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ARDAGH METAL BEVERAGE USA INC.

BASIC TRAINING MATERIAL FOR


OPERATION OF
WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

AUGUST 1, 2001

Revised on: 3/26/2010, 6/9/2011, 7/14/2016

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

CHAPTER 1 REGULATORY REQUIREMENT 3

CHAPTER 2 DESCRIPTION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM 9

CHAPTER 3 QUALITY CONTROL CHECKS 45

CHAPTER 4 TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURE 58

CHAPTER 5 INSTRUCTIONS FOR WASTEWATER MONITORING 67

CHAPTER 6 STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN PROCEDURES 72

CHAPTER 7 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE 77

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CHAPTER 1

REGULATORY REQUIREMENT

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CHAPTER 1

REGULATORY REQUIREMENT
(THE STANDARDS)

On November 17, 1983, US EPA promulgated wastewater treatment standards for 2-pc

canmakers. The applicable standards for an existing facility (PSES) discharging to a Publicly

Owned Treatment Works (POTW) are as follows:

ALLOWABLE MASS OF POLLUTANTS THAT


CAN BE DISCHARGED TO THE SEWER

POLLUTANT DAILY MAXIUMUM MAXIMUM MONTHLY


AVERAGE
Milligrams/1000 Pounds/1,000,000 Milligrams/1000 Pounds/1,000,000
Cans Manufactured Cans Manufactured Cans Manufactured Cans Manufactured
(mg/M Cans)* (lbs/MM Cans) (mg/M Cans)* (lbs/MM Cans)

mg/M Cans lbs/MM Cans mg/M Cans lbs/MM Cans


Chromium (Cr) 36.92 0.081 15.10 0.033
Copper (Cu) 159.41 0.351 83.90 0.185
Zinc (Zn) 122.49 0.270 51.18 0.113
Fluoride (F) 4992.05 11.001 2214.96 4.883
Phosphorus (P) 1401.13 3.089 573.04 1.263
Manganese (Mn) 57.05 0.126 24.33 0.053
Total Toxic Organics** 26.85 0.059 12.59 0.028
Oil & Grease (O&G) 1678.00 3.699 1006.80 2.220

Effluent samples are to be taken a minimum of once each month or more frequently as

required by the control authority to verify compliance.

PSES Pretreatment Standard Existing Source

* Milligrams/1000 cans manufactured (mg/M cans) equals grams/1,000,000 cans


manufactured (g/MM cans) where M = 1000 and MM = 1,000,000

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** Total Toxic Organics (TTO) optional
The applicable standards for a new facility (PSNS) discharging to a Publicly Owned

Treatment Works (POTW) are as follows:

ALLOWABLE MASS OF POLUTANTS THAT


CAN BE DISCHARGED TO THE SEWER

POLLUTANT DAILY MAXIMUM MAXIMUM MONTLY


AVERAGE
Milligrams/1000 Pounds/1,000,000 Milligrams/1000 Pounds/1,000,000
Cans Manufactured Cans Manufactured Cans Manufactured Cans Manufactured
(mg/M Cans)* (lbs/MM Cans) (mg/M Cans)* (lbs/MM Cans)

mg/M Cans lbs/MM Cans mg/M Cans lbs/MM Cans

Chromium (Cr) 27.98 0.0617 11.45 0.025


Copper (Cu) 120.84 0.2767 63.60 0.140
Zinc (Zn) 92.86 0.205 38.80 0.086
Fluoride (F) 3784.20 8.3435 1679.04 3.702
Phosphorous (P) 1062.12 2.342 434.39 0.958
Manganese (Mn) 43.25 0.095 18.44 0.041
Total Toxic Organics** 20.35 0.045 9.54 0.021
Oil & Grease (O&G) 1272.00 2.804 763.20 1.683

To verify compliance, effluent samples are to be taken a minimum of once each month, or

more frequently as required by the control authority.

PSNS Pretreatment Standard New Source

* Milligrams/1000 cans manufactured (mg/M Cans) equals grams/1,000,000 cans


manufactured (g/MM Cans) where M = 1000 and MM = 1,000,000

** Total Toxic Organics (TTO) optional

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CALCULATIONS TO MEET THE STANDARDS

MASS OF POLLUTANT = CONCENTRATION OF x RATE OF FLOW


DISCHARGED POLLUTANT IN EFFLUENT

(mg/M cans) = (mg/l) x (L/M Cans)

OBTAINED FROM ANALYSIS TOTAL FLOW IN


OF SAMPLE COLLECTED LITERS DURING
(LABORATORY RESULTS) THE 24-HOUR
SAMPLING
PERIOD

TOTAL (M) CANS


MANUFACTURED
DURING THE 24-
HOUR SAMPLING
PERIOD

NOTE:

mg/M Cans = g/MM Cans

lbs/MM Cans = g/MM Cans / 454 g/lb

M = 1000

EXAMPLE:

1. A 24-Hour Composite Sample of the effluent is collected. (Composite Sample means

a sample that is composited or formed by mixing together various smaller samples taken

at regular time intervals of half hour or one hour each during the full 24-hour period.)

Also, on grab sample is collected randomly during the 24-hour sampling period. The 24-

Hour Composite Sample is for the analysis of Cr, Cu, Zn, F, P and Mn. The Grab

Sample is for the analysis of O&G by Method E.

2. The 24-Hour Composite Sample and the Grab Sample are then sent to a local

laboratory for analysis. Plastic and/or glass jars that have been thoroughly cleaned and

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rinsed at least three times should be used. Only glass jars are to be used for O&G

Method E.

3. The laboratory submits the results in terms of concentration (mg/l) of the pollutants in the

sample submitted for analysis.

As an example say the analysis of the sample is:

(mg/l)

Cr - 0.032

Cu - 0.200

Zn - 0.100

F - 12.000

P - 1.000

Mn - 0.050

O&G - 2.000

4. During the 24-hour sampling period Total Flow going through to the sanitary sewer is

also measured. Say it was found to be 132,100 gallons. Then: 132,100 gallons x 3.785

liters/gallon = 500,000 liters.

5. Also the Total Can Production during the 24-hour sampling period is obtained. Say it

was found to be 2000 M cans.

6. Therefore, the Rate of Flow during the sampling period is 250 L/M cans (500,000

Liters/2000 M cans).

7. The MASS OF POLLUTANTS discharged during the sampling period is calculated by

multiplying the concentration of the pollutants supplied by the laboratory by the Rate of

Flow.

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CONCENTRATION OF x RATE OF = MASS OF POLLUTANTS
POLLUTANTS IN FLOW DISCHARGED
EFFLUENT (mg/l) (L/M Cans) (mg/ M Cans)

Cr 0.032 x 250 = 8.00

Cu 0.200 x 250 = 50.00

Zn 0.100 x 250 = 25.00

F 12.000 x 250 = 3000.00

P 1.000 x 250 = 250.00

Mn 0.050 x 250 = 12.50

O&G 2.000 x 250 = 500.00

8. Compare the MASS OF POLLUTANTS discharged (mg/M cans values) with the

Standards (DAILY MAXIMUM AND MAXIMUM FOR MONTHLY AVERAGE).

9. For the example under consideration, all pollutants are within both standards except

FLUORIDE, which is within DAILY MAXIMUM standard but out of standard for

MAXIMUM MONTHLY AVERAGE. In this example, corrective action for reduction of

Fluoride was initiated: Lime addition was increased to reduce Fluoride concentration in

the wastestream.

It will be noted that both the Concentration of Pollutants in the Effluent and the Rate of

Flow have an effect on the Mass of Pollutants discharged. The Concentration of

Pollutants in the Effluent is a function of the effectiveness of the Treatment System whereas

the rate of Flow is governed by the water usage at the washer. In order that the Standard is

met the Treatment System is to be operated efficiently and the flow through the washer has

to be kept as low as possible.

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CHAPTER 2

DESCRIPTION OF WASTEWATER
TREATMENT SYSTEM

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CHAPTER TWO

DESCRIPTION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

The wastewater treatment system is comprised of 5 sub-systems working in unison with each other.
The 5 sub-systems are:

1. TREATMENT OF WASHER EFFLUENT


2. TREATMENT CHEMICAL ADDITION
3. PHYSICAL TREATMENT PROCESS
4. ACIDWASH SYSTEM
5. USED OIL TREATMENT

1. TREATMENT OF WASHER EFFLUENT

The treatment of washer effluent consists of 2 steps:

STEP 1 Waste Chemical Collection

Washer effluent from the washer tanks containing the cleaner and treatment chemicals (counter

flows from washer stages), the D.I. wastes, washer trench wastes and the waste from the

trenches around the treatment system enter Waste Chemical Holding Tank. Hydrated lime

powder stored in the lime silo is mixed in a mixing tank located under the lime silo to form a light

Lime Slurry. The Lime Slurry is pumped or flows by gravity from the mixing tank directly into

the Waste Chemical Holding Tank where a mixer mixes the Lime Slurry with the contents of the

tank. The primary purpose of addition of lime slurry into wastewater effluent is to remove fluoride

and miscellaneous metals. The secondary purpose is to control the condition of sludge developed

at the end of process treatment. The pH in the Waste Chemical Holding Tank can range from 9.5

to 9.8 or higher up to 10.5 if required, to a chemical reaction between the contents of the Waste

Chemical Holding Tank and the Lime Slurry. Lime neutralization and precipitation is also

commonly used for the treatment of wastewaters containing heavy metals. The reactions involve

the removal of metals as Metal Hydroxide precipitants. The contents of the Waste Chemical

Holding Tank carrying the lime slurry with it overflow into the pH Neutralization Tank Stage #1.

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WASTE CHEMICAL HOLDING TANK

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TREATMENT CHEMICALS

1. Lime Ca(OH)2

Precipitation agent for fluoride and heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn, etc.)

2. Phosphoric Acid H3PO4- optional use if required.

Precipitation agent for fluoride. Works in combination with Lime.

3. Cationic Polymer Coagulant

Destabilizes soluble synthetic oil/water emulsions


Particulizes synthetic oil

4. Sulfuric Acid, 66 Baume (93% H2SO4)

pH adjustment

5. Caustic Soda (50% NaOH)

pH adjustment
Precipitation agent for heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn)

6. Anionic Polymer Flocculent

Accentuates solid particle size in an effort to increase the efficiency of the Lamella
Clarifier solid removal system.

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WASTE CHEMICAL HOLDING TANK
(BASIC REACTIONS)

Fluoride Removal

1. Ca(OH)2 = 2F- = CaF2 + 20H-

Heavy Metals Removal

Cu+2 + 2 OH- Cu (OH) 2 pH 8.2 8.6

Zn+2 + 2 OH- Zn (OH) 2 pH 8.0

Mn+2 + 2 OH- Mn (OH) 2 pH 9.0

NOTE: If further fluoride reduction is needed, phosphoric acid is added to pH Neutralization

Tank stage #1.

pH NEUTRALIZATION TANK STAGE #1


(BASIC REACTIONS)

Further Fluoride Removal

1. H3PO4 3H + PO4-3

2. 5Ca(OH)2 + 3PO4-3 Ca5(OH)(PO4)3 + 9OH


Calcium Hydroxyapatite if formed.

3. Ca5(OH)(PO4)3 + F Ca5(F)(PO4)3 + OH-


Calcium Fluorapatite is formed.

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

EFFECT OF PH ON FLUORIDE AFTER LIME

TREATMENT

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

EFFECT OF PH EFFICIENCY OF MANGANESE

REMOVAL USING LIME

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

TYPICAL EFFECT OF PH ON PHOSPHOUROUS

REMOVAL

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STEP 2 pH Neutralization

The contents of the Chemical Waste Holding Tank after mixing with lime slurry,

overflows or is pumped into the pH Neutralization Tank Stage #1. Cationic polymer

(coagulant) and/or Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) are added to the pH Neutralization Tank:

Stage #1. Cationic polymer (coagulant) and/or H3PO4 act as a coagulant aid, assist in

the removal of oil and grease and further removal of the fluoride from the wastestream.

Cationic polymer (coagulant) is a demulsifier that is added for the removal of petroleum

based oil and grease. It destroys the emulsifying properties of oil by neutralizing the

charged oil particles.

Since calcium fluoride solubility is pH dependent, pH adjustment is done in the pH

Neutralization Tank Stage #1. This is the most important step in the wastewater treatment

system.

Caustic or sulfuric acid is added to pH Neutralization Tank Stage #1 as required to adjust

the pH of the pH Neutralization Tank to the optimum pH around 8.0 8.2. The addition of

the acid and caustic is accomplished by the Beckman or equivalent pH Control System.

Returned sludge for the Lamella Clarifier can be added to Stage #1 to assist in sludge

formation prior to being pumped to the Lamella Clarifier. All contents in this tank are mixed

thoroughly to form a uniform chemistry. The effluent overflows from the pH Neutralization

Tank Stage #1 to Stage #2. This stage is also called the Lift station Stage #2.

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

STAGES 1,2 TREATMENT SYSTEMS

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2. TREATMENT CHEMICAL ADDITION

Treatment chemicals are added to the effluent at various points in the system. The treatment

chemicals are added for adjusting pH, sludge conditioning or precipitation of the pollutants.

There are four (4) modes of addition of the chemicals:

MODE 1 Treatment Chemical Additions Using Chemical Metering Injection Pumps pH

adjustment with an Equivalent pH Control Systems:

The chemicals used for pH adjustment are sulfuric acid and caustic. Sulfuric acid and caustic

normally purchased in regular tote tanks from which the chemicals are dispensed using

metering injection pumps which dispense either caustic or acid as required by the pH control

set point in this stage. The pH probe in the effluent stream senses the pH of the effluent

entering Stage #1 pH Neutralization Tank and sends a signal back to the pH Controller.

The Controller then sends a signal to the metering injection pumps which dispense sufficient

quantities of either sulfuric acid or caustic to adjust the pH to the desired set point. The

normal desired set point for this tank is 8.2. If the pH of the effluent stream is below the set

point, the probe will call for addition of caustic. If the pH of the effluent stream is above the

set point, the probe will call for sulfuric acid. The system is completely automatic except for

maintaining a supply of acid and caustic in the tote tanks, cleaning the pH probes once or

twice a shift as required and periodically calibrating the pH probes.

CAUTION

EXTREME CARE SHALL BE TAKEN IN PLACING THE SULFURIC ACID AND CAUSTIC

TOTE TANKS TO INSURE THAT THE PROPER CHEMICAL IS PUMPED THROUGH THE

CORRECT METERING INJECTION PUMPS.

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CAUTION

ENSURE METERING INJECTION PUMPS ARE PROPERLY PRIMED TO OBTAIN THE

CORRECT CHEMICAL DOSAGES. THERE SHOULD BE NO AIR BUBBLES IN THE INLET

AND DISCHARGE SIDES OF PUMPS. TO PRIME THE PUMPS, TURN THE BLACK

ADJUSTMENT SCREW COUNTER CLOCKWISE OF ANTI-SIPHON PRIMING VALVE

LOCATED ON THE DISCHARGE SIDE OF THE PUMPS. RUN WITH VALVE OPEN UNTIL

SOLID STREAM OF FLUID COMES OUT OF BYPASS TUBING. TURN THE SCREW

CLOCKWISE TO CLOSE ANTI-SIPHON VALVE.

CAUTION

DO NOT ADD WATER TO SULFURIC ACID OR CAUSTIC TANKS, DRUMS OR TOTES.

CAUTION

DO NOT MIX CAUSTIC WITH SULFURIC ACID.

CAUTION

USE GLOVES, SAFTY GLASSES AND/OR SAFTEY SHIELD AND CHEMICAL RESISTANT

APRON WHEN HANDLING CAUSTIC, SULFURIC ACID AND ANY OTHER DANGEROUS

CHEMICALS. EXTREME CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO AVOID PERSONAL INJURY.

MODE 2 Treatment Chemicals Metered Metering Injection Pumps:

The treatment chemicals are directly discharged into the effluent stream by metering pumps

that meter the addition of the treatment chemicals at a predetermined rate.

To vary the feed rate of the metering pumps, there are 2 controls available: one regulates the

speed of the pump (0-100% speed) and the other regulates the stroke of the piston (0-100%

stroke). The maximum rating of the metering pump used for this is 60 gpd or any other

capacity. If, however, the speed is set at 50% and the stroke is also set at 50% the pump will

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deliver (.5 x .5) of the maximum 60 gpd or 15 gpd. In other words, the adjusted feed rate of

the pump is the product of (% stroke) X (% speed) X (pump max rating) or in the above case

15 gpd.

The metering pumps are used to dispense Cationic Polymer (Coagulant) and/or Phosphoric

Acid to the pH Neutralization Tank Stage #1. To ensure proper chemical injection feed,

maintain a sufficient supply of cationic polymer (coagulant) and phosphoric acid in the tote

tanks or drums.

CAUTION

USE GLOVES, SAFETY GLASSES, FACE SHIELDS AND APRON WHEN HANDLING

PHOSPHOIC ACID. EXTREME CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO AVOID PERSONAL INJURY.

CAUTION

ENSURE METERING INJECTION PUMPS ARE PROPERLY PRIMED TO OBTAIN THE

CORRECT CHEMICAL DOSAGES. THERE SHOULD BE NO AIR BUBBLES IN THE INLET

AND DISCHARGE SIDES OF PUMPS. TO PRIME THE PUMPS, TURN THE BLACK

ADJUSTMENT SCREW COUNTER CLOCKWISE OF ANTI-SIPHON PRIMING VALVE

LOCATED ON THE DISCHARGE SIDE OF THE PUMPS. RUN WITH VALVE OPEN UNTIL

SOLID STREAM OF FLUID COMES OUT OF BYPASS TUBING. TURN THE SCREW

CLOCKWISE TO CLOSE ANTI-SIPHON VALVE.

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

CHEMICAL INJECTION SYSTEM

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

METERING INJECTION PUMP

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MODE 3 Anionic Polymer Delivered in Solution by Polyblend Mixing System:

The anionic polymer is injected into the system via the flash mix tank. The polymer must be

added in a diluted form at a predetermined rate. The Polyblend Mixing System is utilized to

achieve the desired mix of water to polymer and dosage rate.

BASIC FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF POLYBLEND MIXING SYSTEM:

Please refer to Schematic A. Liquid polymer in solution or emulsion form is drawn from the

drum (1) by an adjustable metering pump (2). Depending on the output rating of the model,

either a diaphragm-type or gear pump may be supplied.

At the same time, the inflow of water from a supply source (3) is regulated by a solenoid

valve (4) and the rate-adjusting valve/rotameter (5). In some models, a differential pressure

regulator is installed between the solenoid valve and rate-adjusting valve.

The polymer and water are injected near the bottom of the mixing chamber (6). The impeller

(7) blends polymer and water in high-energy, low-shear, completely back-mixed environment

to assure complete polymer activation. The blended and activated polymer then exits at the

top of the mixing chamber through the discharge port (8) and is piped to the flash mix tank of

the lamella clarifier.

The polyblend PB-50 or PB-100 series units have a current-to-frequency converter box

mounted and are connected internally to the electronics of the diaphragm metering pump

(LMI). The box has the following features:

LCD digital display in strokes per minute/hour.

Internal/External mode selector switch with SPM or SPH.

Stroke indicator light.

Output increase knob.

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The current to frequency converter box is also called the Remote Output Controller and

Signal Converter. To activate this box, the speed control knob is set to EXTERNAL and

the stroke control knob is set to any desired value (e.g. 60%) on the metering pump of the

polyblend unit. The unit can be operated manually when the mode selector witch is in the

INTERNAL position on SPM or SPH. To increase or decrease the injection rate in strokes

per minute/hour, simply turn the OUTPUT knob clockwise to increase the polymer solution

dosage rate or counterclockwise to decrease the polymer solution dosage rate.

A well-planned polymer injection system is an important step in liquid/solid separation in the

flocculation tank of a clarifier. If floc particles are too small and take a very long time to settle,

an insufficient amount of polymer is being added to the flash-mixing tank. This may mean the

polyblend-metering pump has lost its prime or that the polymer drum is empty. When the

motor/pump switch is in the ON position, the impeller inside the mixing chamber, which is

filled with water starts rotating. The pump should begin to make a clicking sound with a

blinking stroke indicator light upon injecting small amounts of polymer into the mixing

chamber. The water in the mixing chamber will rapidly turn milky or cloudy as the polymer

is injected. If the water in the mixing chamber is clear, the metering pump may have lost its

prime due to a large air bubble in the suction line or the polymer drum may be empty.

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

POLYBLEND MIXING SYSTEMS

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Procedure for Priming a Polyblend Unit

To prime a polyblend unit, the procedure described below should be followed: (Refer to

Schematic B.)

The Primary Accessory Kit contains the following parts:

1. Plastic labcock valve


2. Barbed fitting
3. Syringe

1. Disconnect or turn off power to Polyblend unit.

2. Locate and remove the PVC pipe plug in the clear plastic pump head. Wrap Teflon

tape over the threads of the labcock valve. Hand tighten the valve into place (open

valve).

3. Wrap Teflon tape over threads of the barbed fitting. Hand tighten the fitting into the

labcock valve.

4. Close syringe, push tip of syringe into barbed fitting.

5. Hold tip in the fitting while opening syringe (pull back on plunger).

6. Repeat procedure until polymer enters syringe and the suction tube completely filled with

polymer solution with no air pockets or bubbles. The pump is now primed.

7. Close labcock valve after priming, and remove syringe.

8. Clean syringe and keep it near the unit for future use.

9. Reconnect power to the Polyblend unit.

10. Inspect mixing chamber for polymer injection (milky color).

11. If necessary, repeat steps 1 through 10.

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

POLYBLEND PRIMING ACCESSORY KIT

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MODE 4 Treatment Chemicals Delivered in Slurry as by the Lime Slurry System:

Hydrated lime in powder form is stored in the lime silo and is fed by an accurate feeder into a

lime slurry mixing tank. The accurate feeder is driven by an independent pH control system

programmed to dispense hydrated lime into a lime slurry mixing tank. The pH probe in the

effluent stream senses the pH of the effluent entering in to the Waste Chemical Holding

Tank and sends a signal back to the pH Controller. The Controller then sends a signal to the

accurate feeder which dispenses required quantities of hydrated lime until the desired set

point is reached. The accurate feeder speed will vary based on the effluent pH entering in to

this tank. Fresh water and/or treated water is added to the lime slurry mixing tank, which

mixes the powdered hydrated lime and fresh water to form a light lime slurry. Lime slurry is

then overflowed in to the Waste Chemical Holding Tank. The primary purpose of addition of

lime is to control the amount of Fluoride and miscellaneous metals in the wastestream and

secondary conditioning of the sludge.

3. PHYSICAL TREATMENT PROCESS

The purpose of the physical treatment process is to separate the solids generated by the

chemical treatment process from the wastewater effluent prior to discharge. This process is

carried out in two (2) steps:

A. Flocculation and Clarification

B. Sludge Dewatering

A. Flocculation and Clarification

The effluent from the lift station Stage #2 first enters the flash mix tank attached to the

Lamella Clarifier. An anionic polymer is added to the flash mix tank to assist in the

formation of a good settable floc.

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The polymer is properly mixed in the flash mix tank by an agitator and the effluent then

overflows into the flocculation tank. In the flocculation tank, a secondary gate mixer provides

additional time for the reaction to take place. The flocculation tank discharges into the

clarifier where the solids are settled by gravity and separated from the effluent stream as it

flows out of the clarifier. A portion of the treated effluent from the clarifier is diverted to the

lime slurry mix tank in the lime silo and remaining treated effluent then discharges to the

sanitary sewer. The sludge from the Lamella Clarifier is drawn off from the bottom at a rate

of approximately 5 to 10 gpm and discharged to the Sludge Holding Tank, and/or back to

the pH Neutralization Tank Stage #1 as required.

Refer to the following page for a schematic of a typical Lamella Clarifier.

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

LAMELLA CLARIFIER

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B. Sludge Dewatering

The solids that settle to the bottom of the Lamella Clarifier are drawn off by the air operated

Lamella sludge pump from the bottom of the Lamella Clarifier. The liquid sludge, at this

point, is mostly all water and is pumped to the sludge holding tank and/or to Stage #1 (i.e.,

pH Neutralization Tank). The treated water generated by the Used oil Treatment System is

pumped directly to the waste chemical holding tank where it becomes part of the process.

Air-operated sludge delivery pumps transfer the liquid sludge from the Sludge Holding Tank

for dewatering the sludge in the Filter Press. The liquid sludge passes through the

polypropylene filter media in the Filter Press allowing the water to pass through while

retaining the solids to form a filter cake. When the Filter Press is full (i.e., when the sludge

delivery pump stops pumping), compressed air is forced at 30 35 P.S.I. through the filter to

increase the dryness of the cake. This process is called BLOWING DOWN of filer press

medias. Compressed air for drying the cake is turned off, the press is opened and the filter

press residue is dropped into a dumpster for disposal at a landfill. The filtered water (filtrate)

is returned to the Waste Chemical Holding Tank for further treatment. (See following page

for schematic.)

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

SLUDGE DEWATERING & ACID WASH SYSTEM

4. ACID WASH SYSTEM

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During the filtration cycle, the filter cloth media is the initial barrier that separates the solids

from the liquid; therefore, the filter cloth must remain porous to provide high filtration rate.

During the normal operation, the filter cloth may gradually become plugged with minute

particles, such as those from metal hydroxide sludge. The particles enter the cloth and

become lodged in the depth of the weave, which leads to decreased filtering action. These

particles must be removed periodically to maintain high filtration rates and drier cakes.

Filter cloth washing is required when one of the following factors indicate plugging has

occurred:

1. Initial high filtration pressure.

2. Long filtration cycles.

3. Wet filter cakes.

The most commonly used method with metal hydroxide sludge particles is the Acid Wash

System. The acid wash system is designed to pump a solution of 30% muriatic acid through

the filter press and return to a storage tank. The acid wash system consists of an air

operated acid pump, a 300-gallon acid wash holding tank and all associated piping. To

conduct an acid wash of a filter press you must remove the press from operation and remove

all solids. When press is clean close valve (to drain) open valve (from acid wash holding

tank) and open valve (return line from filter press to acid wash holding tank). Run acid

through press for a minimum of 30 minutes and a maximum of 60 minutes. Upon completion

of wash allow press to drain by gravity and use only air blow down (max 15 psi) to remove

the final traces of the acid. To place press back into service reverse procedure outlined

above.

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OPENING PROCEDURE:
(Refer to Schematic C.)

1. Turn the hydraulic pump switch to the OFF position.

2. Next, turn the SELECTOR switch to the OPEN position. The hydraulic cylinder will

retract, opening the press.

! NOTE: The air supply switch must be in the ON position.

3. When the press is completely open, turn the air supply to the OFF position.

You are now ready to clean the plates. Position the collection dumpsters under the filter

press to be cleaned.

Separate the plates. When the plates are separated, the filter cake will fall to your collection

drums or dumpsters. Refer to the diagram at the top of the next page for proper cleaning

techniques.

! NOTE: Make sure the gasket sealing surfaces are free of filter cake.

When the plates are thoroughly clean, you can close the J-Press and repeat the filtration

process. Follow the instructions under CLOSING PROCEDURE.

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

FILTER PRESS OPENING SYSTEM

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CLOSING PROCEDURE:
(Refer to Schematic D.)

If your air supply is properly connected to the press, the line pressure will register on the

LINE AIR PRESSURE GAUGE as shown below on the standard control panel. Refer to

YOUR J-PRESS SPECIFICATIONS for the required air pressure for your press.

1. Turn the AIR SUPPLY switch to the ON position.

2. Now turn the SELECTOR switch to the CLOSE position. The hydraulic cylinder will

extend and move the follower, along with the plate stack, toward the head end of the

press.

3. Once the hydraulic cylinder is fully extended, turn on the HYDRAULIC PUMP switch.

You will hear the air-oil pump cycling and see the HYDRAULIC PRESSURE rise. The

pumps cycling rate will slow as it reaches the preset closing pressure. Finally, the pump

will stall.

! CAUTION: The HYDRAULIC PUMP switch must be left ON during the


complete process cycle and only turned OFF once the press is ready for opening.

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

FILTER PRESS CLOSING PROCEDURE

5. USED OIL TREATMENT SYSTEM

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The used oil from the various can manufacturing process sources is collected in the Used oil Holding

Tank.

The used oil from the used oil holding tank is transferred to the Used oil Treatment Tank for batch

processing where an estimated 2,800 gallons of used oil can be treated at a time.

The batch processing of the used oil treatment system involves the addition of oil breaking cationic

polymer and a little amount caustic, if necessary, in a continuous mixing operation.

After treatment with the oil breaking cationic polymer and caustic addition, the used oil is mixed for a

period of time after which the mixer is turned off and the contents of the tank are allowed to stand idle

for a period of time.

During this idle period, all the oily particles from oil-in-water emulsions, which are separated during

demulsifier (oil breaking polymer) addition, will float to the top of the tank leaving water at the bottom

portion of the tank. This Used oil Treatment Tank is equipped with an optical sensor with adjustable

sensitivity to detect top layer of demulsified oil from the treated water.

The bottom portion of treated water is discharged into the Waste Chemical Holding Tank via trench

where it becomes part of the continuous process wastewater for final treatment. As soon as the top

layer of demulsified oil comes in contact with the optical sensor, the valve shuts off so that the

demulsified used oil does not discharge into the Waste Chemical Holding Tank.

The top portion of the demulsified used oil is discharged to the Treated Used oil Holding Tank from

which a tanker truck hauls away the treated used oil for final disposal.

The used oil treatment is a physical-chemical separation of oil from water. The physical-chemical

separation consists of the two major steps as follows:

A. PH adjustment with caustic and addition of oil breaking cationic polymer.

B. Physical separation of oil from water.

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INSERT DIGRAM:

USED OIL TREATMENT SYSTEM

Operating Instructions
Used oil Treatment
(Oil De-watering Only)

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Step 1 Push the red cycle start button on the used oil control panel to begin the
transfer of the used oil treatment tank.

Step 2 When level in used oil treatment tank reaches working level (6 below
overflow pipe), turn on tank mixer.

Step 3 Follow dosage determination procedure to determine the amount of


polymer needed to treat the batch.

Step 4 Add amount of cationic polymer as determined from Step 3.

Step 5 Upon completion of adding polymer, continue tank mixing for one hour.

Step 6 After 1 hour of mixing, sample tank to ensure that oil particulization has
taken place.

Step 7 Discontinue mix. Allow treatment tank to stand idle for at least one hour
so the oil/water separation can occur.

Step 8 Discharge the water portion from the oil/water separation by opening the
inch drain line at the bottom of the used oil treatment tank.

Step 9 Adjust the drain valve to maintain a flow rate of 2 5 gpm into the
treatment system.

Step 10 Close the inch discharge line when water draining is completed. Care
must be taken not to allow the oil portion from the oil/water separation
from entering the WWT system. This is normally controlled by the optical
sensor with the adjustable sensitivity installed at the bottom of the tank.

Transfer oil layer to used oil-holding tank.


Step 11
System ready for another batch.
Step 12

Cationic Polymer Used oil Treatment


Dosage Determination

Material Needed

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1 600 ml Beaker
1 5 ml Syringe
1 Magnetic Stirrer and Stirring Bar

Procedure

1. Fill used oil treatment tank to capacity.

2. Turn on mixers.

3. From the top of the used oil tank, pull a representative sample. Decant 500 ml of

the used oil into the 600-ml beaker.

4. Using the magnetic stirrer, slowly mix sample.

5. Check pH. Adjust to 7 9, if necessary, with caustic. Please refer to the pH

adjustment chart for proper treatment dosage.

6. Using the 5-ml syringe, add cationic polymer into the used oil sample at 0.5-ml

intervals.

7. After each addition, visually check for a discernable break in the used oil. The

break is characterized by a solution color change from gray to black. At this pint,

oil particulization will be evident.

8. Discontinue mix.

9. By using the attached chart, determine the amount of gallons of cationic polymer

needed to treat 2750-gallon batch by noting the amount of milliliters needed to

successfully treat the sample.

Cationic Polymer Dosage Ratio


vs.
Milliliters in Beaker

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No. of Gallons of Cationic Polymer to Treat
Milliliters 2750 Gallon Batch

0.25 1.4
0.50 2.8
0.75 4.1
1.00 5.5
1.25 6.9
1.50 8.3
1.75 9.6
2.00 11.0
2.25 12.4
2.50 13.8
2.75 15.1
3.00 16.5
3.25 17.9
3.50 19.3
3.75 20.6
4.00 22.0
4.25 23.4
4.50 24.8
4.75 26.1
5.00 27.5

Please Note:

If a successful oil/water separation is not achieved with 5 milliliters or less, the used oil batch

contains too much oil for a polymer treatment and should be pumped directly into the final

used oil tank.

PH Adjustment Chart

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Caustic Soda Dosage Ratio
vs.
Milliliters in Beaker

No. of Milliliters of Caustic


Milliliters Required to Raise pH to 8.5 9.0

0.1 160 mls


0.2 320 mls
0.3 480 mls
0.4 640 mls
0.5 800 mls
0.6 960 mls
0.7 1120 mls
0.8 1280 mls
0.9 1440 mls
1.0 1600 mls
1.1 1760 mls
1.2 1920 mls
1.3 2080 mls
1.4 2240 mls
1.5 2400 mls
1.6 2560 mls
1.7 2720 mls
1.8 2880 mls
1.9 3040 mls
2.0 3200 mls

Please Note:

1. For caustic soda addition, use a 1.0 milliliter capacity syringe.

2. The caustic dosage addition is based on a final pH range of 7.0 9.0.

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CHAPTER 3

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QUALITY CONTROL CHECKS REQUIRED

To ensure correct operation of the treatment system, certain quality control checks must be

conducted. All quality control observations shall be recorded on the plants computer

terminal. The following should be a representation of the screen for entering the wastewater

treatment system observations in the computer each shift, however the computer screen

varies from facility to facility under QCII program.

1. Clarify of Discharge :XXXXXX (Cloudy/Clear)


2. Waste Chemical Holding Tank pH :XX.XX (pH Units)
3. Neutralization Tank (Stage 1) pH :XX.XX (pH Units)
4. Sanitary Sewer Discharge pH :XX.XX (pH Units)
5. pH Controller Set Point :XX.XX (pH Units)
6. Fluoride :XX.XX (mg/l of Fluoride)
7. Sludge Settleability (1000 250 ml) :XX:XX (time in minutes & seconds)
8. Process Discharge Flow Rate :XXX (gallons per minute)
9. Coagulant Injection: :XX.XX (ml/min)
10. Phosphoric Acid Injection: :XX.XX (ml/min)
11. Anionic Injection: Polymer :XX.XX (Speed%/Stroke%/RotometerGPH)
12. Caustic Tank Level :XXXXXXX (Full/1/2 Full/1/4 Full/Empty)
13. Acid Tank Level :XXXXXXX (Full/1/2 Full/1/4 Full/Empty)
14. Lime Feed :XX.XX (pounds/hour)

The frequency of observation per shift, required for each category of data entry, is stated in

the itemized instructions. However, only the most representative observation per shift is to

be entered on the screen for each category. The itemized instructions follow:

1. Clarity of Discharge

The effluent from the clarifier shall be checked as to clarity (i.e., free of suspended solids,

color, etc.). Observations should be recorded in the plant's computer. The frequency of

this check shall be twice each shift.

2. Waste Chemical Holding Tank pH

Samples are to be collected from the Waste Chemical Holding Tank. At the time the

samples for analysis are collected, the reading on the pH Control System Display should

be noted. The samples are to be analyzed on the laboratory pH meter. The results

obtained on the laboratory meter should be compared against the readings noted on the
one brandone vision 46
pH Control System Display. The frequency of the check is twice per shift with results to

be recorded in plants computer.

Neutralization Tank (Stage #1) pH

Samples are to be collected from the pH Neutralization Tank Stage #1 for analysis. At

the time the samples for analysis are collected, the reading on the pH Control System

Display should be noted. The samples are to be analyzed on the laboratory pH meter.

The results obtained on the laboratory meter should be compared against the readings

noted on the pH Control System Display. The frequency of the check is twice per shift

with results to be recorded in plants computer.

3. Sanitary Sewer Discharge pH

Samples are to be collected from the flume. The samples are to be analyzed on the

laboratory pH meter and recorded twice per shift.

4. pH Controller Set Point

The pH Controller set point is to be noted on the panel and recorded in the plants

computer twice per shift.

5. Fluoride Measurement

See Procedure for Measurement of Fluoride in Appendix A. Frequency of recording is

twice per shift.

6. Sludge Settleability

Collect a sample twice per shift from the flocculation tank of the Lamella Clarifier and

check the settling rate of the sludge. To check the settling rate of the sludge, the following

procedure shall be used:

A. Sample of liquid from flocculation tank shall be collected into a 1,000 ml graduated

cylinder.

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B. The time required for sludge to settle from 1000 ml to 250 ml shall be recorded.

Based on the above check, the polymer shall be either increased or decreased.

Results in minutes and seconds to be recorded in plants computer.

7. Process Discharge Flow Rate

The instantaneous flow rate shall be read from the process discharge flow meter at the

flume and recorded twice each shift in plants computer.

8. Coagulant Injection

Collect a sample of coagulant twice per shift from the discharge point of coagulant

metering injection pump into a 25 ml graduated cylinder for one (1) minute. Results to be

recorded in ml/min in plants computer.

9. Phosphoric Acid Injection (optional)

Collect a sample of phosphoric acid twice per shift from the discharge point of phosphoric

acid metering injection pump into a 25 ml graduated cylinder for one (1) minute. Results

to be recorded in ml/min in plants computer.

10. Anionic Polymer Injection (Flocculent)

Stroke per minute from the polyblend display shall be checked and recorded twice per

shift in plants computer.

11. Caustic Tote Tank Level

The level of the caustic in the Tote tank shall be checked as required. Replace tote tank

immediately when this tank becomes empty. The frequency of this check is twice per shift

and observations shall be recorded in plants computer.

12. Sulfuric Acid Tote Tank Level

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The level of the sulfuric acid in the Tote tank shall be checked as required. Replace tote

tank immediately when this tank becomes empty. The frequency of this check is twice per

shift and observations shall be recorded in plants computer.

13. Lime Feed

Collect a sample of powdered lime from the lime feeder into a 1000-ml plastic pre-

weighted beaker for one (1) minute. Obtain the net weight of the powdered lime placing

the pre-weighted beaker (taking the empty beaker weight into account to zero the scale)

onto weighing scale. Convert the net weight powdered lime obtained in ounces into

pounds (divide by 16, I lb = 16 ounces) and multiply the pound numbers by 60 to obtain

pounds of dry powdered lime feed. Results to be recorded twice per shift in pounds per

hour in plants computer.

720A METER

pH DETERMINATION

1. Push 2nd button and then channel button to get to #2 channel for pH probe.

2. Push mode button until pH is displayed.

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3. Push 1st button.

4. Push calibrate button.

5. Enter number of buffers used, 3 then push yes. (use buffers: 4.0 and 7.0 and 10.0)

6. Immerse pH probe in 4.0 buffer. When meter displays ready enter 4.0 and push yes.

7. Meter will advance to buffer 2. Rinse the probe with D.I. water and immerse into the 7.0

buffer.

8. When meter displays ready enter 7.0 and push yes.

9. Meter will advance to buffer 3. Rinse the probe with D.I. water and immerse into the

10.0 buffer.

10. When meter displays ready enter 10.0 and push yes.

11. Meter will calibrate slope. Push stand-by button.

12. Remove probe, rinse with D.I. water and immerse probe into sample. Push measure

button to get reading.

13. After calibration immerse probe in each buffer and record reading of each. Rinse probe

with D.I. water between each reading.

NOTE: Follow the Operation and Maintenance manual for more detailed instructions.

APPENDIX A

one brandone vision 50


720 METER

PROCEDURE FOR MEASUREMENT OF FLOURIDE

PROCEDURE

1. Use channel #1. Push 2nd button and then channel button until channel #1 is

displayed.

2. Push mode button until you get to CON.

3. Push 1st button.

4. Push calibrate button. Number of standards will be 2.

5. Enter 2 and push yes.

6. Immerse probe in 1 ppm standard. (green)

7. When ready is displayed enter 1.0 and push yes.

8. Rinse probe with D.I. water.

9. Meter will advance to number 2 standard.

10. Immerse probe in 10 ppm standard. (blue) When ready is displayed enter 10.0 and

push yes.

11. Next push stand-by button.

12. Prepare sample:

25 mls of waste water from clarifier discharge and 25 mls of Tisab. Mix well.

13. Rinse probe with D.I water and immerse in sample. Push measure button. Read

directly and record. (ppm = mg/l)

0 to 15 In compliance
16 to 20 Borderline
Above 21 Out of compliance

NOTE: To reset meter if you make a mistake just unplug the meter.
APPENDIX B

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CHEMICAL DOSAGES

The effectiveness of the treatment system is dependent upon the correct dosage of

chemicals being added to the treatment system. The chemical concentrations must remain

the same regardless of the rate of effluent flow through the system.

Given this premise, the dosage of chemicals into the effluent stream shall be adjusted

dependent upon the flow. The method of adjusting the dosage is to adjust the chemical

metering pumps or to add or decrease the amount of lime added to the system through the

accurate feeder.

To assist in the operation, attached to this chapter are two graphs showing the relationships

between pump settings, lime dosage and flow. These graphs are developed for your plant at

the time of startup of the treatment system.

Graph A is the dosage for the phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) addition.

Graph B is the dosage for the lime addition.

To change chemical dosage using Graphs A and B the following steps must be followed

before any changes to chemical dosages are made:

STEP 1: Collect sample from Stage 2 of can washer and check for F using standard

procedure except dilute 50 to 1.

STEP 2: When F is determined, check discharge volume through flume.

STEP 3: Using appropriate chart select flow closest to flow through the flume select

proper flow rate and determine new settings.

The cationic polymer should be regulated by visual observation, i.e., keep increasing

discharge rate till effluent from lamella is clear. However, remember any change in dosages

takes 4 hours for the change to be noticed in the effluent.

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The settings noted in Table 3 have been established from these graphs. These are optimum

settings at which the concentration of the treatment chemicals will result in the most efficient

operation of the treatment chemicals will result in the most efficient operation of the treatment

system for the removal of the pollutants in the effluent stream. In the event the flow

characteristics change due to process modifications, the settings will have to be changed as

well.

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

GRAPH A

DOSAGE FOR PHOSPHORIC ACID

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INSERT DIAGRAM:

GRAPH B

LIME ADDITION

TABLE 3
TREATMENT CHEMICAL ADDITION OPERATING PARAMETERS SETTINGS
one brandone vision 55
The following are the operational settings for the Treatment Chemical Addition Systems,
which will produce the most consistent results:

SETTING DATE OF COMMENT SETTING DATE OF REASON FOR


SETTING CHANGED TO CHANGE CHANGE

MODE 1 Treatment Chemicals Using Metering Injection Pumps


pH adjustment with an Equivalent pH Control

pH Control System

1. Buffer Low

2. Buffer High

3. Slope calibration

4. Slope recall

5. Set pH value

6. Output 0/4 MA

7. Simulate pH

8. Temperature

9. ALM. Pt 1

10. ALM. Pt 2

11. Max on time

12. % Control output

13. Control output

14. Gain

15. Reset

MODE 2 Treatment Chemicals Metered


LMI Metering Pumps:

A. Cationic Polymer

1. Speed %

2. Stroke %

3. ML/MIN

B. Phosphoric Acid Feed Pump


1. Speed %

2. Stroke %

3. ML/MIN

SETTING DATE OF COMMENT SETTING DATE OF REASON FOR


SETTING CHANGED TO CHANGE CHANGE

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MODE 3 Treatment Chemicals Delivered in Solution
as by Polyblend Mixing Systems:

A. Polyblend Polymer System

1. Speed %

2. Stroke %

3. Rotometer
GPH
4. SELECTOR
MODE SWITCH
EXT/INT
SPM/SPH
5. STROKES PER
MINUTE/HOUR

MODE 4 Treatment Chemicals Delivered in a Slurry


as by the Lime Slurry System:

A. Lime Slurry System

1. Lime Feed lbs/hr

one brandone vision 57


CHAPTER 4

TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURE

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CHAPTER 4

TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE

PROBLEM CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION

No Flow through System. Can lines down. No flow All chemical feeds should be
from washer. turned off for semi-automatic
system. Remember to turn
them on when washer
comes back on line.

Lift pumps in operative. Check to see if lift pumps


have been turned off by low
level. If so, no corrective
action if required.

Flow proportional valve not Check to see if low level


operating. slows the lift pump due to
wastewater frequency drive.
If so, no action is required.

Lift pump cavitating due to Put a spare lift pump in


plugged strainer at the base service. Disconnect the
of the pump. discharge pipe at the ball
valve. Flush the pipe with
fresh water at high pressure
to unplug the strainer at the
base of the pump. If flow
from pump is still not
sufficient, arrange for
maintenance personnel to
unplug the strainer.

Ball and/or check valves at Put spare lift pump into


the discharge line are service. Arrange for
clogged with sludge build- maintenance person to
up. remove and clean the valve,
if necessary.

one brandone vision 59


TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE (cont.)

PROBLEM CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION

High liquid level in Stage #2. Lift pumps not operating. Verify that pumps are turned
ON. If not, turn them on. If
ON, but not operating,
contact plant maintenance
for corrective action.

Excessive flow into system. Adjust discharge valves on


lift pumps to restabilize flow
through system. Also check
valves on washer treatment
tanks. Balance the flow by
adjusting the discharge
valves on the washer to stop
excessive flow into the
wastewater treatment
system.

Discharge volume from lift Open discharge valve all the


pumps reduced. way. If flow from pumps is
still weak, switch to spare
pump and request
maintenance to evaluate and
repair.

Discharge volume reduced Bring into service the spare


due to cavitation of lift pump. lift pump. Disconnect the
discharge pipe at the ball
valve and flush the pipe with
high-pressure fresh water to
unplug the strainer at the
base of the pump. If flow
from pump is still
inadequate, request
maintenance to evaluate and
repair.

Excessive flow due to D.I. Collect waste coming from


regeneration waste coming the D.I. regeneration
into system. process into D.I. Columns
Waste Regeneration Tank,
which can be pumped and/or
overflowed slowly into the
system to re-stabilize the
system.

one brandone vision 60


TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE (cont.)

PROBLEM CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION

High liquid level in Stage #2. Ball and/or check valves at Put the spare lift pump in
(cont.) discharge line clogged with service and arrange for
sludge buildup. maintenance to remove and
clean valves.

Low pH Stage #1. No caustic in caustic storage Pump caustic into storage
(i.e., pH<6.0) tank. tank.

Caustic lines control valves Clean and reinstall control


clogged due to buildup of valves.
caustic crystals.

Faulty pH reading. Clean and recalibrate pH


probe. If broken, replace pH
probe.

Metering pump not Check to verify that switch is


responding to signal. turned ON at the pump and
that Selector switch is in
AUTO position. If problem
still exists, notify electrical
maintenance.

High pH Stage #1. No sulfuric acid in sulfuric Pump sulfuric acid into
(i.e., pH>10.0) acid storage tank. storage tank.

Control valves for sulfuric Clean and reinstall control


acid feed lines clogged due valves.
to material buildup.

Metering pump not Check to see that switch is


responding to signal. turned ON at the pump and
that Selector switch is in
AUTO position. If problem
still exists, notify electrical
maintenance.

Faulty pH reading. Clean and recalibrate pH


probe. If broken, replace pH
probe.

Excessive lime slurry. If feasible, reduce feed rate


of lime slurry to waste
chemical holding tank.

one brandone vision 61


TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE (cont.)

PROBLEM CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION

Excessive caustic usage. Metering pump for sulfuric Using a repair kit, rebuild the
acid is siphoning due to pump. Refer to pump
pump diaphragm failure. manual for correct rebuilding
procedure.

Selector switch left in Set Selector switch to the


Manual position using Auto position.
constant amount of caustic.

Large swing in pH range due Fine-tune the pH PID loop


to pumps running against on pH control system to
each other. narrow the pH range swing.

Excessive usage of sulfuric Metering pump for caustic is Using a repair kit, rebuild the
acid. siphoning due to pump pump. Refer to pump
diaphragm failure. manual for correct rebuilding
procedure.

Selector switch left in Set Selector switch to the


Manual position using Auto position.
constant amount of sulfuric
acid.

Large swing in pH range due Fine-tune the pH PID on pH


to pumps running against control system loop to
each other. narrow the pH range swing.

Insufficient floc formation. No polymer feed to flash Polymer drum empty.


mix. Replace and reprime
Polyblend feed unit.

Polyblend unit lost prime. Reprime Polyblend unit. If


problem continues, reduce
length of suction tube to a
minimum.

Polymer feed rate is Adjust Polyblend system to


insufficient. increase polymer feed rate.
Check that the suction side
of Polyblend pump is clog-
free. Refer to Polyblend
manual for procedure.

Insufficient coagulant. Increase coagulant.

High or low pH reading. Take corrective action as


necessary.
one brandone vision 62
TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE (cont.)

PROBLEM CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION

Excessive flock formation. Excess lime. Reduce lime slurry to


optimum level.

Excess solids. Increase coagulant.

Floc floating in Lamella. Excess polymer. Reduce polymer feed to


flock mix tank.

Lamella full. If polymer feed is fine,


proceed to next section.

High sludge level in Lamella. Failure of sludge transfer. Switch to Standby pump.
Arrange repair of failed
pump.

Sludge draw-off rate too low. Increase discharge rate of


pump by increasing air
pressure to pump. If pump
cycles too fast, wash out
suction line and restart
pump.

Lamella plugged with solids. Turn lift pumps off. Increase


rate of sludge transfer
pumps. Empty and clean
lamella.

Sludge cake not dry. Insufficient air blow-down. Increase air blow-down cycle
until dry cake is achieved.

Press opened before it is Increase cycle time.


filled with solids.

Insufficient lime in system. Increase lime slurry to


optimum point.

Filter cloths blinded. Acid wash system needs to


be operated.

one brandone vision 63


TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE (cont.)

PROBLEM CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION

High F reading. Insufficient lime. Increase lime feed rate by


adjusting accurate feeder 50
units at a time, a maximum
increase of 250 units.
NOTE: After each correction,
wait four hours to check
effectiveness before
proceeding.

Incorrect pH. Correct problem with pH.


NOTE: Clean all pH probes
thoroughly before
recalibration or correction.

Insufficient phosphoric acid. Increase phosphoric acid


feed pump by 5 per cent.
Wait four hours to determine
effectiveness. If required,
repeat cycle no more than
five times.

Excessive F discharge from If possible, correct washer


washer. problem. If not, contact
Process Engineering.

High Manganese reading. Incorrect pH. Correct pH problem.

Solids carry over lamella. Correct solids settling


problem.

Excess oil. Increase coagulant.


(cationic polymer)

Excessive discharge from Correct washer discharge. If


washer. still high, contact shift
supervisor.

one brandone vision 64


TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE (cont.)

PROBLEM CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION

Excessive solids carry-over High oil and grease. Correct solids settling
Lamella. problem.

Discharge milky. High oil and grease. Increase coagulant, until


discharge clears. If problem
persists, contact shift
supervisor.

Calcium carbonate buildup Excessive lime slurry. If feasible, reduce feed rate
(hard scale). of lime slurry to waste
chemical holding tank.

Filtrate from filter press is Torn filter cloth. Replace torn filter cloth(s).
dirty (cloudy).
Filter cloth is not in groove. Check to see if cloths are in
grooves.

Filter press is Service the Filter press.


malfunctioning.

one brandone vision 65


WATEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM UPSET

TURBID (CLOUDY) WATER AT FLUME CLEAR WATER, BUT SIGNIFICANT


NO FLOC PRESENT AMOUNTS OF SOLIDS PRESENT AT FLUME

YES YES

NO NO
VERIFY SYSTEM pHS CHECK THE VERIFY SYSTEM pHS
ARE CORRECT FUNCTION OF pH ARE CORRECT
CONTROLLER;
ACID/CAUSTIC FEED
OPERATIONAL, pH
PROBES
YES CALIBRATIONS, YES
REPLACE
BROKEN/WORN OUT
PROBES ETC.

VERIFY FLOCULANT STRANCO VERIFY FLOCCULENT


(ANIONIC POLYMER) NO POLYBLEND NO (ANIONIC POLYMER)
IS FEEDING OPERATIONAL, IS FEEDING
CORRECTLY EMPTY DRUM, FEED CORRECTLY
RATE AT STANDARD
SETTING, PRIME
YES POLYBLEND UNIT. YES
NO
NO
VERIFY LIME FEED IS SLURRY SLUDGE VERIFY
OPERATIONAL. MECHANISM REMOVAL PUMP LAMELLA
OPERATIONAL, FEED OPERATIONAL, CLARIFIER
RATE AT STANDARD CLARIFIER OPERATION.
SETTING. SATURATED
WITH SLUDGE,
YES FILTER PRESSES
ARE FULL AND YES
NO
SLUDGE BUILDS-
UP IN THE
SYSTEM ETC.

VERIFY COAGULANT NO CHEMICAL FEED VERIFY LIME FEED IS


(CATIONIC POLYMER) PUMP OPERATIONAL, CORRECT.
FEED IS CORRECT. EMPTY DRUM, FEED
RATE AT STANDARD
SETTING, ETC. YES
YES

NO NO
INCREASE CONTACT SHIFT INCREASE
COAGULANT FEED SUPERVISOR. FLOCCULENT AT
RATE TO IMPROVE INTERVALS OF 5%
CLARITY. OUTPUT FEED RATE
TO IMPROVE CLARITY.

one brandone vision 66


CHAPTER 5

INSTRUCTIONS FOR WASTEWATER MONITORING

one brandone vision 67


ARDAGH BCA SAMPLING INFORMATION

WASTEWATER SAMPLE KIT INFORMATION

Sample kits will contain:

Proper sample containers, with preservatives, to perform the necessary routine analysis
at your facility. The CHAIN OF CUSTODY RECORD for your facility, included with each
kit, indicates the permit requirements. Please review this for accuracy. If you know of
discrepancies, please contact Diana Mockler at TEST AMERICA Laboratories
immediately. If you require extra analysis and are unsure of sample container needs,
please contact TEST AMERICA Laboratories.

One (1) Wastewater Pretreatment Self-Monitoring Report page in plastic envelope


(make copy for your files after completion)

One TEST AMERICA Laboratories Chain of Custody Record. Chain of custody forms
will eventually all be preprinted, meaning that all you need to do is fill in the sample
date/time/etc. and sign the form. Again, if you see discrepancies, please contact TEST
AMERICA Laboratories. If you are requesting additional analysis, please complete a
separate Chain of Custody record for the additional parameters.

Complete the self-monitoring report page. If the monitoring report page is not complete,
sampling must be repeated. This monitoring report, in addition to all required paperwork,
must be placed in the plastic bag inside the sample kit return cooler.

Cooler and Bottle Packing:


Coolers will have proper labels included. A temperature blank will be included with each
cooler. You do not have to do anything to this bottle; simply leave it in the cooler. When the
cooler is received at the lab, the temperature of the water in this bottle will be documented.
The sole purpose of the temperature blank is to ensure that the cooling practices being
employed during shipping are sufficient as to not affect the integrity of the sample. Sampling
guidelines in the Code of Federal Regulations indicate that samples should be stored at 4C
+ 2C.

Pack glass containers in a matter to ensure that they will not break in shipping. Bubble wrap
will be included with each cooler shipped after September 30, 1996. TEST AMERICA
Laboratories recommends that you utilize this bubble wrap by wrapping each individual glass
container at least twice with the bubble wrap.

Finally, each cooler must be packed in ice, not only ice packs. Place ice in large Zip Lock
Bags, clearly labeled ICE PACK. Two bags per cooler should be utilized if space permits.
The cooling demands change, obviously with the weather, so common sense and feedback
from the receiving lab will control the final amount of ice required. As previously mentioned,
sample temperature upon receipt at the laboratory should be 4C + 2C.

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WASTEWATER SAMPLING GUIDELINES

SAMPLING PROCEDURE:
1. Read the Wastewater Pretreatment Self-Monitoring Report form and be prepared to
complete this report.
2. Be certain the composite sample container, located in the plant sampler, is clean. The
bottle should be thoroughly cleaned at the end of each sampling period.
3. Enter the information on the Wastewater Pretreatment Self-Monitoring Report form
required for the start of the sampling (time sampling started, flow meter reading, etc.).
4. Commence sampling.
5. Twenty-four (24) hours later, turn the sampler to the OFF position.
6. It is recommended that disposable gloves be worn at all time when handling samples and
sample containers.
7. Mix the composite sample thoroughly.
8. Open each bottle in the kit identified as a COMPOSITE sample. Be certain to stand up
wind since the sample bottles contain preservatives, which can create fumes and cause
skin irritation. Do not spill the preservatives.
9. Again, mix the composite sample thoroughly and quickly fill each bottle identified as a
COMPOSITE sample.
10. Replace caps quickly after filling the containers.
11. Grab samples for Fats, Oil, and Grease (FOG) should be collected directly in the glass
bottle or bottles. BE SURE TO WEAR LATEX/RUBBER GLOVES WHEN COLLECTING
THE FOG SAMPLE. The bottles should be placed into the stream and filled completely,
allowing as little rinsing effect as possible in the bottle. The FOG bottles should not be
filled using another container unless it is necessary (i.e., you cannot get the glass bottle
into the stream to allow it to fill completely). If you have a problem with this, please
contact TEST AMERICA Laboratories at 219-464-2389. They will be happy to discuss a
procedure with you. TEST AMERICA Laboratories provides sample containers with
preservative already in place. If you are concerned that it may not be feasible to obtain a
sample and keep the acid in the bottle, check the pH following collection. The pH must be
below 2.0. If you cannot achieve this, please contact TEST AMERICA Laboratories.
12. Place sample containers in coolers.
13. Take another grab sample from the flume and measure the pH of the grab. Enter the
value of pH on the Self-Monitoring report form.
14. Complete the Wastewater Pretreatment Self-Monitoring Report and make one (1) copy
for your records.
15. Place the original Wastewater Pretreatment Self-Monitoring Report in the plastic
envelope provided and place it in the mailing pack.
16. Clean your composite sample container thoroughly between sample events. Be sure to
place it where it will not be used for any other purpose until the next sampling.
17. Wash hands.
18. Pack coolers in ice, taking necessary precautions with the glass bottles. All paperwork
should be placed in a large zip-lock bag. Return address labels will be in each cooler.
19. Seal the cooler using shipping or duct tape and ship to the designated TEST AMERICA
Laboratories facility via next day air service (Federal Express, UPS, or equivalent).

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INSERT:

ARDAGH BCA WASTEWATER PRETREATMENT

SELF MONITORING REPORT

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INSERT:

EXAMPLE FORM TO INCLUDE WITH CHAIN-OF-

CUSTODY

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CHAPTER 6

STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN PROCEDURES

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CHAPTER 6

STARTUP WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

SECTION 1: Initial Startup of a Wastewater Pre-treatment System:

The initial startup of the wastewater pre-treatment system requires that the following

steps be followed in the order listed:

Step 1: Check all valves and piping to ensure that flow from all components is

directed to proper location (i.e., lift pump to inlet of the lamella, lamella

sludge transfer pumps to sludge holding tank, filter press feed pumps to

filter press, used oil delivery pumps to used oil tank, used oil sludge

pump to sludge holding tank, and discharge from lamella to sanitary

sewer through flow monitoring device, etc.).

Step 2: Fill all oilers for air operated diagram pumps and set pump regulators at

initially 30 psi to start.

Step 3: Calibrate the metering injection pumps, the polyblend units, and the

accurate lime feeder. Generate the dosage charts relating output of

metering equipment to concentration and flow through the system. For

general procedure, see attachment.

Step 4: Adjust set point on Beckman or equivalent pH control unit to 8.0 allow

system to stabilize. To set the Beckman or equivalent pH control unit,

see the manual.

Step 5: Energize the Swaby lift pumps, thereby starting the process effluent

through the wastewater pre-treatment system.

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Step 6: Start lime slurry system initial accurate setting 300 indicated on digital

counter on side of accurate feeder.

Step 7: Start lamella sludge transfer pump. The lamella transfer pump pumps

sludge from lamella to the sludge holding tank regulator. The pump

should be set at 30 psi.

Step 8: Start chemical injection metering feed pump at setting to give 50 ppm in

stage #1 Check dosage chart prepared in Step 3 for proper setting. The

flow is obtained from the flow monitoring system.

Step 9: Start polyblend feed system at a setting to give 25-ppm polymer in

wastestream. Check dosage chart prepared in Step 3 for proper

setting. The flow is obtained from the flow monitoring system.

Step 10: When the sludge holding tank is full and overflowing to the trench, start

filter feed pumps to the filter press (start-up instructions for filter press, as

per manual).

Step 11: Start up flow monitoring system by turning power on to the flow monitor.

For start-up of sampler, see instructions in manual.

Upon completion of above, the system is ready to be fine-tuned and operated.

SECTION 2: Fine-tuning of Wastewater Treatment System

Fine-tuning of the wastewater treatment system requires that all components operate

as a single unit, which will generate a treated effluent of a quality, which will meet the

discharge limitations. To assist in the fine-tuning of the system, the following is

provided:

A. To fine-tune the coagulant concentration in the wastewater, the metering injection

pump should be set at 75% rated capacity. After system has reached equilibrium

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(approx. 6 hours), the dosage rate should be reduced till the effluent from lamella

clouds: once cloudiness is observed, note settling and increase 15%.

B. To fine-tune the lime slurry feed rate, determine the quantity of fluoride

concentration limit on a monthly average basis required for the discharge into

sanitary sewer. To determine the quantity of fluoride in discharge of lamella, see

procedure outline in Chapter 3. Start optimizing the lime feed rate until the fluoride

concentration is below the monthly average concentration limit mentioned in the

wastewater permit. Leave the lime feeder running about 10%-15% higher than the

optimum value.

To adjust the lime slurry feed; you increase or decrease the amount of lime

delivered to the lime slurry tank through the accurate feeder, which is

accomplished by changing the digital setting on the lime feeder.

C. Fine-tuning of the polymer dosage requires that the settling rate of the floc in the

flocculation tank of the lamella be determined. The optimum settling rate is 300

ml/min. in the flocculation tank. To determine the settling rate, follow procedures

outlined in Chapter 3 of this manual. Adjustments to the polymer are made by

adjusting the polymer feed to the Polyblend unit; the feed is adjusted by varying

the speed and stroke of the LMI pump associated with the unit.

Adjustments to the feed rate shall be made until the desired settling rate is

determined (i.e., 300 ml/min. once the desired settling rate is determined).

D. pH: To determine optimum pH, samples are to be collected and analyzed by the

lab with the results reviewed and optimum pH for treatment selected.

E. Sludge Draw-off Rate: The sludge draw-off rate from the lamella is related to the

state at which the sludge is formed. The optimum sludge draw-off rate is a rate

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that will maintain the sludge level in the lamella between the bottom sample drain

and top sample drain.

Upon completion of fine-tuning of the wastewater pretreatment system, a report will be

attached to this manual which will show settings, operating parameters, sludge settling

rate, etc. If a problem develops, the system should be returned to original settings and

Environmental Health & Safety Department should be notified.

SECTION 3: Normal Shutdown and Startup Procedure

The procedure which is to be followed to shut down and restart the wastewater treatment

system, is as follows:

Step 1: Shut off all chemical feed systems.

Step 2: Shut manual valves just prior to acid and caustic Fox Boro valves.

Step 3: When filter press is full, empty solids from the press and do not put back

into service (this needs to be done only if plant will be down more than

48 hours).

Step 4: Turn off all air pumps, i.e., Lamella sludge transfer pumps, filter press

feed pumps and acid or caustic feed pumps.

Step 5: Turn off flash mixer on Lamella.

Step 6: Turn off flocculating mixer on Lamella.

Step 7: Turn off all automatic monitoring equipment.

Step 8: System down.

As will be noted from above Steps, we have not turned off the lift pumps, mixers and pH

Control System. These three are left on as a safety precaution in case the washer develops

any problem. When you get ready to start-up the wastewater treatment system just reverse

steps 1 through 7.

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CHAPTER 7

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

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CHAPTER 7

PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE

To insure continuous and trouble free operation of the wastewater treatment system the

following preventive maintenance needs to be done.

ITEM FREQUENCY ACTION REQUIRED

1. Check oil level in the 1/month If low, fill to correct level


flash mixer. with recommended oil.

2. Check oil level in 1/month If low, fill to correct level


flocculating mixer. with recommended oil.

3. Check oil level in oilers 1/day Fill with recommended oil.


for all air operated
pumps.

4. Clean all pH probes. 2/shift Immerse in 10% solution


muriatic for 30 seconds,
then reinstall.

5. Acid wash filter press. 1/month Press to be taken out of


service and an acid wash
cycle conducted.

6. Calibrate all pH 1/week Follow the calibration


probes. procedure from the
manual.

7. Lamella cleaning. 1/week Pump system down to


minimum. Turn Lamella
sludge transfer pumps up
to maximum discharge
rate when Lamella is
draining. Wash down all
plates. When Lamella is
fully drained, restart
system.

8. Grease Lift pumps. 1/month Grease to manufacturers


recommendation.

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9. Mixer vibration. 1/week If mixer has excessive
vibration check mounting
bolts. Tighten if required.
If still vibrates, pull shaft
and clean chemical build
up off the blades.

10. Lime silofilter bags. 1/nine months Replace all filter bags: 4
1/year required.

11. Filter press cloths. 1/quarter Replace all cloths that


show sign of wear and
tear.

12. Filter press plates O 1/year Replace all worn o rings.


rings.

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