 43

Evolved High Speed Packet Access (also known as HSPA+), was released late in 2008 with subsequent worldwide
adoption beginning in 2010. The newer standard allows bit-rates to reach as high as 337 Mbit/s in the downlink and
34 Mbit/s in the uplink. However, these speeds are rarely achieved in practice.[2]

6.1 Overview
The rst HSPA specications supported increased peak data rates of up to 14 Mbit/s in the downlink and 5.76 Mbit/s
in the uplink. It also reduced latency and provided up to ve times more system capacity in the downlink and up to
twice as much system capacity in the uplink compared with original WCDMA protocol.

6.2 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)


High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is an enhanced 3G (third-generation) mobile communications
protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family, also dubbed 3.5G, 3G+, or Turbo 3G, which allows
networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data speeds and capacity.
HSDPA has been introduced with 3GPP Release 5, which also accompanies an improvement on the uplink providing a
new bearer of 384 kbit/s. The previous maximum bearer was 128 kbit/s. As well as improving data rates, HSDPA also
decreases latency and so the round trip time for applications. HSPA+ introduced in 3GPP Release 7 further increases
data rates by adding 64QAM modulation, MIMO and Dual-Cell HSDPA operation, i.e. two 5 MHz carriers are used
simultaneously. Even higher speeds of up to 337.5 Mbit/s are possible with Release 11 of the 3GPP standards.[3]
The rst phase of HSDPA has been specied in the 3GPP release 5. Phase one introduces new basic functions and
is aimed to achieve peak data rates of 14.0 Mbit/s with signicantly reduced latency. The improvement in speed
and latency reduces the cost per bit and enhances support for high-performance packet data applications. HSDPA is
based on shared channel transmission and its key features are shared channel and multi-code transmission, higher-
order modulation, short transmission time interval (TTI), fast link adaptation and scheduling along with fast hybrid
automatic repeat request (HARQ). Further new features are the High Speed Downlink Shared Channels (HS-DSCH),
the adaptive modulation QPSK and 16QAM and the High Speed Medium Access protocol (MAC-hs) in base station.
The upgrade to HSDPA is often just a software update for WCDMA networks. In general voice calls are usually
prioritized over data transfer.

6.2.1 User Equipment (UE) categories

The following table is derived from table 5.1a of the release 11 of 3GPP TS 25.306[4] and shows maximum data rates
of dierent device classes and by what combination of features they are achieved. The per-cell per-stream data rate
is limited by the Maximum number of bits of an HS-DSCH transport block received within an HS-DSCH TTI and the
Minimum inter-TTI interval. The TTI is 2 ms. So for example Cat 10 can decode 27952 bits/2 ms = 13.976 MBit/s
(and not 14.4 MBit/s as often claimed incorrectly). Categories 1-4 and 11 have inter-TTI intervals of 2 or 3, which
reduces the maximum data rate by that factor. Dual-Cell and MIMO 2x2 each multiply the maximum data rate by 2,
because multiple independent transport blocks are transmitted over dierent carriers or spatial streams, respectively.
The data rates given in the table are rounded to one decimal point.
Further UE categories were dened from 3GGP Release 7 onwards as Evolved HSPA (HSPA+) and are listed in
Evolved HSDPA UE Categories.

Notes:

[1] 16-QAM implies QPSK support, 64-QAM implies 16-QAM and QPSK support.

[2] The maximal code rate is not limited. A value close to 1 in this column indicates that the maximum data rate can be
achieved only in ideal conditions. The device is therefore connected directly to the transmitter to demonstrate these data
rates.

[3] The maximum data rates given in the table are physical layer data rates. Application layer data rate is approximately 85%
of that, due to the inclusion of IP headers (overhead information) etc.
44 CHAPTER 6. HIGH SPEED PACKET ACCESS

6.2.2 Adoption

GPRS-speed in a HSDPA plan

As of 28 August 2009, 250 HSDPA networks have commercially launched mobile broadband services in 109 coun-
tries. 169 HSDPA networks support 3.6 Mbit/s peak downlink data throughput. A growing number are delivering
21 Mbit/s peak data downlink and 28 Mbit/s.
CDMA2000-EVDO networks had the early lead on performance, and Japanese providers were highly successful
benchmarks for it. But lately this seems to be changing in favour of HSDPA as an increasing number of providers
worldwide are adopting it.
During 2007, an increasing number of telcos worldwide began selling HSDPA USB modems to provide mobile
broadband connections. In addition, the popularity of HSDPA landline replacement boxes grewproviding HSDPA
for data via Ethernet and WiFi, and ports for connecting traditional landline telephones. Some are marketed with
connection speeds of up to 7.2 Mbit/s,[5] which is only attained under ideal conditions. As a result, these services
can be slower than expected, when in fringe coverage indoors.
6.3. HIGH SPEED UPLINK PACKET ACCESS (HSUPA) 45

6.3 High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA)


High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is a 3G mobile telephony protocol in the HSPA family. This technol-
ogy was the second major step in the UMTS evolution process. It was specied and standardized in 3GPP Release 6
to improve the uplink data rate to 5.76 Mbit/s, extending the capacity, and reducing latency. Together with additional
improvements which are detailed below this creates opportunities for a number of new applications including VoIP,
uploading pictures and sending large e-mail messages.
In the meanwhile HSUPA has been superseded by newer technologies further advancing transfer rates. LTE provides
up to 300 Mbit/s for downlink and 75 Mbit/s for uplink. Its evolution LTE Advanced supports maximum downlink
rates of over 1 Gbit/s.

6.3.1 Technology
Enhanced Uplink adds a new transport channel to WCDMA, called the Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH).
Further it features several improvements similar to those of HSDPA, including multi-code transmission, shorter
Transmission Time Interval (TTI) enabling faster link adaptation, fast scheduling and fast Hybrid Automatic Repeat
Request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy making retransmissions more eective. Similarly to HSDPA, HSUPA
uses a packet scheduler, but it operates on a request-grant principle where the UEs request a permission to send data
and the scheduler decides when and how many UEs will be allowed to do so. A request for transmission contains data
about the state of the transmission buer and the queue at the UE and its available power margin. However, unlike
HSDPA, uplink transmissions are not orthogonal to each other.
In addition to this scheduled mode of transmission the standards also allows a self-initiated transmission mode from
the UEs, denoted non-scheduled. The non-scheduled mode can, for example, be used for VoIP services for which
even the reduced TTI and the Node B based scheduler will not be able to provide the very short delay time and
constant bandwidth required.
Each MAC-d ow (i.e. QoS ow) is congured to use either scheduled or non-scheduled modes; the UE adjusts the
data rate for scheduled and non-scheduled ows independently. The maximum data rate of each non-scheduled ow
is congured at call setup, and typically not changed frequently. The power used by the scheduled ows is controlled
dynamically by the Node B through absolute grant (consisting of an actual value) and relative grant (consisting of a
single up/down bit) messages.
At the Physical Layer, HSUPA introduces new channels E-AGCH (Absolute Grant Channel), E-RGCH (Relative
Grant Channel), F-DPCH (Fractional-DPCH), E-HICH (E-DCH Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel), E-DPCCH (E-
DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel) and E-DPDCH (E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel).
E-DPDCH is used to carry the E-DCH Transport Channel; and E-DPCCH is used to carry the control information
associated with the E-DCH.

6.3.2 User Equipment (UE) Categories


The following table shows uplink speeds for the dierent categories of HSUPA.
Further UE categories were dened from 3GGP Release 7 onwards as Evolved HSPA (HSPA+) and are listed in
Evolved HSUPA UE Categories.

6.4 Evolved High Speed Packet Access (HSPA+)


Main article: Evolved HSPA

Evolved HSPA (also known as HSPA Evolution, HSPA+) is a wireless broadband standard dened in 3GPP release
7 of the WCDMA specication. It provides extensions to the existing HSPA denitions and is therefore backward-
compatible all the way to the original Release 99 WCDMA network releases. Evolved HSPA provides data rates up
to 42.2 Mbit/s in the downlink and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink (per 5 MHz carrier) with multiple input, multiple output
(2x2 MIMO) technologies and higher order modulation (64 QAM). With Dual Cell technology, these can be doubled.
Since 2011, HSPA+ has been very widely deployed amongst WCDMA operators with nearly 200 commitments.[6]
46 CHAPTER 6. HIGH SPEED PACKET ACCESS

6.5 See also


LTE

Broadband

Broadband Internet access

Cellular router

DigRF V3

Evolution-Data Optimized

Evolved HSPA

Global mobile Suppliers Association

List of device bandwidths

List of HSDPA networks

List of HSUPA networks

Multi-band

Mobile broadband

Mobile broadband modem

Quad band

UMTS

UMTS frequency bands

Triband (telephone)

6.6 References
[1] Nomor Research: White Paper Technology of High Speed Packet Access, nomor.de

[2] Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); UE Radio Access capabilities (PDF). ETSI. January 2014.
Retrieved March 4, 2014.

[3] HSPA. About Us.

[4] 3GPP TS 25.306 v11.0.0 http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25306.htm

[5] Vodafone UK - Maintenance. vodafone.co.uk.

[6] DC-HSPA+ brings 42 Mbps to 39 networks. 3GPP. Retrieved 8 July 2017.

6.7 Bibliography
Sauter, Martin (2006). Communication Systems for the Mobile Information Society. Chichester: John Wiley.
ISBN 0-470-02676-6.

Harri Holma and Antti Toskala (2006). HSDPA/HSUPA for UMTS: High Speed Radio Access for Mobile Com-
munications. ISBN 0-470-01884-4.

Stuhlfauth, Reiner (2012). High Speed Packet Access: Technology and measurement aspects of HSDPA and
HSUPA mobile radio systems. Munich. ISBN 978-3-939837-14-5.
6.8. EXTERNAL LINKS 47

6.8 External links


3GPP

3GPP Specications Home Page


GSM Association on HSPA

Public HSPA Discussion Forum

3.5G drivin), ericsson.com


Dual carrier HSPA: DC-HSPA, DC-HSPDA, radio-electronics.com

Understand HSDPAs implementation challenges


Nomor Research: White Paper Technology of High Speed Packet Access

Nomor 3GPP Newsletter 2009-03: Standardisation updates on HSPA Evolution


Chapter 7

4G

This article is about the mobile telecommunications standard. For other uses, see 4G (disambiguation).

4G is the fourth generation of mobile telecommunications technology, succeeding 3G. A 4G system must provide
capabilities dened by ITU in IMT Advanced. Potential and current applications include amended mobile web access,
IP telephony, gaming services, high-denition mobile TV, video conferencing, and 3D television.
The rst-release Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard (a 4G candidate system) has been commercially deployed
in Oslo, Norway, and Stockholm, Sweden since 2009. It has, however, been debated whether rst-release versions
should be considered 4G, as discussed in the technical understanding section below.

7.1 Technical understandings


In March 2008, the International Telecommunications Union-Radio communications sector (ITU-R) specied a set
of requirements for 4G standards, named the International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced (IMT-Advanced)
specication, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 megabits per second (Mbit/s) for high mobility
communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 gigabit per second (Gbit/s) for low mobility communication (such
as pedestrians and stationary users).[1]
Since the rst-release versions of Mobile WiMAX and LTE support much less than 1 Gbit/s peak bit rate, they
are not fully IMT-Advanced compliant, but are often branded 4G by service providers. According to operators, a
generation of the network refers to the deployment of a new non-backward-compatible technology. On December 6,
2010, ITU-R recognized that these two technologies, as well as other beyond-3G technologies that do not fulll the
IMT-Advanced requirements, could nevertheless be considered 4G, provided they represent forerunners to IMT-
Advanced compliant versions and a substantial level of improvement in performance and capabilities with respect to
the initial third generation systems now deployed.[2]
Mobile WiMAX Release 2 (also known as WirelessMAN-Advanced or IEEE 802.16m') and LTE Advanced (LTE-
A) are IMT-Advanced compliant backwards compatible versions of the above two systems, standardized during the
spring 2011, and promising speeds in the order of 1 Gbit/s. Services were expected in 2013.
As opposed to earlier generations, a 4G system does not support traditional circuit-switched telephony service, but
all-Internet Protocol (IP) based communication such as IP telephony. As seen below, the spread spectrum radio
technology used in 3G systems, is abandoned in all 4G candidate systems and replaced by OFDMA multi-carrier
transmission and other frequency-domain equalization (FDE) schemes, making it possible to transfer very high bit
rates despite extensive multi-path radio propagation (echoes). The peak bit rate is further improved by smart antenna
arrays for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications.

7.2 Background
In the eld of mobile communications, a generation generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of
the service, non-backwards-compatible transmission technology, higher peak bit rates, new frequency bands, wider

48
7.3. IMT-ADVANCED REQUIREMENTS 49

channel frequency bandwidth in Hertz, and higher capacity for many simultaneous data transfers (higher system
spectral eciency in bit/second/Hertz/site).
New mobile generations have appeared about every ten years since the rst move from 1981 analog (1G) to digital
(2G) transmission in 1992. This was followed, in 2001, by 3G multi-media support, spread spectrum transmission
and, at least, 200 kbit/s peak bit rate, in 2011/2012 to be followed by real 4G, which refers to all-Internet Protocol
(IP) packet-switched networks giving mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access.
While the ITU has adopted recommendations for technologies that would be used for future global communications,
they do not actually perform the standardization or development work themselves, instead relying on the work of
other standard bodies such as IEEE, The Wi MAX Forum, and 3GPP.
In the mid-1990s, the ITU-R standardization organization released the IMT-2000 requirements as a framework for
what standards should be considered 3G systems, requiring 200 kbit/s peak bit rate. In 2008, ITU -R specied the
IMT - Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G systems.
The fastest 3G-based standard in the UMTS family is the HSPA+ standard, which is commercially available since
2009 and oers 28 Mbit/s downstream (22 Mbit/s upstream) without MIMO, i.e. only with one antenna, and in
2011 accelerated up to 42 Mbit/s peak bit rate downstream using either DC-HSPA+ (simultaneous use of two 5 MHz
UMTS carriers)[3] or 2x2 MIMO. In theory speeds up to 672 Mbit/s are possible, but have not been deployed yet.
The fastest 3G-based standard in the CDMA2000 family is the EV-DO Rev. B, which is available since 2010 and
oers 15.67 Mbit/s downstream.

7.3 IMT-Advanced requirements


This article refers to 4G using IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced), as dened by
ITU-R. An IMT-Advanced cellular system must fulll the following requirements:[4]

Be based on an all-IP packet switched network.

Have peak data rates of up to approximately 100 Mbit/s for high mobility such as mobile access and up to
approximately 1 Gbit/s for low mobility such as nomadic/local wireless access.[1]

Be able to dynamically share and use the network resources to support more simultaneous users per cell.

Use scalable channel bandwidths of 520 MHz, optionally up to 40 MHz.[1] Rumney, Moray (September
2008). IMT-Advanced: 4G Wireless Takes Shape in an Olympic Year (PDF). Agilent Measurement Journal.
Archived from the original (PDF) on January 17, 2016.

Have peak link spectral eciency of 15-bit/s/Hz in the downlink, and 6.75-bit/s/Hz in the up link (meaning
that 1 Gbit/s in the downlink should be possible over less than 67 MHz bandwidth).

System spectral eciency is, in indoor cases, 3-bit/s/Hz/cell for downlink and 2.25-bit/s/Hz/cell for up link.[1]

Smooth handovers across heterogeneous networks.

In September 2009, the technology proposals were submitted to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
as 4G candidates.[5] Basically all proposals are based on two technologies.:

LTE Advanced standardized by the 3GPP

802.16m standardized by the IEEE (i.e. WiMAX)

Implementations of Mobile WiMAX and rst-release LTE are largely considered a stopgap solution that will oer
a considerable boost until WiMAX 2 (based on the 802.16m spec) and LTE Advanced are deployed. The latters
standard versions were ratied in spring 2011, but are still far from being implemented.[4]
The rst set of 3GPP requirements on LTE Advanced was approved in June 2008.[6] LTE Advanced was to be
standardized in 2010 as part of Release 10 of the 3GPP specication. LTE Advanced will be based on the existing
LTE specication Release 10 and will not be dened as a new specication series. A summary of the technologies
that have been studied as the basis for LTE Advanced is included in a technical report.[7]
50 CHAPTER 7. 4G

Some sources consider rst-release LTE and Mobile WiMAX implementations as pre-4G or near-4G, as they do not
fully comply with the planned requirements of 1 Gbit/s for stationary reception and 100 Mbit/s for mobile.
Confusion has been caused by some mobile carriers who have launched products advertised as 4G but which according
to some sources are pre-4G versions, commonly referred to as '3.9G', which do not follow the ITU-R dened principles
for 4G standards, but today can be called 4G according to ITU-R. Vodafone NL for example, advertised LTE as '4G',
while advertising now LTE Advanced as their '4G+' service which actually is (True) 4G. A common argument for
branding 3.9G systems as new-generation is that they use dierent frequency bands from 3G technologies ; that they
are based on a new radio-interface paradigm ; and that the standards are not backwards compatible with 3G, whilst
some of the standards are forwards compatible with IMT-2000 compliant versions of the same standards.

7.4 System standards

7.4.1 IMT-2000 compliant 4G standards


As of October 2010, ITU-R Working Party 5D approved two industry-developed technologies (LTE Advanced and
WirelessMAN-Advanced)[8] for inclusion in the ITUs International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced program
(IMT-Advanced program), which is focused on global communication systems that will be available several years
from now.

LTE Advanced

See also: 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) below

LTE Advanced (Long Term Evolution Advanced) is a candidate for IMT-Advanced standard, formally submitted by
the 3GPP organization to ITU-T in the fall 2009, and expected to be released in 2013. The target of 3GPP LTE
Advanced is to reach and surpass the ITU requirements.[9] LTE Advanced is essentially an enhancement to LTE. It is
not a new technology, but rather an improvement on the existing LTE network. This upgrade path makes it more cost
eective for vendors to oer LTE and then upgrade to LTE Advanced which is similar to the upgrade from WCDMA
to HSPA. LTE and LTE Advanced will also make use of additional spectrums and multiplexing to allow it to achieve
higher data speeds. Coordinated Multi-point Transmission will also allow more system capacity to help handle the
enhanced data speeds. Release 10 of LTE is expected to achieve the IMT Advanced speeds. Release 8 currently
supports up to 300 Mbit/s of download speeds which is still short of the IMT-Advanced standards.[10]

IEEE 802.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced

The IEEE 802.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced evolution of 802.16e is under development, with the objective to
fulll the IMT-Advanced criteria of 1 Gbit/s for stationary reception and 100 Mbit/s for mobile reception.[11]

7.4.2 Forerunner versions


3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)

See also: LTE Advanced above

The pre-4G 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology is often branded 4G - LTE, but the rst LTE release
does not fully comply with the IMT-Advanced requirements. LTE has a theoretical net bit rate capacity of up to
100 Mbit/s in the downlink and 50 Mbit/s in the uplink if a 20 MHz channel is used and more if multiple-input
multiple-output (MIMO), i.e. antenna arrays, are used.
The physical radio interface was at an early stage named High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA), now named
Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). The rst LTE USB dongles do not support any other radio
interface.
The worlds rst publicly available LTE service was opened in the two Scandinavian capitals, Stockholm (Ericsson
and Nokia Siemens Networks systems) and Oslo (a Huawei system) on December 14, 2009, and branded 4G. The
7.4. SYSTEM STANDARDS 51

user terminals were manufactured by Samsung.[12] As of November 2012, the ve publicly available LTE services in
the United States are provided by MetroPCS,[13] Verizon Wireless,[14] AT&T Mobility, U.S. Cellular,[15] Sprint,[16]
and T-Mobile US.[17]
T-Mobile Hungary launched a public beta test (called friendly user test) on 7 October 2011, and has oered com-
mercial 4G LTE services since 1 January 2012.
In South Korea, SK Telecom and LG U+ have enabled access to LTE service since 1 July 2011 for data devices,
slated to go nationwide by 2012.[18] KT Telecom closed its 2G service by March 2012, and complete the nationwide
LTE service in the same frequency around 1.8 GHz by June 2012.
In the United Kingdom, LTE services were launched by EE in October 2012,[19] and by O2 and Vodafone in August
2013.[20]

Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e)

The Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e-2005) mobile wireless broadband access (MWBA) standard (also known as
WiBro in South Korea) is sometimes branded 4G, and oers peak data rates of 128 Mbit/s downlink and 56 Mbit/s
uplink over 20 MHz wide channels.
In June 2006, the worlds rst commercial mobile WiMAX service was opened by KT in Seoul, South Korea.[21]
Sprint has begun using Mobile WiMAX, as of 29 September 2008, branding it as a 4G network even though the
current version does not fulll the IMT Advanced requirements on 4G systems.[22]
In Russia, Belarus and Nicaragua WiMax broadband internet access was oered by a Russian company Scartel, and
was also branded 4G, Yota.[23]

TD-LTE for China market

Just as Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and WiMAX are being vigorously promoted in the global telecommunications
industry, the former (LTE) is also the most powerful 4G mobile communications leading technology and has quickly
occupied the Chinese market. TD-LTE, one of the two variants of the LTE air interface technologies, is not yet
mature, but many domestic and international wireless carriers are, one after the other turning to TD-LTE.
IBMs data shows that 67% of the operators are considering LTE because this is the main source of their future
market. The above news also conrms IBMs statement that while only 8% of the operators are considering the use
of WiMAX, WiMAX can provide the fastest network transmission to its customers on the market and could challenge
LTE.
TD-LTE is not the rst 4G wireless mobile broadband network data standard, but it is Chinas 4G standard that was
amended and published by Chinas largest telecom operator China Mobile. After a series of eld trials, is expected
to be released into the commercial phase in the next two years. Ulf Ewaldsson, Ericssons vice president said: the
Chinese Ministry of Industry and China Mobile in the fourth quarter of this year will hold a large-scale eld test, by
then, Ericsson will help the hand. But viewing from the current development trend, whether this standard advocated
by China Mobile will be widely recognized by the international market is still debatable.

7.4.3 Discontinued candidate systems

UMB (formerly EV-DO Rev. C)

Main article: Ultra Mobile Broadband

UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadband) was the brand name for a discontinued 4G project within the 3GPP2 standardization
group to improve the CDMA2000 mobile phone standard for next generation applications and requirements. In
November 2008, Qualcomm, UMBs lead sponsor, announced it was ending development of the technology, favouring
LTE instead.[24] The objective was to achieve data speeds over 275 Mbit/s downstream and over 75 Mbit/s upstream.
52 CHAPTER 7. 4G

Flash-OFDM

At an early stage the Flash-OFDM system was expected to be further developed into a 4G standard.

iBurst and MBWA (IEEE 802.20) systems

The iBurst system (or HC-SDMA, High Capacity Spatial Division Multiple Access) was at an early stage considered
to be a 4G predecessor. It was later further developed into the Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) system,
also known as IEEE 802.20.

7.5 Principal technologies in all candidate systems

7.5.1 Key features


The following key features can be observed in all suggested 4G technologies:

Physical layer transmission techniques are as follows:[25]


MIMO: To attain ultra high spectral eciency by means of spatial processing including multi-antenna
and multi-user MIMO
Frequency-domain-equalization, for example multi-carrier modulation (OFDM) in the downlink or single-
carrier frequency-domain-equalization (SC-FDE) in the uplink: To exploit the frequency selective chan-
nel property without complex equalization
Frequency-domain statistical multiplexing, for example (OFDMA) or (single-carrier FDMA) (SC-FDMA,
a.k.a. linearly precoded OFDMA, LP-OFDMA) in the uplink: Variable bit rate by assigning dierent
sub-channels to dierent users based on the channel conditions
Turbo principle error-correcting codes: To minimize the required SNR at the reception side
Channel-dependent scheduling: To use the time-varying channel
Link adaptation: Adaptive modulation and error-correcting codes
Mobile IP utilized for mobility
IP-based femtocells (home nodes connected to xed Internet broadband infrastructure)

As opposed to earlier generations, 4G systems do not support circuit switched telephony. IEEE 802.20, UMB and
OFDM standards[26] lack soft-handover support, also known as cooperative relaying.

7.5.2 Multiplexing and access schemes


Recently, new access schemes like Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA), Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA), Interleaved
FDMA, and Multi-carrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) are gaining more importance for the next generation systems. These
are based on ecient FFT algorithms and frequency domain equalization, resulting in a lower number of multipli-
cations per second. They also make it possible to control the bandwidth and form the spectrum in a exible way.
However, they require advanced dynamic channel allocation and adaptive trac scheduling.
WiMax is using OFDMA in the downlink and in the uplink. For the LTE (telecommunication), OFDMA is used
for the downlink; by contrast, Single-carrier FDMA is used for the uplink since OFDMA contributes more to the
PAPR related issues and results in nonlinear operation of ampliers. IFDMA provides less power uctuation and thus
requires energy-inecient linear ampliers. Similarly, MC-CDMA is in the proposal for the IEEE 802.20 standard.
These access schemes oer the same eciencies as older technologies like CDMA. Apart from this, scalability and
higher data rates can be achieved.
The other important advantage of the above-mentioned access techniques is that they require less complexity for
equalization at the receiver. This is an added advantage especially in the MIMO environments since the spatial
multiplexing transmission of MIMO systems inherently require high complexity equalization at the receiver.
7.6. HISTORY OF 4G AND PRE-4G TECHNOLOGIES 53

In addition to improvements in these multiplexing systems, improved modulation techniques are being used. Whereas
earlier standards largely used Phase-shift keying, more ecient systems such as 64QAM are being proposed for use
with the 3GPP Long Term Evolution standards.

7.5.3 IPv6 support

Main articles: Network layer, Internet protocol, and IPv6

Unlike 3G, which is based on two parallel infrastructures consisting of circuit switched and packet switched network
nodes, 4G will be based on packet switching only. This will require low-latency data transmission.
By the time that 4G was deployed, the process of IPv4 address exhaustion was expected to be in its nal stages.
Therefore, in the context of 4G, IPv6 is essential to support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. By increas-
ing the number of IP addresses available, IPv6 removes the need for network address translation (NAT), a method
of sharing a limited number of addresses among a larger group of devices, although NAT will still be required to
communicate with devices that are on existing IPv4 networks.
As of June 2009, Verizon has posted specications that require any 4G devices on its network to support IPv6.[27]

7.5.4 Advanced antenna systems

Main articles: MIMO and MU-MIMO

The performance of radio communications depends on an antenna system, termed smart or intelligent antenna. Re-
cently, multiple antenna technologies are emerging to achieve the goal of 4G systems such as high rate, high reliability,
and long range communications. In the early 1990s, to cater for the growing data rate needs of data communication,
many transmission schemes were proposed. One technology, spatial multiplexing, gained importance for its band-
width conservation and power eciency. Spatial multiplexing involves deploying multiple antennas at the transmitter
and at the receiver. Independent streams can then be transmitted simultaneously from all the antennas. This technol-
ogy, called MIMO (as a branch of intelligent antenna), multiplies the base data rate by (the smaller of) the number
of transmit antennas or the number of receive antennas. Apart from this, the reliability in transmitting high speed
data in the fading channel can be improved by using more antennas at the transmitter or at the receiver. This is called
transmit or receive diversity. Both transmit/receive diversity and transmit spatial multiplexing are categorized into
the space-time coding techniques, which does not necessarily require the channel knowledge at the transmitter. The
other category is closed-loop multiple antenna technologies, which require channel knowledge at the transmitter.

7.5.5 Open-wireless Architecture and Software-dened radio (SDR)

One of the key technologies for 4G and beyond is called Open Wireless Architecture (OWA), supporting multiple
wireless air interfaces in an open architecture platform.
SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA). Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards, the nal form
of a 4G device will constitute various standards. This can be eciently realized using SDR technology, which is
categorized to the area of the radio convergence.

7.6 History of 4G and pre-4G technologies


The 4G system was originally envisioned by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The DARPA
selected the distributed architecture and end-to-end Internet protocol (IP), and believed at an early stage in peer-to-
peer networking in which every mobile device would be both a transceiver and a router for other devices in the
network, eliminating the spoke-and-hub weakness of 2G and 3G cellular systems.[28] Since the 2.5G GPRS system,
cellular systems have provided dual infrastructures: packet switched nodes for data services, and circuit switched
nodes for voice calls. In 4G systems, the circuit-switched infrastructure is abandoned and only a packet-switched
network is provided, while 2.5G and 3G systems require both packet-switched and circuit-switched network nodes,
i.e. two infrastructures in parallel. This means that in 4G, traditional voice calls are replaced by IP telephony.
54 CHAPTER 7. 4G

In 2002, the strategic vision for 4G which ITU designated as IMT Advanced was laid out.
In 2004, LTE was rst proposed by NTT DoCoMo of Japan.[29]
In 2005, OFDMA transmission technology is chosen as candidate for the HSOPA downlink, later renamed
3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) air interface E-UTRA.
In November 2005, KT demonstrated mobile WiMAX service in Busan, South Korea.[30]
In April 2006, KT started the worlds rst commercial mobile WiMAX service in Seoul, South Korea.[31]
In mid-2006, Sprint announced that it would invest about US$5 billion in a WiMAX technology buildout over
the next few years[32] ($5.94 billion in real terms[33] ). Since that time Sprint has faced many setbacks that have
resulted in steep quarterly losses. On 7 May 2008, Sprint, Imagine, Google, Intel, Comcast, Bright House, and
Time Warner announced a pooling of an average of 120 MHz of spectrum; Sprint merged its Xohm WiMAX
division with Clearwire to form a company which will take the name Clear.
In February 2007, the Japanese company NTT DoCoMo tested a 4G communication system prototype with
44 MIMO called VSF-OFCDM at 100 Mbit/s while moving, and 1 Gbit/s while stationary. NTT DoCoMo
completed a trial in which they reached a maximum packet transmission rate of approximately 5 Gbit/s in
the downlink with 1212 MIMO using a 100 MHz frequency bandwidth while moving at 10 km/h,[34] and is
planning on releasing the rst commercial network in 2010.
In September 2007, NTT Docomo demonstrated e-UTRA data rates of 200 Mbit/s with power consumption
below 100 mW during the test.[35]
In January 2008, a U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) spectrum auction for the 700 MHz
former analog TV frequencies began. As a result, the biggest share of the spectrum went to Verizon Wireless
and the next biggest to AT&T.[36] Both of these companies have stated their intention of supporting LTE.
In January 2008, EU commissioner Viviane Reding suggested re-allocation of 500800 MHz spectrum for
wireless communication, including WiMAX.[37]
On 15 February 2008, Skyworks Solutions released a front-end module for e-UTRAN.[38][39][40]
In November 2008, ITU-R established the detailed performance requirements of IMT-Advanced, by issuing a
Circular Letter calling for candidate Radio Access Technologies (RATs) for IMT-Advanced.[41]
In April 2008, just after receiving the circular letter, the 3GPP organized a workshop on IMT-Advanced
where it was decided that LTE Advanced, an evolution of current LTE standard, will meet or even exceed
IMT-Advanced requirements following the ITU-R agenda.
In April 2008, LG and Nortel demonstrated e-UTRA data rates of 50 Mbit/s while travelling at 110 km/h.[42]
On 12 November 2008, HTC announced the rst WiMAX-enabled mobile phone, the Max 4G[43]
On 15 December 2008, San Miguel Corporation, the largest food and beverage conglomerate in southeast Asia,
has signed a memorandum of understanding with Qatar Telecom QSC (Qtel) to build wireless broadband and
mobile communications projects in the Philippines. The joint-venture formed wi-tribe Philippines, which
oers 4G in the country.[44] Around the same time Globe Telecom rolled out the rst WiMAX service in the
Philippines.
On 3 March 2009, Lithuanias LRTC announcing the rst operational 4G mobile WiMAX network in Baltic
states.[45]
In December 2009, Sprint began advertising 4G service in selected cities in the United States, despite average
download speeds of only 36 Mbit/s with peak speeds of 10 Mbit/s (not available in all markets).[46]
On 14 December 2009, the rst commercial LTE deployment was in the Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and
Oslo by the Swedish-Finnish network operator TeliaSonera and its Norwegian brandname NetCom (Norway).
TeliaSonera branded the network 4G. The modem devices on oer were manufactured by Samsung (dongle
GT-B3710), and the network infrastructure created by Huawei (in Oslo) and Ericsson (in Stockholm). Telia-
Sonera plans to roll out nationwide LTE across Sweden, Norway and Finland.[47][48] TeliaSonera used spectral
bandwidth of 10 MHz, and single-in-single-out, which should provide physical layer net bitrates of up to 50
Mbit/s downlink and 25 Mbit/s in the uplink. Introductory tests showed a TCP throughput of 42.8 Mbit/s
downlink and 5.3 Mbit/s uplink in Stockholm.[49]
7.7. BEYOND 4G RESEARCH 55

On 4 June 2010, Sprint released the rst WiMAX smartphone in the US, the HTC Evo 4G.[50]
On November 4, 2010, the Samsung Craft oered by MetroPCS is the rst commercially available LTE
smartphone[51]
On 6 December 2010, at the ITU World Radiocommunication Seminar 2010, the ITU stated that LTE, WiMax
and similar evolved 3G technologies could be considered 4G.[2]
In 2011, Argentina's Claro launched a pre-4G HSPA+ network in the country.
In 2011, Thailand's Truemove-H launched a pre-4G HSPA+ network with nationwide availability.
On March 17, 2011, the HTC Thunderbolt oered by Verizon in the U.S. was the second LTE smartphone to
be sold commercially.[52][53]
In February 2012, Ericsson demonstrated mobile-TV over LTE, utilizing the new eMBMS service (enhanced
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service).[54]

Since 2009 the LTE-Standard has strongly evolved over the years, resulting in many deployments by various operators
across the globe. For an overview of commercial LTE networks and their respective historic development see: List of
LTE networks. Among the vast range of deployments many operators are considering the deployment and operation
of LTE networks. A compilation of planned LTE deployments can be found at: List of planned LTE networks.

7.7 Beyond 4G research


Main article: 5G

A major issue in 4G systems is to make the high bit rates available in a larger portion of the cell, especially to users in
an exposed position in between several base stations. In current research, this issue is addressed by macro-diversity
techniques, also known as group cooperative relay, and also by Beam-Division Multiple Access (BDMA).[55]
Pervasive networks are an amorphous and at present entirely hypothetical concept where the user can be simultane-
ously connected to several wireless access technologies and can seamlessly move between them (See vertical hando,
IEEE 802.21). These access technologies can be Wi-Fi, UMTS, EDGE, or any other future access technology. In-
cluded in this concept is also smart-radio (also known as cognitive radio) technology to eciently manage spectrum
use and transmission power as well as the use of mesh routing protocols to create a pervasive network.

7.8 See also


4G-LTE lter
Comparison of mobile phone standards
Comparison of wireless data standards

7.9 References
[1] ITU-R, Report M.2134, Requirements related to technical performance for IMT-Advanced radio interface(s), Approved
in November 2008

[2] ITU World Radiocommunication Seminar highlights future communication technologies. International Telecommunica-
tion Union.

[3] 62 commercial networks support DC-HSPA+, drives HSPA investments LteWorld February 7, 2012

[4] Vilches, J. (April 29, 2010). Everything You Need To Know About 4G Wireless Technology. TechSpot. Retrieved
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[5] 2009-12: The way of LTE towards 4G. Nomor Research. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
56 CHAPTER 7. 4G

[6] 3GPP specication: Requirements for further advancements for E-UTRA (LTE Advanced)". 3GPP. Retrieved August
21, 2013.

[7] 3GPP Technical Report: Feasibility study for Further Advancements for E-UTRA (LTE Advanced)". 3GPP. Retrieved
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[8] ITU paves way for next-generation 4G mobile technologies (press release). ITU. 21 October 2010

[9] Parkvall, Stefan; Dahlman, Erik; Furuskr, Anders; Jading, Ylva; Olsson, Magnus; Wnstedt, Stefan; Zangi, Kambiz (21
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[10] Parkvall, Stefan; Astely, David (April 2009). The evolution of LTE toward LTE Advanced. Journal of Communications.
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[11] The Draft IEEE 802.16m System Description Document (PDF). ieee802.org. April 4, 2008.

[12] Light Reading Mobile 4G/LTE Ericsson, Samsung Make LTE Connection Telecom News Analysis. Un-
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[13] MetroPCS Launches First 4G LTE Services in the United States and Unveils Worlds First Commercially Available 4G
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[14] Jason Hiner (12 January 2011). How AT&T and T-Mobile conjured 4G networks out of thin air. TechRepublic. Retrieved
April 5, 2011.

[15] Brian Bennet (5 April 2012). Meet U.S. Cellulars rst 4G LTE phone: Samsung Galaxy S Aviator. CNet. Retrieved
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[16] Sprint 4G LTE Launching in 5 Cities July 15. PC Magazine. 27 June 2012. Retrieved November 3, 2012.

[17] We have you covered like nobody else. T-Mobile USA. 6 April 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2013.

[18] SK Telecom and LG U+ launch LTE in Seoul, fellow South Koreans seethe with envy. 5 July 2011. Retrieved July 13,
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[19] EE launches Superfast 4G and Fibre for UK consumers and businesses today. EE. October 30, 2012. Retrieved August
29, 2013.

[20] Miller, Joe (August 29, 2013). Vodafone and O2 begin limited roll-out of 4G networks. BBC News. Retrieved August
29, 2013.

[21] Shukla, Anuradha (October 10, 2011). Super-Fast 4G Wireless Service Launching in South Korea. Asia-Pacic Business
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[22] Sprint announces seven new WiMAX markets, says 'Let AT&T and Verizon yak about maps and 3G coverage'". Engadget.
March 23, 2010. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010.

[23] UPDATE 1-Russias Yota drops WiMax in favour of LTE. May 21, 2010 via Reuters.

[24] Qualcomm halts UMB project, Reuters, November 13th, 2008

[25] G. Fettweis; E. Zimmermann; H. Bonneville; W. Schott; K. Gosse; M. de Courville (2004). High Throughput WLAN/WPAN
(PDF). WWRF. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-16.

[26] 4G standards that lack cooperative relaying.

[27] Morr, Derek (June 9, 2009). Verizon mandates IPv6 support for next-gen cell phones. Retrieved June 10, 2009.

[28] Zheng, P; Peterson, L; Davie, B; Farrel, A (2009). Wireless Networking Complete. Morgan Kaufmann

[29] Alabaster, Jay (20 August 2012). Japans NTT DoCoMo signs up 1 million LTE users in a month, hits 5 million total.
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[30] KT Launches Commercial WiBro Services in Korea. WiMAX Forum. November 15, 2005. Archived from the original
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[31] KTs Experience In Development Projects. March 2011.

[32] 4G Mobile Broadband. Sprint. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
7.10. EXTERNAL LINKS 57

[33] Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800". Fed-
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[34] DoCoMo Achieves 5 Gbit/s Data Speed. NTT DoCoMo Press. February 9, 2007.
[35] Reynolds, Melanie (September 14, 2007). NTT DoCoMo develops low power chip for 3G LTE handsets. Electronics
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[36] Auctions Schedule. FCC. Archived from the original on January 24, 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
[37] European Commission proposes TV spectrum for WiMax. zdnetasia.com. Archived from the original on December 14,
2007. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
[38] Skyworks Rolls Out Front-End Module for 3.9G Wireless Applications. (Skyworks Solutions Inc.)" (free registration
required). Wireless News. February 14, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
[39] Wireless News Briefs February 15, 2008. WirelessWeek. February 15, 2008. Archived from the original on August
19, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
[40] Skyworks Introduces Industrys First Front-End Module for 3.9G Wireless Applications. Skyworks press release. 11
February 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
[41] ITU-R Report M.2134, Requirements related to technical performance for IMT-Advanced radio interface(s), November
2008.
[42] Nortel and LG Electronics Demo LTE at CTIA and with High Vehicle Speeds :: Wireless-Watch Community. Archived
from the original on 2008-06-06.
[43] Scartel and HTC Launch Worlds First Integrated GSM/WiMAX Handset (Press release). HTC Corporation. 12 Novem-
ber 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-11-22. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
[44] San Miguel and Qatar Telecom Sign MOU. Archived from the original on February 18, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-18.
San Miguel Corporation, December 15, 2008
[45] LRTC to Launch Lithuanias First Mobile WiMAX 4G Internet Service (Press release). WiMAX Forum. 3 March 2009.
Archived from the original on 2010-06-12. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
[46] 4G Coverage and Speeds. Sprint. Archived from the original on April 5, 2010. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
[47] Teliasonera First To Oer 4G Mobile Services. The Wall Street Journal. December 14, 2009. Archived from the original
on 2010-01-14.
[48] NetCom.no NetCom 4G (in English)
[49] TeliaSoneras 4G Speed Test looking good. Daily Mobile. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
[50] Anand Lal Shimpi (June 28, 2010). The Sprint HTC EVO 4G Review. AnandTech. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
[51] .
[52] Verizon launches its rst LTE handset. Telegeography.com. March 16, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
[53] HTC ThunderBolt is ocially Verizons rst LTE handset, come March 17th. Phonearena.com. 2011. Retrieved July
31, 2012.
[54] demonstrates Broadcast Video/TV over LTE. Ericsson. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
[55] IT R&D program of MKE/IITA: 2008-F-004-01 5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple
access and relays with group cooperation.

7.10 External links


3GPP LTE Encyclopedia
Nomor Research: White Paper on LTE Advance the new 4G standard
Brian Woerner (June 2022, 2001). Research Directions for Fourth Generation Wireless (PDF). Proceedings
of the 10th International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises
(WET ICE 01). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. Archived from the original
(PDF) on January 6, 2006. (118kb)
Information on 4G mobile services in the UK Ofcom
58 CHAPTER 7. 4G

Telia-branded Samsung LTE modem


Chapter 8

LTE (telecommunication)

Long-term evolution redirects here. For the biological concept, see Evolution and E. coli long-term evolution ex-
periment.

In telecommunication, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile
phones and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies. It increases the capacity and
speed using a dierent radio interface together with core network improvements.[1][2] The standard is developed
by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) and is specied in its Release 8 document series, with minor
enhancements described in Release 9. LTE is the upgrade path for carriers with both GSM/UMTS networks and
CDMA2000 networks. The dierent LTE frequencies and bands used in dierent countries mean that only multi-
band phones are able to use LTE in all countries where it is supported.
LTE is commonly marketed as 4G LTE, but it does not meet the technical criteria of a 4G wireless service, as specied
in the 3GPP Release 8 and 9 document series, for LTE Advanced. The requirements were originally set forth by the
ITU-R organization in the IMT Advanced specication. However, due to marketing pressures and the signicant
advancements that WiMAX, Evolved High Speed Packet Access and LTE bring to the original 3G technologies, ITU
later decided that LTE together with the aforementioned technologies can be called 4G technologies.[3] The LTE
Advanced standard formally satises the ITU-R requirements to be considered IMT-Advanced.[4] To dierentiate
LTE Advanced and WiMAX-Advanced from current 4G technologies, ITU has dened them as True 4G.[5][6]

8.1 Overview

See also: LTE timeline and List of LTE networks


LTE stands for Long Term Evolution[7] and is a registered trademark owned by ETSI (European Telecommunica-
tions Standards Institute) for the wireless data communications technology and a development of the GSM/UMTS
standards. However, other nations and companies do play an active role in the LTE project. The goal of LTE was to
increase the capacity and speed of wireless data networks using new DSP (digital signal processing) techniques and
modulations that were developed around the turn of the millennium. A further goal was the redesign and simplica-
tion of the network architecture to an IP-based system with signicantly reduced transfer latency compared to the
3G architecture. The LTE wireless interface is incompatible with 2G and 3G networks, so that it must be operated
on a separate radio spectrum.
LTE was rst proposed by NTT DoCoMo of Japan in 2004, and studies on the new standard ocially commenced
in 2005.[8] In May 2007, the LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) alliance was founded as a global collaboration between
vendors and operators with the goal of verifying and promoting the new standard in order to ensure the global intro-
duction of the technology as quickly as possible.[9][10] The LTE standard was nalized in December 2008, and the
rst publicly available LTE service was launched by TeliaSonera in Oslo and Stockholm on December 14, 2009 as
a data connection with a USB modem. The LTE services were launched by major North American carriers as well,
with the Samsung SCH-r900 being the worlds rst LTE Mobile phone starting on September 21, 2010[11][12] and
Samsung Galaxy Indulge being the worlds rst LTE smartphone starting on February 10, 2011[13][14] both oered by
MetroPCS and HTC ThunderBolt oered by Verizon starting on March 17 being the second LTE smartphone to be
sold commercially.[15][16] In Canada, Rogers Wireless was the rst to launch LTE network on July 7, 2011 oering

59
60 CHAPTER 8. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)

the Sierra Wireless AirCard 313U USB mobile broadband modem, known as the LTE Rocket stick then followed
closely by mobile devices from both HTC and Samsung.[17] Initially, CDMA operators planned to upgrade to rival
standards called UMB and WiMAX, but all the major CDMA operators (such as Verizon, Sprint and MetroPCS in
the United States, Bell and Telus in Canada, au by KDDI in Japan, SK Telecom in South Korea and China Tele-
com/China Unicom in China) have announced that they intend to migrate to LTE after all. The evolution of LTE is
LTE Advanced, which was standardized in March 2011.[18] Services are expected to commence in 2013.[19] Addi-
tional evolution known as LTE Advanced Pro have been approved in year 2015.[20]
The LTE specication provides downlink peak rates of 300 Mbit/s, uplink peak rates of 75 Mbit/s and QoS provisions
permitting a transfer latency of less than 5 ms in the radio access network. LTE has the ability to manage fast-moving
mobiles and supports multi-cast and broadcast streams. LTE supports scalable carrier bandwidths, from 1.4 MHz to
20 MHz and supports both frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time-division duplexing (TDD). The IP-based
network architecture, called the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) designed to replace the GPRS Core Network, supports
seamless handovers for both voice and data to cell towers with older network technology such as GSM, UMTS
and CDMA2000.[21] The simpler architecture results in lower operating costs (for example, each E-UTRA cell will
support up to four times the data and voice capacity supported by HSPA[22] ).

8.2 History

8.2.1 3GPP standard development timeline


In 2004, NTT DoCoMo of Japan proposes LTE as the international standard.[23]

In September 2006, Siemens Networks (today Nokia Networks) showed in collaboration with Nomor Research
the rst live emulation of an LTE network to the media and investors. As live applications two users streaming
an HDTV video in the downlink and playing an interactive game in the uplink have been demonstrated.[24]

In February 2007, Ericsson demonstrated for the rst time in the world LTE with bit rates up to 144 Mbit/s[25]

In September 2007, NTT docomo demonstrated LTE data rates of 200 Mbit/s with power level below 100 mW
during the test.[26]

In November 2007, Inneon presented the worlds rst RF transceiver named SMARTi LTE supporting LTE
functionality in a single-chip RF silicon processed in CMOS [27][28]

In early 2008, LTE test equipment began shipping from several vendors and, at the Mobile World Congress
2008 in Barcelona, Ericsson demonstrated the worlds rst end-to-end mobile call enabled by LTE on a small
handheld device.[29] Motorola demonstrated an LTE RAN standard compliant eNodeB and LTE chipset at the
same event.

At the February 2008 Mobile World Congress:

Motorola demonstrated how LTE can accelerate the delivery of personal media experience with HD
video demo streaming, HD video blogging, Online gaming and VoIP over LTE running a RAN standard
compliant LTE network & LTE chipset.[30]
Ericsson EMP (now ST-Ericsson) demonstrated the worlds rst end-to-end LTE call on handheld[29]
Ericsson demonstrated LTE FDD and TDD mode on the same base station platform.
Freescale Semiconductor demonstrated streaming HD video with peak data rates of 96 Mbit/s downlink
and 86 Mbit/s uplink.[31]
NXP Semiconductors (now a part of ST-Ericsson) demonstrated a multi-mode LTE modem as the basis
for a software-dened radio system for use in cellphones.[32]
picoChip and Mimoon demonstrated a base station reference design. This runs on a common hardware
platform (multi-mode / software dened radio) with their WiMAX architecture.[33]

In April 2008, Motorola demonstrated the rst EV-DO to LTE hand-o handing over a streaming video
from LTE to a commercial EV-DO network and back to LTE.[34]

In April 2008, LG Electronics and Nortel demonstrated LTE data rates of 50 Mbit/s while travelling at 110
km/h.[35]
8.2. HISTORY 61

In November 2008, Motorola demonstrated industry rst over-the-air LTE session in 700 MHz spectrum.[36]
Researchers at Nokia Siemens Networks and Heinrich Hertz Institut have demonstrated LTE with 100 Mbit/s
Uplink transfer speeds.[37]
At the February 2009 Mobile World Congress:
Inneon demonstrated a single-chip 65 nm CMOS RF transceiver providing 2G/3G/LTE functionality[38]
Launch of ng Connect program, a multi-industry consortium founded by Alcatel-Lucent to identify and
develop wireless broadband applications.[39]
Motorola provided LTE drive tour on the streets of Barcelona to demonstrate LTE system performance
in a real-life metropolitan RF environment [40]
In July 2009, Nujira demonstrated eciencies of more than 60% for an 880 MHz LTE Power Amplier[41]
In August 2009, Nortel and LG Electronics demonstrated the rst successful hando between CDMA and LTE
networks in a standards-compliant manner [42]
In August 2009, Alcatel-Lucent receives FCC certication for LTE base stations for the 700 MHz spectrum
band.[43]
In September 2009, Nokia Siemens Networks demonstrated worlds rst LTE call on standards-compliant
commercial software.[44]
In October 2009, Ericsson and Samsung demonstrated interoperability between the rst ever commercial LTE
device and the live network in Stockholm, Sweden.[45]
In October 2009, Alcatel-Lucent's Bell Labs, Deutsche Telekom Innovation Laboratories, the Fraunhofer
Heinrich-Hertz Institut and antenna supplier Kathrein conducted live eld tests of a technology called Co-
ordinated Multipoint Transmission (CoMP) aimed at increasing the data transmission speeds of Long Term
Evolution (LTE) and 3G networks.[46]
In November 2009, Alcatel-Lucent completed rst live LTE call using 800 MHz spectrum band set aside as
part of the European Digital Dividend (EDD).[47]
In November 2009, Nokia Siemens Networks and LG completed rst end-to-end interoperability testing of
LTE.[48]
On December 14, 2009, the rst commercial LTE deployment was in the Scandinavian capitals Stockholm
and Oslo by the Swedish-Finnish network operator TeliaSonera and its Norwegian brandname NetCom (Nor-
way). TeliaSonera incorrectly branded the network 4G. The modem devices on oer were manufactured by
Samsung (dongle GT-B3710), and the network infrastructure with SingleRAN technology created by Huawei
(in Oslo)[49] and Ericsson (in Stockholm). TeliaSonera plans to roll out nationwide LTE across Sweden, Nor-
way and Finland.[50] TeliaSonera used spectral bandwidth of 10 MHz (out of the maximum 20 MHz), and
Single-Input and Single-Output transmission. The deployment should have provided a physical layer net bi-
trates of up to 50 Mbit/s downlink and 25 Mbit/s in the uplink. Introductory tests showed a TCP goodput of
42.8 Mbit/s downlink and 5.3 Mbit/s uplink in Stockholm.[51]
In December 2009, ST-Ericsson and Ericsson rst to achieve LTE and HSPA mobility with a multimode
device.[52]
In January 2010, Alcatel-Lucent and LG complete a live hando of an end-to-end data call between Long
Term Evolution (LTE) and CDMA networks.[53]
In February 2010, Nokia Siemens Networks and Movistar test the LTE in Mobile World Congress 2010 in
Barcelona, Spain, with both indoor and outdoor demonstrations.[54]
In May 2010, Mobile TeleSystems (MTS) and Huawei showed an indoor LTE network at Sviaz-Expocomm
2010 in Moscow, Russia.[55] MTS expects to start a trial LTE service in Moscow by the beginning of 2011.
Earlier, MTS has received a license to build an LTE network in Uzbekistan, and intends to commence a test
LTE network in Ukraine in partnership with Alcatel-Lucent.
At the Shanghai Expo 2010 in May 2010, Motorola demonstrated a live LTE in conjunction with China Mobile.
This included video streams and a drive test system using TD-LTE.[56]
62 CHAPTER 8. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)

As of 12/10/2010, DirecTV has teamed up with Verizon Wireless for a test of high-speed Long Term Evolution
(LTE) wireless technology in a few homes in Pennsylvania, designed to deliver an integrated Internet and TV
bundle. Verizon Wireless said it launched LTE wireless services (for data, no voice) in 38 markets where more
than 110 million Americans live on Sunday, Dec. 5.[57]

On May 6, 2011, Sri Lanka Telecom Mobitel demonstrated 4G LTE for the rst time in South Asia, achieving
a data rate of 96 Mbit/s in Sri Lanka.[58]

8.2.2 Carrier adoption timeline


Main article: List of LTE networks

Most carriers supporting GSM or HSUPA networks can be expected to upgrade their networks to LTE at some stage.
A complete list of commercial contracts can be found at:[59]

August 2009: Telefnica selected six countries to eld-test LTE in the succeeding months: Spain, the United
Kingdom, Germany and the Czech Republic in Europe, and Brazil and Argentina in Latin America.[60]

On November 24, 2009: Telecom Italia announced the rst outdoor pre-commercial experimentation in the
world, deployed in Torino and totally integrated into the 2G/3G network currently in service.[61]

On December 14, 2009, the worlds rst publicly available LTE service was opened by TeliaSonera in the two
Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and Oslo.

On May 28, 2010, Russian operator Scartel announced the launch of an LTE network in Kazan by the end of
the 2010.[62]

On October 6, 2010, Canadian provider Rogers Communications Inc announced that Ottawa, Canadas national
capital, will be the site of LTE trials. Rogers said it will expand on this testing and move to a comprehensive
technical trial of LTE on both low- and high-band frequencies across the Ottawa area.[63]

On May 6, 2011, Sri Lanka Telecom Mobitel successfully demonstrated 4G LTE for the rst time in South
Asia, achieving a data rate of 96 Mbit/s in Sri Lanka.[64]

On May 7, 2011, Sri Lankan Mobile Operator Dialog Axiata PLC switched on the rst pilot 4G LTE Network
in South Asia with vendor partner Huawei and demonstrated a download data speed up to 127 Mbit/s.[65]

On February 9, 2012, Telus Mobility launched their LTE service initial in metropolitan areas include Van-
couver, Calgary, Edmonton, Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area, Kitchener, Waterloo, Hamilton, Guelph,
Belleville, Ottawa, Montreal, Qubec City, Halifax and Yellowknife.[66]

Telus Mobility has announced that it will adopt LTE as its 4G wireless standard.[67]

Cox Communications has its rst tower for wireless LTE network build-out.[68] Wireless services launched in
late 2009.

The following is a list of top 10 countries/territories by 4G LTE coverage as measured by OpenSignal.com in Novem-
ber 2016.[69]
For the complete list of all the countries/territories, see list of countries by 4G LTE penetration.

8.3 LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD


Long-Term Evolution Time-Division Duplex (LTE-TDD), also referred to as TDD LTE, is a 4G telecommuni-
cations technology and standard co-developed by an international coalition of companies, including China Mobile,
Datang Telecom, Huawei, ZTE, Nokia Solutions and Networks, Qualcomm, Samsung, and ST-Ericsson. It is one of
the two mobile data transmission technologies of the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) technology standard, the other be-
ing Frequency-Division Long-Term Evolution (LTE-FDD). While some companies refer to LTE TDD as TD-LTE,
there is no reference to that acronym anywhere in the 3GPP specications.[70][71][72]
8.3. LTE-TDD AND LTE-FDD 63

There are two major dierences between LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD: how data is uploaded and downloaded, and
what frequency spectra the networks are deployed in. While LTE-FDD uses paired frequencies to upload and
download data,[73] LTE-TDD uses a single frequency, alternating between uploading and downloading data through
time.[74][75] The ratio between uploads and downloads on a LTE-TDD network can be changed dynamically, de-
pending on whether more data needs to be sent or received.[76] LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD also operate on dierent
frequency bands,[77] with LTE-TDD working better at higher frequencies, and LTE-FDD working better at lower
frequencies.[78] Frequencies used for LTE-TDD range from 1850 MHz to 3800 MHz, with several dierent bands
being used.[79] The LTE-TDD spectrum is generally cheaper to access, and has less trac.[77] Further, the bands for
LTE-TDD overlap with those used for WiMAX, which can easily be upgraded to support LTE-TDD.[77]
Despite the dierences in how the two types of LTE handle data transmission, LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD share 90 per-
cent of their core technology, making it possible for the same chipsets and networks to use both versions of LTE.[77][80]
A number of companies produce dual-mode chips or mobile devices, including Samsung and Qualcomm,[81][82] while
operators China Mobile Hong Kong Company Limited and Hi3G Access have developed dual-mode networks in
Hong Kong and Sweden, respectively.[83]

8.3.1 History of LTE-TDD

The creation of LTE-TDD involved a coalition of international companies that worked to develop and test the
technology.[84] China Mobile was an early proponent of LTE-TDD,[77][85] along with other companies like Datang
Telecom[84] and Huawei, which worked to deploy LTE-TDD networks, and later developed technology allowing
LTE-TDD equipment to operate in white spacesfrequency spectra between broadcast TV stations.[71][86] Intel also
participated in the development, setting up a LTE-TDD interoperability lab with Huawei in China,[87] as well as ST-
Ericsson,[77] Nokia,[77] and Nokia Siemens (now Nokia Solutions and Networks),[71] which developed LTE-TDD base
stations that increased capacity by 80 percent and coverage by 40 percent.[88] Qualcomm also participated, develop-
ing the worlds rst multi-mode chip, combining both LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD, along with HSPA and EV-DO.[82]
Accelleran, a Belgian company, has also worked to build small cells for LTE-TDD networks.[89]
Trials of LTE-TDD technology began as early as 2010, with Reliance Industries and Ericsson India conducting eld
tests of LTE-TDD in India, achieving 80 megabit-per second download speeds and 20 megabit-per-second upload
speeds.[90] By 2011, China Mobile began trials of the technology in six cities.[71]
Although initially seen as a technology utilized by only a few countries, including China and India,[91] by 2011 inter-
national interest in LTE-TDD had expanded, especially in Asia, in part due to LTE-TDD 's lower cost of deployment
compared to LTE-FDD.[71] By the middle of that year, 26 networks around the world were conducting trials of the
technology.[72] The Global LTE-TDD Initiative (GTI) was also started in 2011, with founding partners China Mobile,
Bharti Airtel, SoftBank Mobile, Vodafone, Clearwire, Aero2 and E-Plus.[92] In September 2011, Huawei announced
it would partner with Polish mobile provider Aero2 to develop a combined LTE TDD and FDD network in Poland,[93]
and by April 2012, ZTE Corporation had worked to deploy trial or commercial LTE-TDD networks for 33 operators
in 19 countries.[83] In late 2012, Qualcomm worked extensively to deploy a commercial LTE-TDD network in India,
and partnered with Bharti Airtel and Huawei to develop the rst multi-mode LTE-TDD smartphone for India.[82]
In Japan, SoftBank Mobile launched LTE-TDD services in February 2012 under the name Advanced eXtended
Global Platform (AXGP), and marketed as SoftBank 4G (ja). The AXGP band was previously used for Willcom's
PHS service, and after PHS was discontinued in 2010 the PHS band was re-purposed for AXGP service.[94][95]
In the U.S., Clearwire planned to implement LTE-TDD, with chip-maker Qualcomm agreeing to support Clearwires
frequencies on its multi-mode LTE chipsets.[96] With Sprints acquisition of Clearwire in 2013,[73][97] the carrier began
using these frequencies for LTE service on networks built by Samsung, Alcatel-Lucent, and Nokia.[98][99]
As of March 2013, 156 commercial 4G LTE networks existed, including 142 LTE-FDD networks and 14 LTE-
TDD networks.[84] As of November 2013, the South Korean government planned to allow a fourth wireless carrier
in 2014, which would provide LTE-TDD services,[75] and in December 2013, LTE-TDD licenses were granted to
Chinas three mobile operators, allowing commercial deployment of 4G LTE services.[100]
In January 2014, Nokia Solutions and Networks indicated that it had completed a series of tests of voice over LTE
(VoLTE) calls on China Mobiles TD-LTE network.[101] The next month, Nokia Solutions and Networks and Sprint
announced that they had demonstrated throughput speeds of 2.6 gigabits per second throughput using a LTE-TDD
network, surpassing the previous record of 1.6 gigabits per second.[102]
64 CHAPTER 8. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)

8.4 LTE Direct


A new LTE protocol named LTE Direct works as an innovative device-to-device technology enabling the discovery
of thousands of devices in the proximity of approximately 500 meters.[103] Pioneered by Qualcomm, the company
has been leading the standardization of this new technology along with other 3GPP participants. LTE Direct oers
several advantages over existing proximity solutions including but not limited to Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. One of the most
popular use cases for this technology was developed by a New York City based company called Compass. The core
feature of proximal discovery among devices included a targeted discount voucher to a nearby device which matched
specic interests.[104] The Compass use case was featured at global conferences and events such as CES 2015, MWC
2015, and said to be extended to many other scenarios including lm festivals, theme parks and sporting events.
You can think of LTE Direct as a sixth sense that is always aware of the environment around you, said Mahesh
Makhijani, technical marketing director at Qualcomm, at a session on the technology. Additionally, the protocol
oers less battery drainage and extended range when compared to other proximity solutions.

8.5 Features
See also: E-UTRA

Much of the LTE standard addresses the upgrading of 3G UMTS to what will eventually be 4G mobile communica-
tions technology. A large amount of the work is aimed at simplifying the architecture of the system, as it transitions
from the existing UMTS circuit + packet switching combined network, to an all-IP at architecture system. E-UTRA
is the air interface of LTE. Its main features are:

Peak download rates up to 299.6 Mbit/s and upload rates up to 75.4 Mbit/s depending on the user equipment
category (with 44 antennas using 20 MHz of spectrum). Five dierent terminal classes have been dened
from a voice centric class up to a high end terminal that supports the peak data rates. All terminals will be able
to process 20 MHz bandwidth.
Low data transfer latencies (sub-5 ms latency for small IP packets in optimal conditions), lower latencies for
handover and connection setup time than with previous radio access technologies.
Improved support for mobility, exemplied by support for terminals moving at up to 350 km/h (220 mph) or
500 km/h (310 mph) depending on the frequency band.[105]
Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access for the downlink, Single-carrier FDMA for the uplink to con-
serve power.
Support for both FDD and TDD communication systems as well as half-duplex FDD with the same radio
access technology.
Support for all frequency bands currently used by IMT systems by ITU-R.
Increased spectrum exibility: 1.4 MHz, 3 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz wide cells are
standardized. (W-CDMA has no option for other than 5 MHz slices, leading to some problems rolling-out in
countries where 5 MHz is a commonly allocated width of spectrum so would frequently already be in use with
legacy standards such as 2G GSM and cdmaOne.)
Support for cell sizes from tens of metres radius (femto and picocells) up to 100 km (62 miles) radius macrocells.
In the lower frequency bands to be used in rural areas, 5 km (3.1 miles) is the optimal cell size, 30 km (19
miles) having reasonable performance, and up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance. In
city and urban areas, higher frequency bands (such as 2.6 GHz in EU) are used to support high speed mobile
broadband. In this case, cell sizes may be 1 km (0.62 miles) or even less.
Supports at least 200 active data clients in every 5 MHz cell.[106]
Simplied architecture: The network side of E-UTRAN is composed only of eNode Bs.
Support for inter-operation and co-existence with legacy standards (e.g., GSM/EDGE, UMTS and CDMA2000).
Users can start a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and, should coverage be unavailable,
continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS or even
3GPP2 networks such as cdmaOne or CDMA2000.
8.6. VOICE CALLS 65

Packet switched radio interface.

Support for MBSFN (Multicast-broadcast single-frequency network). This feature can deliver services such
as Mobile TV using the LTE infrastructure, and is a competitor for DVB-H-based TV broadcast only LTE
compatible devices receives LTE signal.

8.6 Voice calls


The LTE standard supports only packet switching with its all-IP network. Voice calls in GSM, UMTS and CDMA2000
are circuit switched, so with the adoption of LTE, carriers will have to re-engineer their voice call network.[107] Three
dierent approaches sprang up:

Voice over LTE (VoLTE) Main article: Voice over LTE

Circuit-switched fallback (CSFB) In this approach, LTE just provides data services, and when a voice call is to be
initiated or received, it will fall back to the circuit-switched domain. When using this solution, operators just
need to upgrade the MSC instead of deploying the IMS, and therefore, can provide services quickly. However,
the disadvantage is longer call setup delay.

Simultaneous voice and LTE (SVLTE) In this approach, the handset works simultaneously in the LTE and circuit
switched modes, with the LTE mode providing data services and the circuit switched mode providing the voice
service. This is a solution solely based on the handset, which does not have special requirements on the network
and does not require the deployment of IMS either. The disadvantage of this solution is that the phone can
become expensive with high power consumption.

Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) Main article: SRVCC

One additional approach which is not initiated by operators is the usage of over-the-top content (OTT) services, using
applications like Skype and Google Talk to provide LTE voice service.[108]
Most major backers of LTE preferred and promoted VoLTE from the beginning. The lack of software support in
initial LTE devices as well as core network devices however led to a number of carriers promoting VoLGA (Voice
over LTE Generic Access) as an interim solution.[109] The idea was to use the same principles as GAN (Generic
Access Network, also known as UMA or Unlicensed Mobile Access), which denes the protocols through which a
mobile handset can perform voice calls over a customers private Internet connection, usually over wireless LAN.
VoLGA however never gained much support, because VoLTE (IMS) promises much more exible services, albeit at
the cost of having to upgrade the entire voice call infrastructure. VoLTE will also require Single Radio Voice Call
Continuity (SRVCC) in order to be able to smoothly perform a handover to a 3G network in case of poor LTE signal
quality.[110]
While the industry has seemingly standardized on VoLTE for the future, the demand for voice calls today has led
LTE carriers to introduce CSFB as a stopgap measure. When placing or receiving a voice call, LTE handsets will fall
back to old 2G or 3G networks for the duration of the call.

8.6.1 Enhanced voice quality


To ensure compatibility, 3GPP demands at least AMR-NB codec (narrow band), but the recommended speech codec
for VoLTE is Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband, also known as HD Voice. This codec is mandated in 3GPP networks
that support 16 kHz sampling.[111]
Fraunhofer IIS has proposed and demonstrated Full-HD Voice, an implementation of the AAC-ELD (Advanced
Audio Coding Enhanced Low Delay) codec for LTE handsets.[112] Where previous cell phone voice codecs only
supported frequencies up to 3.5 kHz and upcoming wideband audio services branded as HD Voice up to 7 kHz, Full-
HD Voice supports the entire bandwidth range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. For end-to-end Full-HD Voice calls to succeed
however, both the caller and recipients handsets as well as networks have to support the feature.[113]
66 CHAPTER 8. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)

8.7 Frequency bands


See also: LTE frequency bands

The LTE standard covers a range of many dierent bands, each of which is designated by both a frequency and a
band number. In North America, 700, 750, 800, 850, 1900, 1700/2100 (AWS), 2300 (WCS) 2500 and 2600 MHz
(Rogers Communications, Bell Canada) are used (bands 2, 4, 5, 7, 12, 13, 17, 25, 26, 30, 41); 2500 MHz in South
America; 700, 800, 900, 1800, 2600 MHz in Europe (bands 3, 7, 20);[114][115] 800, 1800 and 2600 MHz in Asia
(bands 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 40)[116][117] and 1800 MHz and 2300 MHz in Australia[118][119] and New Zealand (bands
3, 40).[120] As a result, phones from one country may not work in other countries. Users will need a multi-band
capable phone for roaming internationally.

8.8 Patents
According to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute's (ETSI) intellectual property rights (IPR) database,
about 50 companies have declared, as of March 2012, holding essential patents covering the LTE standard.[121] The
ETSI has made no investigation on the correctness of the declarations however,[121] so that any analysis of essential
LTE patents should take into account more than ETSI declarations.[122] Independent studies have found that about
3.3 to 5 percent of all revenues from handset manufacturers are spent on standard-essential patents. This is less than
the combined published rates, due to reduced-rate licensing agreements, such as cross-licensing.[123][124][125]

8.9 See also


List of devices with LTE

4G-LTE lter

Comparison of wireless data standards

E-UTRA the radio access network used in LTE

Simulation of LTE Networks

Flat IP at IP architectures in mobile networks

HSPA+ an enhancement of the 3GPP HSPA standard

LTE-A

LTE-U

QoS Class Identier (QCI) - the mechanism used in LTE networks to allocate proper Quality of Service to
bearer trac

System architecture evolution the re-architecturing of core networks in LTE

WiMAX a competitor to LTE

NarrowBand IoT (NB-IoT)

8.10 References
[1] An Introduction to LTE. 3GPP LTE Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 3, 2010.

[2] Long Term Evolution (LTE): A Technical Overview (PDF). Motorola. Retrieved July 3, 2010.

[3] Newsroom Press Release. Itu.int. Retrieved 2012-10-28.


8.10. REFERENCES 67

[4] ITU-R Confers IMT-Advanced (4G) Status to 3GPP LTE (Press release). 3GPP. 20 October 2010. Retrieved 18 May
2012.

[5] pressinfo (2009-10-21). Press Release: IMT-Advanced (4G) Mobile wireless broadband on the anvil. Itu.int. Retrieved
2012-10-28.

[6] Newsroom Press Release. Itu.int. Retrieved 2012-10-28.

[7] ETSI Long Term Evolution page

[8] Work Plan 3GPP (Release 8)". 16 January 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.

[9] LSTI job complete. Retrieved 1 March 2012.

[10] LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) Delivers Initial Results. 7 November 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2012.

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68 CHAPTER 8. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)

[37] Researchers demo 100 Mbit/s MIMO with SDMA / virtual MIMO technology

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[57] DirecTV Tests LTE With Verizon Wireless.

[58] Sri Lanka Telecom Mobitel Rings In 20 Successful Years.

[59] LTE Commercial Contracts. Retrieved December 10, 2010.

[60] Telefnica drives fourth generation mobile technology by commissioning six advanced pilot trials (PDF). Retrieved Oc-
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[64] Mobitel - PressReleases1

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[67] reportonbusiness.com: Wireless sales propel Telus results

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70 CHAPTER 8. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)

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8.11. FURTHER READING 71

[124] Mallinson, Keith (August 19, 2015). On Cumulative mobile-SEP royalties (PDF). WiseHarbor. Retrieved January 23,
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[125] Sidak, Gregory (2016). What Aggregate Royalty Do Manufacturers of Mobile Phones Pay to License Standard-Essential
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8.11 Further reading

Gautam Siwach, Dr. Amir Esmailpour LTE Security Potential Vulnerability and Algorithm Enhancements,
IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, IEEE CCECE, Toronto, Canada, May
2014

Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Skld 4G LTE/LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband, Academic
Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-12-385489-6

Stefania Sesia, Issam Touk, and Matthew Baker, LTE The UMTS Long Term Evolution From Theory
to Practice, Second Edition including Release 10 for LTE-Advanced, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, ISBN 978-
0-470-66025-6

Chris Johnson, "LTE in BULLETS", CreateSpace, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4528-3464-1

Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Skld, Per Beming, 3G Evolution HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broad-
band, 2nd edition, Academic Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-12-374538-5

Borko Furht, Syed A. Ahson, Long Term Evolution: 3GPP LTE Radio And Cellular Technology, Crc Press,
2009, ISBN 978-1-4200-7210-5

F. Khan, LTE for 4G Mobile Broadband Air Interface Technologies and Performance, Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, 2009

Mustafa Ergen, Mobile Broadband Including WiMAX and LTE, Springer, NY, 2009

H. Ekstrm, A. Furuskr, J. Karlsson, M. Meyer, S. Parkvall, J. Torsner, and M. Wahlqvist, Technical Solu-
tions for the 3G Long-Term Evolution, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, March 2006, pp. 3845

E. Dahlman, H. Ekstrm, A. Furuskr, Y. Jading, J. Karlsson, M. Lundevall, and S. Parkvall, The 3G Long-
Term Evolution Radio Interface Concepts and Performance Evaluation, IEEE Vehicular Technology Con-
ference (VTC) 2006 Spring, Melbourne, Australia, May 2006

K. Fazel and S. Kaiser, Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum Systems: From OFDM and MC-CDMA to LTE and
WiMAX, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2008, ISBN 978-0-470-99821-2

Agilent Technologies, "LTE and the Evolution to 4G Wireless: Design and Measurement Challenges", John
Wiley & Sons, 2009 ISBN 978-0-470-68261-6

Sajal K. Das, John Wiley & Sons (April 2010): Mobile Handset Design, ISBN 978-0-470-82467-2 .

Beaver, Paul, "What is TD-LTE?", RF&Microwave Designline, September 2011.

Dan Forsberg, Gnther Horn, Wolf-Dietrich Moeller, Valtteri Niemi, LTE Security, Second Edition, John
Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester 2013, ISBN 978-1-118-35558-9

SeungJune Yi, SungDuck Chun, YoungDae lee, SungJun Park, SungHoon Jung, Radio Protocols for LTE
and LTE-Advanced, Wiley, 2012, ISBN 978-1-118-18853-8

Guowang Miao, Jens Zander, Ki Won Sung, and Ben Slimane, Fundamentals of Mobile Data Networks,
Cambridge University Press, 2016, ISBN 1107143217
72 CHAPTER 8. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)

8.12 External links


LTE homepage from the 3GPP website

LTE Frequently Asked Questions


LTE Deployment Map

A Simple Introduction to the LTE Downlink

LTE-3GPP.info: online LTE messages decoder fully supporting Rel.14

8.12.1 White papers and other technical information


LTE technology introduction
Long-Term 3G Evolution Radio Access by Dr. Stefan Parkvall at Ericsson Research

3GPP Long-Term Evolution / System Architecture Evolution: Overview by Ulrich Barth at Alcatel

LTE and the Evolution to 4G Wireless Design and Measurement Challenges LTE Security
Role of Crypto in Mobile Communications LTE Security

Dr. Maode Ma "Security Investigation in 4G LTE Wireless Networks", 2012. [dead]


LTE Uplink Interference Modeling
8.12. EXTERNAL LINKS 73

Telia-branded Samsung LTE modem


74 CHAPTER 8. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)

HTC ThunderBolt, the second commercially available LTE smartphone


8.12. EXTERNAL LINKS 75

cs domLTE CSFB to GSM/UMTS network interconnects


76 CHAPTER 8. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)

8.13 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


8.13.1 Text
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Bryan Derksen, The Anome, Youssefsan, Aldie, Nate Silva, Ben-Zin~enwiki, Mswake, Nealmcb, Patrick, Michael Hardy, Pnm, Zan-
imum, Seav, Oyd11, CesarB, Egil, Ams80, Mac, Ronz, Jpatokal, Yaronf, Julesd, Tristanb, Rl, Rob Hooft, Marknew, Schneelocke,
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Earthsound, Rohan Jayasekera, Cluth, Rogper~enwiki, Robbot, Lambda, Owain, Ray Radlein, RedWolf, TimothyPilgrim, Clarkk, Baloo
rch, Hadal, Mushroom, DocWatson42, Marius~enwiki, Anand999, Zigger, Average Earthman, Bkonrad, Joconnor, Varlaam, Greg Mc-
Farlane, Bsoft, Iceberg3k, Matt Crypto, Uzume, Bobblewik, Edcolins, Mobius, Goofrider, Arman~enwiki, Neilc, Vadmium, Chow-
bok, 159753, Pgan002, Mfv2, Beland, OverlordQ, Mamizou, Ilkka H., Heman, Mozzerati, Sam Hocevar, JasonBurbank, Tooki, Shady-
palm88, Drjt87, Mike Rosoft, Imroy, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, Guanabot, Hydrox, FT2, Andros 1337, Jonnny, Andrewferrier,
R6144, ArnoldReinhold, EliasAlucard, Michael Zimmermann, Jackqu7, Bender235, Dewet, Andrejj, Gauge, Nthnl, Ht1848, Kiand,
PhilHibbs, Shanes, Cacophony, James.pole, Mike Schwartz, Shnout, Kevinh456, Kjkolb, Ghoseb, Davidgothberg, Olivier Mengu,
Towel401, Sandeep warikoo, Anthony Appleyard, ChrisUK, Walter Grlitz, Arthena, Jeltz, Riana, Velella, BBird, Rebroad, ProhibitO-
nions, Paul1337, Suruena, Grenavitar, IMeowbot, Alanhwiki, Versageek, Gene Nygaard, Mjlodge, Nightstallion, Mindmatrix, RHaworth,
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Rjwilmsi, , Josho206, Commander, Moosh88, Leeyc0, Collard, SMC, Vegaswikian, Ltang, A Man In Black, N0YKG,
Ian Pitchford, Ian Georey Kennedy, Crazycomputers, AJR, Intgr, Fresheneesz, Lmatt, Tedder, David H Braun (1964), Idaltu, Chobot,
Baxrob, DVdm, Bgwhite, YurikBot, RobotE, Hairy Dude, MMuzammils, Hede2000, Jengelh, Hydrargyrum, Manop, Barefootguru, Cam-
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Rbrady, Adrian.baker, Matticus78, PhilipO, Vento~enwiki, Tony1, Aaron Schulz, Bota47, Tonywalton, Raysacks, Sandstein, Zzuuzz, Lt-
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Nippoo, Hide&Reason, Tyler Oderkirk, Evdo, Jebarnett513, SmackBot, Estoy Aqu, Hydrogen Iodide, Ccalvin, C.Fred, Nil Einne, Un-
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Jnavas, Charles Moss, Pretzels, Audriusa, Gsp8181, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Sahmeditor, JonHarder, UU, Khukri, Gmj, Beat-
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MBlaze Lightning, Deboarpi, Narayan.tiwari2006, InternetArchiveBot, WalidYassine, GreenC bot, Shickorbob, Gulumeemee, Sonyasi-
fuentes12, Bender the Bot, PackMecEng, Auyongh and Anonymous: 885
3GPP Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3GPP?oldid=791488389 Contributors: The Anome, Ahoerstemeier, Jpatokal, Pigsonthew-
ing, Josep1c, Bkonrad, Matt Crypto, Pgan002, Bumm13, Smyth, Zygmunt lozinski, ChrisUK, Stephan Leeds, Mindmatrix, Armando,
Xaliqen, Isnow, Phoenix-forgotten, Rjwilmsi, Salix alba, Vegaswikian, Alejo2083, FlaBot, Lmatt, Tyagi, Siddhant, YurikBot, Splash,
Voidxor, BOT-Superzerocool, Zzuuzz, Closedmouth, Arthur Rubin, Bluezy, Nic Doye, SmackBot, Melchoir, Jerome Charles Potts,
Jennica, Fontles, Ohconfucius, Arkrishna, David e cooper, Idyls, KyraVixen, Cydebot, Gogo Dodo, PKT, Thijs!bot, Davidmathiraj,
Dawnseeker2000, DJ Rubbie, Jale86, Altamel, Drizzd~enwiki, Magioladitis, VoABot II, XMog, Conquerist, STBot, CommonsDelinker,
Squiggleslash, Mange01, Mojodaddy, Darin-0, Carre, McSly, Chancheelam, Jhendry24, Mlewis000, Lears Fool, Charmi99, Jmoz2989,
Stevellco, Dafocus, Anchor Link Bot, GoodwinC, Fyyer, Iandiver, Muhandes, Stdjmax, DumZiBoT, 3gppman, XLinkBot, King Willan
Bot~enwiki, Kbdankbot, Addbot, Download, C933103, Luckas-bot, Yobot, AnomieBOT, GrouchoBot, ZZ9, Karghazini, Wo.luren,
8.13. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 77

Takayoshi3, W163, Chris81w, ChuispastonBot, MelbourneStar, Daveduv, Frmin, BG19bot, Mirsm, ChrisGualtieri, Describeit, Babitaarora,
Suketu.h, Dwashingtonc, Wellcreek, Snipergang, Oluwa2Chainz and Anonymous: 103
3G Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3G?oldid=795037359 Contributors: Mswake, Earth, Ixfd64, Arpingstone, Minesweeper, Tre-
goweth, Ahoerstemeier, Mac, Jpatokal, Darkwind, Julesd, Glenn, Andres, Jiang, Stephenw32768, Fuzheado, Radiojon, IceKarma, Tp-
bradbury, Ryuch, Morwen, Mowgli~enwiki, Wernher, Secretlondon, Jeq, Cfaerber, ZimZalaBim, Nurg, T0ky0, SchmuckyTheCat,
Baloo rch, Hadal, HaeB, Bbx, Enochlau, DocWatson42, Mat-C, Fudoreaper, BenFrantzDale, Zigger, Zora, Bsoft, FrYGuY, Ferdinand
Pienaar, Solipsist, Grant65, Bobblewik, Edcolins, Golbez, Mackeriv, Utcursch, Pgan002, Toytoy, Jortheo, Joal ban Kluane, LiDaob-
ing, Beland, Heman, Togo~enwiki, Vbs, Jokestress, Cihan, Ary29, Jcw69, Chrisbolt, Freakofnurture, Bri, Rich Farmbrough, Andros
1337, EliasAlucard, Horkana, Darren Olivier, Bender235, ESkog, Kbh3rd, Jarsyl, Violetriga, Cacophony, Triona, James.pole, Sole Soul,
Smalljim, Shenme, Viriditas, Camitommy, Courtarro, Giraedata, Cncxbox, Towel401, Loti, Bijee~enwiki, HasharBot~enwiki, Jigen III,
Danski14, Ricky81682, Ashley Pomeroy, Yamla, RoySmith, Pantosys, Yuckfoo, Stephan Leeds, Evil Monkey, Simone, RainbowOfLight,
Sciurin, Mikeo, Dan100, Feezo, Thryduulf, Boothy443, Mindmatrix, LOL, Morton.lin, Robert K S, Adpenaranda~enwiki, Gerbon689,
Prashanthns, Marudubshinki, RuM, Squallwc, BD2412, Phoenix-forgotten, Krymson, Rjwilmsi, JVz, TexasDawg, Vegaswikian, N0YKG,
Tommy Kronkvist, Silvestre Zabala, Emarsee, Wikiliki, Mathiastck, Vec, Webshared, Synchrite, WouterBot, Tillmo, Chobot, Cd-
man882, DVdm, 121a0012, WriterHound, Wjfox2005, Wikizen, Siddhant, Mercury McKinnon, Wavelength, Jim.Liu, Sceptre, Hairy
Dude, MMuzammils, Petiatil, J. M., Stephenb, Debroglie, CambridgeBayWeather, Rsrikanth05, Kimchi.sg, Probell, Ugur Basak, Rat144,
NawlinWiki, Grafen, Arastcp, Panscient, Andreaskem, Mysid, Gadget850, DeadEyeArrow, DuDudeX1, Zzuuzz, Vanished user 34958,
Closedmouth, KGasso, Tobixen, Heartnseoul, Digfarenough, Nelson50, Curpsbot-unicodify, Ben kenobi 00, Allens, Bluezy, SpLoT, A bit
iy, Evdo, SmackBot, GregA, Bobet, KnowledgeOfSelf, Grye, Jagged 85, Midway, Jab843, Gilliam, Brianski, Ohnoitsjamie, Chaojoker,
Bluebot, Joes8888, Cattus, Oli Filth, Mfactor, Darth Panda, Noliver, Pretzels, Danielcohn, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Nixeagle, Jon-
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Dicklyon, Jimurphy, Mets501, IReceivedDeathThreats, KirrVlad, Zorxd, Oldiesmann, Andreworkney, Hu12, Slammer111, Newone,
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Harryzilber, Davewho2, Drizzd~enwiki, Freddy011, TrumpetPlayer, Lucy1981, ZIP1972, H3llbringer, Doublex120, Hurmata, Bongwar-
rior, VoABot II, Jack99999, Cuppa, Joe18, AlephGamma, SandStone, Animum, Shocking Blue, Jatra, SANJAYBAFNA, Kdriver, Mc-
far54, Allkindsofthings, DerHexer, Tracer9999, Gja822, Conquerist, MartinBot, STBot, Paracel63, Knowledge lover1123, Fleetame,
Verdatum, Nono64, AgarwalSumeet, Lilac Soul, Worldedixor, Ceros, J.delanoy, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Mange01, Mojodaddy, Je-
sant13, Ginsengbomb, 1tephania, FrummerThanThou, Strandist, P.wormer, Adamdiament, Chancheelam, Crakkpot, Sanmele, Jeepday,
Georgeonoh, Gurchzilla, Chriswiki, SJP, Hanacy, TottyBot, Bonadea, Laager, Pdcook, JavierMC, Shaktiyadav, Idioma-bot, Funandtrvl,
Christopher Mann McKay, Sexyman48, Meiskam, VolkovBot, ABF, Je G., AlnoktaBOT, Saddy Dumpington, TXiKiBoT, Oshwah, Pa-
hari Sahib, Vipinhari, Rei-bot, Prateekchanda, Leafyplant, Broadbot, LeaveSleaves, Raymondwinn, Whereisjim, BotKung, Billinghurst,
Graymornings, Falcon8765, Pmicel, 1-555-conde, GoLLoMboje, Insanity Incarnate, Le Fou, Kalanziut, Timewatcher, FlyingLeop-
ard2014, EmxBot, Fanatix, Jamessungjin.kim, SieBot, ChigoZ, Nubiatech, Yintan, Audrius u, Bentogoa, Behind The Wall Of Sleep,
Nirala nagar, Lightmouse, Jonpaulusa, Tomi T Ahonen, OKBot, Telecomwave, Mr. Stradivarius, Allanrod, Digisus, Denisarona, Wdwd,
Elassint, ClueBot, LAX, Ethridgela, Snigbrook, The Thing That Should Not Be, Matdrodes, Supertouch, Kamath.nakul, Drmies, DanielD-
eibler, Blanchardb, Edknol, Kurumban, TellWeb, Excirial, Naerii, M4gnum0n, Wikitumnus, Abrech, Radiosband, Muhandes, Hadiyana,
DonBronson, Shiro jdn, Erunestian, Peter.C, At.thehotcorner, Thingg, Aitias, Bagunceiro, Certes, Versus22, LeviathinXII, SoxBot III,
Goodvac, InternetMeme, Avoided, Skarebo, WikHead, Alexius08, Noctibus, ZooFari, Pbamma, Pvasudev, Gggh, Addbot, Piz d'Es-Cha,
Mortense, Breakeydown, Yoenit, Igiveinfo, Non-dropframe, Morriswa, Robaston, Blethering Scot, Jncraton, Nath1991, Fluernutter,
Wildrider99, Download, LaaknorBot, Alvord12, CarsracBot, Joycloete, Tsange, Tide rolls, Gail, -, Ettrig, SunowerZZZ, Ben
Ben, Middayexpress, Luckas-bot, Yobot, 2D, Bunnyhop11, Arunprabu.v, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Bugnot, KamikazeBot, Sedathut,
Teksosyete, AnomieBOT, Rubinbot, Elavendran, Jim1138, IRP, Galoubet, Debpratim.ghosh, Materialscientist, Allseen, Maxis ftw, Sheki
nitk, ArthurBot, MauritsBot, Xqbot, Termininja, Chuckwits, Jsharpminor, Anna Frodesiak, Jaizanuar, Nasa-verve, GrouchoBot, Abce2,
Monaarora84, Ab1, Imtushar, Rbarpar, Mosh1111, Amaury, OnionBlanc, Denilsen, Harshthegreat89, FrescoBot, Ksarawar, Amarhin-
dustani, Jmlinden7, HJ Mitchell, Weetoddid, Wireless Keyboard, Cannolis, Biker Biker, Pinethicket, I dream of horses, Hariboneagle927,
Kanthamohan, Adlerbot, Skaterdan323, Xfact, Pikiwyn, MastiBot, MondalorBot, Serols, Fui in terra aliena, FRHD, Springclean, Barras,
Turian, Sajalkdas, Trappist the monk, Zhernovoi, Binyamin Goldstein, Ravenperch, Lotje, Shipitin, Dinamik-bot, Mauri96, Lord of the
Pit, Hornlitz, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Mean as custard, RjwilmsiBot, Wiki559, Techhead7890, DASHBot, Kronf, Steve03Mills, EmausBot,
John of Reading, Orphan Wiki, Sagale, WikitanvirBot, Immunize, Super48paul, Dewritech, DiiCinta, Solarra, GJDR, Tommy2010, ValC,
Husseinjh, John Cline, F, Nigel XX, Tushargkwd, KuduIO, Aeonx, H3llBot, Unreal7, Akshay2212, Wayne Slam, Ocaasi, OnePt618,
Zblumz, Tolly4bolly, Erianna, Wikitrke, Zanlok, Aliceokello, Munawarmuniruae, Senjuto, Daften, MonoAV, Donner60, Wiki.0hlic,
VictorianMutant, Saebvn, Awesomepothi, 28bot, Asaliyev, Sonicyouth86, Boosi, Will Beback Auto, ClueBot NG, Haresh06, Ghildiyal-
sumit, MelbourneStar, Satellizer, Alexhch, Amjadk, My name7, CopperSquare, Widr, Antiqueight, Zefcan, Jmail.gmail, Frmin, Strike
Eagle, Calabe1992, BG19bot, Hz.tiang, Shinra.Electric.Power.Company, Rovasscript, PhnomPencil, Nen, Kagundu, Mark Arsten, San-
jay250, Felidofractals, Sunnyamirr, Eshiv, Salientraven, Minsbot, David.moreno72, Ziggypowe, Faisalabadian, Adnan bogi, Mogism,
Anijatsu, Digitalcrowd, Doridrovirus, Numbermaniac, Mandi bhalwal, TechPaper, Okliolki, Me, Myself, and I are Here, Jmg56558, Epic-
genius, Michipedian, AmaryllisGardener, Musabbir Islam, Nightwalker-87, PapiDimmi, Quenhitran, Ravishyam Bangalore, Dhhssausb,
AKS.9955, Dasprem, NQ, Pratikshit, Dai Pritchard, Zarsadman, Kashish Arora, Snipergang, Zamiulcse, Pennyrawalker, CAPTAIN
RAJU, MBlaze Lightning, Majin11, Nyngar, Music1201, Bender the Bot, 72, Imminent77, Jliutai123, Justeditingtoday, Jordan Wood
and Anonymous: 1183
3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3rd_Generation_Partnership_Project_2?oldid=788264703
Contributors: Jpatokal, Merovingian, Meelar, Seth Ilys, Pgan002, Cnwb, Guy Harris, Armando, Twthmoses, Isnow, Marudubshinki,
Vegaswikian, Makru, FlaBot, Siddhant, Tony1, Oli Filth, ABACA, Ed Yeon, David e cooper, Bgurg, Cydebot, Altamel, Dwainberg,
Lenin1991, Conquerist, Squiggleslash, Mojodaddy, Sharoneditha, AntiSpamBot, Charliearcuri, Charmi99, Wdwd, Ideal gas equation,
Kbdankbot, Addbot, Luckas-bot, Lkt1126, Karghazini, Danigro456, Wo.luren, Auteny, Wellcreek, Atn31, InternetArchiveBot, Bender
the Bot and Anonymous: 22
UMTS Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UMTS?oldid=794596856 Contributors: Damian Yerrick, The Anome, Guppie, Rjstott,
Youssefsan, Maartsen, Michael Hardy, Modster, Liftarn, Jakub~enwiki, CesarB, Mac, Jpatokal, BigFatBuddha, IMSoP, Ghewgill, Samuel~enwiki,
78 CHAPTER 8. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)

Tobias Conradi, Conti, Crissov, Malcohol, Fuzheado, Snickerdo, Zoicon5, Maximus Rex, Omegatron, Robbot, Dale Arnett, Cfaerber,
Christopherwoods, Baloo rch, Hadal, Netje, Lproven, Marius~enwiki, Hylaride, Fudoreaper, Zigger, Alex.atkins, Everyking, David
Johnson, Jdavidb, Enfors, Bsoft, Moogle10000, Pascal666, AlistairMcMillan, Thomas Ludwig, Uzume, Bobblewik, Tagishsimon, Golbez,
Goofrider, Nedlowe, Tim Pritlove, SimonArlott, Maximaximax, Richietjpr, Kphua, Picapica, Abdull, Karvendhan, Markalex, AAAAA,
Imroy, Noisy, Discospinster, Oliver Lineham, Cfailde, Andros 1337, Wk muriithi, YUL89YYZ, TacoJim, Bender235, Azurepalm,
Djordjes, Nikkaro, Ashkyd, Shanes, RoyBoy, Cacophony, Jtact, Bobo192, Primawan, Kensai, Nk, StYxXx, Travisyoung, Towel401, Es-
poo, Anthony Appleyard, Gmmour, Guy Harris, Gbeeker, Paul1337, Stephan Leeds, Danthemankhan, Dziban303, Dan100, Ceyockey,
Woohookitty, Armando, Brentdax, Beej, Wamatt, Mihhkel, Jackcall, Broccoli, Pdelong, Rillian, Sarg, N0YKG, FlaBot, AGuerrieri,
Wikiliki, Vclaw, RAMChYLD, Mathiastck, Fragglet, RobyWayne, Intgr, NotJackhorkheimer, Preslethe, Chobot, Siddhant, YurikBot,
Hairy Dude, MMuzammils, DogGunn, Epolk, Sasuke Sarutobi, Jasonb, Gaius Cornelius, Bovineone, Varnav, Probell, Kennethmac2000,
Jaxl, Joel7687, Epugachev, Voidxor, Gmatsuda, Nicolaiplum, Vlad, Ruchira, Ke6jjj, Daniel C, Orioane, KGasso, Abune, Petri Krohn,
Rearden9, Rdschwarz, Matt croxson, Zquack, Porttikivi, DrJolo, SmackBot, Leion, GregA, Monkeyblue, PEHowland, KnowledgeOfSelf,
Tcolgan001, Agentbla, Frymaster, Nil Einne, Richmeister, Gilliam, Jupix, Quadratic, Andy M. Wang, Mattrix18, Knuckleskin, Chris the
speller, DStoykov, Robertyhn, Thumperward, Oli Filth, Stevage, Epastore, ABACA, JoeOnSunset, OrphanBot, JonHarder, Amargosa,
Adamantios, Jmnbatista, MureninC, TechPurism, Jhonan, DylanW, Andrewpayneaqa, SashatoBot, NotMuchToSay, Stamppot, Notmi-
cro, Kashmiri, Shattered, Jmgonzalez, Arkrishna, Nakedcellist, Chris Price, Speedarius, Paul Foxworthy, Frank Lofaro Jr., Embryonated,
JohnTechnologist, GFellows, CmdrObot, Ale jrb, Tpatricio, StarlitGlitter, SkylineEvo, Requestion, Cydebot, Johannylindskog, Corpx,
Dancter, Kozuch, Dog 65, Thijs!bot, EwaDuan, DmitTrix, JustAGal, Scaredpoet, Vodomar, Dawnseeker2000, Michas pi, Escarbot, An-
tiVandalBot, Nisselua, Saimhe, DJ Rubbie, Pichote, Yubal, Lbecque, Dougher, Husond, Harryzilber, Medconn, Drizzd~enwiki, Byeee,
Magioladitis, Nyq, SHCarter, Andryono, JPG-GR, KJRehberg, SandStone, Lizmm, DrSeehas, BilCat, Retroneo, Jim.henderson, R'n'B,
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nyB, Navshot, TXiKiBoT, Jess, Dj stone, Prasad ark, Broadbot, Amelshabrawy, BotKung, Jamelan, Tri400, Billinghurst, Henrik46,
Spinningspark, Amakader, Tsaitgaist, Jamessungjin.kim, ToePeu.bot, Cydho, Jmoz2989, MI canuck, Sublite, Lightmouse, Int21h, En-
gineerism, Jaykaynam, Treekids, Moritz der Moralapostel, Duhaggie, Martarius, Ghoctor, Bbb2007, PixelBot, Muhandes, Hadiyana,
Estirabot, MrBeauGiles, Cyberglobe, Mlas, La Pianista, InternetMeme, XLinkBot, FenSerkan, Dgtsyb, Mr4top, Kbdankbot, Ad-
dbot, Xp54321, Speer320, JEG14, JBsupreme, Mortense, CL, Wildrider99, SoSaysChappy, Joycloete, Tide rolls, Lightbot, Legobot,
Luckas-bot, Yobot, Mpitt, SN74LS00, AnomieBOT, Rubinbot, ErikTheBikeMan, Materialscientist, GenQuest, Omnipaedista, Chris-
miceli, Kyng, FrescoBot, Ch Th Jo, Nageh, D'ohBot, Kwiki, Tahir mq, Sajalkdas, EmausBot, John of Reading, WikitanvirBot, Zollerriia,
Shhhnotsoloud, TuHan-Bot, AvicBot, SIPH0R, Greatpouya2, , Rcsprinter123, Pun, Everlasting enigma, Doris Meier, Clue-
Bot NG, Widr, Chillllls, Helpful Pixie Bot, Helifella, Kjabbe, Bouteloua, RodkaRom, Herbert44, ChrisGualtieri, Rusmr1, SFK2, Acharya
87, Epicgenius, Wuerzele, Nightwalker-87, Lesser Cartographies, Marco Ciaramella, MSheshera, Rocketnater, Monkbot, 65HCA7, Jun-
caceres, Conana007, GreenC bot, SpringFeathers, Paypito, Bender the Bot, Reachcom, Givemecoeeorgivemedeath, PrimeBOT and
Anonymous: 484
High Speed Packet Access Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Speed_Packet_Access?oldid=789611493 Contributors: Am-
brosen, Mac, Ehn, Darkov, Dale Arnett, Jonth, Fudoreaper, Everyking, Chaerani, Robert Brockway, Imroy, Vinko, Bobo192, Mcor-
nelius, Atlant, MoraSique, Stephan Leeds, Tabletop, Mandarax, Tslocum, David Levy, Rjwilmsi, Vegaswikian, Swya, Mathiastck, DVdm,
Froggey, Siddhant, Borgx, Arado, Stephenb, Voidxor, Tony1, Jeremy Visser, SmackBot, Oli Filth, Villarinho, Jerome Charles Potts,
Glloq, Jpjust~enwiki, Bigmantonyd, Khazar, DouglasCalvert, GFellows, StarlitGlitter, Hukkinen, Creek23, Cydebot, Alaibot, Elec-
tron9, Dawnseeker2000, Harryzilber, Bhamv, MER-C, Nthep, Drizzd~enwiki, Xoneca, Robby, KJRehberg, Retroneo, Seashorewiki,
Mojodaddy, Darin-0, Rbrewer42, Andareed, Reacocard, Behzad.farmand, Nishantchoudhary, TelecomsTim, THeCodeGuY, Indulgen-
tReader, Kbrose, Jmoz2989, Editore99, Lightmouse, TuxyQ, Ossguy, Mild Bill Hiccup, PixelBot, Hadiyana, Nukeless, Bodosom, BO-
Tarate, Ranjan shab, DumZiBoT, XLinkBot, WikHead, SilvonenBot, Hypermax~enwiki, MystBot, Osarius, Addbot, Willking1979,
Non-dropframe, Download, LaaknorBot, Chathurangawav, Lightbot, Mateus RM, Yobot, 4th-otaku, AnomieBOT, Eikoseidel, TheAM-
mollusc, , Addihockey10, TechBot, Lonniev, Omnipaedista, RibotBOT, Kyng, Lonaowna, Chockyboy, Lisa Andersson,
Budgiebrain994, Lallolu, Chris Caven, Jonkerz, Lotje, NortuRE, Steve03Mills, EmausBot, John of Reading, Nasula, K6ka, Seikku Kaita,
AvicBot, Dariel 01, ChuispastonBot, Diamondland, ClueBot NG, Wifuk, Rezabot, Widr, Ammar Al Sarraj, Frmin, BattyBot, Ad-
nan bogi, Benwrk, Mogism, Comp.arch, Spyglasses, Nightwalker-87, JustBerry, Saivenkat961921992, AliDabbirKhan, Milkersh and
Anonymous: 155
4G Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4G?oldid=790575777 Contributors: The Anome, Markc113, B4hand, Edward, Dcljr, CesarB,
Ronz, Jpatokal, Julesd, Glenn, Mxn, Fuzheado, LMB, Thue, Bevo, Tsanth, Cluth, Robbot, Dale Arnett, Cfaerber, Dittaeva, Nurg,
Merovingian, Auric, Pseudonym, Tea2min, Alerante, Giftlite, DocWatson42, Mat-C, Mcapdevila, Scotth1, Varlaam, Bobblewik, Edcol-
ins, Utcursch, CryptoDerk, Beland, Gene203, CaribDigita, Oknazevad, Quota, Ukexpat, Thorwald, Frankchn, Rich Farmbrough, FT2,
Andros 1337, D-Notice, Bender235, Neko-chan, Cacophony, Moilleadir, Bobo192, Mikel Ward, Cheung1303, Towel401, Sysiphe,
Accord, Niklas a, Alansohn, Jcsutton, Retran, Guy Harris, Andrewpmk, Rcbarnes, Muttster, Axl, Justinbb, Bete, Sligocki, Dalm,
Velella, Ronark, Dalillama, Suruena, RJFJR, Spellcheck, Prattora~enwiki, Thryduulf, Boothy443, Woohookitty, Mindmatrix, Aster-
droid, Robert K S, Tabletop, RealLeo, Triddle, GregorB, Doco, Gimboid13, BD2412, CarbonUnit, Josh Parris, Rjwilmsi, Koavf, XP1,
Vegaswikian, FlaBot, Ground Zero, Jak123, Ysangkok, AL SAM, Baryn, Planetneutral, Moocha, Benlisquare, Shaggyjacobs, Cirne,
Siddhant, Cuahl, YurikBot, Mushin, Charles Gaudette, MMuzammils, RussBot, Madkayaker, Sasuke Sarutobi, Stephenb, Manop, Gaius
Cornelius, Rsrikanth05, Bovineone, Bmhcjs, Anomie, DJ Bungi, Worldicez, Topperfalkon, Asten77, Prolineserver, Tony1, Alex43223,
Vlad, Lcmortensen, Square87~enwiki, Spondoolicks, Tdangkhoa, Back ache, Wainstead, JLaTondre, DoriSmith, Katieh5584, Thomas
Blomberg, DasBub, Benandorsqueaks, Bruce78, SmackBot, Simon Beavis, Marc Lacoste, Mjrichardson1, Jrockley, Delldot, Msmol-
nikar, Two stripe, Gilliam, Ohnoitsjamie, Jcarroll, AndrewKay, Armeria, Teemu Ruskeep, SlimJim, CrookedAsterisk, Cattus, JDC-
MAN, Thumperward, Jeysaba, Bazonka, Mithaca, ABACA, DHN-bot~enwiki, Colonies Chris, Mattyw, Noodles25, Frap, Alphathon,
N3c, Ne0Freedom, Pastudan, Malambis, Wizardman, The Extremist, Rupaheli, Nishkid64, Turbo852, Cmlau, A-Ge0, Optimale, Jm-
gonzalez, Tigger-oN, Hu12, N0time, Joseph Solis in Australia, Skapur, Mihitha, Ro2000, Dave420, M4tth3wg, CmdrObot, Ale jrb,
Mazmohad, Wargamer, Toby.e.hawkins, Citidel, Cydebot, Steel, Hebrides, Bzinimho, A n k u r, Synergy, PKT, Thijs!bot, Epbr123,
Wikid77, HighTechGeek, Mojo Hand, Marek69, John254, Dawkeye, Nick Number, Uruiamme, Trakon, Dawnseeker2000, Phy1729,
AntiVandalBot, Nisselua, Saimhe, Widefox, Opelio, Bridgeplayer, Pichote, Yellowdesk, Dougher, Sathish.visu, NapoliRoma, MER-C,
Drizzd~enwiki, Seddon, Wser, Geniac, Yosh3000, MaxPont, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, TheAllSeeingEye, SHCarter, BanRay, Papp-
nese, Andryono, Adavies42, Wikied~enwiki, Canyouhearmenow, JefeMixtli, Retroneo, Chris G, Vchava, Kgeischmann, Dm8233,
Lenin1991, HeeQue, Tracer9999, Khronos1, Ryper, Conquerist, MartinBot, Lijunjie, Jim.henderson, Coogeeboy, Koraiem, Verda-
tum, Nono64, Jehall318, EdBever, Squiggleslash, Ceros, J.delanoy, Mange01, Mojodaddy, Trusilver, Darin-0, Jesant13, Dbiel, Ginseng-
8.13. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 79

bomb, Mamyles, Madzyzome, Kenshinyer, FrummerThanThou, Brooklyndodger, Gebjon, SaskatchewanSenator, Davandron, Tidywave,
DarrylJH, Lbparker40, Cometstyles, Tjgould, Bonadea, Jaychan00, HighKing, Ronbo76, TheNewPhobia, Squids and Chips, Cardinal-
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LeilaniLad, Philip Trueman, Daniel347x, Lollerwae, M gol, Abdullais4u, GeneralBelly, PDFbot, Ilyushka88, Louepower, Andy Din-
gley, Feudonym, Rps5, Falcon8765, Enviroboy, Vchimpanzee, Spinningspark, Tomasohara, Natedawg1013, Qaywsxedc, Thunderbird2,
Mitchell100, MrChupon, Jamessungjin.kim, SieBot, Rajeshontheweb, Mikemoral, Tiddly Tom, Paradoctor, Yintan, Rawnoodles10,
Zabbo, Jerryobject, Bentogoa, Flyer22 Reborn, Tiptoety, Editore99, Nua eire, Jimthing, Hrushikesh.mohanty, Mcpatnaik, Lightmouse,
Mike16889, Tomi T Ahonen, IdreamofJeanie, U-D13, Witit, NastalgicCam, Pinkadelica, Denisarona, Fatboykim, ClueBot, Pipep-
Bot, Lockoom, Bloodholds, Plastikspork, Hipgnostic, Czarko, Anup peshne, Niceguyedc, OccamzRazor, Scatter98, ChandlerMap-
Bot, Rprpr, Bbb2007, DragonBot, Jusdafax, M4gnum0n, Gmplr831, ResidueOfDesign, Coralmizu, Gulmammad, Muhandes, Hadiyana,
Coinmanj, Tyler, NuclearWarfare, Arjayay, At.thehotcorner, Tjwoods, The Wicked Twisted Road, Thingg, Aurynjaye, Polydeuces,
Versus22, InternetMeme, Amitnaik, Against the current, XLinkBot, Accenture Trivergence, Snowboard975, Arthur chos, Mwolleben,
Dthomsen8, Ariconte, Grmike, SilvonenBot, Rebeccafong, PL290, Alexius08, Konstantin Kosachev, Jkae94, Cabayi, Addbot, Mortense,
Willking1979, DOI bot, Non-dropframe, Robaston, Ironholds, Jchap1590, CanadianLinuxUser, Download, Raarthik, Aunva6, Bill-
sunny, CosmiCarl, Mobit, Gomoker, Mfhulskemper, Ettrig, Rojypala, Vegaswikian1, Wcam, Ben Ben, Math Champion, Luckas-bot,
Yobot, Ptbotgourou, Legobot II, QueenCake, KamikazeBot, Gerixau, SwisterTwister, Bearas, Dmarquard, AnomieBOT, Blasedef, Fa-
tal!ty, Noq, Jim1138, Debpratim.ghosh, Piano non troppo, Ddoomdoom, Wikisire, TheGreyArea, Eikoseidel, Materialscientist, Cita-
tion bot, LilHelpa, Nameless9123, Xqbot, Meewam, Gilo1969, Mysticsh, Dimaf, Anna Frodesiak, Isheden, Nasa-verve, GrouchoBot,
Abce2, Monaarora84, Jupter-manzana, Alexandru Stanoi, 78.26, Jpcg, Suvrakanti, Campster68, Shadowjams, Joaquin008, Apdreamland,
Dan6hell66, FrescoBot, Nageh, W Nowicki, Matthellyeah, Sanpitch, Recognizance, 1234567890ABCDEFG, D'ohBot, Ramchandra555,
Jamesrules90, Damianvila, Jamesooders, Cannolis, Citation bot 1, Chenopodiaceous, Redrose64, Symplectic Map, I dream of horses,
Calmer Waters, Yahia.barie, Toonmore, MastiBot, IceBlade710, Midnight Comet, Flinx, Merlion444, Nirinsanity, Cnwilliams, Resad-9,
Nopphan, TobeBot, Trappist the monk, ARSH4D, Steelerdon, Rpt0, Aniruddh88, Miracle Pen, Mattmill30, Suusion of Yellow, Tb-
hotch, M.m.me, Jesse V., Minimac, Mean as custard, EonLinE, ArwinJ, RjwilmsiBot, Fearstreetsaga, CoolGin, Matteoteo1234, Tsx11,
Cristapone, DASHBot, Steve03Mills, John of Reading, Dolescum, Siddhartha 90, WikitanvirBot, Avenue X at Cicero, Timtempleton,
Craxyxarc, Angrytoast, BillyPreset, Tbss42, Dewritech, RA0808, Rhaddon, Dcirovic, K6ka, AsceticRose, K1812, Midas02, Eken7,
SporkBot, AManWithNoPlan, Wayne Slam, Thine Antique Pen, Sensori, Alex Neman, FrankFlanagan, L Kensington, Senjuto, Don-
ner60, Suyash Sagar Bajpai, Captain Assassin!, Yohanes.niko, Carmichael, Rangoon11, Np76-NJITWILL, Weijiangbei, Mfaken, Izolight,
Tnguye58, Madlink, Ashah73, Chesterme, WillhenIII, Degdol, HugoASZ, Patprasert, ClueBot NG, Mushroom9, Gilderien, Scubafan-
tic, Rrc916, GallaghersGreek, Nalinking, Howsund, Frietjes, Cntras, LinguistAndMusic9016, J349, Widr, Starpchack, User 30860135,
6Anesthesia, Mtking, Theopolisme, Nairobi123, Technoblitz, Helpful Pixie Bot, HisanKazamaru, Debadeba, Bigint, Frmin, HMSSo-
lent, Ejder.bastug, Strike Eagle, BG19bot, Murry1975, TonyRichards2, True Tech Talk Time, Buddy12345, Hallows AG, Tiscando,
MusikAnimal, Lifeformnoho, Taonix, Sandakelum, Aschauer, Sanjay250, FreakyDaGeeky14, Flying9876, Reebsauce, Ollieinc, Ajk-
lein5211, Ssamanta6112, Glacialfox, Riyantojayadi, Fraczek.marcin, Superbomb17, 4gphonedude, Skunk44, BattyBot, David.moreno72,
~riley, Pratyya Ghosh, Rjpaats, Cyberbot II, Scopecreep, GoShow, Garamond Lethe, Khazar2, JamesHaigh, Mypslim, Amconners, Cool-
bondin, Benson 26, Emandrawkcab, Dexbot, BigJolly9, SoledadKabocha, Mogism, Alexandre Gouraud, Cryptchrysaetos, Digitalcrowd,
Gothgeek1, Donperfectodewiki, Danielyoung88, JohnOhman, Sandrabf, Jamesx12345, WMartin74, Dave Bowman - Discovery Won,
Lorenrb, MrCellular, Spury98, Bhwang24, Reatlas, Daniyal7871, Grseko, Faizan, Malayalibuji, Mirfanmaqsood, AltynAsyr, Consider42,
I am One of Many, Wanishahrukh, Dcgibson55, Jodosma, Psatsankhya, Musabbir Islam, Sindhoor preeetham, Robertomouracar4melo,
LCS check, Henryparachutegale, AndrejSpSk, Comp.arch, Trevnerdio, Ronraverivera, Wikiuser13, Mihir Pandey, Nightwalker-87,
The Herald, Coee&tv, D Eaketts, Contact.Talal, Cammello03, Nbadal, Insert Bill Here, Ellistev, Deb2569, Alexidh, Pmlnlahore,
Stamptrader, Bigdaddybangbang, MSBadrajith, Thewikiguru1, Deepcruze, Abeniel, Joy2035, Faizannehal, Wyn.junior, Dev7229, Catch-
erStorm, Melcous, Monkbot, Vp734, Sunmist, Naeemirza, HMSLavender, Rajanib, The Last Arietta, Nairspecht, TheMagikCow, Sir-
grossgergeocial, Rafacvo, Bpmeller, Adieqwener, Marios Zindilis, Pddu78000, Aytk, Paisley Liverpool, Eagleo, Davidtunderthe-
sea, Enkakad, FivePillarPurist, OussDB, Dulaj Chathuranga, Darkanglekute116, GeneralizationsAreBad, Alexander93nj, Hungryce, It-
suki2, Fractionfred, Xavierchiang, Jmcinnes2, BourkeM, Sreejithsnew, Mar11, Qzd, Thomasnetrpm, InternetArchiveBot, Mihaimatei,
Hye900711, Entranced98, Glorypeace, GreenC bot, Joel awuku, Highly Ridiculous, Blogwithashik, Emir of Wikipedia, Bender the Bot,
Kostas20142, Vikas rana, KAP03, Waseem Ahmad Shaikh, AvalerionV, Nelson122 and Anonymous: 1078

LTE (telecommunication) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LTE_(telecommunication)?oldid=795964757 Contributors: Damian


Yerrick, The Anome, Tommy~enwiki, Mrwojo, Nealmcb, Komap, Egil, Ronz, Julesd, Conti, Tali, Wikiborg, Andrewman327, Omega-
tron, Bevo, Jni, Robbot, Cedars, Fudoreaper, Bkonrad, Mcapdevila, Joconnor, St3vo, Edcolins, Chowbok, Piotrus, Paradoxian, Maikel,
DmitryKo, Imroy, Oliyoung, Rich Farmbrough, Till Ulen, FT2, Andros 1337, Bender235, Mwanner, MaxHund, Mikel Ward, Guspaz,
ChadCloman, Fatphil, Rajivts, Guy Harris, The RedBurn, Wdfarmer, Jb 007clone, SidP, Tomlzz1, Ringbang, Mindmatrix, Camw, David
Haslam, Tabletop, Mheart, Uvb~enwiki, BD2412, David Levy, Rjwilmsi, Iolaire, Nightscream, Intgr, NotJackhorkheimer, Chobot, Bg-
white, Siddhant, McGinnis, MMuzammils, Arado, Groogle, Manop, Gaius Cornelius, Himan8pd, ZacBowling, Aler, ICanAlwaysChangeTh-
isLater, Opt 05, Tony1, Closedmouth, Arthur Rubin, Fstorino~enwiki, Nelson50, Caballero1967, John Broughton, EXonyte, Maryhit,
SmackBot, Semiautomata, GregA, Elk Salmon, Gilliam, Ohnoitsjamie, TRosenbaum, Cs-wolves, JMiall, Chris the speller, Pimms1,
Venge, Rick7425, Oli Filth, ABACA, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, , Tamfang, KevM, Metageek, Escottf, Coolbho3000,
ProtocolOH, Lostart, DylanW, Malambis, Daniel.Cardenas, Davipo, DHR, Khazar, Jidanni, Hmbr, Swellesley, Stefan2, Bssc81, JWa-
ters, BlindWanderer, JHunterJ, 81120906713, Jmgonzalez, Dicklyon, Ariel Pontes, Mihitha, Vocaro, JustinRossi, Iansanderson, Paultt,
CmdrObot, Tanthalas39, Kushal one, Jesse Viviano, Cycloneopp, Phatom87, Cydebot, Raamin, Mblumber, Rockneedsasavior, Kanags,
Altaphon, Myscrnnm, Vladimirko, Kozuch, SpK, PKT, Ashokec, Chris01720, Uruiamme, Dawnseeker2000, SvenAERTS, Guy Macon,
Mattew~enwiki, Firetwuck, Vanjagenije, Vernapp, Yellowdesk, Bernopedia, Hayesgm, Hijklmno, Harryzilber, MER-C, Dhkkim, Magi-
oladitis, TheAllSeeingEye, Adrianski, Kevinmon, Orionist, SandStone, Tbleher, Boob, Fbiots, JefeMixtli, Retroneo, JaGa, Conquerist,
RP88, Jim.henderson, Niclisp, Keith D, Squiggleslash, Mange01, Mojodaddy, Darin-0, Kaltros, Hgmyung, Acalamari, Cfeet77, Bryan-
shook, Mafeu, Goingstuckey, Garthps2002, Isoman00, KylieTastic, Santiperez, Benignbala, Epameinondas, Muhdbunahmad, Mills00013,
Fishbert, VolkovBot, A yacout, Je G., Wrev, Philip Trueman, Oshwah, Nxavar, Prasad ark, Avamsik, Jpat34721, Don4of4, Word-
smith, Spiral5800, Billinghurst, Charliearcuri, Adamr81, Lamro, Dcarriso, GoLLoMboje, AlleborgoBot, Kbrose, MC-CDMA, James-
sungjin.kim, Mvadu, Chmyr, Mwaisberg, Editore99, CutOTies, Rupert baines, Byrialbot, Lightmouse, Eouw0o83hf, AlanUS, Dafo-
cus, Go2Null, TheHoax, Kartks, M2Ys4U, Engsoonhock, Tuxa, ClueBot, Aintneo~enwiki, Unbuttered Parsnip, MichaelVernonDavis,
1983px, Spotticus, Scrapking, Balaji280283, Jlf~enwiki, Scatter98, Psigmon, LukeTheSpook, Bbb2007, Excirial, ArrivalR8, Muhan-
des, Brotheryu, Louisarogers, BOTarate, Ranjithsutari, TY-214, Egmontaz, DumZiBoT, InternetMeme, Nick in syd, XLinkBot, Ak-
shaygs, Luigalaxy, Mwolleben, Setherson, Madiator, Smnc, MystBot, Gabriel2008, Deineka, Addbot, Mortense, Non-dropframe, Lati-
80 CHAPTER 8. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)

tudeBot, Alexandre.2.beaudry, Capstar12, Toowoomba, MrOllie, SpBot, Navwikiadroit, Georgematewiki, Lightbot, Willondon, C933103,
Gerti W, Stefoun, TheBigZzz, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Ptbotgourou, Fraggle81, Amirobot, AnomieBOT, Letireur, DemocraticLuntz, Bctwriter,
Flexar, Jim1138, Wickorama, Grolltech, Elisabeth Hillman, Eikoseidel, Materialscientist, Citation bot, Brian2wood, MauritsBot, Xqbot,
TinucherianBot II, Futureseer, Scallop7, GenQuest, Lonniev, Isheden, Schwijker, Armbrust, Solphusion~enwiki, Omnipaedista, Jspaid,
Kyng, Dngnta, Remind me never, Miguelameida, Governor Jerjerrod, Konst1977, Saini613, FrescoBot, KirbyRandolf, Nageh, Mynet-
works, Lisa Andersson, Sanpitch, Sunowermalta, Dipankar biswas, Haeinous, Vishal Singhal, Dagamer34, Orgio89, OgreBot, Soyguapa,
Javert, Chenopodiaceous, Biker Biker, Jonesey95, Tom.Reding, Zafartahirov, Alexander Chervov, RedBot, Impala2009, Tahir mq, Chris
gustafson, Johnnyjagger, Nicknrm, Kakisgr, Ensconsed, Banej, Sajalkdas, Vega702, Bnc319, Jimys salonika, Anahoret, Tamahome5555,
Etxkesa, Crati, Wo.luren, Jakeroot, Carson1968, Koryosaram, Wirelessgal, Dwonak, Diannaa, Brendabum, Ptrlow, Dalyswe, Rjwilm-
siBot, Xaltotun, TjBot, Basangbur, Envelopetracker, AnBuKu, EmausBot, John of Reading, Jsung123, Djpalmer93, Ehugne, Merf64,
Gcfreeland, Nasula, Mpelcat, AsceticRose, Ponydepression, Dariel 01, Haikal-Heine, Pdbj, Alakh.jai, Wksam, H3llBot, Cactusman2,
DaMan92, Timetraveler3.14, Alansu, Secator, TechWriterNJ, Marv moskowitz, Gsarwa, Tech2010, Daithibaru, ChuispastonBot, Blin22,
Dorsacato, Joerasmussen, Rmashhadi, Doris Meier, ClueBot NG, Hermannh, Jorny32, Rashed-NJITWILL, Amjadk, Dru of Id, C. Jeremy
Wong, Pnk3-NJITWILL, Masssly, Widr, Luca Lategan, GosiLomKj2, Frmin, Ejder.bastug, BG19bot, Bouteloua, Encyclopedant, Doo-
dlebug777, Buddy12345, AvocatoBot, Sandakelum, Zach Vega, Kcipsirhc, Reebsauce, Nabeelaslamkolassery, LogicalFinance33, Royal
misha, Ajklein5211, HTML2011, IRedRat, Skunk44, Hasenburg, Pratyya Ghosh, AndreyKovalevsky, Withemy, Quixoticcool, TheCom-
puterMan, SFK2, Prashantlte, MrCellular, Awesomeguy529, Carolinamed, Spetalnick, Epicgenius, TheFrog001, Lemnaminor, Aceto-
tyce, Ipod3g, Camobrien, Nodove, Ronraverivera, Nightwalker-87, FooCow, JaconaFrere, Skr15081997, Carbonoatom, Anatoliegolovco,
TheEpTic, Retrovertigo en, Melcous, Ritajeerson, -, YJAX, SrpskiAnonimac, Maverick972, HMSLavender, Lets keep it neutral,
Vikibilim, OutlawStar6891, Louis King - Edits for Everyone, Sdxu, Telecomwiz, Kyo 1, Java1245, Jtxxtj, Vfhouse, Spuriousvarlot,
Sheldon.andre, AlbertC99, Tralala0, Drkd3vil, KreatorSveta, NoobishSVK, ProprioMe OW, Sadhubalaamarnath, CLCStudent, Tomas-
media, InternetArchiveBot, Hye900711, Ethanbas, CA Ashish Tiwari, Bear-rings, Creedie123, Business to business, Bender the Bot,
Shark300, RakeshTony, Akkit Sharma, Wikishovel, PrimeBOT, Politics Guy, Mweecontributions, Panya namwong, Joshua Marooney,
Rath77, Hex6, DSmurf, Kev123theboss, TelecomAcademy and Anonymous: 694

8.13.2 Images
File:3G_symbol_Android.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/3G_symbol_Android.png License: CC
BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Derived work from Flickr image https://www.flickr.com/photos/hax/7367622758/ by Daniel Hack-
ney (original date : 2012-06-13). Original artist: The RedBurn, Daniel Hackney
File:Ambox_current_red.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Ambox_current_red.svg License: CC0
Contributors: self-made, inspired by Gnome globe current event.svg, using Information icon3.svg and Earth clip art.svg Original artist:
Vipersnake151, penubag, Tkgd2007 (clock)
File:Ambox_important.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Ambox_important.svg License: Public do-
main Contributors: Own work based on: Ambox scales.svg Original artist: Dsmurat, penubag
File:Ambox_question.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Ambox_question.svg License: Public do-
main Contributors: Based on Image:Ambox important.svg Original artist: Mysid, Dsmurat, penubag
File:Android_hspa+_2.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/Android_hspa%2B_2.png License: CC0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Milkersh
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Orig-
inal artist: ?
File:Crystal_Clear_app_kedit.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Crystal_Clear_app_kedit.svg License:
LGPL Contributors: Own work Original artist: w:User:Tkgd, Everaldo Coelho and YellowIcon
File:Deutsches_Museum_-_GSM_cell_site_antennas.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/Deutsches_
Museum_-_GSM_cell_site_antennas.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: originally posted to Flickr as Deutsches Museum Original
artist: Je Keyzer
File:Edit-clear.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f2/Edit-clear.svg License: Public domain Contributors: The
Tango! Desktop Project. Original artist:
The people from the Tango! project. And according to the meta-data in the le, specically: Andreas Nilsson, and Jakub Steiner (although
minimally).
File:Flag_of_Hong_Kong.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Flag_of_Hong_Kong.svg License: Pub-
lic domain Contributors: http://www.protocol.gov.hk/flags/chi/r_flag/index.html Original artist: Tao Ho
File:Flag_of_Japan.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Orig-
inal artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Kuwait.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Flag_of_Kuwait.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: SKopp
File:Flag_of_Lithuania.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/11/Flag_of_Lithuania.svg License: Public do-
main Contributors: Own work Original artist: SuKopp
File:Flag_of_Nicaragua.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/Flag_of_Nicaragua.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: Own work based on: <a data-x-rel='nofollow' class='external text' href='https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v,<span>,&,</span>,q=cache:
tRiqYRg_YJ4J:www.casc.gob.ni/index.php?option%3Dcom_docman%26task%3Ddoc_download%26gid%3D704%26Itemid%3D4+ley+
sobre+los+simbolo+patrios+nicaragua+2002,<span>,&,</span>,hl=es,<span>,&,</span>,gl=ni,<span>,&,</span>,pid=bl,<span>,&,</span>,srcid=ADGEESh
About Characteristics And Use Of Patriotic Symbols of Nicaragua</a> Original artist: C records (talk contribs)
File:Flag_of_Norway.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Flag_of_Norway.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Dbenbenn
8.13. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 81

File:Flag_of_Singapore.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg License: Public


domain Contributors: The drawing was based from http://app.www.sg/who/42/National-Flag.aspx. Colors from the book: (2001). The
National Symbols Kit. Singapore: Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts. pp. 5. ISBN 8880968010 Pantone 032 shade
from http://www.pantone.com/pages/pantone/colorfinder.aspx?c_id=13050 Original artist: Various
File:Flag_of_South_Korea.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Flag_of_South_Korea.svg License: Pub-
lic domain Contributors: Ordinance Act of the Law concerning the National Flag of the Republic of Korea, Construction and color
guidelines (Russian/English) Original artist: Various
File:Flag_of_Sweden.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4c/Flag_of_Sweden.svg License: PD Contributors: ?
Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg Li-
cense: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Zscout370
File:Flag_of_the_People{}s_Republic_of_China.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%
27s_Republic_of_China.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, http://www.protocol.gov.hk/flags/eng/n_flag/design.html
Original artist: Drawn by User:SKopp, redrawn by User:Denelson83 and User:Zscout370
File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.svg License:
PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
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by-sa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:GSMLogo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/GSMLogo.svg License: Public domain Contribu-
tors: Originallogo als AI, SVG erzeugt mit AI Original artist: Unknown<a href='https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:
Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.
svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.
svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-
width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Gsm_structures.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Gsm_structures.svg License: GPLv3 Contrib-
utors: original from User:Cvalda Original artist: Tsaitgaist
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SA 3.0 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons.; transferred by User:M0rphzone using CommonsHelper. Original artist:
Ryry17354 at English Wikipedia
File:LTE-CSFB-E-UTRAN-UTRAN-GERAN-Interfaces.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/af/LTE-CSFB-E-UTRAN-UTRAN-G
svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors:
Own work - manually created version of the diagram from 3GPP TS 23.272 v9.6.0 (2010-12): Circuit Switched Fallback in Evolved
Packet System; Stage 2 (Release 9)"
Original artist:
go2null
File:Nokia6650_unlocked.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/Nokia6650_unlocked.jpg License: Pub-
lic domain Contributors: Own work (Original text: I (Towel401 (talk)) created this work entirely by myself.) Original artist: Towel401
(talk)
File:O2-DE-UMTS-reduced-bandwidth-as-GPRS.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/O2-DE-UMTS-reduced-bandwidth
png License: CC0 Contributors: Own work using: XnView Original artist: This le is made available under the Creative Commons CC0
1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication.
File:Portal-puzzle.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
? Original artist: ?
File:Question_book-new.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.svg License: Cc-by-sa-3.0
Contributors:
Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist:
Tkgd2007
File:Samsung_4G_LTE_modem-4.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/de/Samsung_4G_LTE_modem-4.
jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Prolineserver (<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:
Prolineserver' title='User talk:Prolineserver'>talk</a>)
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tributors: Vectorized by User:Booyabazooka from original small PD raster image File:Telecom-icon.jpg Original artist: Vectorized by
User:Booyabazooka from original small PD raster image File:Telecom-icon.jpg
File:UMTS-fridge.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/UMTS-fridge.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Con-
tributors: Own work Original artist: PPP
File:UMTS_structures.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/UMTS_structures.svg License: GPLv3 Con-
tributors:
drawing by Own work
icons from Gnome
Original artist: Tsaitgaist
File:Wiki_letter_w.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/6c/Wiki_letter_w.svg License: Cc-by-sa-3.0 Contributors:
? Original artist: ?
File:Wireless_tower.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Wireless_tower.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Contributors: Own work. Original artist: Burgundavia (PNG); Ysangkok (SVG)
82 CHAPTER 8. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)

8.13.3 Content license


Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0