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Hildegard Peplaus

Theory of Interpersonal
Relations
Presented by Group 1: Pamela Beringer,
Kimberly Hargrove, Sheila Lucas, Miranda
Peterson
Ferris State University
1931
Peplau graduated from Pottstown Hospital
School of Nursing where she assisted in
surgery
She remained at Pottstown hospital where
she was the operating room Supervisor
She also headed the staff at Bennington
College infirmary

Peplau, H. (2004). Peplau, Hildegard E. September 1, 1909-March 17, 1999. Notable American Women: Completing the Twentieth Century, Retrieved from
http://0-www.credoreference.com.libcat.ferris.edu/entry/hupnawiii/peplau_hildegard_e_september_1_1909_march_17_1999
During World War II Peplau enlisted in the U.S.
Army Nurse Corps
During this time she was assigned to the School
of Military Neuropsychiatry in England where
she met the worlds top Psychiatrists
At Bellevue Psychiatric Department of New York
City Womens Disturbed Service, Peplau
worked as a staff nurse for a short period of
time.

Peplau, H. (2004). Peplau, Hildegard E. September 1, 1909-March 17, 1999. Notable American Women: Completing the Twentieth Century, Retrieved from
http://0-www.credoreference.com.libcat.ferris.edu/entry/hupnawiii/peplau_hildegard_e_september_1_1909_march_17_1999
Continued Education
At the age of thirty-three Peplau received
her BA in Interpersonal Psychology in
1943 from Bennington College
In 1947 at Teachers College of Columbia
University in New York Peplau received an
MA in teaching and supervision of
psychiatric nursing.

Peplau, H. (2004). Peplau, Hildegard E. September 1, 1909-March 17, 1999. Notable American Women: Completing the Twentieth Century, Retrieved from
http://0-www.credoreference.com.libcat.ferris.edu/entry/hupnawiii/peplau_hildegard_e_september_1_1909_march_17_1999
1948-1953
Peplau was the first nurse educator to
advocate baccalaureate education for
nurses
She received a Ed.D in curriculum
development from Columbia in 1953

Peplau, H. (2004). Peplau, Hildegard E. September 1, 1909-March 17, 1999. Notable American Women: Completing the Twentieth
Century, Retrieved from http://0-
www.credoreference.com.libcat.ferris.edu/entry/hupnawiii/peplau_hildegard_e_september_1_1909_march_17_1999
1954-1974
Peplau was an instructor and advanced to
Head of the Department of Psychiatric
Nursing and the Graduate Program in
Psychiatric Nursing
She developed first graduate program in
clinical specialist in psychiatric nursing at
Rutgers University

Peplau, H. (2004). Peplau, Hildegard E. September 1, 1909-March 17, 1999. Notable American Women: Completing the
Twentieth Century, Retrieved from http://0-
www.credoreference.com.libcat.ferris.edu/entry/hupnawiii/peplau_hildegard_e_september_1_1909_march_17_1999
Writings
In 1948 Peplau finished
her book Interpersonal
Relations in Nursing but
no one would publish it
without a physician co-
author
1953 Peplaus book
was finally published by
G. Putnam and Sons
without a co-author

Peplau, H. (2004). Peplau, Hildegard E. September 1, 1909-March 17, 1999. Notable American Women: Completing the
Twentieth Century, Retrieved from http://0-
www.credoreference.com.libcat.ferris.edu/entry/hupnawiii/peplau_hildegard_e_september_1_1909_march_17_1999
Many Regard Dr.
Peplau as the
mother of
psychiatric
nursing.
Sills, G., Peplau, A., & Reppert, B., (1999). Hildegard Peplau 1909-1999. Hildegard Peplau Nursing Theorist Homepage, Retrieved
October 16, 2009, from http://publish.uwo.ca/~cforchuk/peplau/obituary.html.
Peplau looked at both
the patient and the
nurse. Her theory is
based on promoting
health thru a
partnership

Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2008). Advancing your career. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis


Company p.72
Interview with Hildegard Peplau

Hildegard. (Nov 2007). Retrieved on Oct 14, 2009 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ZvwNVVWyZ4


Peplaus traditional Metaparadigm
theory
Person: Individual that lives in a unstable
environment with physiological,
psychological a fluidity
Health: A word symbol that implies
forward movement of personality and
other ongoing human processes in the
direction of creative, constructive,
production, personal and community
living

Forchuk, C. (1991). Peplau's Theory: Concepts and Their Relations. Nursing Science Quarterly, 4(2), 54-60
Peplaus traditional Metaparadigm
theory (cont.)
Environment: Forces
existing outside the
organism and in the
context of culture in
which mores,
customs and beliefs
are acquired (p. 163)

Johnson, L. (2006). Providing a Framework for the Nurse-Patient Relationship: The Nursing Theory of Hildegard Peplau. A History
of Nursing Ideas, Retrieved October 16, 2009, from
http://books.google.com/books?id=pJnYFMQLa_MC&printsec=copyright&source=gbs_pub_info_s&cad=2#v=onepage&q=&f=fals
e
Nursing:

Is an educative instrument, a
maturing force, that aims to
promote forward movement of the
personality in the direction of
creative, construction, productive,
personal and community living.

Forchuk, C. (1991). Peplau's Theory: Concepts and Their Relations. Nursing Science Quarterly, 4(2), 54-60.
What does that all mean?

Lets find out


Person: Which has been revised to
Human being
This represents:
Patient
Family Member
Group
Community Receiving Care
Health: Which is the primary goal of
nursing
We have to look at what type of nursing does our patient
need.

Physiological
Demands
Interpersonal Needs
(Personal and Social)

(Peplau, 1952, p. 6).


Environment: This is viewed as being
and occurring in the context of the Nurse-
Patient relationship

Mores: The nurse needs to accept the


patients cultural group.
Customs: What beliefs may affect the
patients care
Nursing: It is not just focusing on the sick
it is a way to help people to stay well

Goal as Nurses:
Promote forward movement in:
Creative
Constructive
Productive
Personal
Community living of
our patients
Peplau, 1952
Peplaus theory in
the real world (or
clinical setting)
Always remember the focus is on
the nurse-patient relationship!
Lets get back to the
basics first!
Theory is based upon four
basic components:
1.) Nurse
2.) Patient
3.) Knowledge of the nurse
4.) Patients problem
Four distinct phases are
distinguished:
1.) Orientation
2.) Working
A.) Identification
B.) Exploitation
3.) Termination
Orientation
Phase is primarily one-way
contact
Peplau, H. (1997). Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(4), 162-167.
Retrieved from http://nsq.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/4/162
Orientation
1.) Nurse introduces self to the patient
2.) Nurse describes the purpose of the
interaction as well as the time available
3.) Interview, health history and assessment
occur
4.) Tone set for future interaction

Peplau, H. (1997). Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(4), 162-167. Retrieved from
http://nsq.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/4/162
Orientation

The nurses attention during this phase is


focused on the patient.

Peplau, H. (1997). Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(4), 162-167. Retrieved from
http://nsq.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/4/162
Orientation
Focus of the nurse is:
Listening
Hearing
Asking descriptive questions to get the
patients description and prompt them to
talk

Peplau, H. (1997). Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(4), 162-167. Retrieved from
http://nsq.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/4/162
Factors influencing Orientation phase
Theory of Interpersonal Relations. (2009, March 16). Retrieved October 1, 2009, from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/interpersonal_theory.htm
Working
As the name suggests, most work
occurs during this phase.
Working
Nurses must always remember that
discharge planning begins during the
working phase of treatment.

Application of Interpersonal Theory in Nursing Practice. (2009, March 16). Retrieved October 12, 2009, from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_Peplau%27s_interpersonal_theory.htm
Working

Phase consists of
2 Subphases:

Peplau, H. (1997). Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations. Nursing


Science Quarterly, 10(4), 162-167. Retrieved from
http://nsq.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/4/162
Working
Identification
Thepatient learns how to use the nurse-
patient relationship
Patient participates in goal setting

Nurse role is to encourage patient to


explore feelings related to illness
Application of Interpersonal Theory in Nursing Practice. (2009, March 16). Retrieved October 12, 2009, from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_Peplau%27s_interpersonal_theory.htm
Working
Exploitation

Nurse role is to project new goals which the


patient can meet through personal effort.

Application of Interpersonal Theory in Nursing Practice. (2009, March 16). Retrieved October 12, 2009, from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_Peplau%27s_interpersonal_theory.htm
Termination

Work accomplished is
summarized
Closure of the
relationship is
provided

Application of Interpersonal Theory in Nursing Practice. (2009, March 16).


Retrieved October 12, 2009, from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_Peplau%
27s_interpersonal_theory.htm
Fotosearch. (2009). Retrieved October 11, 2009 from
www.fotosearch.com
Overlapping
phases
of the nurse-patient relationship
Application of Interpersonal Theory in Nursing Practice. (2009, March 16). Retrieved October 12, 2009, from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_Peplau%27s_interpersonal_theory.htm
Peplaus theory and
patient assessment
Communication is the
key!
Effective communication causes
the nurse to take on many
different roles throughout the
relationship
Stranger Role
Treat a patient with courtesy, the same as
one would a stranger in any other situation
Provide an accepting climate to build trust
Do not prejudge the patient, accept them
as they are.

http://www.geocities.com/nishatoor/nursingroles.html
Resource Role
Answer questions
Interpret medical information
Give information

http://www.geocities.com/nishatoor/nursingroles.html
Teaching Role
Peplau suggested two levels of teaching:
Instructional giving direction and
providing training
Experiential using the experience of the
learner as a basis from which learning
products are derived.

http://www.geocities.com/nishatoor/nursingroles.html
Counseling Role
Provide guidance and encourage patient
to make necessary changes
Help client understand current situation
and incorporate it into life

http://www.geocities.com/nishatoor/nursingroles.html
Surrogate Role
Nurse acts as an advocate for patient
Also, assists patient to clarify dependence,
interdependence, and independence.

http://www.geocities.com/nishatoor/nursingroles.html
Leadership Role
Assist the patient in meeting treatment
goals
Involves the democratic process

http://www.geocities.com/nishatoor/nursingroles.html
ADDITIONAL
-Technical expert
ROLES -Consultant
-Health teacher
-Tutor
-Socializing agent
-Safety agent
-Manger of environment
-Mediator
-Administrator
-Recorder observer
-Researcher
Theory of Interpersonal Relations. (2009, March 16). Retrieved October 16, 2009, from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/interpersonal_theory.htm
Now lets use what weve
learned in an actual setting
Case Study:
25 year old female patient presents with
complaints of severe abdominal pain with
nausea and vomiting over the past several
weeks. Patients last menstrual period
was six weeks ago. She also has a history
of drug and alcohol abuse.
Case Study Orientation phase

Nurse introduces herself, asks questions, and


obtains a health history and assessment
Nurse helps to identify problem (i.e. abdominal
pain with nausea and vomiting)
Both the patient and the nurse are in the
stranger role at this time and must gain mutual
trust
Case Study - Working phase
Identification
Nurse and patient identify the problems to
address:
Abdominal pain

Nausea/Vomiting

Alcohol Abuse
Case Study - Working phase
Goals will be set:
Patient will have a decrease in abdominal pain
and N/V
Patient will enter counseling regarding ETOH
abuse and attend support meetings
Patient will begin seeing an OB/GYN due to
positive pregnancy test
Case Study - Working phase

The nurse will act as a counselor and


advocate throughout this phase

http://www.testandcalc.com/Richard/resources/Remembering%20Peplau%20-%20Vision%20-%20Lakeman.pdf
Case Study - Working phase
Exploitation
Education and resources provided regarding
alcohol abuse during pregnancy
Hospital resources used for abdominal pain
diagnosis (including pregnancy test/labs, CT/x-
ray, ultrasound)
Case Study - Working phase

The nurse will serve many roles


throughout this phase including teacher,
resource person, advocate, and mediator.

http://www.testandcalc.com/Richard/resources/Remembering%20Peplau%20-%20Vision%20-%20Lakeman.pdf
Case Study Termination Phase
Problems are resolved:
Patient is free of abdominal pain and N/V
Patient continues follow up appointments
with OB/GYN
Patient has a plan to attend meetings and
counseling to deal with ETOH abuse
Video of Peplaus Theory of
Interpersonal Relations

Peplau Theory. (Aug 2009). Retrieved on Oct 14, 2009 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EuW25fEj-
ao&feature=related
There are 4 components to Peplaus
Clinical Methodology

Observation Communication Recording Data Analysis

(p. 72)

Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2008). Advancing your career. Philadelphia, PA: F. A.Davis Company.


Observation:
Has 4 elements to consider in how the nurse-patient
relationship will develop.

Nurses behavior:
The patient observes the nurses actions:
Time spent with patient (Is it quality time?)
Does she seem interested?
Tone of voice
Body language
Sincerity
Eye contact
How the nurse acts depends on the
patients responsiveness.
Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2008). Advancing your career. Philadelphia, PA: F. A.Davis Company.
Patients behavior:
The nurse observes the patients actions
Tone of voice
Body language
Facial expressions
Comprehension of conversation
Interest in conversation
Eye contact
The method of response depends on the
patients actions and the nurses
understanding of the meaning.

Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2008). Advancing your career. Philadelphia, PA: F. A.Davis


Company.
Interpersonal Phenomena
Patient and nurse observe what is
happening between them
Is there tension in relationship?
Does nurse understand patients
communication (verbal & nonverbal)?
Is patient receptive to nurses communication?

Is nurse receptive to patients need?


Observation of what goes on between the
patient and the nurse (p. 72).
Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2008). Advancing your career. Philadelphia, PA: F. A.Davis Company.
Communication
Interpersonal techniques
Verbal interventions
Principle of clarity
Questioning to force a response
Principles of continuity
Nurse takes bits and pieces of conversation
over time and assists in patient understanding
of problem and care
Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2008). Advancing your career. Philadelphia, PA: F. A.Davis
Company.
Recording
Charting of the communication
Observations
Outcomes for further evaluations
Continuity of care

Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2008). Advancing your career. Philadelphia, PA: F.


A.Davis Company. p. 73)
Data Analysis
Testing of the nurses hunches about the
patient
Identify the phase communication occurred
Identify the roles each took in the phase

Identify the connection with other relations


that may have had impact
Identify what brings satisfaction/security with
other relationships related to problem

Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2008). Advancing your career. Philadelphia,


PA: F. A.Davis Company. p. 73)
Nursing Education

Nursing Process
Peplaus definition
of Nursing Process
Nursing Process is a deliberate
intellectual activity that guides the
professional practice of nursing in
providing care in an orderly,
Current Nursing (2009)
systematic manner.
Nursing Process
Assessment

Nursing
Diagnosis
Planning

Implementation

Evaluation
Assessment
~ Nurse and patient meet as
strangers
~ Assessment is preformed
together to gain
information
Patient helps plan their own
healthcare goals

Gives feelings of belonging and


encourages independence
Mutually agreed
upon goals are
carried out
Final Stage

Evaluation

Resolution
Phase
~ Occurs when other
phases are completed
successfully

~ Relationship between
the nurse and patient is
over
Current Research
Status
Types of Research

Journals Courey (2008)

Process Recordings Peterson


(2009)

Independent Research
Journals
Journal Examples
Journal of the American Psychiatric
Nurses Association
Public Health Nursing

British Journal of Nursing

Journal of Psychiatric and Mental


Health Nursing
Journal of Advanced Nursing
Used to monitor effectiveness
of such theories currently

Explain new research

Used in educational research


Process Recordings
What are process recordings?
Process recordings are written reports of
verbal and nonverbal interactions between
people.
Helps evaluate the situation

Used as a tool for educational


development
Used as a tool to monitor effectiveness
Independent Research
Variable types of independent research
Does Peplaus theory work in long term care?
Does Peplaus theory work in short tem care?
Does Peplaus theory only work on a psychiatric level?
Does Peplaus theory work with every single person?
Downfalls of Research
Poor economy
Causing restricted, fragmented, minimal research efforts

Research has been inconsistent and scattered throughout


different countries.
Most research has been qualitative, not qualitative.

Forchuk & Reynold (1998), Peterson (2009)


Needed Nursing Research

Quantitative and Qualitative research with


positive healthcare outcomes
Research that would verify this theorys
contemporary value.

Jones, 1996
Unique to Peplaus
theory
Peplau's theory encouraged
nurses to work with patients,
instead of working for them.
PEPLAU, Hildegard E.. September 1, 1909-March 17, 1999. (2004). In Notable American Women: Completing the Twentieth
Century. Retrieved from http://0-
www.credoreference.com.libcat.ferris.edu/entry/hupnawiii/peplau_hildegard_e_september_1_1909_march_17_1999
Unique to Peplaus
theory
Theory is based upon
elements of psychology
Unique to Peplaus
theory
Peplau is considered the founder
of mental health/psychiatric
nursing
Unique to Peplaus
theory
First nursing theory to qualify
nursing as a profession, not a
mere skill
Unique to Peplaus
theory
According to Peplau, The kind of
person that the nurse becomes
makes a substantial difference in
what each patient will learn as he
or she receives nursing care.
Masters, K. (2005). Role development in professional nursing practice (pp. 46-47). Sudbury, MA: Jones and
Bartlett Publishers.
Unique to Peplaus
theory
Peplaus book, Interpersonal
Relations in Nursing, was initially
not published because it was not
co-authored by a medical doctor.
http://www.testandcalc.com/Richard/resources/Remembering%20Peplau%20-%20Vision%20-%20Lakeman.pdf
Unique to Peplaus
Theory
Peplau believed fostering personality
development toward maturity is a function
of nursing and nursing education. Nursing
uses principles and methods that guide
the process toward resolution of
interpersonal problems.
Masters, K. (2005). Role development in professional nursing practice (pp. 46-47). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Strengths
Promotes a trusting
relationship between
the nurse and patient
At the termination
phase the theory
promotes
independence on the
part of the client
Current Nursing. (2008). Nursing Theories: A companion to
nursing theories and models: Theory of Interpersonal
Relations. Retrieved on October 8, 2009 from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/interpersonal_theory
.htm
Limitations
Provides for a
dependent
relationship on the
part of the client at
the beginning of the
interaction
Requires that the
patient has a trusting
relationship with
every nurse assigned Current Nursing. (2008). Nursing Theories: A companion
to nursing theories and models: Theory of Interpersonal
Relations. Retrieved on October 8, 2009 from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/interpersonal_th
eory.htm
Limitations
Many factors can
influence the
relationship process,
such as:
Values
Race
Beliefs
Past
Experiences
Expectations
Current Nursing. (2008). Nursing Theories: A
companion to nursing theories and models: Theory of Preconceived Ideas
Interpersonal Relations. Retrieved on October 8,
2009 from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/interpersona
l_theory.htm
Analysis of overall
model
Studies continue to show that
interpersonal sensitivity, as
stressed by Peplau, increase
positive patient outcomes.
http://www.nnvawi.org/pdfs/alo/Draucker_Hildegard_Pelplau.pdf,
McNaughton, D. (2005). A Naturalistic Test of Peplaus's Theory in Home Visiting. Public Health Nursing, 22(5),
429-438. doi:10.1111/j.0737-1209.2005.220508.x,
Thelander, B. L. (1997). The psychotherapy of Hildegard Peplau in the treatment of people with serious mental
illness. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 33. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from
http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5000508687
Illustration of Peplaus theory in
practice
Douglass, J. L., Sowell, R. L., & Phillips, K. D. (2003). Using Peplau's theory to examine the psychosocial factors associated with HIV-
infected women's difficulty in taking their medications. Journal of Theory onstructionandTesting, 7(1), 10.
Analysis of model
Nursing is a significant, therapeutic, interpersonal
process. It functions co-operatively with other human
processes that make health possible for other individuals
in communities. In specific situations in which a health
team offers health services, nurses participate in the
organization of conditions that facilitate natural ongoing
tendencies in human organisms. Nursing is a educative
instrument maturing force, that aims to promote forward
movement of personality in the direction of creative,
constructive, productive, personal and community living.
(Peplau, H.E. (1991). Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. New York, N.Y.:
Springer Publishing Retrieved on Oct 15, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=ck8-E6FL-
1UC&printsec=frontcover&dq=interpersonal+relations+in+nursing&lr=#v=onepage&q=&f=false p. 16)
References
Advanced Downtown Aquatic Physical Therapy. (2008). Retrieved
October 11, 2009, from http://www.adaptpt.com/
Application of Interpersonal Theory in Nursing Practice. (2009, March 16).
Retrieved October 12, 2009, from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_Peplau%27s_inte
rpersonal_theory.htm
Courey, T.L., Martsolf, D.S., Draucker, C.B., Strickland, K.B. (2008). Hildegard
Peplaus Theory and the Health Care Encounters of Survivors of Sexual
Violence. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association. 14(2) 137-143
Retrieved on Oct 13, 2009 from
http://www.nnvawi.org/pdfs/alo/Draucker_Hildegard_Pelplau.pdf
Current Nursing. (2008). Nursing Theories: A companion to nursing theories
and models: Theory of Interpersonal Relations. Retrieved on October
8, 2009 from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/interpersonal_theory.htm
Dhillon, H., Toor, N. (2000). Nursing Roles. Retrieved on Oct 8, 2009 from
http://www.geocities.com/nishatoor/nursingroles.html
References (cont.)
Douglass, J. L., Sowell, R. L., & Phillips, K. D. (2003). Using Peplau's theory to examine
the psychosocial factors associated with HIV-infected women's difficulty in taking
their medications. Journal of Theory onstructionandTesting, 7(1), 10.
Fotosearch. (2009). Retrieved October 11, 2009 from www.fotosearch.com
Forchuk, C., (2007). Hildegard Peplau Nursing Theorist Homepage. Retrieved on Oct
15, 2009 from http://publish.uwo.ca/~cforchuk/peplau/hpcb.html
Forchuk, C., & Reynolds, B. (1998). Guest editorial interpersonal theory in nursing
practice: the Peplau legacy. Journal of Psychiatrick and Mental Health Nursing.
39(5). 193-196.
Hildegard. (Nov 2007). Retrieved on Oct 14, 2009 from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ZvwNVVWyZ4
Jones, A. (1996). Education and debate. The value of Peplaus theory for mental health
nursing. British Journal of Nursing. 5(14). 877-881.
John Hopkins University. (2009). Research Activities. Retrieved October 11,2009 from
www.son.jhml.edu/research
Johnson, L. (2006). Providing a Framework for the Nurse-Patient Relationship: The
Nursing Theory of Hildegard Peplau. A History of Nursing Ideas, Retrieved October
16, 2009, from
http://books.google.com/books?id=pJnYFMQLa_MC&printsec=copyright&source=gbs
_pub_info_s&cad=2#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Kearney- Nunnery, R. (2008). Advancing Your Career: Concepts of Professional Nursing
(4th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.
References (cont.)
Lakeman, R. Remembering Hildegard Peplau. Retrieved on Oct 8, 2009 from
http://www.testandcalc.com/Richard/resources/Remembering%20Pepl
au%20-%20Vision%20-%20Lakeman.pdf
Marriner-Tomey, A., Raile-Alligood, M. (2006). Nursing Theorists and Their Work
(6th ed.). St. Louis, MO.: Mosby Elsevier.
Masters, K. (2005). Role development in professional nursing practice (pp. 46-47).
Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
McCarthy, C.T., Aquino-Russell, C. (2009). A Comparison of Two Nursing
Theories in Practice: Peplau and Parse. Nursing Science Quarterly. 22;
34. Retrieved on October 6, 2009 from http://0-
nsq.sagepub.com.libcat.ferris.edu/cgi/reprint/22/1/34
McNaughton, D. (2005). A Naturalistic Test of Peplau's Theory in Home
Visiting. Public Health Nursing, 22(5), 429-438. Retireved on Oct 13,
2009 from doi:10.1111/j.0737-1209.2005.220508.x
Peplau, H.E. (1991). Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame
of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. New York, N.Y.: Springer
Publishing Retrieved on Oct 15, 2009 from
http://books.google.com/books?id=ck8-E6FL-
1UC&printsec=frontcover&dq=interpersonal+relations+in+nursing&lr=
#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Peplau, H. (1997). Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations. Nursing Science
Quarterly, 10(4), 162-167. Retrieved Oct 11, 2009 from
http://nsq.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/4/162
References (cont.)
Peplau, Hildegard E., Sept 1, 1909- March 17, 1999. (2004). Notable
American Women: Completing the Twentieth Century. Retrieved Oct
11, 2009 from http://0-
www.credoreference.com.libcat.ferros.edu/entry/hupnawiii/peplau_hild
egard_e_september_1_1909_march_17_1999
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EuW25fEj- ao&feature=related
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