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Grade: 4 Unit: 4

Lesson Overview

Learning Outcomes:

SWBAT join (compose) or separate (decompose) parts of the same whole IOT add and subtract fractions.

SWBAT decompose fractions in multiple ways using visual fraction models IOT convert between mixed numbers and improper fractions.

SWBAT replace mixed numbers with equivalent fractions IOT add and subtract fractions and mixed numbers with like denominators.

SWBAT use visual fraction models and equations IOT solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the

same whole and having like denominators.

Communication of Success Criteria: This Three-Act Task gives students opportunities to design an investigation and think critically about

fractions they see in everyday life.

TASK: The explanations are The explanations are The explanation is either The explanation is not Did not attempt

Freeway Exits logical and the methods logical and the logical or the method is logical nor is the

are appropriate; all methods are appropriate; all or almost method appropriate; all

DOK Level 3 questions are answered appropriate; all all questions are or some questions are

and correctly; the questions are answered but only 50% - answered but less than

Apply presentation and ideas answered and at least 74% of the calculations 50% of the calculations

stand out from others/is 75% of the calculations are correct; the are correct; the

highly creative are correct; the presentation is clear or presentation is likely

presentation is clear slightly unclear unclear

Literacy Integration (Instructional Strategies):

As a component of the task, students will write about the math in their tasks explaining methods and procedures, as SMP3 is prioritized.

Working with Fractions by David A. Adler.

Consider reading this book to your students. Fractions are everywhere you look-on the play-ground, at school, even at birthday parties!

When it comes to counting money, playing games, or making sure you get your fair share of the pizza, fractions are there to help you. Add

David A. Adler's handy text to Edward Miller's lively art and you get not just a fraction-but a "whole" lot-of fun.

The concepts in this book explain:

1. Numerator and Denominator

2. What happens when the denominator changes

3. Equivalent Fractions

4. Adding and subtracting fractions

Pose questions related to the real-life scenarios in the book to have students think about fractions in their own lives.

LearnZillion Video Lessons and Resources 4NF3 https://learnzillion.com/resources/72985-understand-addition-and-subtraction-of-

fractions-and-decomposing-fractions-4-nf-b-3a and https://learnzillion.com/resources/64187-solving-addition-and-subtraction-word-

problems-involving-fractions-and-mixed-numbers

AddSubFract.flipchart This flipchart will be utilized during the mini lesson/content development to reinforce adding and subtracting

fractions.

Essential Questions:

How do we apply our understanding of fractions in everyday life?

What happens when I add fractions with like denominators?

What is a mixed number and how can it be represented?

What is an improper fraction and how can it be represented?

What is the relationship between a mixed number and an improper fraction?

K-5 Mathematics 2016

Enduring Understandings:

Fractional amounts can be added and/or subtracted.

Mixed numbers can be added and/or subtracted.

Mixed numbers and improper fractions can be used interchangeably because they are equivalent.

Proper fractions, improper fractions and mixed numbers can be added and/or subtracted.

Fractions, like whole numbers can be unit intervals on a number line.

Common fraction, improper fraction, mixed number, denominator, equivalent sets, increment, numerator, proper fraction, term, unit fraction, whole number

GSEs SMPs Instructional Strategies

MGSE4.NF.3 Understand a fraction with a 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in Cooperative Learning:

solving them. Research shows that organizing students into

numerator >1 as a sum of unit fractions .

2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. cooperative groups yields a positive effect on

a. Understand addition and subtraction Students are asked to make an estimate (high overall learning. When applying cooperative

of fractions as joining and separating and low) to determine a reasonable range that learning strategies, keep groups small and

parts referring to the same whole. the possible solution might fall within. don't overuse this strategy-be systematic and

b. Decompose a fraction into a sum of 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the consistent in your approach. Applications:

fractions with the same denominator reasoning of others. After writing down their When grouping students, consider a variety of

in more than one way, recording each own questions, students discuss their question criteria, such as common experiences or

decomposition by an equation. Justify with partners, creating the opportunity to interests. Vary group sizes and objectives.

decompositions, e.g., by using a visual construct the argument of why they chose their Design group work around the core

fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + question, as well as critiquing the questions components of cooperative learning-positive

1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 that others came up with. interdependence, group processing,

+ 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8. 4. Model with mathematics. Once given the appropriate use of social skills, face-to-face

c. Add and subtract mixed numbers with information, the students use that information interaction, and individual and group

like denominators, e.g., by replacing to develop a mathematical model to solve their accountability.

each mixed number with an question.

equivalent fraction, and/or by using 6. Attend to precision. Students use clear and

K-5 Mathematics 2016

properties of operations and the precise language when discussing their

relationship between addition and strategies and sharing their own reasoning with

subtraction. others.

d. Solve word problems involving

addition and subtraction of fractions

referring to the same whole and

having like denominators, e.g., by

using visual fraction models and

equations to represent the problem.

solve word problems involving distances,

intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of

objects, and money, including problems

involving simple fractions or decimals, and

problems that require expressing

measurements given in a larger unit in terms

of a smaller unit. Represent measurement

quantities using diagrams such as number

line diagrams that feature a measurement

scale.

Number Talks Overview

During a Number Talk, the interaction between teacher and students should be like a conversation rather than a report. When the children are

explaining their thinking, the teacher must be genuinely interested in what the children are saying. The teacher naturally interacts with the

children, helping them to clarify and communicate the process they have used. Teachers help students clarify their thinking in several ways: by

asking questions, by describing what the child did, and by writing down the process.

Conversational Prompts: How can adding up help me solve problems? Do you have to add up by a specific amount? Will this always work when

adding? How do you know? Is there an advantage in choosing to add using this method? Explain.

Source: Singapore Math Mental Math: Strategies and Process Skills to Develop Mental Computation Grade 4 (2011)

Engaging students in the content of the lesson is a prerequisite for deep mathematical thinking.

Whole Group - Introduce students to the following picture from Act I of the task, Freeway Exits.

You are in a car on the freeway and see this sign. What comes to mind? What questions could you answer based on this sign?

Utilizing the image above, these questions may be useful in guiding students down the problem solving path by modeling the task:

What units are the fractions measuring in?

How could we use manipulatives to make a model and show this?

Have a general discussion about what the sign means, and then gave the students fraction tiles to make a model of the road. Discuss the

fact that in order to draw a picture of what this road might look like, we would need to scale a mile down to a manageable size.

http://exit10a.blogspot.com/2014/01/you-from-jersey-what-exit.html Example of the task implemented with 4th grade students student work

and teacher notes included.

This mini-lesson reinforces comparing and ordering numbers.

Adding and Subtracting Fractions and Mixed numbers with Like Denominators

Review this PPT with students to address how to:

Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators as both mixed numbers and equivalent improper fractions.

Use mixed numbers and improper fractions interchangeably.

Add and subtract fractional numbers and mixed numbers.

Communicate precisely about their reasoning utilizing mathematical terms: fraction, denominator, equivalent sets, improper fraction,

increment, mixed number, numerator, proper fraction, term, unit fraction, whole number

Level 1 (below grade level) Level 2 (on grade level) Level 3 (above grade level)

Performance Task Three Act Task Performance Task - Three Act Task Freeway Performance Task - Three Act Task Freeway

Freeway Exits: Option 1 Exits: Option 2 Exits: Option 3

Students will work in differentiated groups to

Students will work in differentiated groups to Students will work in differentiated groups to

complete a final product which answers the

complete a final product which answers the complete a final product which answers the

questions presented below by providing

questions presented below by providing questions presented below by providing

multiple representations of the mathematics

multiple representations of the mathematics multiple representations of the mathematics

involved models, numbers and a clear and

involved models, numbers and a clear and involved models, numbers and a clear and

detailed journal entry explaining their findings.

detailed journal entry explaining their detailed journal entry explaining their findings.

Students should be given chart paper and their

findings. Students should be given chart Students should be given chart paper and their

preferred manipulative - fraction tiles

paper and their preferred manipulative - preferred manipulative - fraction tiles

Cuisenaire rods or fraction tower cubes.

fraction tiles Cuisenaire rods or fraction Cuisenaire rods or fraction tower cubes.

Students will be given one of the following

tower cubes. Students will be given one of Students will be given one of the following

pictures of freeway exit signs.

the following pictures of freeway exit signs. pictures of freeway exit signs.

How can you tell which exit is closest

How can you tell which exit is closest How can you tell which exit is closest to

to you?

to you? you?

How can you tell which exit is farthest

How can you tell which exit is farthest How can you tell which exit is farthest

from you?

from you? from you?

How would you show how far apart the

How would you show how far apart How would you show how far apart the

freeway exits are on a map?

the freeway exits are on a map? freeway exits are on a map?

Which exits are closest together?

Which exits are closest together? Which exits are closest together?

Strategies for ESOL/EL Students Model Thinking Aloud: When ELL students articulate their thinking processes through

language, they are enabled to complete activities, identify gaps in their knowledge, and

receive feedback from teachers. Teachers, however, must model this process in order for

students to learn how to use it effectively. When modeling thinking aloud, it is important

for teachers to use visuals and gestures.

Partner Talk: When it comes to working on a math activity of any kind, two heads are

often better than one. Partner talk provides an audience for students thinking aloud and

an opportunity for the teacher to direct students to listen for particular vocabulary and

linguistic structures as they engage in a task with their partner.

Strategies for Gifted Students Ask students to create additional questions to challenge peers

Providing more open tasks (as opposed to structured) in regard to solutions, decisions,

and approaches than less advanced peers

Opportunities for creative production (competitions, mentorships, production in public

venues, etc.)

Strategies for SWD Students should receive additional explicit instruction from the teacher and peer-assisted

instruction once the class begins, along with differentiated assignments during the work

period.

Students may need repetition of directions, elaboration or modeled activities to complete

tasks at depth necessary for mastery.

Closing (Assessment & Lesson Closure)

Whole Group - Share student solutions and strategies.

Why might it be important to know the precise distances between exits on a freeway and how does this relate to operations with

fractions?

How can modeling real-world situations involving fractions using manipulatives help us makes sense of problems and persevere in solving

them?

How can I determine if my answers are reasonable when adding and subtracting fractions and mixed numbers?

2. Compare solutions.

3. Lead discussion to compare these, asking questions such as:

Which strategies did you use to answer the questions?

Is this the only correct answer for this question? How do you know?

Did anyone have another number that satisfied the conditions for this question?

What might you do differently next time?

Student products and presentations will be assessed. Teacher engages students in focused talk, utilizing various Talk Moves as students

present their final products and engage their classmates in discussion of their work. 1. Revoicing or repeating what the student has said. 2.

Restate what one of the peers has said. 3. Reasoning or agreeing or disagreeing with another student by verbally explaining or by using a

K-5 Mathematics 2016

gesture such as thumbs up or down. 4. Adding on or contribute, extend or expand upon what has already been said. 5. Wait Time is utilized so

that students have time to process their own thinking and prepare to talk. Throughout the presentations, the teacher should employ these talk

moves in order to better facilitate the discussion and hold the students accountable to the ongoing conversation.

Differentiated Homework

Level 1 (below grade level) Level 2 (on grade level) Level 3 (above grade level)

1. If the sum of two mixed numbers is 6, 1. Is the sum of 4 + 2 over or under 7? 1.Is the difference of 5 - 3 over or under

what could the two addends be? Explain why or why not. 2? Explain why or why not.

2. Is the sum of 4 + 2 over or under 7? 2. Is the difference of 5 - 3 over or under 2?1. 2. How can you demonstrate how 4 is equal

Explain why or why not. Explain why or why not. to 9/2? Use models, drawings and/or

equations to explain your thinking.

3. Is the difference of 5 - 3 over or under 3. How can you demonstrate how 4 is equal2.

2? Explain why or why not. to 9/2? Use models, drawings and/or equations3. 3. Write two problems that have a difference

to explain your thinking. of 3 4/10?

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