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# Strain Transformation 10

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
The transformation of strain at a point is similar to the transformation
of stress, and as a result the methods of Chapter 9 will be applied
in this chapter. Here we will also discuss various ways for measuring
strain and develop some important material-property relationships,
including a generalized form of Hookes law. At the end of the chapter,
a few of the theories used to predict the failure of a material will be
discussed.

## 10.1 Plane Strain

As outlined in Sec. 2.2, the general state of strain at a point in a body is
represented by a combination of three components of normal strain, Px ,
Py , Pz , and three components of shear strain gxy , gxz , gyz . These six
components tend to deform each face of an element of the material, and
like stress, the normal and shear strain components at the point will vary
according to the orientation of the element. The strains at a point are
often determined by using strain gauges, which measure normal strain in
specified directions. For both analysis and design, however, engineers
must sometimes transform this data in order to obtain the strain in other
directions.

485
486 C H A P T E R 10 S T R A I N T R A N S F O R M AT I O N

## z To understand how this is done, we will first confine our attention to a

study of plane strain. Specifically, we will not consider the effects of the
components Pz , gxz , and gyz . In general, then, a plane-strained element
is subjected to two components of normal strain, Px , Py , and one
Px dx Py dy component of shear strain, gxy . Although plane strain and plane stress
each have three components lying in the same plane, realize that plane
stress does not necessarily cause plane strain or vice versa. The reason for
this has to do with the Poisson effect discussed in Sec. 3.6. For example, if
Pz dz the element in Fig. 101 is subjected to plane stress sx and sy , not only
are normal strains Px and Py produced, but there is also an associated
sx
normal strain, Pz . This is obviously not a case of plane strain. In general,
x sy
y then, unless n = 0, the Poisson effect will prevent the simultaneous
occurrence of plane strain and plane stress.

## Plane stress, sx , sy, does not cause plane

strain in the xy plane since Pz 0.

Fig. 101
10.2 General Equations of Plane-Strain
Transformation
y
It is important in plane-strain analysis to establish transformation
equations that can be used to determine the x, y components of normal
and shear strain at a point, provided the x, y components of strain are
Py dy
A gxy known. Essentially this problem is one of geometry and requires relating
2 the deformations and rotations of line segments, which represent the
gxy
dy sides of differential elements that are parallel to each set of axes.
2
B
x
O Sign Convention. Before the strain-transformation equations can
dx Px dx
(a) be developed, we must first establish a sign convention for the strains.
With reference to the differential element shown in Fig. 102a, normal
y strains Px and Py are positive if they cause elongation along the x and y
y
axes, respectively, and the shear strain gxy is positive if the interior angle
AOB becomes smaller than 90. This sign convention also follows the
corresponding one used for plane stress, Fig. 95a, that is, positive sx , sy ,
x txy will cause the element to deform in the positive Px , Py , gxy directions,
respectively.
u The problem here will be to determine at a point the normal and shear
x strains Px , Py , gxy , measured relative to the x, y axes, if we know Px ,
10 Py , gxy , measured relative to the x, y axes. If the angle between the x and
(b) x axes is u, then, like the case of plane stress, u will be positive provided
it follows the curl of the right-hand fingers, i.e., counterclockwise, as
Positive sign convention
shown in Fig. 102b.
Fig. 102
10.2 GENERAL EQUATIONS OF PLANE-STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 487

## Normal and Shear Strains. In order to develop the strain- y

transformation equation for Px , we must determine the elongation of y
x
a line segment dx that lies along the x axis and is subjected to strain
components Px , Py , gxy . As shown in Fig. 103a, the components of the
line dx along the x and y axes are dy u
dx
x
dx = dx cos u dx
(101)
dy = dx sin u Before deformation

(a)
When the positive normal strain Px occurs, the line dx is elongated y
Px dx, Fig. 103b, which causes line dx to elongate Px dx cos u. Likewise, y x
when Py occurs, line dy elongates Py dy, Fig. 103c, which causes line dx
to elongate Py dy sin u. Finally, assuming that dx remains fixed in
dx Px dx cosu
position, the shear strain gxy , which is the change in angle between dx
and dy, causes the top of line dy to be displaced gxy dy to the right, as u
x
shown in Fig. 103d. This causes dx to elongate gxy dy cos u. If all three dx Px dx
of these elongations are added together, the resultant elongation of dx Px dx sinu
Normal strain Px
is then
(b)
y
dx = Px dx cos u + Py dy sin u + gxy dy cos u

Py dy cosu
From Eq. 22, the normal strain along the line dx is Px = dx>dx. u
Py dy
Using Eq. 101, we therefore have y u x
Py dy sinu

dx

Normal strain Py

(c)
y
y

xy

u
gxy 10
dy
dy
dx
x
dx

## Shear strain gxy

The rubber specimen is constrained between
the two fixed supports, and so it will undergo (d)
plane strain when loads are applied to it in the
horizontal plane. Fig. 103
488 C H A P T E R 10 S T R A I N T R A N S F O R M AT I O N

y
y
y
gxy dy sinu g dy gxy dy cos u x
xy y
u
gxy
dy dy x
dy
dx
b dx a
dy
x
dx dy dx u
Shear strain gxy x

(d) (e)

## The strain-transformation equation for gxy can be developed by

considering the amount of rotation each of the line segments dx and dy
undergo when subjected to the strain components Px , Py , gxy . First
we will consider the rotation of dx, which is defined by the
counterclockwise angle a shown in Fig. 103e. It can be determined by
the displacement caused by dy using a = dy>dx. To obtain dy,
consider the following three displacement components acting in the y
direction: one from Px , giving -Px dx sin u, Fig. 103b; another from Py ,
giving Py dy cos u, Fig. 103c; and the last from gxy , giving - gxy dy sin u,
Fig. 103d. Thus, dy, as caused by all three strain components, is

## dy = -Px dx sin u + Py dy cos u - gxy dy sin u

Dividing each term by dx and using Eq. 101, with a = dy>dx, we have

## As shown in Fig. 103e, the line dy rotates by an amount b. We can

determine this angle by a similar analysis, or by simply substituting
u + 90 for u into Eq. 103. Using the identities sin1u + 902 = cos u,
cos1u + 902 = - sin u, we have

## b = 1-Px + Py2 sin1u + 902 cos1u + 902 - gxy sin21u + 902

10 = - 1 -Px + Py2 cos u sin u - gxy cos2 u

## Since a and b represent the rotation of the sides dx and dy of a

differential element whose sides were originally oriented along the x
and y axes, Fig. 103e, the element is then subjected to a shear strain of

## gxy = a - b = - 21Px - Py2 sin u cos u + gxy1cos2 u - sin2 u2 (104)

10.2 GENERAL EQUATIONS OF PLANE-STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 489

y y
y y

x x

dy u dy u
dx dx
x x

(a) (b)

Fig. 104

## Using the trigonometric identities sin 2u = 2 sin u cos u, cos2 u =

(1 + cos 2u)>2, and sin2 u + cos2 u = 1, we can rewrite Eqs. 102 and
104 in the final form

Px + Py Px - Py gxy
Px = + cos 2u + sin 2u (105)
2 2 2

= - sin 2u +
gxy Px - Py gxy
cos 2u (106)
2 2 2

## These strain-transformation equations give the normal strain Px in the

x direction and the shear strain gxy of an element oriented at an angle
u, as shown in Fig. 104. According to the established sign convention,
if Px is positive, the element elongates in the positive x direction,
Fig. 104a, and if gxy is positive, the element deforms as shown in
Fig. 104b.
If the normal strain in the y direction is required, it can be obtained
from Eq. 105 by simply substituting 1u + 902 for u. The result is
10
Px + Py Px - Py gxy
Py = - cos 2u - sin 2u (107)
2 2 2

The similarity between the above three equations and those for plane-
stress transformation, Eqs. 91, 92, and 93, should be noted. By
comparison, sx , sy , sx , sy correspond to Px , Py , Px , Py ; and txy , txy
correspond to gxy>2, gxy>2.
490 C H A P T E R 10 S T R A I N T R A N S F O R M AT I O N

## Principal Strains. Like stress, an element can be oriented at a point

so that the elements deformation is caused only by normal strains, with
no shear strain. When this occurs the normal strains are referred to as
principal strains, and if the material is isotropic, the axes along which
these strains occur will coincide with the axes that define the planes of
principal stress.
From Eqs. 94 and 95, and the correspondence between stress and
strain mentioned above, the direction of the x axis and the two values of
the principal strains P1 and P2 are determined from

gxy
tan 2up = (108)
Px - Py

C
+
2 2
Px + Py Px - Py gxy
P1,2 = ; (109)
2 2 2

Complex stresses are often developed Maximum In-Plane Shear Strain. Using Eqs. 96, 97, and 98,
at the joints where the cylindrical
the direction of the x axis, and the maximum in-plane shear strain and
and hemispherical vessels are joined
together. The stresses are determined by associated average normal strain are determined from the following
making measurements of strain. equations:

tan 2us = -
Px - Py
(1010)
gxy

B
g in-plane
max
Px - Py 2 gxy 2
= a b + a b (1011)
2 2 2

Px + Py
Pavg = (1012)
2

Important Points

In the case of plane stress, plane-strain analysis may be used within the plane of the stresses to analyze the
data from strain gauges. Remember, though, there will be a normal strain that is perpendicular to the
10
gauges due to the Poisson effect.
When the state of strain is represented by the principal strains, no shear strain will act on the element.
The state of strain at a point can also be represented in terms of the maximum in-plane shear strain. In this
case an average normal strain will also act on the element.
The element representing the maximum in-plane shear strain and its associated average normal strains is
45 from the orientation of an element representing the principal strains.
10.2 GENERAL EQUATIONS OF PLANE-STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 491

EXAMPLE 10.1
A differential element of material at a point is subjected to a state
of plane strain Px = 500110-62, Py = - 300110-62, gxy = 200110-62,
y

## which tends to distort the element as shown in Fig. 105a. Determine

gxy
the equivalent strains acting on an element of the material oriented at
2
the point, clockwise 30 from the original position.

Py dy
SOLUTION
The strain-transformation Eqs. 105 and 106 will be used to solve the dy
gxy
problem. Since u is positive counterclockwise, then for this problem
2
u = - 30. Thus, x
dx
Px + Py Px - Py gxy Px dx
Px = + cos 2u + sin 2u (a)
2 2 2 y
500 + 1-3002 500 - 1- 3002
= c d110-62 + c d110-62 cos121-3022
y
2 2
200110 2
+ B R sin121-3022
-6

2
Px = 213110-62 Ans. u ! 60"

= - sin 2u +
gxy Px - Py gxy
cos 2u
2 2 2 x

## 500 - 1 - 3002 200110-62

u ! #30"

= -c d110 2 sin121-3022 +
-6
cos121 -3022
2 2
gxy = 793110-62
(b)
Ans. x
y
The strain in the y direction can be obtained from Eq. 107 with
u = - 30. However, we can also obtain Py using Eq. 105 with gx y
u = 601u = - 30 + 902, Fig. 105b. We have with Py replacing Px , 2

Px + Py Px - Py gxy Pydy
Py = + cos 2u + sin 2u dy
2 2 2
500 + 1-3002 500 - 1 - 3002
= c d110-62 + c d110-62 cos1216022
2 2 10
200110-62 dx
+ sin1216022 gxy
2 Pxdx 2
Py = - 13.4110-62 Ans. (c) x

These results tend to distort the element as shown in Fig. 105c. Fig. 105
492 C H A P T E R 10 S T R A I N T R A N S F O R M AT I O N

EXAMPLE 10.2
A differential element of material at a point is subjected to a state
of plane strain defined by Px = - 350110-62, Py = 200110-62, gxy =
80110-62, which tends to distort the element as shown in Fig. 106a.
Determine the principal strains at the point and the associated
y
gxy orientation of the element.
2
SOLUTION
Py dy
Orientation of the Element. From Eq. 108 we have
gxy
tan 2up =
dy Px - Py
80110-62
gxy
2
1- 350 - 2002110-62
x =
dx Px dx
Thus, 2up = - 8.28 and -8.28 + 180 = 171.72, so that

(a)
up = - 4.14 and 85.9 Ans.
Each of these angles is measured positive counterclockwise, from the x
axis to the outward normals on each face of the element, Fig. 106b.
y y
Principal Strains. The principal strains are determined from Eq. 109.
We have

B
Px + Py Px - Py 2 gxy 2
P1,2 = ; a b + a b
2 2 2
1 -350 + 2002110 2
P1dy

; B b + a b R 110-62
-6

B
- 350 - 200 2 80 2
= a
2 2 2
85.9!
x = - 75.0110-62 ; 277.9110-62
P1 = 203110-62 P2 = - 353110-62
4.14!
Ans.
x
P2dx
We can determine which of these two strains deforms the element in
(b) the x direction by applying Eq. 105 with u = - 4.14. Thus,
Fig. 106 Px + Py Px - Py gxy
Px = + cos 2u + sin 2u
2 2 2

## = a b110-62 + a b110-62 cos 21 - 4.142

- 350 + 200 - 350 - 200
10
2 2
80110-62
+ sin 21 - 4.142
2
Px = - 353110-62
Hence Px = P2 . When subjected to the principal strains, the element
is distorted as shown in Fig. 106b.
10.2 GENERAL EQUATIONS OF PLANE-STRAIN TRANSFORMATION 493

EXAMPLE 10.3
A differential element of material at a point is subjected to a state
of plane strain defined by Px = - 350110-62, Py = 200110-62,
gxy = 80110-62, which tends to distort the element as shown in
Fig. 107a. Determine the maximum in-plane shear strain at the point
and the associated orientation of the element. y

SOLUTION
Orientation of the Element. From Eq. 1010 we have
1- 350 - 2002110-62
Py dy

tan 2us = - = -
Px - Py A gxy

80110 2
-6 2g
gxy dy xy
2
Thus, 2us = 81.72 and 81.72 + 180 = 261.72, so that B
x
us = 40.9 and 131 O
dx Px dx
Note that this orientation is 45 from that shown in Fig. 106b in (a)
Example 10.2 as expected.
y
Maximum In-Plane Shear Strain. Applying Eq. 1011 gives
(gxy)max (gxy)max

B
g in-plane
max
Px - Py 2 gxy 2
a b + a b
y
= 2 2
2 2 2 x

= B b + a b R 110-62
B
-350 - 200 2 80 2
a
2 2 40.9!
Pavgdy Pavgdx
= 556110-62
dx
g in-plane
max Ans. dy x

## Due to the square root, the proper sign of g max

in-plane
can be obtained by
(b)
applying Eq. 106 with us = 40.9. We have
gxy Px - Py gxy Fig. 107
= - sin 2u + cos 2u
2 2 2
80110-62
= -a b110-62 sin 2140.92 +
-350 - 200
cos 2140.92
2 2
gxy = 556110-62

## This result is positive and so g max

in-plane
tends to distort the element so
that the right angle between dx and dy is decreased (positive sign 10
convention), Fig. 107b.
Also, there are associated average normal strains imposed on the
element that are determined from Eq. 1012:
Px + Py
110-62 = - 75110-62
-350 + 200
Pavg = =
2 2
These strains tend to cause the element to contract, Fig. 107b.