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Internal Combustion
Engine Handbook

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Other SAE International Books of Interest

Modern Engine Technology from A to Z


By Richard van Basshuysen and Fred Schfer
(Product Code R-373)

Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines, Fourth Edition


By Richard Stone
(Product Code R-391)

Laser Diagnostics and Optical Measurement


Techniques in Internal Combustion Engines
By Hua Zhao
(Product Code R-406)

Engine Combustion: Pressure Measurement and Analysis


By David R. Rogers
(Product Code R-388)

An Introduction to Engine Testing and Development


By Richard D. Atkins
(Product Code R-344)

Automotive Fuels Reference Book, Third Edition


Paul Richards
(Product Code R-297)

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(Product Code R-409)

For more information or to order a book,


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Internal Combustion
Engine Handbook
2nd
Edition

Basics, Components, System,


and Perspectives

Edited by
Richard van Basshuysen and Fred
Schfer
Translated by
TechTrans

Warrendale, Pennsylvania

USA

Copyright 2016 SAE International


eISBN: 978-0-7680-8287-6

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400 Commonwealth Drive


Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 USA
E-mail: CustomerService@sae.org
Phone: +1 877-606-7323 (inside USA and
Canada)
+1 724-776-4970 (outside USA)
Fax: +1 724-776-0790

Copyright 2016 SAE International. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval


system, or transmitted, in any form by any means,
without the prior written permission of SAE International. For
permission and licensing requests, contact:

SAE Permissions, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 USA;


e-mail: copyright@sae.org; phone: +1-724-
772-4028; fax: +1-724-772-4891.

Printed in the United States of America


SAE Order No. R-434
http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/r-434

Handbuch Verbrennungsmotor: English


Internal combustion engine handbook: basics, components, systems, and
perspectives /
edited by Richard van Basshuysen and Fred Schfer.
1152 p.20.32 cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-7680-8024-7
1. Internal combustion engines.
2. I. van Basshuysen, Richard, 1932
II. Schfer, Fred, 1948 III. Title.

Library of Congress Control Number: 2015959682

Information contained in this work has been obtained by SAE


International from sources believed to be reliable. However,
neither SAE International not its authors guarantee the accuracy or
completeness of any information published herein
and neither SAE International nor its authors shall be responsible for
any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use
of this information. This work is published with the understanding that
SAE International and its authors are supplying
information, but are not attempting to render engineering or other
professional services. If such services are required, the
assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought.

ISBN-print 978-0-7680-8024-7 ISBN-PDF 978-0-7680-8287-6


ISBN-epub 978-0-7680-8289-0 ISBN-prc 978-0-7680-8288-3

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Translation from the German language edition:


Handbuch Verbrennungsmotor
By Richard van Basshuysen and Fred Schfer
Copyright 2012 Vieweg+Teubner Verlag
Vieweg+Teubner Verlag is a part of Springer Science+Business Media
All Rights Reserved

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Foreword to the Second


English Edition
The complexity of a modern internal combustion engine is
valuable help throughout their studies. Furthermore, it is
certainly one of the reasons why one person is no longer able
intended to be a useful advisor for patent lawyers, the motor
to comprehensively present all the important interplays in
vehicle trade, government offices, journalists, and interested
their full depth. Perhaps it is also one of the reasons why
there members of the general public.
has been no complete work on this subject to date anywhere.
The question of the future of the internal combustion engine
Although a large number of technical books deal with certain
is reflected in many new approaches to the solution of the
aspects of the internal combustion engine, there has been no
problems concerning, for example, fuel consumption and
publication until now that covers all of the major aspects of
environmental compatibility. Particularly under these aspects,
diesel and SI engines.
by comparison with the alternatives, it is not difficult to predict
The more than 100-year development of the internal combus-
that the reciprocating piston engine and its use in mobility
tion engine has resulted in an enormous amount of important
will probably remain with us in its fundamental elements
information and detailed knowledge on the different demands,
for many years to come. New drive systems always face the
the large number of components, and their interactions. With
problem of having to compete with more than 100 years of
an updated and expanded volume of more than 1200 pages,
development with enormous development capacities worldwide.
1793 illustrations and more than 1300 bibliographical refer-
This surely applies to the electric drive of carscontrary to
ences, all essential technical aspects of the internal
combustion the euphoria created by the body politic.
engine are represented.
In addition to the presentation of the present-day status of
It was, therefore, a particular endeavor of the publishers
motor development, it is important to answer the questions: In
to place emphasis in all the right places and thus to present
what direction is the internal combustion engine developing?
a work that closes significant gaps in the technical literature.
How do we assess its potential regarding fuel consumption,
Of particular note is the fact that this revision and expansion
cost optimization and environmental impact after more than
was produced in a very short time and, therefore, effectively
one hundred years of development? What options are offered
reflects the current high status of the present-day technical
by future alternative fuels? Are there competing systems
development and permits a glance into the future.
that could replace it in the coming decades? This book tries
The editors were extremely keen to present theory and
to give conclusive answers to these questions on the basis of
practice in a balanced ratio. This was achieved, in particular,
present knowledge.
by harnessing the cooperation of more than 120 authors from
Even though the main focus of the book is on the car
science and industry. With their help, a publication has been
engine, certain basic aspects also relate to the commercial
created that is a unique source of information and advice
vehicle engine. It is also innovative that different aspects
in the day-to-day work of education, research, and practice.
of the gasoline engine as compared with the diesel engine
It is aimed, in particular, at specialists involved in
science and are illustrated in this book. Will there be any fundamental
practice in the automotive, engine, mineral oil, and accessories
difference between the gasoline and the diesel engine in a few
industry and at students for whom it is designed to provide
years? We have only to look at the growing approximation

Internal Combustion Engine Handbook|v

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Foreword to the Second English Edition

between gasoline and diesel engines: Gasoline engines with


taken into account and the influences of the engine applica-
direct injectionin the future perhaps diesel engines with
tion on CO2 emission has been demonstrated. At other places,
homogeneous combustion.
the content has been updated to the current state of the art,
Our special thanks go to all the authors for their construc-
where required, and the bibliographical references have been
tive and disciplined collaboration and their understanding
completed. More than 1,300 bibliographical references are now
of the difficult task it is to coordinate the contributions of so
provided which will add even more benefits for the reader.
many participants. Of particular mention is the punctuality
Thanks to Vieweg+Teubner Verlag and the editors Ewald
of the authors that enabled the revised and expanded book to
Schmitt and Gabriele McLemore in particular, for their construc-
be published in a timely and thus current fashionan event
tive and proactive collaboration.
that deserves special mention in our opinion.
Last but not least we thank IAV GmbH for the technical
Following the success of the first five issuesbetween 2002
and material support in the creation of this work, without
and 2011, more than 20,000 copies have been printed in the
whose cooperation this book could never have been published.
German and English languageswe have updated the content
for this sixth issue with a careful revision of, amongst others,
Bad Wimpfen/Hamm, 2011
the chapter Fuel consumption. The growing importance of
Richard van Basshuysen, VDI
the discussions about greenhouse gases and CO2 has been
Fred Schfer, VDI/SAE

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Chapters, Articles, and Authors

Chapter Article Author


Chapter Article Author
1 Historical Review Prof. Dr. Ing. Stefan
Zima 5.5 Energy balance in the
()/
engine
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Claus
Breuer 6 Crank gears
2 Definition and Classification Dr.-Ing. Hanns Erhard
6.1 Crankshaft Drive Prof. Dr.-Ing. Stefan Zima ()
of Reciprocating Piston Heinze
Engines
6.2 Rotational Oscillations Prof. Dr.-Ing. Claus Breuer
Prof. Dr.-Ing Helmut
Tschke
6.3 Variability of compression Prof. Dr.-Ing. Fred Schfer

and swept volume


2.1 Definitions

7 Engine components
2.2 Potentials for Classification

7.1 Pistons/Wristpins/Wristpin Dr.-Ing. Uwe Mohr/


3 Characteristics Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich
Spicher/

Circlips Dr. Wolfgang Issler


3.1 Piston displacement Dr.-Ing. Sren
Bernhardt

7.2 Connecting rod Philippe Damour


3.2 Compression Ratio

7.3 Piston rings Prof. Dr.-Ing. Claus Breuer/


3.3 Rotational Speed and Piston

Dipl.-Ing. Frank Mnchow


Speed

7.4 Engine block Dipl.-Ing. Gnter Helsper/


3.4 Torque and Power

Dipl.-Ing. Karl B. Langlois/


3.5 Fuel Consumption

Dr. Michael Wagner


3.6 Gas Work and Mean
Pressure
7.5 Cylinders Prof. Dr.-Ing. Claus Breuer/
Dipl.-Ing. Frank Mnchow
3.7 Efficiency

7.6 Oil pan Dipl.-Ing. Gnter Helsper/


3.8 Air Throughput and Cylinder
Charge
Dipl.-Ing. Karl B. Langlois/

Dr. Michael Wagner


3.9 Air-Fuel Ratio

7.7 Crankcase venting Dr.-Ing. Uwe Meinig


4 Curves Dr.-Ing. Peter
Wolters/

7.8 Cylinder head Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wilhelm


4.1 Consumption curves Dipl.-Ing. Bernd Haake
Hannibal/
4.2 Emission maps
Dipl.-Ing. Johann Schopp
4.3 Ignition and injection maps
7.9 Crankshafts Dr. mont. Leopold
4.4 Exhaust gas temperature
Kniewallner
maps
7.10 Valve train components Dipl.-Ing. Michael Haas
5 Thermodynamic Prof. Dr.-Ing. Fred
Schfer 7.11 Valves Dr.-Ing. Klaus Gebauer/
fundamentals

Dr. Olaf Josef


5.1 Cyclical processes

7.12 Valve springs Dr.-Ing. Rudolf Bonse


5.2 Comparative processes

7.13 Valve seat rings Dr.-Ing. Gerd Krger


5.3 Open comparative
processes
7.14 Valve guides

5.4 Efficiency
7.15 Oil pump Dr. Christof Lamparski/

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Chapters, Articles, and Authors

Chapter Article Author


Chapter Article Author
7.16 Camshaft Dipl.-Ing. Hermann
10.4 Variable Valve Actuation Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wilhelm
7.16.9 Hoffmann/
Hannibal/
Dr.-Ing. Martin Lechner/
Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Knecht/
Dipl.-GwL. Falk Schneider/
Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Stephan
Dipl.-Ing. Markus Lettmann/
10.4.4 Perspectives for the variable Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rudolf Flierl/
Dipl.-Ing. Rolf Kirschner
valve train Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wilhelm
7.16.10 Camshaft shifter systems Andreas Strauss
Hannibal
7.17 Chain drive Dr.-Ing. Peter Bauer
10.5 Impulse Supercharging Dr.-Ing. Alfred Elser/

10.5.5 and Load Control of Dipl.-Ing. Ren Dingelstadt/


7.18 Belt drives Dipl.-Ing. Ralf Walter/
Reciprocating Piston

Dipl.-Ing. Tobias Neubrand


Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Krfer/
Engines by utilizing an Air
Dipl.-Ing. Michael Neu/
Stroke Valve
Dipl.-Ing. Franz Fusenig
10.5.6 Pulse Turbocharging with Dipl.-Ing. Werner Wallrafen

Controllable Aspiration
7.19 Bearings in combustion Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Rainer

Valves
engines Aufischer

11 Supercharging of Internal
7.20 Intake systems Kay Brodesser

Combustion Engines
7.20.1 Thermodynamics in air Dr.-Ing. Stephan Wild

11.1 Mechanical Supercharging Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans Zellbeck


intake systems

11.2 Exhaust Gas Turbocharging Dr.-Ing. Tilo Ro


7.20.2 Acoustics Dipl.-Ing. Matthias Alex

11.3 Intercooling
7.21 Sealing systems
11.4 Interaction between Engine
7.21.1 Cylinder head sealing Dipl.-Ing. Armin Diez

and Compressor
systems

11.5 Dynamic Behavior


7.21.2 Special seals Dipl.-Ing. Wilhelm Kullen/
Dr.-Ing. Oliver Gb
11.6 Additional Measures for

Supercharged Internal
7.21.3 Elastomer sealing systems Dipl.-Ing. Eberhard
Combustion Engines
Griesinger

11.7 Performance explosion by Dipl.-Ing. Marc Sens/


7.21.4 Development methods Dipl.-Ing. Uwe Georg
Register and Two-stage Dipl.-Ing. Guido Lautrich
Klump/
supercharging for Private
Dr. rer. nat. Hans-Peter
Vehicles (Supercharging)
Werner

11.8 Ascertaining turbocharger Dipl.-Ing. Marc Sens


7.22 Threaded connectors at the Dipl.-Ing. Siegfried Jende
characteristic maps on Dr. Panagiotis Grigoriadis
engine
turbocharger test benches
7.23 Exhaust Manifold Dipl.-Ing. Hubert Neumaier
12 Mixture Formation and

Related Systems
7.24 Coolant Pumps for Dipl.-Ing. Peter Amm/
Combustion Engines Dipl.-Ing. Franz Pawellek
12.1 Internal Mixture Formation Prof. Dr.-Ing. Fred Schfer

7.25 Control Mechanisms for Dr.-Ing. Uwe Meinig


12.2 External Mixture Formation
Two-Stroke Cycle Engines
12.3 Mixture Formation in Diesel

Engines
8 Engines

12.3.8.1 Intake Manifold Injection Prof. Dr.-Ing. Helmut


8.1 Engine concepts Prof. Dr.-Ing. Fred Schfer

System Tschke
8.2 Current engines

12.3.8.2 Systems for Direct Injection Dipl.-Ing. Achim Koch


8.3 Motorcycle engines/Special Andreas Bilek

12.4 Mixture Formation in Diesel Prof. Dr.-Ing Helmut


engines
Engines Tschke
8.4 Rotary piston engine/

12.4.3 Systems with a Central Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang


Wankel engine

Pressure Reservoir Bloching/


9 Tribology
Dr. Klaus Wenzlawski
9.1 Friction Dr.-Ing. Franz Maassen
12.4.4 Injection Nozzles and Prof. Dr.-Ing. Helmut
9.2 Lubrication Prof. Dr. Stefan Zima ()
Nozzle-Holder Assemblies Tschke
10 Charge Cycle
12.4.5 Adapting the Injection

System to the Engine


10.1 Gas Exchange Devices in Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich
Spicher/
4-Stroke Engines
12.5 Fuel Supply Systems Dr.-Ing. Thomas Zapp
10.2 Calculating Charge Cycle Dr.-Ing. Sren Bernhardt
12.5.1 Fuel Tanks
10.3 The Charge Cycle in Two- Dr.-Ing. Uwe Meinig
12.5.2 The Tank Venting System
Stroke Engines
12.5.3 Requirements for the Fuel Dipl.-Ing. Holger Dilchert/

Supply system Dipl.-Ing. Bernd Jger/

Dipl.-Ing. Frank Khnel/

Dipl.-Ing. Ralph Schrder

viii|Internal Combustion Engine Handbook

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Chapters, Articles, and Authors

Chapter Article Author


Chapter Article Author
12.5.4 The Filling Level Measuring Dipl.-Ing. Knut
Schrter 18.1 Temperature sensors Dr.-Ing. Bernd Last
13 Ignition Dr. Manfred Adolf/
18.2 Fuel level sensors
13.1 Gasoline Engines Dipl.-Ing. Heinz-Georg
18.3 Knock sensors
Schmitz

18.4 Exhaust gas sensors


13.2 Diesel Engine

18.5 Pressure sensors


14 Combustion Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing.
habil.

18.6 Air mass sensor


14.1 Fuels and Fuel Chemistry Gnter P. Merker/

18.7 Speed sensors


14.2 Oxidation from Dr.-Ing. Peter Eckert

18.8 Combustion chamber


hydrocarbons

pressure sensors for diesel


14.3 Autoignition
engines
14.4 Flame Propagation
19 Actuators Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Klckner
14.5 Model Development and
19.1 Drive
Simulation

19.2 Throttle valve actuators


15 Combustion systems

19.3 Swirl and tumble plates,


15.1 Diesel engines Prof. Dr.-Ing Helmut
resonance charging
Tschke/

19.4 Turbocharger with variable


Dr.-Ing. Detlef
Hieber/ turbine geometry
15.2 Spark-injection engines Dipl.-Ing. Marc Sens
19.5 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dipl.-Wirt.-Ing. Axel Tuschik
Dipl.-Ing. Reinhold
Bals/ Valves
Dipl.-Ing. Ralf
Waschek 19.6 Evaporation emissions,
Dipl.-Ing. Michael
Riess components
15.3 Two-stroke diesel engines Dr.-Ing. Uwe Meinig
20 Cooling of Internal Dipl.-Ing. Matthias Banzhaf/

Combustion Engines
15.4 Two-stroke SI engines

20.1 General information Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Kramer


16 Electronics and mechanics
for engine and shift control
20.2 Demands on the Cooling
transmission management
System
16.1 Environmental requirements Dipl.-Ing. Rainer Riecke/
20.3 Principles for Calculation

and Simulation Tools


16.2 Stand-alone products Dipl.-Ing. Karl
Smirra/

20.4 Engine Cooling Subsystems


16.3 Connection systems Dr. rer. Nat.-Phys.
Thomas
Riepl/
20.5 Cooling modules
16.4 Stand-alone products Dipl.-Ing. Gerwin
Hreth 20.6 Overall Engine Cooling
Integrated Products (MTM
System
= Mechatronic Transmission
21 Exhaust emissions
Module)

21.1 Legal requirements ao. Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.


16.5 Electronic design, structures
techn.
and components

21.2 Exhaust measuring Ernst Pucher


16.6 Electronics in the electronic
technology
control unit

21.3 Pollutants and Their Origin


16.7 Software structures Dr.-Ing. Robert
Rehbold

21.4 Reduction in pollutants


16.8 Torque-Based Functional Dipl.-Ing. Karl Smirra
Structure for Engine
21.5 Exhaust Treatment for
Management
gasoline Engines

16.9 Functions
21.5.1 Catalytic converter design Dipl.-Ing.Stefan Brandt
and chemical reactions
17 The powertrain

21.5.2 Catalytic converter Dr. Stephan Siemund/


17.1 Powertrain Architecture Dr.-Ing. Michael Ulm
concepts of engines with Dr.-Ing. Susanne Stiebels
17.2 The Motor-Vehicles
stoichiometric operation
Longitudinal Dynamics
21.5.3 Catalytic converter concept Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Brandt/
17.3 Transmission types
for lean-burn engines Dipl.-Ing. Uwe Dahle
17.4 Power level and signal-
21.5.4 Metallic catalytic converter Dr. Andre Bergmann
processing level
substrate
17.5 Transmission management Dipl.-Ing. Friedrich
Graf 21.6 Exhaust Treatment in Diesel

Engines
17.6 Integrated powertrain
management (IPM)
21.6.1 Diesel oxidation catalytic Dr. rer. nat. Peter Scherm

converters
17.7 Components for powertrain Dipl.-Ing. Uwe
Mhrstdt
electricification
21.6.2 NOx Adsorbers for Diesel Dr. rer. nat. Tilman Beutel

Passenger Cars
18 Sensors Dr.-Ing. Anton
Grabmaier/

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Chapters, Articles, and Authors

Chapter Article Author


Chapter Article Author
21.6.3 Particles/Particle Filters Dr. h.c. Dipl.-Ing.
27.9 Sound Engineering
Andreas C. R. Mayer/
27.10 Simulation Tools
Dr. Markus Kasper/
27.11 Antinoise Systems: Noise
Prof. Dr. Heinz Burtscher
Reduction using Antinoise
21.6.3.16 Catalytic particle filter Dipl.-Ing. Alfred Punke
28 Engine Measuring Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn.
22 Operating fluids
Technology Christian Beidl/

Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Klaus-


22.1 Fuels Wolfgang Drmer

Christoph Harms/
22.1.2.3 Alternative gasolines Norbert Neumann/
Dr. Christoph R. Weidinger
22.2 Lubricants Dr. Ulrich Pfisterer/
29 Hybrid Drive Systems Prof. Dr.-Ing. Fred Schfer
22.3 Coolant Dr. Oliver Busch/
29.1 History Carsten von Essen
Martin Redzanowski

29.2 Classification of Hybrid


23 Filtration of operating fluids
Drive Systems (General

Overview)
23.1 Air filter Dr.-Ing. Manfred Tumbrink/

29.3 Classification of Hybrid


Dr.-Ing. Pius Trautmann

Drive Systems
23.2 Fuel filters Jochen Reyinger

29.4 Electrical Hybrid Drive


23.3 Engine oil filtration Markus Kolzcyk/
Systems
Dr.-Ing. Pius Trautmann
29.5 Energy Storage Device
24 Calculation and simulation
29.6 Hybrid Drive System
24.1 Strength and vibration Dr.-Ing. Werner Dirschmid/
Transmissions
calculation Dr.-Ing. Erich Blmcke
29.7 Energy Management System
24.1.3 Piston calculations Dr.-Ing. Uwe Lehmann/
29.8 Operating Strategies
Dr. Ralf Meske
29.9 Current Hybrid Vehicles
24.2 Flow calculation Dr.-Ing. Werner Dirschmid/
29.10 Future Development
Dr.-Ing. Erich Blmcke

30 Alternative Vehicle Drives Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Seiffert/


25 Combustion diagnostics Dr. Ernst Winklhofer/
and APUs (Auxiliary Power Dipl.-Ing. Wilfried Nietschke
indication and visualization Dr. Walter F. Piock/
Units)
in combustion development
Dr. Rdiger Teichmann
30.1 Reasons Behind Alternatives
25.1 Discussion
30.2 Hybrid Vehicles
25.2 Indicating
30.3 Electric Drive System
25.3 Visualization
30.4 Energy Storage Devices
26 Fuel Consumption Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter
30.5 Stirling Engine
Steinberg/
30.6 Gas Turbine
26.1 General Influencing Factors Dipl.-Ing. Dirk Golau
30.7 The Fuel Cell as a Vehicle
26.2 Engine Modifications
Drive System
26.3 Transmission Ratios
30.8 Synoptic Evaluation of

Alternative Energies and


26.4 Driver Behavior

Drive Systems
26.5 CO2 Emissions

30.9 Generating Electricity using


27 Noise Emission Dr.-Ing. Hans-Walter
an Auxiliary Power Unit
Wodtke/
= APU
27.1 Basic Physical Principles Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.
techn. 31 Energy Management in the Prof. Dr.-Ing. Fred
Schfer/
and Terms
Engine and Vehicle
27.2 Legal Provisions Concerning Hartmut Bathelt/
Dr.-Ing. E.h. Johannes Liebl
Emitted Noise

31.1 Losses During Energy


27.3 Sources of Emitted Noise Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Gruber
Conversion
27.4 Emitted Noise-Reduction
31.2 Requirement-Based Energy
Provisions
Management
27.5 Engine Noise in the Vehicle
31.3 Generating Electricity in
Interior
Vehicles
27.6 Acoustic Guidelines for the
31.4 Heat Management
Engine Designer

32 Forecast Dr.-Ing. E.h.


27.7 Measuring and Analytical

Richard van Basshuysen


Methods
27.8 Psychoacoustics

x|Internal Combustion Engine Handbook

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Contents
Note to the reader:
Bibliographic references that are included at the end of a
chapter but are not marked in the text, indicate additional literature.
This may serve to provide the reader with more in-depth
information on the material covered in the respective chapter.

Foreword to the second English


edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
3.2 Compression
Ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16

3.3 Rotational Speed and Piston Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


17
Chapters, Articles, and
Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
3.3.1 Rotational Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17

3.3.2 Angular Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


17
1 Historical Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 1 3.3.3
Piston Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3.4 Mean Piston Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18

3.3.5 Maximum Piston Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


18
2 Definition and Classification of
3.4 Torque and
Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18

3.5 Fuel Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


19
Reciprocating Piston
Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3.6 Gas Work and Mean Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


20
2.1
Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 9 3.6.1 Indicated Mean
Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
2.2 Potentials for Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 10
3.6.2 Effective Mean Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
2.2.1 Combustion Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 10
3.6.3 Friction Mean Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
2.2.2 Fuel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.7
Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 22
2.2.3 Working Cycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 11
3.7.1 Indicated Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
2.2.4 Mixture Generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 11
3.7.2 Effective Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
2.2.5 Gas Exchange
Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.7.3 Mechanical Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
2.2.6
Supercharging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.8 Air Throughput and Cylinder Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
2.2.7
Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.8.1 Air Expenditure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
2.2.8 Ignition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.8.2 Volumetric Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
2.2.9
Cooling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.9 AirFuel Ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 24
2.2.10 Load Adjustment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 13
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2.11
Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.2.12 Speed and Output
Graduations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4 Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 27
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

4.1 Consumption Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


28

4.2 Emission
Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
3 Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 15

4.3 Ignition and Injection Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


32
3.1 Piston Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 15 4.4
Exhaust Gas Temperature Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
3.1.1 Calculation of Stroke and Piston Displacement
from the Crankshaft Position (Figure 3.1) . . . . . . . . .
. . . 15

Internal Combustion Engine Handbook|xi

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International by Indian Institute of Technology - Chennai, Tuesday, May 02, 2017

Contents

5 Fundamentals of Thermodynamics . . . . . 35
7.4 Engine Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 110

7.4.1 Tasks and Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


110
5.1 Cyclical
Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35

7.4.2 Engine Block Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


112
5.2 Comparative Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 37

7.4.3 Optimizing Acoustic Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


116
5.2.1 Simple Model
Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37

7.4.4 Minimizing Engine Block Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


117
5.2.2 Exergy Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 39

7.4.5 Casting Process for Engine Blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . .


118
5.3 Open Comparative
Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40

7.5
Cylinders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 119
5.3.1 Work Cycle of the Perfect Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40

7.5.1 Cylinder Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


120
5.3.2 Approximation of the Real Working Cycle. . . . . . .
42

7.5.2 Machining Cylinder Running Surfaces. . . . . . . . .


123
5.4
Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 45

7.5.3 Cylinder Cooling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


124
5.5 Energy Balance in the Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 46

7.6 Oil
Pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 125
5.5.1 Balance
Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46

7.6.1 Oil Pan Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


126
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

7.7 Crankcase Venting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


126

7.7.1 Regulatory Marginal Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


126
6 Crank Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 49 7.7.2 Technical
Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
6.1 Crankshaft
Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49 7.7.3 System Structure of Current Crankcase
6.1.1 Design and Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 49 Venting Systems.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
6.1.2 Forces Acting on the Crankshaft Drive. . . . . . . . . .
52 7.7.4 Oil Mist Separation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 129
6.1.3 Tangential Force Characteristic and Average
7.7.5 Crankcase Pressure Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
134
Tangential
Force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58 7.7.6 Modules and Valve Bonnet Integration. . . . . . . . .
136
6.1.4 Inertial
Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60 7.8 Cylinder
Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
137
6.1.5 Mass
Balancing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
66 7.8.1 Basic Design for the Cylinder Head. . . . . . . . . . . .
137
6.1.6 Internal
Torques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70 7.8.2 Cylinder Head Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
139
6.1.7 Throw and Firing
Sequences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
71 7.8.3 Casting
Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
6.2 Rotational
Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72 7.8.4 Model and Mold Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
151
6.2.1 Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 72 7.8.5 Machining
and Quality Assurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
6.2.2 Reduction of the Machine System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
73 7.8.6 Shapes Implemented for Cylinder Heads. . . . . . .
153
6.2.3 Natural Frequencies and Modes of
7.8.7 Perspectives in Cylinder Head Technology . . . . .
158
Natural Vibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 73 7.9 Crankshafts. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
6.2.4 Exciter Forces, Work, and Amplitudes. . . . . . . . . . .
75 7.9.1 Function in the Vehicle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
159
6.2.5 Measures to Reduce Crankshaft Excursions. . . . . .
76 7.9.2 Manufacturing and Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
160
6.2.6 Two-Mass Flywheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 77 7.9.3
Lightweight Construction and Processes for
6.3 Variability of Compression and Swept Volume. . . . . . . .
78 Increasing
Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
6.3.1 Variable Swept
Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78 7.9.4 Calculating Crankshafts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
163
6.3.2 Variable
Compression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79 7.10 Valve Train Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
164
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 7.10.1 Standard
Valve Train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

7.10.2 Belt Tensioning Systems, Idler, and


7 Engine Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 83 Deflection
Pulleys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
7.1 Pistons/Wristpins/Wristpin Circlips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83 7.10.3 Chain
Tensioning and Guide Systems. . . . . . . . . 177
7.1.1 Piston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 83 7.11 Valves. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
7.1.2 Wristpins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 94 7.11.1 Functions
and Explanation of Terms
7.1.3 Wristpin Circlips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 94 and Concepts . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
7.2 Connecting
Rod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
7.11.2 Types of Valves and
7.2.1 Connecting Rod Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 95 Manufacturing
Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
7.2.2 Loading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 96 7.11.3
Embodiments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
181
7.2.3 Conrod Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 97 7.11.4 Valve
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.2.4
Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97 7.11.5 Special Valve Designs. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.2.5 Conrod Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 98 7.11.6 Valve
Keepers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
7.2.6 Conrod Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 100 7.11.7 Valve
Rotation Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
7.3 Piston Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 101 7.12 Valve Springs .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
7.3.1 Designs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 102 7.12.1
Determining Strain under Load. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
187
7.3.2 Ring Sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 104 7.13 Valve Seat
Rings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.3.3 Characterizing Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 105 7.13.1
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
189
7.3.4 Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 107 7.13.2 Demands
Made on Valve Seat Inserts. . . . . . . . . 190
7.3.5 Loading, Damage, Wear, and Friction. . . . . . . . . . 109
7.14 Valve
Guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196

7.14.1 Requirements for Valve Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


196

xii|Internal Combustion Engine Handbook

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Downloaded from SAE International by Indian
Institute of Technology - Chennai, Tuesday, May 02, 2017

Contents

7.14.2 Materials and Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . 198 7.23.1 Manifold Development
Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
300
7.14.3 Geometry of the Valve Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 201 7.23.2 Manifolds as Individual
Components. . . . . . . . .
301
7.14.4 Installing in the Cylinder
Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 7.23.3 The Manifold
as a Submodule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
303
7.15 Oil
Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
202 7.23.4 Manifold Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
304
7.15.1 Overview of Oil Pump
Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 7.24 Coolant
Pumps for Combustion Engines. . . . . . . . . . .
304
7.15.2 Regulating Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 208 7.24.1 Requirements, Models, and
7.15.3 Flow Rate Regulating
Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Constructive
Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
304
7.15.4 Consumption Savings in NEFZ Cycle. . . . . . . . .
214 7.24.2 Impeller and Spiral Port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
306
7.15.5 Engineering
Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
7.24.3 Coolant-Side Sealing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
307
7.15.6 Cavitation and Noise Emission. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 220 7.24.4 Map and Similarity Relations of the
Coolant
7.15.7 Calculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 222 Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
7.16
Camshaft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
224 7.24.5
Cavitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
309
7.16.1 Camshaft Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 225 7.24.6 Electric Coolant Pump and Switchable
7.16.2 Valve Train
Configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Mechanical Coolant Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
311
7.16.3 Structure of a Camshaft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 226 7.25 Control Mechanisms for Two-Stroke Engines. .
. . . . . 312
7.16.4 Technologies and
Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
7.16.5 Reduction of Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 232
7.16.6 Factors Influencing Camshaft Loading. . . . . . . .
233 8 Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 321
7.16.7 Design of Cam
Profiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 8.1 Engine
Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
7.16.8 Kinematics Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 235 8.1.1 Engine
Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
7.16.9 Dynamics Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 236 8.1.2 Differentiating Features of Engine
Concepts
7.16.10 Camshaft Shifter
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Regarding
the Basic Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
7.17 Chain Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 238 8.1.3 Further Concept Criteria. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
7.17.1 Chain Designs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 240 8.1.4 Engine Arrangement Concepts in the
Vehicle . . . 327
7.17.2 Typical Chain Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 241 8.2 Current
Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
7.17.3
Sprockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
241 8.2.1 V6 Diesel Engine by Mercedes-Benz. . . . . . . . . . . 328
7.17.4 Chain Guide
Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
8.2.2 4-Liter V8 Diesel Engine by Mercedes-Benz. . . . . 328
7.18 Belt Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 8.2.3 V10 FSI engine by Audi. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
7.18.1 Belt Drives Used to Drive Camshafts. . . . . . . . .
. 243 8.2.4 1.6-Liter V8 Turbocharged Gasoline
Engine
7.18.2 Toothed V-Belt Drive to Power
by GM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 329
Auxiliary
Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
8.2.5 2-Liter 4V-TDI with Common-Rail
7.19 Bearings in Combustion
Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 by
Volkswagen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
7.19.1
Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
252 8.2.6 6-Liter V12 TDI Engine by Audi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
7.19.2 Calculating and Dimensioning
8.2.7 4.8-Liter V8 SI Engine by Porsche (Turbo and
Engine
Bearings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
254 Naturally Aspirated Engine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
333
7.19.3 Bearing
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
8.2.8 Stratified Combustion Process for Four- and Six-
7.19.4 Bearing VersionsStructure, Load-Handling
Cylinder Intake Gasoline Engines by BMW. . . . . . . . . 334
Capacity, Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 262 8.2.9 Four-Cylinder Diesel Engine by
7.19.5 Bearing Failure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 267 Mercedes-
Benz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
7.19.6 Prospects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 268 8.2.10 SI Engines with Direct Injection and
Dual
7.20 Intake Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 268 Charging by VW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
7.20.1 Thermodynamics in Air Intake Systems. . . . . . .
269 8.3 Motorcycle Engines/Special Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
7.20.2 Acoustics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 271 8.3.1 Motorcycles for the Road (On-Road). . .
. . . . . . . . 339
7.21 Sealing
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
8.3.2 Off-Road Motorcycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
7.21.1 Cylinder Head Sealing Systems. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 275 8.3.3 Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
7.21.2 Special Seals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 280 8.3.4 Racing
Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
7.21.3 Elastomer Sealing
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 8.3.5
Special Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
7.21.4 Development Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 287 8.4 Rotary Piston Engine/Wankel
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
7.22 Threaded Connectors at the
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 8.4.1 History
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
7.22.1 High-Strength Threaded Connectors. . . . . . . . . .
291 8.4.2 General Functionality of a Rotary
7.22.2 Quality
Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Piston Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
383
7.22.3 Threaded Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 292 8.4.3 Four-Stroke
Principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
7.22.4 Threaded Connections in Magnesium
8.4.4 The Rotary Piston Engine of the Passenger
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 297 car
Renesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
384
7.22.5 Screw Tightening
Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 8.4.5
Hydrogen Rotary Piston Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
7.23 Exhaust
Manifold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

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Contents

9
Tribology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 389 11.2.2 Ram Induction
Turbocharging or Impulse

Turbocharging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
489
9.1
Friction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 389

11.3
Intercooling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
490
9.1.1 Characterizing Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 389

11.4 Interaction Between Engine and Compressor. . . . . . .


491
9.1.2 Friction States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 389

11.4.1 Four-Stroke Engine in Compressor Map. . . . . . .


491
9.1.3 Methods of Measuring Friction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
390

11.4.2 Mechanical Supercharging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


492
9.1.4 Influence of the Operating State and the

11.4.3 Exhaust Gas Turbocharging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


493
Boundary
Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
391

11.5 Dynamic Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


498
9.1.5 Influence of Friction on the Fuel Consumption. . .
393

11.5.1 Improvement Measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


500
9.1.6 Friction Behavior of Previously Introduced

11.5.2 Active Residual Gas Discharge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


500
Combustion
Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
394
11.5.3 Electric Support for Exhaust
9.1.7 Method of Calculating the Friction on the

Gas Turbocharging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
500
Example of the Piston Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 403

11.5.4 Mechanical Auxiliary Compressor. . . . . . . . . . . .


501
9.2
Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 404

11.6 Additional Measures for Supercharged Internal


9.2.1 Tribological
Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
404

Combustion Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
501
9.2.2 Lubrication
System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
406

11.6.1 SI Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
501
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412

11.6.2 Diesel Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


502

11.7 Performance Explosion by Register and Two-Stage


10 Charge Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 415 Supercharging for
Private Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
502
10.1 Gas Exchange Devices in Four-Stroke Engines. . . . . .
416 11.7.1 The History and Evolution of Two-Staged
10.1.1 Valve Gear Designs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 416 Turbocharger
Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
502
10.1.2 Components of the Valve Train. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
418 11.7.2 Thermodynamics of
10.1.3 Kinematics and Dynamics of the Valve Train. . .
423 Two-Staged Superchargers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
503
10.1.4 Design of Gas Exchange Devices in
11.7.3 Sequential Turbocharger and Two-Stage
Four-Stroke Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 425 Supercharger
Concept/Supercharger Systems. . . . . . .
505
10.2 Calculating Charge Cycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 436 11.7.4
Applications Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
507
10.2.1 The Filling and Emptying Method. . . . . . . . . . . .
437 11.8 Ascertaining Turbocharger CharacteristicMaps on
10.3 The Charge Cycle in Two-Stroke Engines . . . . . . . . . .
439 Turbocharger Test
Rigs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
507
10.3.1 Scavenging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 439 11.8.1 Basic
Design of a Turbocharger Test Rig. . . . . . .
508
10.3.2 Gas Exchange
Organs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
441 11.8.2 Compressor and Turbine Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
508
10.3.3 Scavenging Air
Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
443 11.8.3 Special Features When Using Turbocharger
10.4 Variable Valve Actuation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 444 Engine Maps in the
Engine Process Simulation . . . . . .
511
10.4.1 Camshaft Timing Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
446 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
10.4.2 Systems With Stepped Variation of the Valve
Stroke or Opening Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 453 12 Mixture Format Ion
and
10.4.3 Infinitely Variable Valve Actuation. . . . . . . . . . .
456

Related
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
10.4.4 Perspectives for the Variable Valve Train . . . . . .
469
10.5 Pulse Turbocharging and Load Control of
12.1 Internal Mixture Formation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
515
Reciprocating Piston Engines Using an Air
12.2 External Mixture Formation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
515
Stroke Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 471 12.3 Mixture Formation
in Gasoline Engines
10.5.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 471 (Carburetor/Gasoline
Injection) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
516
10.5.2 Technology Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 471 12.3.1 Mode of
Operation of the Carburetor . . . . . . . . .
516
10.5.3 Construction Principle and
12.3.2 Designs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
517
Boundary
Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
472 12.3.3 Important Systems on Carburetors . . . . . . . . . . .
518
10.5.4 Thermodynamic Potential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
472 12.3.4 Electronically Controlled Carburetors. . . . . . . . .
521
10.5.5 Evaluation Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 478 12.3.5 Constant
Vacuum Carburetor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
522
10.5.6 Pulse Turbocharging With Controllable
12.3.6 Operating Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
522
Aspiration Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 479 12.3.7 Lambda
Closed-Loop Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
523
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 12.3.8 Mixture
Formation by Utilizing

Gasoline Injection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
523
11 Supercharging of Internal
12.4 Mixture Formation in Diesel Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
532

12.4.1 Injection SystemsAn Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . .


534
Combustion Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 487 12.4.2 Systems with
Injection-Synchronous
11.1 Mechanical Supercharging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 488 Pressure
Generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
537
11.2 Exhaust Gas
Turbocharging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
12.4.3 Systems with a Central Pressure Reservoir. . . . .
545
11.2.1 Constant Pressure Turbocharging. . . . . . . . . . . . . 489

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Contents

12.4.4 Injection Nozzles and


15.2.1 Combustion Processes in Port Fuel
Nozzle-Holder Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 551 Injection
Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
623
12.4.5 Adapting the Injection System to the Engine. . .
555 15.2.2 Combustion Process of Direct Injection Spark
12.5 Fuel Supply Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 557 Ignition
Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
633
12.5.1 Fuel
Tanks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
557 15.3 Combustion Process (Two-Stroke Engine). . . . . . . . . .
649
12.5.2 The Tank Venting System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 560 15.4 Two-
Stroke SI Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
650
12.5.3 Requirements for the Fuel Supply System . . . . .
560 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653
12.5.4 The Filling-Level Measuring. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 566
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 16
Electronics and Mechanics

for Engine and Shift Control


13
Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 569 Transmission
Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657
13.1 Gasoline
Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
569 16.1 Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
657
13.1.1 Introduction to
Ignition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
569 16.1.1 Classes of Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 657
13.1.2 Requirements for the Ignition Systems. . . . . . . .
569 16.1.2 Thermal Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
658
13.1.3 Minimum Ignition Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 569 16.2 Stand-
Alone Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
661
13.1.4 Fundamentals of Spark
Ignition. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
569 16.3 Connection
Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
663
13.1.5 Coil Ignition System
(Inductive). . . . . . . . . . . . . .
570 16.4 Integrated Products (MTM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
664
13.1.6 Other Ignition
Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
572 16.5 Electronic Design, Structures, and Components. . . . .
665
13.1.7 Summary/Outlook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 573 16.5.1
Basic Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
665
13.1.8 Spark Plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 573 16.5.2
Electronic Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
666
13.2 Diesel
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
578 16.6 Electronics in the Electronic Control Unit . . . . . . . . . .
672
13.2.1 Autoignition and
Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
578 16.6.1 General
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
672
13.2.2 Cold Start Diesel Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 579 16.6.2
Signal Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
672
13.2.2.1 Important Influence Parameters . . . . . . . . . .
. . 579 16.6.3
Signal Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
672
13.2.3 Components for Supporting Cold Starts. . . . . . .
581 16.6.4 Signal Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 672
13.2.4 Outlook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 585 16.6.5
Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
673
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 16.6.6
Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
673

16.6.7 Electronics for Transmission ECUs. . . . . . . . . . . .


674
14
Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 589 16.7 Software
Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
676
14.1 Fuels and Fuel
Chemistry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
589 16.7.1 Task of the Software in Controlling Engines. . . .
676
14.2 Oxidation of Hydrocarbons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 591 16.7.2
Demands on the Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
676
14.3
Autoignition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
592 16.7.3 The Layer Approach to Software . . . . . . . . . . . . .
677
14.3.1 The H2O2
System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
593 16.7.4 The Software Development Process. . . . . . . . . . .
678
14.3.2 Ignition of
Hydrocarbons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
593 16.8 Torque-Based Functional Structure for
14.3.3 Rapid Compression Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 594 Engine
Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
678
14.3.4 Diesel Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 594 16.8.1
Model-Based Functions Using the Example
14.3.5 HCCI Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 594 of the
Intake Manifold Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
681
14.3.6 Engine
Knock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
595 16.9 Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 683
14.3.7 Modeling the
Autoignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
595 16.9.1
Regulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
683
14.4 Flame Propagation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 596 16.9.2
Anti-Jerk Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
685
14.4.1 Turbulent Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 596 16.9.3
Throttle Valve Vontrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
687
14.4.2 Flame Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 596 16.9.4
Knocking Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
688
14.5 Model Development and
Simulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
598 16.9.5 On-Board Diagnosis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
690
14.5.1 Classifications for Combustion Models. . . . . . . .
599 16.9.6 Safety Strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 692
14.5.2 0D
Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
599 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694
14.5.3 Phenomenological Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 601
14.5.4 3D-CFD Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 603 17 The
Powertrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604 17.1
Powertrain Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
695

17.2 The Longitudinal Dynamics of the Vehicle . . . . . . . . .


696
15 Combustion Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 607 17.3
Transmission Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
696
15.1 Diesel Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 607 17.4 Power
Level and Signal-Processing Level. . . . . . . . . .
698
15.1.1 Diesel Combustion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 607 17.4.1
Power Level (Figure 17.6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
698
15.1.2 Diesel Four-Stroke Combustion Systems . . . . . .
612 17.4.2 Signal Level (Figure 17.6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
698
15.2 Spark-Injection Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 623 17.4.3
Links. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
698

17.5 Transmission Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


698

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Contents

17.5.1 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 698 19.6.2
Evaporative Emissions Diagnostics. . . . . . . . . . . 731
17.6 Integrated Powertrain Management (IPM). . . . . . . .
701 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733
17.7 Components for Powertrain Electricification . . . . . . .
702
17.7.1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
702 20 Cooling of Internal
17.7.2 Hybrid and Electric Drive Variants . . . . . . . . . . .
703 Combustion
Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735
17.7.3 Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 704

20.1 General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


735
17.7.4 Power
Electronics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
704

20.2 Demands on the Cooling System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


735
17.7.5 Electric
Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
705

20.3 Principles for Calculation and Simulation Tools. . . . .


736
17.7.6 Energy Storage Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 706

20.4 Engine Cooling Subsystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


737
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709

20.4.1 Cooling by Coolant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


737

20.4.2 Intercooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
740
18 Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 711 20.4.3 Exhaust Gas
Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
740
18.1 Temperature
Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
711 20.4.4 Oil Cooling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 741
18.2 Fuel-Level Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 712 20.4.5 Fans and
Fan Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
741
18.3 Knock
Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
712 20.5 Cooling Modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 742
18.4 Exhaust Gas Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 713 20.6 Overall Engine
Cooling System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
743
18.4.1 Lambda
Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
713 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744
18.4.2 NOx Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 714
18.5 Pressure Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 715 21 Exhaust Emissions .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745
18.5.1 Normal Pressure
Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
715

21.1 Legal Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


745
18.5.2 Medium-Pressure Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
716

21.1.1
Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
745
18.5.3 High-Pressure
Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
716

21.1.2 Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 746
18.5.4 Pressure
Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
716

21.1.3 Harmonization of the Exhaust


18.6 Air Mass
Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
717

Gas Regulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
746
18.6.1 Measuring
Principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
717

21.2 Exhaust Measuring Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


746
18.6.2 Mass Air-Flow Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 717
21.2.1 Measuring Technology for the Certification
18.6.3 Secondary Air Mass Sensors (SAF). . . . . . . . . . .
718

of Motor Vehicles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
746
18.7 Speed
Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
718

21.2.2 Measuring Technology for


18.7.1 Passive Speed Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 718

Engine Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
748
18.7.2 Active Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 718

21.3 Pollutants and Their Origin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


752
18.8 Combustion Chamber Pressure Sensors for

21.3.1 Gasoline Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


753
Diesel Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 719

21.3.2 Diesel Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


754
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720

21.4 Reduction in Pollutants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


756

21.4.1 Engine-Related Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


756
19 Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 721 21.5 Exhaust Treatment
for Gasoline Engines . . . . . . . . . . .
760
19.1
Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 721 21.5.1 Catalytic Converter
Designand
19.1.1 Pneumatic
Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
721 Chemical Reactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 760
19.1.2 Electric
Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
722 21.5.2 Catalytic Converter Concepts of Engines
19.1.3 Communication with Engine
with Stoichiometric Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
761
Control Electronics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 722 21.5.3 Catalytic
Converter Concept for
19.1.4 Reset/Default Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 723 Lean-Burn Engines.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
767
19.2 Throttle Valve Actuators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 723 21.5.4 Metallic
Catalytic Converter Substrate . . . . . . . .
775
19.2.1 Key Function in SI Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
723 21.6 Exhaust Treatment in Diesel Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
782
19.2.2 Key Function in Diesel Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
723 21.6.1 Diesel Oxidation Catalytic Converters . . . . . . . .
782
19.2.3 Additional
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
724 21.6.2 NOx Adsorbers for Diesel Passenger Cars. . . . . .
786
19.2.4 Drive-by-Wire/E-
Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
725 21.6.3 Particles/Particle Filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
788
19.2.5 Waste Gate
Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
726 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809
19.2.6 Vacuum/Prethrottle Actuators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
726
19.3 Swirl and Tumble Plates, Resonance Charging . . . . .
726 22 Operating Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 813
19.3.1 Port
Deactivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
726

22.1 Fuels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 813
19.3.2 Stratified
Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
727

22.1.1 Diesel Fuel (DK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


814
19.4 Turbocharger with Variable Turbine Geometry. . . . . .
728

22.1.2 Gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
824
19.5 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
728

22.2
Lubricants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
842
19.6 Evaporation Emissions, Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
730

22.2.1 Lubricant Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


842
19.6.1 Tank Ventilation Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 730

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Contents

22.2.2 Tasks of
Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
842 25.2.3 IndicatingProspects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
905
22.2.3 Lubrication Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 842 25.2.4
Cycle-Precise Signal- and Model-Based
22.2.4 Lubrication
Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
842 Engine Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 905
22.2.5 Viscosity/viscosity Index
(V.I.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
843 25.3 Visualization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 906
22.2.6 Basic Liquids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 845 25.3.1
Functions and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
906
22.2.7 Additives for Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 846 25.3.2
Visualization Methods for Real
22.2.8 Engine Oils for Four-Stroke Engines. . . . . . . . .
. 848 Engine
Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
906
22.2.9 Engine Oils for Two-Stroke
Engines. . . . . . . . . . .
858 25.3.3 Visualization of Combustion in Real Engine
22.3 Coolant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860 Operation
by the Flames Intrinsic Luminescence . . . .
908
22.3.1 Frost
Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
860 25.3.4 Visualization of Illuminated Processes . . . . . . . .
914
22.3.2 Corrosion
Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
860 25.3.5 Visualization: The Future. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
915
22.3.3
Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
861 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861

26 Fuel Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 917


23 Filtration of Operating Fluids . . . . . . . . . 863
26.1 General Influencing Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
918
23.1 Air Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 863 26.1.1
Aerodynamic Drag. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
918
23.1.1 The Importance of Air Filtration for Internal
26.1.2
Weight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
919
Combustion Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 863 26.1.3
Wheel Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
920
23.1.2 Impurities in Engine Intake
Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
863 26.1.4 Fuel Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
921
23.1.3 Data for Air Filter Medium Assessment . . . . . . .
863 26.2 Engine
Modifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
922
23.1.4 Measuring Methods and
Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . .
864 26.2.1 Downsizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 922
23.1.5 Demands on Modern Air Filter Systems. . . . . . .
865 26.2.2
Downspeeding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
924
23.1.6 Design Criteria for Engine Air
26.2.3 Diesel Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
925
Filter
Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
865 26.2.4 Gasoline Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 926
23.1.7 Filter
Housings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
866 26.2.5 Combustion Process HCCI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
928
23.2 Fuel
Filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
866 26.2.6 Variable Valve Train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 929
23.2.1 Gasoline Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 866 26.2.7
Cylinder Shutoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
931
23.2.2 Diesel Fuel Filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 867 26.2.8
Auxiliary Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
932
23.2.3 Performance Data of Fuel Filters . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 870 26.2.9
Heat Management Methods for Achieving
23.3 Engine Oil
Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
870 Fuel Consumption Reductions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
934
23.3.1 Wear and Filtration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 870 26.2.10
Hybrid Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
934
23.3.2 Full-Flow Oil Filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 871 26.3
Transmission Ratios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
936
23.3.3 Removal Efficiency and Filter
Fineness. . . . . . . .
872 26.3.1 Selection of Direct Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
937
23.3.4 Bypass Oil Filtration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 873 26.3.2
Selection of Overall Transmission Ratio in the
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874 Highest
Gear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
937

26.4 Driver
Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
939
24 Calculation and Simulation . . . . . . . . . . .
875 26.5 CO2
Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
940
24.1 Strength and Vibration
Calculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
875 26.5.1 CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption. . . . . . . .
941
24.1.1 Procedures and
Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
875 26.5.2 The Influence of Engine Use on
24.1.2 Selected Examples of Application . . . . . . . . . .
. . 877 CO2
Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
943
24.1.3 Piston Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 879 26.5.3 The
Trend in Global CO2 Emissions. . . . . . . . . . .
943
24.2 Flow Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 889
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 943
24.2.1 One- or Quasi-Dimensional Methods . . . . . . . . .
889
24.2.2 3-D Flow
Calculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
891 27 Noise Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 945
24.2.3 Selected Examples of Application . . . . . . . . . .
. . 893 27.1 Basic
Physical Principles and Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
945
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 898 27.2 Legal
Provisions Concerning Emitted Noise. . . . . . . .
948

27.2.1 Emitted Noise Measuring Procedure. . . . . . . . . .


948
25 Combustion Diagnostics
27.2.2 Critical Evaluation of the Meaningfulness of
Indication and Visualization in
the Existing Emission Noise Measuring Procedure. . .
948
Combustion Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 901 27.2.3
Future Emission Noise Measuring Procedure

and Limit Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


948
25.1
Discussion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
901 27.3 Sources of Emitted Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
949
25.2
Indication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
901 27.4 Emitted Noise-Reduction Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
950
25.2.1 Measuring Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 902 27.4.1
Engine Approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
950
25.2.2 Quality
Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
904 27.4.2 Vehicle
Approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
950

Internal Combustion Engine Handbook|xvii

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International by Indian Institute of Technology - Chennai, Tuesday, May 02, 2017

Contents

27.5 Engine Noise in the Vehicle Interior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


952 29.2.3
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 984
27.6 Acoustic Guidelines for the Engine Designer . . . . . . .
953 29.3 Classification of Hybrid Drive Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . 986
27.7 Measuring and Analytical Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
954 29.3.1 Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 986
27.8
Psychoacoustics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
957 29.3.2 Power
Classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 987
27.9 Sound Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 957 29.4 Electrical Hybrid
Drive Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 988
27.10 Simulation
Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
958 29.4.1 Electrical
Machine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 988
27.11 Antinoise Systems: Noise Reduction
29.4.2 Power Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995
using Antinoise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 959 29.4.3 Control . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 959 29.4.4 Power
Electronics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995

29.4.5 Current Converter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995


28 Engine Measuring Technology . . . . . . . . 961
29.5 Energy Storage Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996
28.1 Measuring Technology in the Test Bench Overall
29.5.1 Lead-Acid Battery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998

System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 961 29.5.2 NickelMetal Hydride
Battery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998
28.1.1
Dynamometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
962 29.5.3 SodiumNickel-Chloride Battery. . . . . . . . . . . . . 999
28.2 Mechanical
Measurands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
963 29.5.4 Lithium-Ion Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1000
28.3 Thermodynamic:Measurands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
964 29.5.5
SuperCaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001
28.4 Flow Measuring Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
965 29.5.6 Battery Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1003
28.5 Intake Air Volumetric Flow Measurement. . . . . . . . . .
965 29.6 Hybrid Drive System Transmissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005
28.6 Fuel Consumption Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
965 29.6.1 Transmissions Without Integrated
28.7 Fuel Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 968 Electrical Machine
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1006
28.8 Oil Consumption Measurement Technology. . . . . . . .
968 29.6.2 Transmissions with Integrated
28.9 Blow-By Measuring Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
969 Electrical
Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007
28.10 Urea Consumption Measuring Technology. . . . . . . .
970 29.6.3 Special Transmission Designs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008
28.11 Direct Exhaust Quantity Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . .
972 29.7 Energy Management System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1010
28.12 Exhaust Gas Measuring Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
972 29.7.1
Start/Stop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011
28.13 Measurement of the Volumetric Concentration of
29.7.2 Regulating the Generator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012
Gaseous Exhaust Gas Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
973 29.7.3 Energy Recuperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1012
28.14 Pollutant Mass Determination at Undiluted
29.7.4 SOC Regulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1013
Exhaust Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 973 29.7.5 Energy
Distribution Management . . . . . . . . . . . 1013
28.15 Pollutant Mass Determination at Diluted
29.7.6 On-Board Power Supply System . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014
Exhaust Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 974 29.8 Operating
Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014
28.16 Exhaust Gas Particulate Measuring Technology. . . .
974 29.8.1 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1014
28.16.1 Gravimetric Particulate Measurement. . . . . . . .
974 29.8.2 Energy Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1016
28.16.2 Dynamic Particulate Measurement . . . . . . . . . .
975 29.8.3 Fuel Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1016
28.16.3 Measurement of the Soot or
29.8.4 Exhaust Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016
Smoke
Emission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
975 29.8.5 Driving Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1017
28.16.4 Smoke Emission Value Measurement with
29.8.6 Approaches for Determining an
Smoke Meter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 975 Operating
Strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1017
28.16.5 Opacity Measurement
29.9 Current Hybrid Vehicles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1017
Using Opacimeters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 975 29.9.1
Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1018
28.16.6 Photoacoustics
(PASS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
975 29.9.2 Vehicle
Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021
28.16.7 Laser-Induced Incandescence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
976 29.10 Future Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1024
28.16.8 Scattered Light Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
976 29.10.1 Gasoline Hybrid Drive System. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1024
28.16.9 Particle Group and Particle Total. . . . . . . . . . . .
976 29.10.2 Diesel Hybrid Drive System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1024
28.16.10 Measurement Data Processing
29.10.3 Electric-Only Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1025
and
Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
976 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1025
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 977

30 Alternative Vehicle Drives and APUs


29 Hybrid Drive Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
979 (Auxiliary Power
Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029
29.1
History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 979 30.1 Reasons Behind Alternatives. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029
29.2 Fundamentals of Hybrid Drive Systems (General
30.2 Hybrid Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1030
Overview). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 983 30.2.1 Fuel
Consumptions in the Official
29.2.1
Principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
983 Test Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 1033
29.2.2 Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 983

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Contents

30.2.2 Practical Fuel Consumption Standard


31 Energy Management in the Engine
Test Route:
AMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1033 and Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 1053
30.2.3 Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 1036
30.3 Electric Drive System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 1036 31.1
Losses During Energy Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1055
30.4 Energy Storage
Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1039 31.2 Requirement-Based Energy Management. . . . . . . . .
1055
30.5 Stirling
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1040 31.3 Generating Electricity in Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1056
30.6 Gas Turbine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 1041 31.3.1
Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) . . . . . . . . . . . .
1057
30.7 The Fuel Cell as a Vehicle Drive System. . . . . . . . . .
. 1042 31.4 Heat
Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1059
30.7.1 Design of the PEM Fuel Cell. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 1042
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1060
30.7.2 The Fuel Cell in the
Vehicle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1043
30.7.3 Assessment of the Fuel Cell in Comparison
32 Forecast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 1061
to other Drive
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1046 32.1 Gasoline
Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1061
30.8 Synoptic Evaluation of Alternative Energies
32.2 Diesel
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1062
and Drive
Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1047 32.3 Concluding Observations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1063
30.9 Generating Electricity using an Auxiliary Power
Bibliography. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . 1064
Unit = APU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1047
30.9.1 Thermoelectrics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 1047 #Color
Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1065
30.9.2 The Fuel Cell as an APU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1047
30.9.3 Internal Combustion Engine in
#Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 1109
Combination with a Linear Generator (Free-Piston
Linear
Generator). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1050
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050

#About the Editors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1129
Further Literature on the Subject of Hybrids and
Fuel
Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1051

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1 Historical Review
Motor vehicles have been built for more than a century. The
regulations and were primarily owned by larger companies
advancements in vehicle appearance, even to the techni-
who could afford them. Thus, the first internal combustion
cal layman, are astonishing. Advancements in basic engine
engines (gasoline-powered stationary motors for driving
appearance, on the other hand, have been relatively minimal:
machines of all kinds) were produced because of the need
the similarity in dimensions and layout (and a few other
for an affordable and simple source of power.
details) between engines of the past and current models hide
Work on such drive systems had been done in various
just how much has also been done in engine technology over
parts of the world. In 1876, Nikolaus August Otto success-
the years (Figure 1.1).
fully implemented the four-stroke process patented by the
The origins of motor vehicle engines lie ultimately in the
Frenchman Beau de Rochas. This engine had a decisive
needs of the craftsmen and small traders who could not
advantage that when compared with the gasoline engines
afford the expensive and complex steam engines as power
already being built by the Frenchman Jean Joseph Etienne
generators. The costly steam engines were subject to strict
Lenoir, it utilized precompression of the mixture. The British

Daimler- 1899
Phoenix-Engine

1914
4 cyl.
gasoline
d = 100
mm
s = 140
mm

De Dion
n = 660
1/min
P = 8,8
kW

4 cyl. gasoline

d = 110 mm

s = 150 mm
#
Figure 1.1Engines 18991998 [1-10]. #
(continues)

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Chapter 1 Historical Review

Wanderer W 24 1937

1958

Mercedes-

Benz

6 cyl. gasoline

d = 80 mm
4 cyl. gasoline
s = 72,8 mm
d = 75 mm
n = 4800 1/min
s = 100 mm
P = 70 kW
n = 3500 1/min
P = 31 kW

1998
1984 Mercedes-Benz
M 102
Opel 1,8 l

4 cyl. gasoline
d = 89,0 mm
4 cyl. gasoline
s = 80,25 mm
d = 80,5 mm
n = 5200 1/min
s = 888,2 mm
P = 77 kW
n = 5400 1/min
P = 85 kW

#
Figure 1.1Engines 18991998 [1-10]. (Continued)

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Historical Review

engineer Dougald Clerk shortened the four-stroke process


was too low with the cooling system of the time. Critical
to the two-stroke process by eliminating the charge cycle
components could not be adequately and reliably cooled with
strokes. In 1886, Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler (with Wilhelm
a natural water circulation (thermal siphon), creating another
Maybach ) simultaneously (and independently) developed the
problem. It required a large amount of water to be stored (and
light, high-speed engine from which most modern gasoline
transported) on the vehicle to work effectively. The Wilhelm
engines would descend. Similar engines would also power
Maybach honeycomb cooler offered the physically workable
airships and airplanes in the years that followed.
solution that allowed for the intensification of the heat transfer
Rudolf Diesels rational heat engine 18931897 was
initially on the side of the weak thermal transition (on the air side).
only used stationary; this also applies to its forerunner, the
Once these basics had been established on the engine side
engines of George Bailey Brayton and Herbert Akroyd Stuart.
of vehicle technology, the motor vehicle industry developed
It would take centuries before the diesel engine would enter
rapidly. Advances on the engine side inspired the advances
street traffic.
on the vehicle side (and vice versa).
The fundamental design of the internal combustion engine
More and more companies took up the production of
was duplicated from the steam engine: the crank drive controls
motor vehicles and engines. To increase power and enhance
the sequence of the thermodynamic process and converts the
the smoothness of running, the number of cylinders was
vapor pressure first into an oscillating and then into a rotary
increasedfrom one to two and then to four, as in the Mercedes
movement. The high development level of the steam engine
Simplex engine. The splitting of the combustion chamber into
at the end of the nineteenth century formed the foundation
several cylinders enabled higher speeds and a better utiliza-
for the engines. The level of mastery in casting, forging, and
tion of the combustion chamber, that is, higher specific work
precise machining of automotive components also increased as
(effective mean pressure). The construction of motor vehicles
a result of the steam engine. It was the one-piece self-
tensioning and engines had also started in other countries (France,
Italy,
piston ring from John Ramsbottome (1854) that enabled the
England, and, later, the United States). These engines were
high working pressures in the combustion chamber of internal
initially modeled using the German design, but soon other
combustion engines to be maintained. The piston ring was,
manufacturers began to create their own designs. The engine
therefore, just as much a precondition for the control of the
technology enjoyed an enormous boost from the aircraft
engine process as the knowledge and experience of engine
development, from which the motor vehicle engines also
bearings and their lubrication.
benefited. Experience was shared so that the errors made in
One of the initial developmental issues with the internal
the aircraft engine development (and recognized as such)
combustion engine was a question of presenting central engine
could be avoided from the outset in the motor vehicle engines.
functions. The most difficult problem of the early engines was
Nevertheless, there was competition among several drive
the ignition. The flame ignition (Otto) and uncontrolled glow
concepts, including the technically mature steam engine.
tube ignition (Maybach/Daimler) presented an obstacle to the
This design had benefits as a power source for road vehicles,
engine development that was overcome only with the advent
including the fact that the engine was self-starting, had an
of electric ignition methods. These ignition types included
elastic operating curve to match the required tractive power
snapper ignition (Otto), vibrator ignition (Benz), the Bosch
of the vehicle, and was smooth running. The electric drive
magnetic low-voltage ignition with contact-breaking spark,
appeared to offer even greater benefits, but the disadvantages
and, finally, the high-voltage magnetic ignition (Bosch) [1.1].
of this drive concept quickly became apparent.
Next, the quality and quantity of the mixture formation had
As the engine power increased, so did the speed and
to be improved. Wick-surface and brush carburetors allowed
weight of the vehicles. Now, it was a question of adapting
only the low-boiling fractions of the gasoline (final boiling
the engine functions such as mixture composition, ignition
point approximately 100C) to be used. The fuel particles
timing, lubrication, and cooling to the conditions of road
that could be used did not vaporize simultaneously, creating
operation. The complex technical system engine had to be
another problem. In the Wilhelm Maybach nozzle carburetor,
made controllable even for untrained personnel (namely, the
the fuel was atomized and no longer vaporized. Now, it
vehicle owner). Fuel and oil consumption had to be reduced,
was possible to use a higher percentage of the gasoline (final
the latter not only for cost reasons but also because the exhaust
boiling point approximately 200C) productively. The spectrum
gases enriched with fully and partially combusted oil were
of fuels that could be used was significantly extended. In
a cause of public annoyance.
particular, the mixture could be formed in practically any
This mixture of demands, faults, experience, and new findings
quantity (a precondition for a further increase in performance
led to the development of engine concepts with different
and power). Carburetors with automatic auxiliary air control
but also with similar design elements. W-type, radial-type,
from Krebs, Claudel (Zenith), as well as Menesson and Goudard
single-shaft reciprocating piston, and rotary piston engines
(Solex) improved the operating behavior of the engines and
were only occasionally built for motor vehicles. The standard
reduced the fuel consumption.
design was the inline engine with four, six, and eight cylinders.
With the increase in power, more heat had to be dissipated
V-engines with eight, twelve, or even sixteen cylinders were also
with the coolant. Now, it was the simple evaporation cooling
built. The typical engine consisted of a low crankcase with
that proved to be the power-limiting factor. Heat dissipation
mounted single or twin cylinders. The cylinder and cylinder

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Chapter 1 Historical Review

head were cast in one piece, and the uptight valves were
immersion of engine parts or by special scoop mechanisms,
driven by the cam-shaft(s) mounted low in the crankcase. The
they were able to lubricate various components. This solution
crankshaft was suspended in bearing brackets with bearings
was followed by the forced circulation lubrication as was
after only every second or even third throw. Although the
the method commonly used in aircraft engines. Two-stroke
automatic intake valves had been replaced by driven valves, the
engines operated with mixture lubrication, that is, by adding
valve timing still presented several problems: valves burned
oil to the fuel.
through, valve springs broke, and the noise level became
Thermal siphon cooling did not allow sufficient heat to be
high. For this reason, the smooth running Knight slide valve
dissipated from the parts subject to high thermal loads. As a
gear appeared to be superior at the time. Knight sleeve valve
result, forced circulation cooling was introduced.
engines were built in England by Daimler Co., in Belgium by
Piston knock had become a power-limiting criterion in
Minerva, in the United States by Willys, and in Germany by
gasoline engines even during World War I. In 1921, Thomas
Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. But ultimately the valve timing
Midgley, Jr., and T.A. Boyd in the United States discovered the
system with its simpler design and operation was preferred.
effectiveness of tetraethyl lead (TEL) as an antiknock additive.
In the United States, the personal vehicle changed from a
The addition of TEL to the fuel reduced the knock, permitted
leisure pastime of the wealthy to an article of daily use before
higher compression ratios, and resulted in higher efficiencies.
World War I. In 1909, Henry Ford started the production of
In the 1920s, many small automobiles were developed
the Model T (Tin Lizzie). By 1927, more than fifteen million
whose engines had to be light, simple, and arid cheap. The
of these vehicles had been manufactured [1-4]. In Europe, the
two-stroke system with its high power density was an obvious
widespread use of motor vehicles (predominantly commercial
choice. There were two mutually exclusive arguments in favor
vehicles) started during World War I. The mass production
of this solution: high power density and design simplicity.
necessitated a certain unification and standardization of parts.
Valveless two-stroke engines with crankcase scavenging were
Operation under the extreme conditions at the front merci-
suitable for motorbikes and small automobiles. The develop-
lessly revealed design errors. The operation, maintenance,
ment of Schnrle reverse or loop scavenging from DKW was
and repair of so many vehicles necessitated the training and
an important advancement compared with the cross-flow
qualification of the operating personnel. The development of
scavenging method because it permitted better scavenging of
the aircraft engines driven by the war gave powerful impetus
the cylinder. This method also enabled flat pistons to replace
to the improvement of motor vehicle engines in the early
stepped pistons (with high thermal load).
1920s, and this applies to both the design (basic construction)
The Roaring Twenties heralded the era of the great
and the details of individual parts. Alongside upright valves
Mercedes, Horch, Stahr, and Maybach with eight-cylinder inline
with L- and T-shaped cylinder heads, engines with suspended
and twelve-cylinder V-engines. In England, there were Rolls
valves and compact combustion chambers were built enabling
Royce, Bentley, and Annstrong-Siddeley, in France Delage and
higher compression ratiosa precondition for more power
Bugatti, and in the United States, Pierce Arrow, Duesenberg,
and lower consumption.
Auburn, Cord, Cadillac, and Packard.
With the piston competition of 1921 organized by the
Influenced by the development in aircraft engine construc-
German Imperial Ministry of Transport, the German engine
tion, the engine builders started to turbocharge the engines
industry quickly discovered the benefits of the light alloy
with displacement-type fans (Roots blowers) that could be
piston compared with the cast iron piston. As a result, the
switched on and off, depending on the power requirements
engines of the 1920s were changed to light alloy pistons. In
(Mercedes-Benz, Itala and Bentleyradial blower (turbocom-
spite of many setbacks, this resulted in a significant increase
pressor): Duesenberg). The air cooling of the aircraft engines
in power and efficiency. The controlled piston enabled piston
also appeared to offer benefits, but this proved to be far more
knock to be reduced and ultimately eliminated. In the early
difficult with motor vehicle engines because of the low vehicle
1920s, there had been significant problems with the conrod
speed and less favorable operating conditions. A pioneer of
bearings of the aircraft engines; they had reached the limits of
air cooling was the Franklin Mfg. Co. from the United States.
their load bearing capacity. The steel leaded bronze bearing,
This company manufactured an air-cooled six-cylinder inline
developed by Norman Gilmann at Allison (USA), provided
engine even before World War I. General Motors also tried
the remedy. These bearings were first used in diesel engines
air cooling with a Chevrolet (Chevrolet copper engine), where
for commercial vehicles and later in high-performance car
the cooling fins were made of copper to improve the heat
engines. The next step in development was the three-material
dissipation. Because of technical problems, however, this
bearing, consisting of a steel supporting shell, a leaded bronze
engine never went into mass production. In Europe, air-cooled
intermediate layer, and a babbitt metal running layer; they
motor vehicle engines were also developed and built in the
had been developed by Clevite in the United States.
1920s and 1930s: commercial vehicle engines from Krupp
Higher speeds and increased demands on the reliability
and Phanomen, and car engines from Tatra and Ferdinand
of the engines required better engine lubrication.
Porsche for the new Volkswagens were produced. The air-
This development advanced from wick and pot lubrication
cooled opposed-cylinder (boxer) engine from Volkswagen
(lubrication from storage vessels) and lubrication with hand
became a synonym for reliability arid sturdiness (first in the
pumps [1.9]. Consumers were supplied with lubricant, and by
jeep and the amphibian vehicle and later in the Beetle).

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Historical Review

In the 1920s, a highly efficient accessory industry was built


proved to be effective in heavy commercial vehicles and was
up in symbiosis with the automotive and engine industry. It
increasingly used in light commercial vehicles and, ultimately,
served as a development center that united not only knowledge
also in the automobile (Mercedes-Benz, Hanomag, Oberhansli,
and experience in the various areas but also enabled more
Colt, Cummins, etc.). One of the first automobiles with a diesel
cost-effective production. This industry produced for several
engine was a Packard with a Cummins engine. To demonstrate
(or even all) of the engine manufacturers and thus was able
the suitability of the diesel engines for cars, specially modified
to offer proven, more or less standardized, and inexpensive
vehicles were entered in races. In 1930, a Packard Roadster
accessories such as pistons, bearings, radiators, carburetors,
powered by a Cummins diesel engine achieved a speed of
electrical equipment, and diesel injection systems. The motor
82 miles/h (131 km/h) on the Daytona Beach racetrack in
vehicle development promoted and enhanced the construc-
Florida. In Germany, a Hanomag streamlined vehicle with
tion and expansion of long-distance highways. Better roads
a diesel engine reached 97 miles/h (155.6 km/h); in 1978, it
permitted higher speeds and wheel loads. The traffic density
was a Mercedes-Benz C 111 that set the record at 197 miles/h
increased slowly but surely. The operation of the engines was
(316.5 km/h).
simplified, particularly by the electric starter introduced by
Charles F. Kettering at General Motors that made starting not
only easier but also safer. Ignition timing (advance-retard)
Imbert wood gas generator for car engines
and mixture composition (lean-rich) no longer had to be
Cover
adjusted by the driver and were controlled automatically. In
Centrifugal cleaner

Gas
the 1930s, cars were increasingly driven during the winter
radiator
months. Up to this point, many cars had not been used in
Wood
winter. The year-round operation of vehicles required differ-

Gas
ent oils depending on the outside temperature (i.e., summer
Air nozzles

Gas
oilwinter oil). Consideration had to be given to the outdoor
Air
temperatures by controlling the coolant temperature, first
Air and Mixture
by covering the radiator with leather blankets, then by using
ignition hole

Gas/ Fan

throttle air mixer


adjustable radiator shutters, and finally by using a thermostat
Wood charcoal Buddle valve Cover flap
to control the coolant temperature.
to engine Air

Gas

In the 1930s, alternative concepts were developed for vehicle


Controller throttle valve throttle Wood wool
engines. In Europe, the steam engine was used in commercial
valve

Air Fine filter


vehicles (Foden, Sentinel, Leyland, and Henschel) to cut fuel
costs and to achieve higher power outputs than were possible
at the time with vehicle diesel engines. Even the thought of
a cost-effective independent operation played a role in the
development of these engines. In the United States, Doble
automobiles powered by steam engines had become known
for their quiet running. Despite the favorable tractive force
curve, the steam engine ultimately failed to assert itself
against
the internal combustion engine. Commercial vehicles were
operated with gas from an accumulator or with generator gas.
During World War II and in the time period thereafter,
automobile engines had to be converted to generator gas
Figure 1.2Wood gas generator for car engines [1-3].
because of the shortage of fuel (Figure 1.2).
Fuel injection using compressed air (air injection) had
Despite the benefits of diesel engines, large gasoline engines
been an obstacle to the use of diesel engines in the motor
were used to drive commercial vehicles. In the United States and
vehicle. In the early 1920s, intensive work on a compressorless
in Germany, the twelve-cylinder engine of the Maybach Zeppelin
(airless) injection was carried out in various areas. Based on
powered omnibuses, fire engines, and half-track vehicles.
the preliminary work conducted before and during World War
The Opel Blitz commercial vehicle (with the six-cylinder
I (LOrange and Leissner) (airless) diesel engines for motor
inline engine of the Opel Admiral) became the standard vehicle
vehicles were developedin Germany by MAN, Benz (later,
of the German Wehrmacht. Small delivery vehicles (Tempo,
Mercedes-Benz), and Junkers. On the basis of Acro patents,
Goliath, and Standard) were also driven by gasoline engines.
Robert Bosch developed complete fuel injection systems for
Gradually, the diesel engine also broke into the automobile
vehicle diesel engines [1-1]. The fuel injection pumps had
sector. The most common automobile powered by a diesel
helix and overflow control. But because direct fuel injection
engine was the taxi.
had not been mastered for motor vehicle engines with their
During World War II, the development of automobile engines
wide speed range, indirect injection (prechamber and whirl
stagnated worldwide because other things now had priority.
chamber, air accumulator) was preferred. The diesel engine
After the war, the production of prewar engines started again.

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Chapter 1 Historical Review

In the United States, car owners could afford large engines,


In the 1960s, the rotary piston engine of Felix Wankel
and six-cylinder inline and eight-cylinder V-type engines
developed by NSU Motorworks AG (Figure 1.4) appeared
were common. In Europe, many compact and subcompact
to offer an alternative to the reciprocating piston engine. Its
cars were built with air and water-cooled two-stroke and
kinematics, power density, and compact design are the benefits
four-stroke engines. German manufacturers included: Gutbrod,
compared with the reciprocating piston engines. However, the
Lloyd, Goliath, and DKW. France also had several manufactur-
disadvantages outweighed the benefits: limited compression
ers (Dyna-Panhard, Renault 4 CV, and Citroen 2 CV). England
ratio, unfavorable combustion chamber, combustion with high
had Austin and Morris, and Italy had Fiat. To avoid the high
constant pressure ratio, late combustion into the expansion
fuel consumption of two-stroke gasoline engines because
phase, and problematical sealing of the combustion chamber
of the scavenging losses, Gutbrod and Goliath engines had a
led to high fuel consumptions and poor exhaust emission
mechanical fuel injection system. During the economic boom
values. Only Mazda managed to build sporty vehicles with
in Germany, the demand for small cars fell, preventing the
rotary piston engines with any degree of success.
two-stroke engine from establishing itself in the automobile
(except of the Wartburg and Trabant cars, which were equipped

Rover
with this engine type until the end of the 1980s in the German
gas turbine
Democratic Republic).
In the early 1950s, many four-stroke car engines still had side
valves, and the crankshaft rested in bearings only after every
second throw. After this time period, engines started to show
a more modern design: crankcase drawn down well under
the middle of the crankshaft, bearings for the crankshaft after
every throw, compact combustion chambers with overhead
valves (OHV), bucket tappets with overhead camshafts (OHC)
at higher engine speeds, and increased piston displacement.
Mercedes-Benz successfully competed in races again; the
engines of the Silver Arrows had a gasoline injection system
and positive-closing valves (desmodromic (positive) control)
derived from aircraft engines.
The economic upswing in the western world allowed pros-
Figure 1.3Gas turbine for Rover car [1-2].
perity to rise in general, and broad segments of the population
could afford automobiles. As a result, vehicle production
increased. There was a plenty of opportunities for vehicle
development. In Japan, a new producer appeared on the world
market that revolutionized automobile production with a
KKM 612
high standard of quality, a reduction of the manufacturing
depth, the splitting of production, improved assembly and
development processes, and (just-in-time) delivery. Global
competition necessitated even tighter cost control; the engines
were produced in much larger quantities and were built with
cost-effective production in mind. These engines required only
simple maintenance and repair after production. Electronic
data processing started to establish itself in research and
development in the 1970s. This practice utilized computer-
aided design to simulate engine processes using a technique
called finite element method (FEM). FEM resulted in rationalized,
accelerated, and higher precision development.
The concept of the reciprocating piston engine was questioned
time and again. At the end of the 1940s, Rover in England had
developed a vehicle with a gas turbine engine (Figure 1.3).
High power density, compact design, some moving parts,
Figure 1.4Rotary piston engine, type NSU KKM 612 [1-11].
no free mass effects (hence smooth running), good pollution
control (thanks to smoke-free exhaust), and good cold-starting
The energy crises in the 1970s and the heightened public
properties are major points in favor of the gas turbine. However,
awareness of environmental problems led to a call for more
it was discovered that gas turbines are not suitable for the low
economical engines with lower exhaust emissions. Starting from
powers and operating conditions of automobile engines. The
mechanical injection, a low-pressure fuel injection system with
gap losses are too high, resulting in poor efficiency.
electronically controlled fuel metering was designed (much of

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Historical Review

the work done by Bosch [1-1]). Despite the high development


proved to be ideal, particularly for the small injection volumes
level of carburetor technology (twin carburetors, two-stage
required by automotive diesel engines. Direct fuel injection
carburetors, and constant-pressure carburetor), fuel injection
offered significant consumption benefits for these engines,
quickly became the established solution. Electronics became
thus helping them to establish themselves for commercial
more and more involved in the engine control. A common
vehicle engines in the 1960s. By the late 1980s, Ford had already
microprocessor-controlled electronic system with map storage
equipped a delivery van with an engine using direct fuel injec-
controls ignition and mixture formation.
tion. Audi was also in the process of delivering low-pollution
As measures inside the engine were no longer sufficient to
car engines with direct injection around this time. Other
reduce pollutant emissions to legally specified limits, three-
way companies followed suit, making direct injection a standard
catalytic converters were employed that demanded precise
for diesel engines that still exists today. Turbochargers and
control of the stoichiometric excess-air factor (lambda).
intercoolers are becoming more and more common in diesel
Continuous measurement of the oxygen content in the exhaust
engines. High injection pressures are achieved with the unit
gases using the Lambda sensor allows the pollutant emissions
injector system and, more recently, with the accumulator
to be reduced. An additional improvement is achieved with
injection system (common rail). To reduce the thermal load on
controlled exhaust gas recirculation.
the diesel engine pistons, they are cooled either by spraying
Exhaust gas turbocharging as a means of increasing power
the undersides of the pistons or by using cooling channels.
and reducing consumption began to be employed in commercial
In the 1980s and 1990s, the charge cycle became one of
vehicle engines from the 1960s. With increasing development
the major developmental focal points. Flow coefficients and
levels, exhaust gas turbochargers could be miniaturized to
volumetric efficiency were improved with the multivalve
such an extent that automobile gasoline engines could also
technology. Further improvements came from variable valve
be equipped. Because the fluid mechanics-based exhaust gas
timings and valve strokes, as well as variable-configuration
turbocharger and the reciprocating piston-powered internal
intake manifolds. The development trend is now toward
combustion engine exhibited different operating behaviors, the
electromagnetically actuated and controlled valves. As a result,
air supply of the turbocharger and the air demand of the
the intake cycle can be dethrottled reducing one of the major
engine had to be balanced in order for these two machines
problems with this engine type. The direct injection into the
to work together properly. Bypassing the turbine with part
cylinders of gasoline engines results in higher performance,
of the exhaust gas stream (waste gate control) and, for diesel
reduced pollutant emissions, and lower consumption.
engines, using variable turbine geometry were some of the
On the engine side, the fuel consumption has been reduced
initial advancements. A further improvement was achieved
by means of a whole range of measures: smaller dimensions
by cooling the charge air in the intercooler. As far as their
and weights of the engine (downsizing), roller tappets rather
response behavior for automobiles is concerned, mechanically
than sliding tappets in the control, low-viscosity oils (that
powered turbochargers are at an advantage. Volkswagen
demand controlled operation of blowers and pumps), and so on.
developed a spiral turbocharger (G charger), and Mercedes-
Increasing engine speeds of the five-cylinder inline and V-6
Benz uses Roots blowers for its sporty vehicle engines.
engine designs demanded measures to improve the machine
An outstanding concept for turbocharging is the pressure
dynamics of the engines. Differentials ensure the desired
wave supercharger (Comprex charger) from Brown, Boveri &
smoothness of running, as do rotational oscillation dampers.
Ci (BBC), in which the energy from the exhaust gas is trans-
Limited resources and generally higher pollutant emissions
ferred dynamically directly to the charge air, that is, without
are driving the search for different drive concepts. On the one
exhaust gas turbine and without a turbo compressor. Despite
hand, it is a question of finding a substitute for crude oil, and,
enormous development efforts, however, this principle has
on the other, of relieving the environment. A solution strongly
been unable to establish itself in the automotive industry (one
favored by politicians for a time was the use of regenerative
of the reasons is because of high cost).
energies in the form of vegetable oil (rape oil methyl ester). The
Another drawback to this process is the fact that the
rape growing areas are not sufficient for an adequate supply
exhaust gas temperature of gasoline engines is too high for
of fuel (quite apart from the ecological problems associated
proper operation.
with monocultures) nor are they technically expedient to
The automotive diesel engine was at series-production
replace mineral oils in motor vehicle engines.
maturity as early as the 1930s. It found an admittedly limited,
Another development is aimed at the use of hydrogen as
but loyal, group of fans in the 1950s among taxi drivers and
fuel. Hydrogen, in conventional reciprocating piston engines as
high-mileage drivers who attached less importance to sporty
well as in fuel cells, can help to alleviate the pollutant situation.
driving and more to low fuel consumption and long service life.
On the downside, hydrogen is difficult to produce. It has to be
Apart from the Mercedes-Benz and Borgward engines, Peugeot
generated either by reverse electrolysis that requires a great
and Fiat were the only other diesel engine manufacturers at
deal of energy or by converting methanol or gasoline (not a
the time. In the 1970s, Volkswawgon (VW) introduced an
good method for conserving resources). A feasible scenario
automotive diesel engine shortly followed by other German
lies in the increased use of natural-gas-powered engines. This
manufacturers (Opel, BMW, Ford, and Audi). The interest in
solution would ensure the energy supply with ever-decreasing
the diesel cars was low in the United States. The distributor
resources of crude oil while preparing the way for the advent
injection pump arrived on the scene in the 1960s/1970s and
of a gas technology using hydrogen.

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Chapter 1 Historical Review

Bibliography
1-6. Kirchberg, P. 2000. Plaste, Bleche und Planwirtschaft. Die Geschichte
1-1. Robert Bosch GmbH (Hrsg.). 1952. Bosch und die Zndung. Bosch-
des Automobilbaus in der DDR. Berlin: Nicolasche Verlagsbuchhan-
Schriftenreihe Folge 5: Stuttgart.
dlung: Berlin.

1-2. Bussien, R. (Hrsg.). 1965. Automobiltechnisches Handbuch. 18. Aufl.


1-7. Krebs, R. 1994. 5 Jahrtausende Radfahrzeuge. Springer: Berlin.
Technik Verlag H. Cram: Berlin.
1-8. Sass, F. 1962. Geschichte des deutschen Verbrennungsmotorenbaues.
1-3. Eckermann, E. 1986. Alte Technik mit Zukunft. R. Oldenbourg: (Hrsg.
Springer: Berlin.
Deutsches Museum) Mnchen.
1-9. Pierburg. 1979. Vom Docht zur Dse. Ausgabe 8/1979. Fa.
1-4. von Fersen, O. (Hrsg.). 1986. Ein Jahrhundert Automobiltechnik
Pierburg: Neuss.
Personenwagen. VDI-Verlag: Dsseldorf.
1-10. Zima, S. 1999. Kurbeltriebe. 2. Aufl. Vieweg: Wiesbaden.
1-5. von Frankenberg, R. and Mateucci, M. 1988. Geschichte des
1-11. ATZ 69. 1967. 9, pp. 279284.
Automobils. Siegloch: Knzelsau.

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2 Definition and
Classification of Reciprocating
Piston Engines
2.1 Definitions
engines depending on the nature of the displacers movement.

In reciprocating piston engines, the displacer takes the form


Piston machines are machines in which energy is transferred

of a cylindrical piston that moves between two extreme posi-


from a fluid (a gas or a liquid) to a moving displacer (e.g., a

tions, the dead centers, in a cylinder. The term piston is


piston) or from the piston to the fluid [2-1], [2-2], [2-3].
They

also frequently applied to noncylindrical displacers. In rotary


are thus part of the category of fluid energy machines that, as

piston engines, a rotating displacer is normally responsible


driven machines, absorb mechanical energy to increase the

for varying the working chamber.


energy of the conveyed fluid. In drive machines, on the other

Combustion engines are machines in which chemical energy


hand, mechanical energy is released in the form of useful

is converted into mechanical energy as a result of the combus-


work at the piston or at the crank mechanism.

tion of an ignitable mixture of air and fuel. The best known


The occurrence of a periodically changing working chamber

combustion engines are internal combustion engines and gas


as a result of the motion of the displacer (piston) is
characteristic

turbines. Figure 2.1 provides an overview.


of the manner of operation of piston engines. One differentiates
between reciprocating displacer engines and rotary displacer

Type of working process Open process


Closed process
Internal combustion
External combustion

Combustion gas = working fluid


Combustion gas working fluid

Change of phase of the working fluid

No Yes
Type of combustion
Cyclical combustion Continuous combustion
Type of ignition Autoignition
Supplied ignition
Machine Engine Diesel Hybrid
Gasoline Rohs [2-5] Stirling [2-6] Steam [2-7]
type
Turbine
Gas Superheated Steam

steam
Mixture type Heterogeneous
Homogeneous Heterogeneous
(homogeneous)
(heterogeneous) (in the continuous flame)
(in the
combustion chamber)
Figure 2.1The classification of combustion engines (after [2-
8]).

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Chapter 2 Definition and Classification of Reciprocating Piston Engines

Cylinders External rotor Housing


Housing Eccentric shaft

Pistons

Connecting
Figure 2.2The working principles
rod
of reciprocating piston engines,

rotary engines, and planetary

piston engines. Housing with


Crankshaft Pistons
Pistons epitrochoid internal contour and

power-yielding internal rotor that


a b c
rotates eccentrically around a pinion

and seals simultaneously.

Internal combustion engines are piston engines. One differ-


Gas exchange control system
entiates between reciprocating piston engines (featuring
Charging system
oscillating piston movement) and rotary piston engines (featur-

Configuration.
ing rotating piston movement) depending on the geometry
of the gastight, changing working chamber and on the type
Further differentiating features may take the form of the
of piston motion. Rotary piston engines are, for their part,
following [2-10], [2-11]:
subclassified again into rotary engines (featuring an internal
Ignition system
and an external rotor with purely rotary motion about fixed
Cooling system
axes) and planetary rotary engines (that feature an internal

Load-adjustment system
rotor, the axis of which describes a circular motion) [2-4]. Figure
2.2 shows the differing working principles. Only the Wankel
Application
engine, a planetary piston engine, has achieved any significance.
Speed and output graduations.
It is also necessary, depending on the type of working

A number of differentiating features are now only of histori-


process, to differentiate between combustion engines with

cal significance, however.


internal combustion and those with external combustion.
In engines featuring internal combustion, the working fluid
(air) is simultaneously the source of the oxygen necessary
2.2.1 Combustion Processes
for combustion. Combustion of the fuel fed produces waste
Among the combustion processes, differentiation is made
gas, which must be replaced in a gas exchange cycle prior
primarily between the Otto cycle and the diesel cycle. Hybrid
to every working cycle. Combustion is therefore cyclical,
engines exhibit characteristics of both the Otto cycle and the
differentiation being made among gasoline, diesel, and hybrid
diesel cycle.
engines, depending on the combustion process.
The gasoline engine is a combustion engine in which combus-
In the case of external combustion engines (such as the
tion of the compressed fuel + air mixture is initiated by means
Stirling engine, for example), the heat produced outside the
of synchronized extraneous ignition. In the diesel engine, on
working chamber as a result of continuous combustion is
the other hand, the liquid fuel injected into the combustion
transferred to the working fluid. This permits a closed-circuit
chamber ignites on the air charge after this has previously
working process and the use of any fuel.
been heated, by means of compression, to a temperature
Only reciprocating piston engines featuring internal, cyclical
sufficiently high to initiate ignition [2-9].
combustion are examined from this point on.
In the case of hybrid engines, one differentiates between

engines featuring charge stratification and multifuel engines

[2-8] (also see chapters 15.1 and 15.2).

2.2 Potentials for Classification


2.2.2 Fuel
The potentials for the classification of reciprocating engines
Gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels can be combusted in combus-
are extremely diverse because of the complex interrelation-
tion engines:
ships involved. Internal combustion reciprocating engines
Gaseous fuels: Methane, propane, butane, natural gas
[2-9] can be differentiated by their
(compressed natural gas (CNG)), generator, blast furnace,
Combustion process
biogas (sewage treatment and landfill gas), and hydrogen.
Fuel
Liquid fuels:
Operating principle
Light liquid fuels: Gasoline, kerosene, benzene, alcohols
Mixture formation
(methanol, ethanol), acetone, ether, and liquefied gases
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2.2 Potentials for Classification

(Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquified Petroleum


2.2.5 Gas Exchange Control
Gas (LPG)).
Valve, port, and slide-valve tuning systems are used for control
Heavy liquid fuels: Petroleum, gas oil (diesel fuel), fatty-
acid of the gas exchange.
methyl esters, and, primarily in Europe, rape-seed86 methyl
In the case of valve timing mechanisms, one differenti-
esters (RME), also referred to as biodiesel, vegetable
oils, ates between overhead- and side-actuated engines [2-9]. The
heavy fuel oils, and marine fuel oil.
overhead-actuated engine has overhead valves, that is, the
Hybrid fuels: DieselRME, Dieselwater, gasolinealcohol.
closing movement of the valves occurs in the same direction

as the movement of the piston toward the top dead center. The
Solid fuels: Pulverized coal development has long been

side-actuated engine, on the other hand, has vertical valves,


discontinued.

and closure of the valves occurs in the same direction as the

movement of the piston toward BDC.


2.2.3 Working Cycles
Only the overhead valve engine (OHV) arrangement, with
In the field of working cycles, differentiation is made between
overhead valves located in the cylinder head, is used in modem
four-stroke and two-stroke processes. Common to both is the
four-stroke engines. The camshaft may be located in the
compression of the charge (air or a fuel vapor + air mixture)
in the cylinder head or in the crankcase.
first step (stroke) by the reduction of the working chamber and
Two-stroke engines mainly employ port-based timing
ignition occurring shortly before the reversal of piston
motion. systems (slots, or ports in the cylinder sleeve, with the
piston
Also, combustion associated with an increase in pressure up
acting as a slide valve), and bevel slide valves, disk valves,
to the maximum cylinder pressure and the expansion of the
slide valves, and diaphragm timing systems in individual
working gas in the subsequent stroke, during which work is
cases. In addition, a valve timing system (an exhaust valve in
applied to the piston, is similar in both processes.
many cases) is also used in some recent motor-car and large
The four-stroke process requires two further strokes to
marine engine developments.
remove the combustion gas from the working chamber by
means of displacement and to fill the working chamber with a

2.2.6 Supercharging
fresh charge by means of natural induction (normal aspiration).

In a normally aspirated engine, the fresh charge (air or


In the two-stroke process, gas exchange occurs in the
vicinity

mixture) is drawn into the cylinder by the working piston


of bottom dead center (BDC) as a result of expulsion of the

(natural aspiration).
combustion gases by the fresh charge with only a slight change

Supercharging enlarges the quantity of the charge as a


in the working volume, with the result that the complete stroke

result of precompression; a supercharger conveys the fresh


is not exploited for compression and expansion. An additional

charge into the cylinder. The primary aims of supercharging


scavenging blower is necessary for the scavenging process.

are the enhancement of power and torque output and the

reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions.


2.2.4 Mixture Generation
Figure 2.3 shows an overview of possible types of super-
Combustion engines can be differentiated in terms of their
charging (after [2-12]).
type of mixture generation:
The most widely used and effective variant in practice is
External mixture generation: Formation of the fuelair
self- or auto-supercharging, using a compressor:
mixture in the inlet system
Mechanical supercharging: The compressor is driven directly
Internal mixture generation: Formation of the mixture in
by the engine.
the working chamber
Exhaust turbo-supercharging: A turbine (exhaust turbine)

powered by the engine exhaust drives the compressor.


on the basis of the quality of mixture generation:
Homogeneous mixture generation: Carburetor and intake
Processes without a compressor, which exploit the gas-
manifold injection in the case of the gasoline engine, or
dynamic processes in the intake and exhaust systems to
gasoline direct injection (GDI) during the induction stroke
increase the charge, are also used.
Nonhomogeneous mixture generation: Injection at extremely
short intervals in the diesel engine and in gasoline engines
2.2.7 Configuration
with GDI during the compression stroke and on the basis
Many variants of cylinder arrangement have been suggested
of the location of mixture generation:
in the more than 120-year history of the internal combustion

engine. Only a few standard configurations have stood the


Direct injection into the working chamber in the case, for

test of time [2-10], [2-11].


example, of DI diesel engines and GDI engines. Injection

Starting from the single-cylinder engine, the number of


may be air-directed, jet-directed, or wall-directed

cylinders selected can range up to as high as twelve in the case


Indirect injection into a subsidiary chamber, such as ante-
of vehicle engines. Aircraft engines with up to twenty-eight, or
chamber, swirl-chamber, and air-chamber diesel engines
even as many as forty-eight cylinders, and high-performance
Intake manifold injection (in gasoline engines).
engines with up to fifty-six cylinders have also been constructed.

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Chapter 2 Definition and Classification of Reciprocating Piston Engines

Supercharging

External charging
Self charging

with compressor
without compressor

with exhaust
without exhaust with exhaust without exhaust
gas use
gas use gas use gas use

Exhaust gas
Mechanical Pressure wave Resonance
turbocharging
supercharging supercharging charging

Combined mechanical
and
Combined external and exhaust gas
turbocharging
exhaust gas turbocharging

Constant pressure
Pulse Ram pipe
turbo charging
turbo charging super charging

Figure 2.3Various supercharging methods (after [2-12]).

There are many possible combinations for the cylinder


combustion chamber, the pistons being arranged either opposing
arrangement, some of which are identified in a self-explanatory
(opposed-piston engine) or concurrent (U-piston engine).
manner by letters. Figure 2.4 shows a selection of possible
Vertical, horizontal, and overhead engines are differenti-
cylinder arrangements and configurations.
ated on the basis of the location of the cylinder axis, and
The following are presently of significance:
overhead- and side-actuated engines by the location of the
The inline engine (one bank of cylinders and one crankshaft).
timing mechanism.
The V-engine (two banks of cylinders arid one crank-shaft):
Two connecting rods are coupled to each crank pin. Common
2.2.8 Ignition
V-angles are 45, 60, 90, and 180. The VR engine [2-14] has
The fuelair mixture may be ignited by means of supplied
a V-angle of 15, the crankshaft having a separate crank pin
ignition or compression ignition:
for each connecting rod.
Supplied ignition (gasoline engine): An electrical spark
The W-engine (three banks of cylinders and one crankshaft):
ignites the mixture in the cylinder (spark ignition).
Three connecting rods are connected in each case to one
Autoignition (diesel engine): The fuel injected ignites spon-
crank pin. A V-engine consisting of two VR banks is referred
taneously in the air heated by compression in the cylinder
to as a V-VR engine, or also as a W-engine [2-14].
(compression ignition).
The boxer (flat-opposed) engine: Unlike the 180 V-engine,
each connecting rod is connected to a separate crank pin.
2.2.9 Cooling
The crank mechanism has proven its value in engine
In view of the high temperatures that occur, the combustion
design. Trunk piston engines and crosshead engines may
engine needs to be cooled, to protect its components and the
be differentiated as variants. Slider crank mechanisms and
lubricating oil. It is necessary to differentiate between direct
cam engines are also described in the relevant literature, as
and indirect engine cooling.
are crankshaftless engines (curved-plate, curved-track, and
Direct cooling is accomplished using air (air cooling) either
swash-plate engines) [2-10].
with or without the assistance of a fan.
Single- and double-acting engines can be differentiated
In the case of indirect cooling, the engine is cooled with
according to their manner of action, depending on whether
a mixture of water, antifreeze, and corrosion inhibitors, or
the combustion gases act on only one side or on both sides of
with oil (liquid cooling). Removal of heat to the environ-
the piston. The double-piston engine has two pistons to each
ment is accomplished via a heat exchanger arrangement. One

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2.2 Potentials for Classification

Inline engine V-Engine


W-Engine

Boxer engine
Radial series engine

X-engine

Radial engine Dual radial engine


Quad radial engine

Twin bank
engine H-Engine

Dual shaft

opposed-piston engine

Three shaft opposed- Swash-plate


engines/
inline engines
Figure 2.4Cylinder arrangements
piston engine
in reciprocating piston engines

[2-10], [2-13].

differentiates among evaporative, recirculating, once-through,


Quantity control and filling control: With an approximately
and hybrid cooling.
constant air ratio , a throttling element (butterfly, rotary
disk, slide, or other valve) controls the quantity of mixture

that flows into the cylinder (conventional gasoline engine).


2.2.10 Load Adjustment
Motor output P
Quality control: In diesel engines, and in GDI gasoline

engines in certain operating ranges, the fuel is metered in


P = M w = M 2p n
(2.1)

as required. The injection flow is varied, with a practically


can be matched to the power requirement by modifying both
constant flow of air (variable air ratio ).
speed n and torque M (load). In the context of load adjustment,
it is necessary to differentiate between

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Chapter 2 Definition and Classification of Reciprocating Piston Engines

2.2.11 Applications
Bibliography
A number of examples of the use of combustion engines are
2-1. Grote, K.-H. and Feldhusen, J. (Hrsg.). 2007. Dubbel Taschenbuch fr

den Maschinenbau, 22. Aufl. Springer: Berlin; Heidelberg; New York.


as follows:

2-2. Kleinert, H.-J. (Hrsg.). 1989. Taschenbuch Maschinenbau Bd. 5:


Land-based vehicles: Road vehicles (motorcycles, automo-
Kolbenmaschinen, Strmungsmaschinen, 1. Aufl. Verlag Technik: Berlin.
biles, buses, and commercial vehicles), off-road vehicles,

2-3. Eifler, W., Schlcker, E., Spicher, U., and Will, G. 2009. Kttner
and rail vehicles
Kolbenmaschinen, 7. Aufl. Vieweg+Teubner: Wiesbaden.
Marine craft: Boats, inland, coastal, and ocean-going ships
2-4. Bensinger, W.-D. 1973. Rotationskolben-Verbrennungsmotoren.
Aircraft: Airplanes and airships
Springer: Berlin; Heidelberg.

Agricultural machines and vehicles


2-5. Rohs, U. Kolbenmotor mit kontinuierlicher Verbrennung. Offenle-

gungsschrift DE 199 09 689 A 1, verffentlicht: 07.09. 2000.


Commercial and industrial applications: Construction

2-6. Werdich, M. and Kbler, K. 2007. Stirling-Maschinen: Grundlagen


machines, handling, conveying, and lifting equipment,
Technik Anwendung, 11. Aufl. kobuch: Staufen.
tugs, and tractors

2-7. Buschmann, G., et al., Zero Emission Engine Der Dampfmotor mit
Stationary engine installations: Engine-powered generating
isothermer Expansion, MTZ 61(5): 314323, 2000.
plants, unit-type cogeneration plants, electrical generating
2-8. Robert Bosch GmbH (Hrsg.). 2007. Kraftfahrtechnisches Handbuch,
sets, emergency-power sets, and supply systems.
26. Aufl. Vieweg: Wiesbaden.

2-9. DIN Deutsches Institut fr Normung (Hrsg.). 1976. DIN 1940: Verbren-

nungsmotoren Hubkolbenmotoren Begriffe, Formelzeichen, Einheiten.


2.2.12 Speed and Output Graduations
Beuth: Berlin.
An extremely broad range of combustion engine speeds and

2-10. van Basshuysen, R. and Schfer, F. (Hrsg.). 2006. Lexikon Motoren-


outputs are used. Power ranges extend from model engines
technik, 2. Aufl. Vieweg: Wiesbaden.
of 0.1 kW up to large-scale commercial installations of as
2-11. Beier, R., et al. 1983. Verdrngermaschinen, Teil II: Hubkolbenmotoren.
much as 50,000 kW. An engines speed range also defines its
TV Rheinland: Kln.
output and size.
2-12. DIN Deutsches Institut fr Normung (Hrsg.). 1976. DIN 6262: Verbren-
The following can be differentiated by their speed [2-1]:
nungsmotoren Arten der Aufladung Begriffe. Beuth: Berlin.
Low-speed engines used, for example, in ships (60200 rpm,
2-13. Zima, S. 1999. Kurbeltriebe, 2. Aufl. Vieweg: Wiesbaden.
in the case of diesel engines)
2-14. Braess, H.-H. and Seiffert, U. (Hrsg.). 2007. Vieweg Handbuch
Medium-speed engines (2001000 rpm in diesel engines,
Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, 5. Aufl. Vieweg: Wiesbaden.
maximum speed <4000 rpm in gasoline engines)
High-speed engines, for use, for example, in motor cars
(maximum speed >1000 rpm in diesel engines and >4000
rpm in gasoline engines).
Engines for sports and racing vehicles reach speeds of up
to 22,000 rpm.

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3 Characteristics
Engine characteristics serve the developers, designers, and
l sin b = r sin a (3.3)

users of internal combustion engines as important aids in


designing the fundamental dimensions, assessing engine
r

b = arcsin sin a . (3.4)


power, and consumption, and evaluating and comparing
l

different engines. A distinction is made between engine charac-


Allowing for
teristics such as stroke, bore, piston displacement, and
compression

cos = 1 sin 2 b = 1 ( r / l ) sin 2 a

2
ratio and operating characteristics such as power, torque,
engine
(3.5)

speed, mean pressure, volumetric efficiency, and fuel


consumption.

and inserting the connecting rod ratio

ls = (3.6)
3.1 Piston Displacement
l

The piston displacement or swept volume V h for an engine


we obtain the equation for the piston stroke:
cylinder is the distance traveled by the piston during one
l l

sa = r 1 + cosa 1 ( r / l ) sin 2 a

(3.7)
piston stroke from BDC to TDC:
r r

p dK2
VH = Vh z = s z ,
(3.1)
4
1

sa = r ( 1 cosa ) + 1 1 ls2 sin 2 a

ls

(3.8)
where

s = Piston stroke
or
dK = Piston diameter or cylinder bore
sa = r f (a) , (3.9)

V h = Piston displacement for one cylinder

with f( ) = Stroke function.


VH = Total swept volume of the engine

The connecting rod ratio s for car engines normally lies


z = Number of cylinders.
in the range from 0.2 to 0.35. It is difficult to work with the

equation for the piston travel, particularly when piston speed


3.1.1 Calculation of Stroke and Piston
or piston acceleration is to be calculated. An approximation
Displacement from the Crankshaft
equation can normally be used for simplicity in which the
Position (Figure 3.1)
radical of a power series (MacLaurin series) is developed:

sa = r + l x = r + l r cosa l cos b ,
(3.2) 1 ls2 sin 2 a =

(3.10)

1 1 1
where
1 ls2 sin 2 a ls4 sin 4 a ls6 sin 6 a

2 8 16
r = Crankshaft radius

Because of the values of s 0.2 to 0.35, the third term is


l = Conrod length.

already very small compared with the first term so that


Between the crank offset and the connecting rod sweep
angle (connecting rod offset), we have the relationship:
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Chapter 3 Characteristics

1
1 ls2 sin 2 a 1 ls2 sin 2 a
(3.11)
2
can be assumed.
Using the trigonometric function
Vmin

OT
1
sin 2 a = ( 1 cos 2a ) ,
(3.12)
2
Vmax

s Vh
we then obtain for the piston travel s as
s

1 1
sa r ( 1 cosa ) + 1 1 + ls2 sin 2 a
(3.13) b
ls 2
UT

l
1 1
sa r ( 1 cosa ) + ls ( 1 cos 2a )
(3.14)
2 2

l l
sa r 1 cosa + s s cos 2a .
(3.15)
4 4
a

For the momentary combustion chamber volume V ,


r
we obtain
Va = Vc + AK sa ,
(3.16)

where
VC = Compression ratio (see Figure 3.2)
Figure 3.1Swept volume and compression ratio.
AK = Piston surface.

In SI engines with direct fuel injection, an increase in the


We thus obtain
compression ratio is possible because of the improved internal
1
cooling by the internal mixture preparation. This gives them
Va Vc + AK r 1 cosa + ls ( 1 cos 2a ) .
(3.17)
4
a higher efficiency compared with the SI engine with intake

manifold injection.

For the diesel engine, the compression ratio has to be selected

at least so large as to ensure reliable starting when cold. In


3.2 Compression Ratio
general, the thermodynamic efficiency increases with increas-

ing compression ratio. An excessively high compression ratio,


The compression ratio is defined as the quotient of the maximum
however, results in a decrease in the effective efficiency at
and minimum cylinder volumes: the maximum cylinder
full load because of the sharply increasing friction forces. In
volume is when the piston is at BDC. When the piston is at
part-load operation, a high compression ratio has a positive
TDC position, the volume is minimal and is referred to as
effect on the efficiency [3-1]. Irrespective of that, the peak
compression or dead volume.
pressure that is limited by the material strength limits the
The compression volume is made up of the combustion
compression ratio that can be achieved in practice.
chamber volume of the cylinder head, the valve pockets in
Figure 3.2 shows the influence of compression ratio on the
the piston, a piston recess, and the top land volume up to the
effective efficiency and on the mean effective pressure in an
upper compression ring. Compression volume and piston
SI engine during full-load operation. The ignition timing
displacement can be determined by gauging in liters.
was set to maximum torque. The increase in efficiency up
Figure 3.1 shows the swept volume and compression
to a compression ratio of approximately 17:1 is clearly seen.
volume schematically.
The efficiency then drops in this case because of increasing
For the compression ratio of a four-stroke engine, we
frictional forces and a less favorable combustion chamber form
thus obtain
because of increasing percentages of quench areas.
Vmax Vh + Vc
With increasing compression, the NOx and HC emissions
e= =
(3.18)
Vmin Vc
initially continue to increase. The nitrous oxides rise because

of the increased combustion temperatures in the combustion


where VC = Vmin = Compression or dead volume
chamber, and the HC emissions rise because of the greater
The compression ratio of a spark ignition (SI) engine is
splitting of the combustion chamber (larger relative proportion
limited upward by the knock and by autoignition.
of gaps) and the increase in the ratio of combustion chamber

surface area to combustion chamber volume (surface-to-volume

ratio). To avoid this, combustion chambers must be designed

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3.3 Rotational Speed and Piston Speed

as compactly as possible. With increasing compression, the


Figure 3.4 shows the possible ranges of the compression
exhaust gas temperature also drops because of the better
ratios for common engines.
efficiency so that postreactions of unburned hydrocarbons
and carbon monoxide in the exhaust system are prevented.
Engine type upper limit by
At the same time, however, an increase in compression results
from to
in a better lean-off capability and allows the ignition to be
Two-stroke SI engine 7.5 10 Autoignition
retarded because of the faster combustion. This enables the

Self-injection SI engine 9 11 Knock, autoignition


HC and NOx emissions to be reduced further.

SI engine Turbo 8 10 Knock, autoignition

Direct injection SI 11 14 Knock, autoignition


12
0,42 engine

Direct injection engine 9 12 Knock, autoignition

0,4 Turbo
eff. mean pressure pme [bar]

eff. efficiency he [-]

0,38 Diesel (indirect 18


24 Loss of efficiency at full
11

injection) load, component load,

noise

0,36

Diesel (direct injection) 17 21 Loss of efficiency at full


10
0,34
load, component load,

noise

0,32 Figure 3.4Compression ratios of modern engines.


9
0,3 New developments are geared to varying the
compression
7 9 11 13
15 17 19 21

ratio according to the operating point while the engine is

Compression ratio e [-]

running. In the SI engine, the compression ratio is selected for


Pme
eff. efficiency optimum efficiency in
part-load operation, whereas in full-load

operation, the compression ratio is reduced to prevent knock.


Figure 3.2Influence of compression ratio on mean effective
pressure and In the diesel
engine, the compression ratio is limited by the
effective efficiency at full load of a gasoline engine [3-2].

maximum cylinder pressure (because of the component load).


In two-stroke engines with slot control, a distinction is
For diesel engines, the geometric compression ratio for full
made between the geometric compression ratio and the
load can be optimally selected between a high efficiency and
effective compression ratio . Figure 3.3 shows the
difference. a
maximum component load. For reliable cold starting, the
The effective compression begins only after the piston has
compression ratio is set as high as possible.
closed the intake and exhaust slots. The effective compression
ratio is calculated as

e =

Vh + Vc

, (3.19)

3.3 Rotational Speed and

Vc Piston Speed
where

p dK2 3.3.1 Rotational


Speed
Vh =
s , (3.20)

Number of crankshaft revolutions

n= (3.21)
where Vh = Dead volume above the slots
Time
s = Residual stroke above the slots.

3.3.2 Angular Velocity

w = 2p n
(3.22)

3.3.3 Piston Speed

The piston speed as a function of the crank angle is determined


s

by the temporal derivation from the equation of the movement


s

of the crank drive together with the angular velocity:

A dsa dsa
da

s a = = (3.23)

dt da dt
E

da

= w = 2 p n . (3.24)

dt
Figure 3.3Geometric and effective compression ratio of the
two-stroke engine.

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Chapter 3 Characteristics

Consequently

1,08
ds 1
sa = w a w r sin a + ls sin 2a .
(3.25)
da 2

1,06
With increasing piston speed, the mass forces, wear, flow

Factor ks
resistance during intake, friction, noise also increase. The

1,04
maximum permissible mass forces, in particular, limit the
piston speed and hence the maximum rotational speed. In
engines with internal mixture formation, that is, diesel engines
1,02
and SI engines with direct injection, the rotational speed is
additionally limited by the time necessary for the mixture
formation. In diesel engines, this is one of the reasons for the
1,00

0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40


significantly lower maximum revolutions compared with an

Push rod ratio s


SI engine of a similar size.

Figure 3.6Correction of the maximum piston speed by the real s.


3.3.4 Mean Piston Speed
cm = 2 s n
(3.26)

The mean piston speed is a measure for comparing the

3.4 Torque and Power


drives of various engines. It provides information on the
The power at any working point of the engine is calculated
load on the sliding partners and indications of the power
from the torque and engine revolutions:
density of the engine.
Pe = Md w = Md 2 p n (3.27)
Figure 3.5 lists the rotational speeds and piston speeds of

modern engines for orientation.


According to this equation, an increase in power can be
achieved by increasing the rotational speed or the torque.
Maximum speed Mean piston
Both are subject to certain limits (see Chapter 3.3).
(rpm) speed (m/s)
As an example, Figure 3.7 shows the motor characteristics
Engine type approximately approximately

of a diesel engine.
Racing engine (Formula 1) 18,000 25
Small engines (two-stroke) 20,000 19

600 180
Motorcycle engines 13,500 19
Car SI engine 7500 20
560 160

Car diesel engines 5000 15


520 140

Torque [Nm]

Output [kW]
Truck diesel engines 2800 14
480 120
Larger high-speed diesel engines 2200 12

440 100
Medium high-speed engines 1200 10
(diesel)
400 80

Crosshead engines (two-stroke 150 8


360 60
diesel)

320 40
Figure 3.5Maximum rotational speed and mean piston speed at rated
revolutions of modern engines.
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

Engine speed [1/min]

3.3.5 Maximum Piston Speed


Output Torque
For the evaluation and design of piston rings and the slide

Figure 3.7Power and torque curves for a turbocharged diesel engine [3-6].
systems piston cylinder running surface, not the average
but the maximum piston speed is important. Assuming an
The maximum torque and the maximum power are each
infinitely long conrod ( s = 0) simplifies the maximum piston
plotted against the engine revolutions. The maximum power
speed: maximum piston speed for
is not necessarily always achieved at the maximum engine
cmax = r.
revolutions. Not only the peak values for power and torque

but also their curves against the engine revolutions are critical
For the consideration of the conrod of finite length, the

for the assessment of the interplay between engine and vehicle


maximum of Eq. (3.25) must be determined. A correction

or engine and machine (see also Chapter 3.6: Gas work and
according to Figure 3.6 shows the effect clearly:

mean pressure).
cmax = r k s.

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3.5 Fuel Consumption

If the effective power Pe is related to the swept volume VH,


K

m 1

be = = (3.33)
we speak of the specific power output Pl or power output per
Pe he H u
liter displacement:

where
Pe
Pl =
(3.28) e = Effective efficiency.
VH

The equation
The power-to-weight ratio mG is obtained from the motor
1
mass mM based on the output:
be = (3.34)

he H u

mM
mG =
(3.29) graphically displayed in Figure 3.9 clarifies the relation between
Pe

effective efficiency and effective specific fuel consumption.


Figure 3.8 shows typical values.

he [-]

Power-to-
Specific power
weight ratio 0,45
Engine type output (kW/l)
(kg/kW)
Racing engine (Formula 1) 200
0.4 0,4
Euro-Super
Car SI engine 70
2.0
Diesel
Turbocharged car SI engine 100
3.0 0,35
Car diesel engine (naturally 45
5.0
aspirated)
0,3
Turbocharged car diesel engine 64
4.0
Commercial vehicle diesel engine 30
3.0 0,25
Larger high-speed diesel engines 50
11.0
Medium-speed diesel engine 25
19.0 0,2

Slow large diesel engine (two-stroke) 3.0


55.0

0,15
Figure 3.8Empirical values for the specific power output and
power-

200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500
to-weight ratio.

be [g/kWh]

150 200 250 300 350

3.5 Fuel Consumption


be [g/PSh]

The energy admitted with the fuel per unit of time is calcu-
Figure 3.9Efficiency of the fuel consumption (HU, Euro-Super = 42.0 MJ/kg and
lated as
HU, Diesel = 42.8 MJ/kg).

EK = mK H u
(3.30)

Figure 3.10 to Figure 3.12 show examples of power and fuel


where
consumption curves for a car SI engine, a car diesel engine,
mK = Weight of fuel admitted
and a commercial vehicle diesel engine. The isolines (bell-

shaped curves) indicate working points of equivalent fuel


Hu = Net calorific value of the fuel.
The fuel consumption is measured as a volumetric flow

18 180
or as a mass flow

16 160
mK
K =
m = rK VK
(3.31)
t
14 140
Mean pressure [bar]

12 120
where
255

Output [kW]

K = Density of the fuel.


10

270

100

260
For better comparability, the fuel consumption can also be
8 80

290
referred to the indicated or effective power.
6 60

310 330
Indicated specific fuel consumption
360

4 40
K
m 1
400
bi = =
(3.32) 2
20
Pi hi H u
525 g/kWh

0 0
where
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
i = Indicated efficiency or internal effectiveness.
Engine speed [1/min]

Effective specific fuel consumption is


Figure 3.10Power and consumption curves for a car SI engine [3-7].
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Chapter 3 Characteristics

consumption. To assess the fuel consumption of an engine,

specific fuel
the fuel consumption not only at the best point but also at
consumption Efficiency
all the working points has to be taken into consideration.
Engine type (g/kWh) (%)

minimal maximal

500
Small engines (two-stroke) 350 24
450
Motorcycle engines 270 31
205 210
400
Car SI engine 250 34
350
220

Indirect injection car diesel engines 240 35


Torque [Nm]

300
Turbocharged DI car diesel engines 200 42
230
240 250 260
250
Truck diesel engines with turbocharger 185 45

270
200
280 Larger high-speed diesel engines 190 44
150

290 g/kWh Medium-speed engines 185


45
100

Crosshead engines (two-stroke diesel) 156 54


50

Figure 3.13Empirical values for fuel consumption and efficiency at


0
the best point.
400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200
3600 4000 4400 4800
Engine speed [1/min]
Figure 3.11Consumption curve, car diesel engine V8-TDI (Turbocharged
Direct Injection) [3-8].

3.6 Gas Work and Mean Pressure

Gas work is the work done by the cylinder pressure at the piston.

With the mean pressure, we distinguish between indicated


20
and effective mean pressure and the factional mean pressure.
Output line distance: 20 kW
Usage line distance: 5 g/kWh

18
3.6.1 Indicated Mean Pressure

The indicated mean pressure pmi is equivalent to the specific


194 g/kWh
work acting on the piston.
16
The indicated mean pressure is determined from the cylinder

pressure curve and the swept volume (Figure 3.14). The indicated
195

mean pressure can be determined from the p-V diagram by


14
200
planimetry (measurement of the area). If the surface enclosed
Mean pressure [bar]

by the curve is surrounded in a clockwise direction, we have


12
a positive indicated mean pressure; if it is surrounded in a

counterclockwise direction, we have a negative indicated

205 mean pressure. Therefore, a distinction can be made


between
10
an indicated mean pressure of the high-pressure section and

100
8
14

12
75
6
10

8
p [bar]

29
4

50 kW
2

2
800 1000 1200 1400 1600
1800 2000 pAmbient
Engine speed in
[1/min] 0

0 100 200 300 400 500


Figure 3.12Power and consumption curves for a commercial vehicle engine
V [cm3]
with VH = 12% [3-1].

Figure 3.14Cylinder pressure over swept volume (2000 rpm, pmi 2 bar, and
Figure 3.13 shows empirical values for the specific
Vh = 500 cm3).
fuel consumption.

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3.6 Gas Work and Mean Pressure

an indicated mean pressure of the gas exchange cycle. The


WKA

pmi = (3.40)
sum of these two portions gives the indicated mean pressure
Vh

of the engine pmi (Figure 3.15). The indicated mean pressure

or
of the gas exchange cycle pmiGW composes of the intake and
exhaust work and can, therefore, be regarded as a measure
pmi Vh = WKA (3.41)

of the quality of the gas exchange [3-9].

The indicated cylinder power can be expressed by

PiZ = i n pmi Vh (3.42)

pmi This equation is true for one cylinder. An engine with several
=
cylinders (z=number of cylinders) has the indicated power:
Vh

Pi = i n pmi Vh z = i n pmi VH (3.43)

Figure 3.15Determination of the indicated mean pressure from


the areas The indicated mean pressure of several consecutive cycles is
over the swept volume.

used to assess the regularity of the combustion, for example,


For naturally aspirated engines, the pmiGW is generally
by calculation of the variance. Irregular combustion and
negative, that is, a work loss. For turbocharged engines, this
misfiring can be determined in this way. These are the criteria
portion is normally positive.
for hydrocarbon emissions, power, and smooth running of
The indicated mean pressure (Figure 3.15) can be derived
the engine. For well-designed engines, the variance of the
from the work of the gas force transmitted to the piston during
indicated mean pressure is less than 1%, whereby the variance
a working cycle:
increases with increasing engine revolutions.
The variance is calculated as follows:
dWKA = p AK dsa
(3.35)

s pmi

COV = (3.44)
with
pmi

p = combustion pressure or cylinder pressure


AK = Piston or cylinder surface area
2

s = Piston travel = f (crank angle )

s pmi =

1 n

n 1 i=1

pmii pmi ) (3.45)

WKA = Gas work at the piston per working cycle

where
with change in volume, depending on piston travel
COV = Variance (coefficient of variation)
AK dsa = dVa ,
(3.36) s pmi = Standard deviation of the indicated mean pressure

where dV = change in volume = f (crank angle ), and inte-


pmi = Mean value of the indicated mean pressure.
gration over the whole working cycle gives
By an analogy with the indicated mean pressure (pmi), we

also define the effective mean pressure (pme) and the friction
p dVa
WKA =
(3.37) mean pressure (pmr).
The indicated power PiZ of a cylinder is hence calculated
as
PiZ = nA WKA
(3.38)

3.6.2 Effective Mean Pressure

The effective mean pressure can be determined from the


with
torque Md:
nA = Working cycles per unit of time = i n
Md 2p
pme = (3.46)
n = Engine revolutions per unit of time
VH i

i = Working cycles per revolution


where Md = Torque of the engine
For four-stroke engines: i = 0.5
i = #Working cycles per revolution (0.5 for four-stroke, 1 for
For two-stroke engines: i = 1.
two-stroke engines)
Thus, the following applies for the cylinder output:
VH = Total swept volume of the engine.

PiZ = i n WKA
(3.39) Figure 3.16 shows examples of the effective mean pressure

of modern engines.
The gas work WKA referred to the swept volume V h per
working cycle is defined as indicated mean pressure pmi:

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Chapter 3 Characteristics

The indicated and the effective efficiencies are essentially


Effective
mean
Engine type pressure
(bar) determined from the energy stored in the fuel [3-3].
up to

The energy admitted with the fuel per unit of time is

calculated as
Motorcycle engines 12
Racing engine (Formula 1) 16
EK

=m

K Hu (3.48)
Car SI engines (without turbocharger) 13
t
Car SI engines (with turbocharger) 17
where
Car diesel engines (with turbocharger) 20
K = Admitted mass of fuel per unit of time

m
Truck diesel engines (with turbocharger) 24

Hu = Net calorific value of the fuel.


Larger high-speed diesel engines 28

If we consider the engine power P as the output of the engine


Medium-speed diesel engines 25

process and the admitted fuel energy per unit of time as the
Crosshead engines (two-stroke diesel) 15

input, then the efficiency can be calculated as


Figure 3.16Effective mean pressure of modern engines.

Power P P

h= = = (3.49)

Fuel EK m K Hu
3.6.3 Friction Mean Pressure
t

The friction mean pressure is the difference between indicated


mean pressure and effective mean pressure:
pmr = pmi pme
(3.47)

3.7.1 Indicated Efficiency

Pi
The friction mean pressure according to Society of Automotive
hi = (3.50)

K Hu

m
Engineers is the power loss because of mechanical friction in

the engine and the pump losses in the crankcase. The friction
in the engine is primarily dependent on the engine revs and
3.7.2 Effective Efficiency
hence on the piston speed, where the friction increases with

Pe
increasing engine revs [3-4]. The cylinder pressure, that is,
he = (3.51)
engine load and engine temperature, and the oil viscosity have
K Hu

a lesser effect on the friction. The friction losses according


The ratio of effective efficiency to indicated efficiency is
to Deutches Institut fr Normung (DIN) (German Industry
described by the mechanical efficiency.
Standard) also include the drive powers for auxiliary compo-
nents of the engine such as the alternator, air conditioning
compressor, or servo pump.
3.7.3 Mechanical Efficiency

he Pe

hm = = (3.52)

hi Pi

3.7 Efficiency
Figure 3.17 shows the breakdown of the admitted fuel
In the internal combustion engine, a distinction is made
energy into thermal losses and useful and frictional work. It
among the indicated, effective, and mechanical efficiencies.
also shows the breakdown of the frictional work or inertia

work into the various portions.

100% fuel energy


100% drag

Effective output
28,5%
Crankshaft

11,0% Piston ring

9,0%

Piston

7,5%

9,8%

Conrod

7,0%

Gas change and


engine accessories

65,5%
Thermal losses
Figure 3.17Classification of
61,7%
the efficiency in a four-stroke

SI engine [3-4].

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3.8 Air Throughput and Cylinder Charge

3.8 Air Throughput and


where

Cylinder Charge
VG = Volumetric charge input per working cycle of a cylinder

VG ges = Volumetric charge input per working cycle of the motor.


The power of an engine is dependent on the cylinder charge.
The air expenditure a and the volumetric efficiency l are
For the SI engine
used to assess and characterize the cylinder charge.
VG VG ges

la = or la = (3.58)

Vh VH

3.8.1 Air Expenditure


For the diesel engine
The air expenditure is a measure of the fresh charge admitted
to the engine. It is assumed that the charge is in gaseous
form. VL VL ges

la = or la = (3.59)
For the air expenditure, we have the relationship:
Vh VH

mG mG mG ges
To determine the air expenditure empirically at the engine,
la = = or la =
(3.53)
mth Vh rth VH rth
the intake air volume or air mass is measured. In addition,

the pressure and temperature of the air and the ambient


where
conditions, as well as the fuel consumption with the SI engine,
mG = Total fresh charge mass admitted to a cylinder per
have to be recorded.
working cycle
mG ges = Total fresh charge mass admitted to the engine per
3.8.2 Volumetric Efficiency
working cycle
The volumetric efficiency is a measure of the fresh charge
mth = Theoretical charge mass per working cycle (cylinder
remaining in the cylinder at the end of the charge cycle. As
or complete engine)
with the air expenditure, this is referred to as the theoretical
th = Theoretical charge density.
charge density:
The total fresh charge mass admitted consists of
mZ mZ mZ ges

ll = = or ll = (3.60)
1. SI engine
mth Vh rth VH rth

mG = mK + mL or mG ges = mK ges + mL ges


(3.54) The cylinder fresh charge is calculated as mZ or mZ ges gilt.

For the SI engine


2. Diesel engine

mZ = mZL + mZK or mZ ges = mZL ges + mZK ges (3.61)

mG = mL or mG ges = mL ges
(3.55)

For the diesel engine


The theoretical fresh charge mass is calculated from the

mZ = mZL or mZ ges = mZL ges (3.62)


geometric swept volume and the ambient state of the charge.

For turbocharged engines, the thermodynamic state up line


where
of the intake organs is used instead of the ambient state. For
mZL = Air mass in one cylinder
engines with internal mixture formation, the charge consists

mZL ges = Air mass in all the engine cylinders


of air, and for engines with external mixture formation, the
charge consists of air and fuel.
mZK = Fuel mass in one cylinder
The gas equation gives us
mZK ges = Fuel mass in all cylinders.
pu Vh = mth R Tu or pu VH = mth ges R Tu
(3.56) The charge mass remaining in the cylinder or in all the

engine cylinders cannot be calculated or measured directly.


with
The following method is employed as an approximation:
R = RG (Gas constant of the mixture) in the SI engine
(a) Cylinder pressure indication in one or all the engine
R = R L (Gas constant of air) in the diesel engine or direct
cylinders
injection SI engine
(b) A

ssumption that the cylinder charge temperature at the


Tu = Ambient temperature
moment the intake valve closes is roughly the same as the
pu = Ambient pressure.
temperature in the intake duct upline of the intake valve

(measurement of this temperature using a thermocouple)


If the density of the mixture or air taken in is assumed to
be
equal to the theoretical charge density th, the air
expenditure (c) A

pplication of the gas equation at the moment the intake


can also be calculated using volumetric parameters
valve closes

mG = VG rG or mG ges = VG ges rG
(3.57) pZEs VEs = mZ R TZEs

(d) R

G or RL RL is assumed again for the gas constant R.

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Chapter 3 Characteristics

With four-stroke SI engines, the crank angle range of the


y z y
valve overlap (the time during which both intake and exhaust
C x H y S q O z + x + + q O 2 x CO 2 + H 2 O + q SO 2

4 2 2
valves are open at the same time during the charge cycle) is
relatively small. For the case of the small valve overlap, a l
# (3.65)

can be assumed as a good approximation.


with the stoichiometric components
For engines without a turbocharger, a and l are always
MK M M M
smaller than 1, as flow resistance during the intake and exhaust
x= c y = K h q = K s z = K o

MC MH MS MO
prevents a complete scavenging of the geometric swept volume.

Turbocharged engines and engines with ram-effect super-


where
charging are examples of engines that have operating states
c, h, s, o = Percentages by weight of the elements carbon (c),
in which a and l are larger than 1.
hydrogen (h), sulfur (s), and oxygen (o) contained in the fuel
Diesel engines, particularly those with a turbocharger,
MC, M H, MS, MO = Molar weights of the elements in the fuel
have large valve overlaps to achieve internal cooling and a

MK = Molar weight of the fuel.


better scavenging of the remaining gas out of the combustion
chamber. Here, a l can become A.
Allowing for the percentage by weight of oxygen in the air
With slot-controlled two-stroke engines, a considerable
O2,L we obtain for the stoichiometric air requirement
difference exists between air expenditure and volumetric
1 mO2 ,St 1 MO2 nO2 ,St
efficiency because of the overflow losses. The quotient of
LSt = = (3.66)

xO2 ,L mK xO2 ,L MK nK
volumetric efficiency and air expenditure gives the reten-

tion rate that is a measure of the fresh charge remaining in


where
the cylinder.
MO2 = Molar weight of oxygen

nO2; nK = Volumes of oxygen and fuel

y z
With the relations nO2 ,St = x + + q and nK = 1 from the
3.9 AirFuel Ratio
4

chemical reaction equations, we obtain 2


During combustion in the engine, the ratio of the air mass

1 MO 2 1 MO 2 MO 2
actually in the cylinder mL to the stoichiometric air mass
LSt = c + h+ s o (3.67)
mL, is referred to as the air/fuel factor .
xO2 ,L MC 4 MH MS

The stoichiometric air requirement LSt is defined as the

1
quotient of the air mass and the fuel mass under stoichio-
LSt = ( 2.664 c + 7.937 h + 0.988 s o ) . (3.68)
metric conditions
0.232

mL,St
Figure 3.18 shows exemplary data of a fuel analysis.
LSt = (3.63)
mK

Unit Value
m mL
Mean molar mass of the fuel G/mol 99.1
l= L = (3.64)
mL, St mK LSt
wt.% 87.08 Carbon

Composition of the fuel

wt.% 12.87 Hydrogen


where
specimen:

wt.% 0.05 Oxygen


mL,St = Air mass under stoichiometric conditions

7.2 Carbon
mK = Fuel mass.
Theoretical total formula 12.6 Hydrogen
The stoichiometric air requirement can be calculated from
0.0 Oxygen
the percentage by weight of the chemical elements contained
Gross calorific value (Ho) MJ/kg 45.72
in the fuel, whereby the combustion products (exhaust gases)
Net calorific value (Hu) MJ/kg 42.88
resulting from the combustion also have to be taken into
Theoretical stoichiometric air kg air 14.47
consideration. The combustion process proper covers many
demand kg fuel
intermediate reactions in which numerous, but also predomi-
Figure 3.18Example of a fuel analysis, Euro Super.
nantly short lived, compounds or radicals are involved.
The most important combustion products with complete
The fuel metering during engine operation is influenced
combustion are carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O), and sulfur
by the stoichiometric air requirement. For this reason, the
dioxide (SO2), as well as the air nitrogen (N2, inert gas) that
mixture forming system has to be adapted accordingly when
is practically unchanged by the combustion. For complete
using different fuels (e.g., gasoline- and alcohol-based fuels).
combustion of a fuel with the composition CxHySqOz, we thus
During combustion in the engine, the mixture ratio deviates
obtain the chemical reaction equation:
more or less from the stoichiometric ratio.

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3.9 AirFuel Ratio

A mixture with excess air ( > 1)is referred to as a lean


3-3. Spicher and Ulrich. 2004. Umdruck zur Vorlesung Verbren-
mixture (lean operation), while a mixture with an air defi-
nungsmotoren. Universitt: Karlsruhe.
ciency ( < 1) is referred to as a rich mixture. SI engines
3-4. Mahle (Hrsg.). 1994. Einflussgren auf die Reibleistung der
with intake manifold injection are operated today in wide
Kolbengruppe. Technische Information Nr. 7148. Stuttgart.
program map ranges almost exclusively with a stoichiometric
3-5. Robert Bosch GmbH (Hrsg.). 2007. Kraftfahrtechnisches Taschenbuch.

26. Aufl. Vieweg: Wiesbaden. ISBN 978-3-8348-0138-8.


mixture ( = 1). SI engines with direct injection can be
operated
homogeneously with = 1, homogeneous lean ( > 1), and
3-6. Anisizs, F., Borgmann, K., Kratochwill, H., and Steinparzer, F. Der

erste Achtzylinder-Dieselmotor mit Direkteinspritzung von BMW, MTZ


stratified lean (on average for the combustion chamber
60(6):362371, 1999.
1, but also partially with = 1).

3-7. Fortnagel, M., Heil, B., Giese, J., Mrwald, M., Weining, H.-K., and
Diesel engines are always operated with excess air ( > 1),
Lckert, P. Technischer Fortschritt durch Evolution: Neue Vierzylinder
and small two-stroke engines are predominantly operated in
Ottomotoren von Mercedes-Benz auf der Basis des erfolgreichen M111,
the air deficiency range ( < 1).
MTZ 61(9):582590, 2000.

3-8. Bach, M., Bauder, R., Endress, H., Plzl, H.-W., and Wimmer, W. Der

neue TDI-Motor von Audi: Teil 3 Thermodynamik, MTZ 60:4046, 1999,


Bibliography
Sonderausgabe 10 Jahre TDI-Motor von Audi.
3-1. Mollenhauer (Hrsg.). 2007. Handbuch Dieselmotoren.
Springer: Berlin. 3-9. Kuratle, R. 1995. Engine technology. 1. Aufl. Vogel:
Wrzburg. ISBN
ISBN 978-3-540-72164-2.
978-3-8033-1554-4.
3-2. Heywood and John B. 1988. Internal Combustion Engine
Funda-
mentals. Mc Graw-Hill: New York. ISBN 0-07-100499-8.

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4 Curves
The working point of an internal combustion engine is defined
Apart from the engine characteristics, the characteristics
by its speed and its torque. The full range of all possible
working of the vehicle and its powertrain can also be displayed in the
points in a two-dimensional presentation gives the engine
map. This normally takes the form of the running-resistance
map. In this map, the working range of the internal combustion
curve. These curves show the relationship between the engine
engine is limited by the full-load curve and by the minimum
revs and the torque drawn by the powertrain for each gear
and the maximum engine revs (Figure 4.1). The power output
during constant travel on a level road. Uphill or downhill
by the engine at any particular working point is calculated
travel results in a parallel shifting of the running-resistance
from the equation Pe = 2 M n. Lines of constant power
curve (see Figure 4.1).
are referred to in the engine map as power hyperbolas.
If the working point of the engine is above the running-

resistance curve, the vehicle accelerates; if it is below the

curve, the vehicle brakes. The surplus power available for


Load
acceleration results from the current engine revs and the
Pme Pe = const.

surplus torque corresponding to the distance between the


M
Pe, max running-resistance curve and the full-load curve. A gear
Full-load

shift results in a different torque for the same travel speed

because of the change in engine revs with an approximately

equal power requirement, that is, the working point is shifted


Mountain
along the power hyperbola up to the intersection with the
Running-
running-resistance curve corresponding to the gear shift. In
resistance
this way, the engine map allows the changes in the operating
curves Plane

or emission behavior to be assessed in relation to the boundary

Rotational
Valley
Speed conditions of the vehicle and the method of operation.
nmin nmax
For operating conditions with a low power requirement,
Overrunning
such as is the case for large portions of the emissions cycles

for type testing of a vehicle or in town traffic, operating points


Figure 4.1Engine map.

with low to medium engine revs/load combinations are of

greater relevance. The typical load collectives for highway


The engine map is used to document certain engine charac-

driving, on the other hand, lie in the top right-hand area of


teristics as a function of the working point. This
representation

the engine map.


can consist of an indication of discrete values in individual

For reasons of comparability of engines with different swept


points. When many individual values are available over the

volumes, the specific parameters of the load, the specific mean


whole working range of the engine, lines of equal value for

pressure, or the specific work referred to the swept volume


the respective engine characteristic, the isolines, can be

are frequently used instead of the torque.


created from these individual values by interpolation. The

Maps are used both for documentation of operating param-


most common curve representation is of the specific fuel

eters, such as ignition timing, injection timing, or excess air


consumption whose isolines are presented in the map as the

factor to illustrate the operating strategy, and for evaluation


conchoids (see also Figure 4.3).

of the resulting measured and calculated parameters, such

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Chapter 4 Curves

as emissions, fuel consumption, or temperatures. Figure 4.2


On the other hand, operative measures such as the setting
shows how an engine map is used to illustrate the operating
of variable systems (controlled intake manifolds, camshaft
strategy of the engine, taking as an example an SI engine
adjusters) and of the engine control, as well as measures for
with direct injection.
exhaust gas posttreatment (e.g., catalytic converter systems

and thermal insulation of the exhaust system up to the

catalytic converter) result in very significant differences in


Operating strategy:
Engine with gasoline direct
injection the operating behavior, even for similar
engines. One such
12
Range of external

example is SI engines with direct injection. In the Japanese

EGR market, these engines exhibit a similar behavior to


that of the
10
engine described above, whereas the adjustment of the same

basic engine for the European market exhibits no stratified


Effective mean pressure [bar]

l<1 or homogeneous lean range in the whole map. This shows


8
l=1
clearly that the measures for exhaust gas posttreatment for
6
different markets or even just for more stringent emission

certification levels result in more significant differences in


4
the engine map than, for example, manufacturer-specific or

design differences would suggest.


2
l>1
l>1

homo-
stratified
geneous
0
1000 2000 3000
4000 5000 6000

4.1 Consumption Curves


Engine speed
[1/min] Figure 4.3 shows a typical consumption
map for conven-

tional SI engines with intake manifold injection. As already


Figure 4.2Engine map.
mentioned, the lines of constant specific fuel consumption

are also called conchoids due to their form. The minimum


To clarify the operating strategy, characteristic areas of the
specific fuel consumption is found in the lower engine rev
map are marked differently. In this example, the engine is
range in the range of high load. Only a flat gradient of the
operated below a load of Pme = 4 bar and up to engine speeds
consumption increase is seen in a wider range around the
of 3500 rpm by injection during the compression stroke with
minimum consumption. The gradient rises sharply toward the
a stratified fuelair mixture with a large excess of air. In the
low load range. One of the main reasons for this is because of
rest of the map, the fuel is injected during the intake phase
increasing throttle losses in the SI engine and the increasing
with the consequence that the longer mixture preparation
proportion of friction in relation to the useful torque output.
time results in a homogeneous mixture.
These two factors also lead to the visible increase in consump-
Even during homogeneous operation, there is a phase with
tion at constant load and increasing engine revs. Toward the
an excess of air in the lower load range for engine speeds
full-load range, the mixture has to be enriched, on the one
between 3500 and 4500 rpm. In the remaining load and engine
hand, to counter the knock tendency of the engine and, on
speed range above the stratified and homogeneous lean opera-
the other, to keep the exhaust gas temperature below a critical
tion, this engine is operated like a conventional SI engine
limit temperature for catalytic converter aging. This leads to
with a stoichiometric mixture. As full load is approached
a sharper gradient of the consumption increase.
(particularly at higher engine revs), the mixture is enriched to
protect the catalytic converter against any excessive exhaust

Specific fuel consumption [g/kWh]


gas temperatures and to achieve higher power.
This operating map also shows by appropriate marks that
12
an external exhaust gas recirculation takes place in the whole
stratified range and in part of the stoichiometric range. Further
10

Effective mean pressure [bar]


300
features characteristic of the engine operating strategy can
be illustrated in the operating map in the same way. These
8 280
include, for example, the balance of a camshaft adjustment
260

6
or of a controlled intake manifold.
For the experienced engineer, the engine map represents a
280

4 300
source of highly compacted information from which he/she
can derive an assessment of the engine in question. When
2 400

500
comparing and evaluating maps on the basis of specific engine
parameters, it must be remembered that, in practice, design
0

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000


criteria such as that for swept volume or stroke-to-bore ratio,
the compression ratio or the design and arrangement of the
Engine speed [1/min]
injection valves are reflected with only minor differences.

Figure 4.3Consumption curve (MPI SI engine).

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4.2 Emission Maps

Figure 4.4 shows the typical consumption curve for a diesel


or mass flows (in g/h). For diesel engines and for SI engines
engine with direct injection and turbocharger. Of particular
with direct injection, the maps of the particulate emissions
note is the slighter increase in consumption with decreasing
are also of significance. Apart from the raw emissions maps,
load, as the quality control of the diesel engine is not
related the emission values down line of
the catalytic converters
to throttle losses. Despite the far more favorable part-load
are also often shown. These values permit an evaluation of
consumption values compared with the SI engine, the consump-
the conversion in the catalytic converter as well as enable
tions achieved with the vehicle calibration lie above those for
an estimation in the volumes of pollutants emitted by the
a consumption-optimized setting, particularly in the relevant
vehicle in a driving cycle.
map area for the European driving cycle. One reason for this
Figure 4.5 to Figure 4.9 show characteristic maps for conven-
is the retarded setting of the injection timing necessary to
tional SI engines and selected maps of operative parameters
comply with the permissible NOx and particulate emissions.
relevant to the emission behavior. The engines on which the

illustrated maps are based are all equipped with three-way

catalytic converters for efficient exhaust gas treatment. The


Specific fuel consumption
[g/kWh]

maps relate to the running of the engine at the operating


18

temperature. This and the control employed with the selected


16
engines to obtain an exact stoichiometric mixture guarantee

a high conversion rate of all the pollutant components in


Effective mean pressure [bar]

14
205
12
the three-way catalytic converter. The airfuel ratio shown

220 in Figure 4.5 clearly illustrates the


large map area of active
10
Lambda control. As in the example of the SI engine with direct
8
injection shown above, a mixture enrichment is employed here
250
6
again, both in the full-load range and at high engine revs. In
4
the area of the rated power, the minimum airfuel ratios are
300

calibrated with values of around = 0.80.


2 400
0
1000 2000
3000 4000 12 l [-]
Engine
speed [1/min]

10
Figure 4.4Particulate emissions (DI-TCI diesel engine).
0.82

Effective mean pressure [bar]

8
If the main vehicle-specific data such as the running resis-
0.90
tances and gear ratios are known, the consumption map of
6
an engine can also be used to calculate the fuel consumption
0.99
of the vehicle. To calculate the consumption in the nonstatic
l=1

4
test cycle, the operating curve is broken down into a sequence
of static working points as a function of the vehicle-specific
2
parameters, each characterized by the engine revs and the
torque. The load points are then entered into the calculation
of 0
the cycle consumption and weighted temporally according to
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
their relevance for the driving schedule. The models necessary
Engine speed [1/min]
for the exact calculation of the consumption take into account
not
only the vehicle-specific data, but also consumption-
influencing Figure 4.5Airfuel ratio
(MPI SI engine).
processes such as the engine warm-up, gear shifting, and other
nonstatic effects. These models allow vehicle-related effects
The CO concentration is predominantly a function of the
on the consumption and emission behavior of the engine in
excess air factor, as the maps in Figure 4.5 and Figure 4.6 show.
the vehicle to be assessed. Examples of the application of such
In the map area with active Lambda control, the concentra-
methods are the transmission setting or the control strategy
tions generally lie in an uncritical order of between 0.5 and
of a continuously variable transmission (CVT).
0.8vol.%. At full load, the combustion takes place with an air

deficiency due to the mixture enrichment. The maximum CO

concentration of 7.5vol.% occurs at the maximum enrichment

rates in the area of the rated power output. This relationship


4.2 Emission Maps
between the CO concentration and the airfuel ratio illustrated
The subjects of the emission maps are generally the raw emis-
in Figure 4.6 can be regarded as typical for modern SI engines
sions of the legally limited pollutant components, that is,
with high specific powers.
hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides, and carbon monoxide. Normally,
these maps show the work-related specific values (in g/kWh)

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Chapter 4 Curves

with the maximum EGR rate. Outside the map area of external
12 CO [Vol.-%]
EGR, we obtain a typical behavior of the NOx emissions. The

sharp reduction in NOx emissions recognizable at full load


10
and at high engine revs is a result of the mixture enrichment.
Effective mean pressure [bar]

6.0
8

12 External EGR [%]

2.5
6

0.8 10

Effective mean pressure [bar]


4

4
2
8

12
0

4 15
1000 2000 3000
4000 5000 6000
Engine speed [1/min]

Figure 4.6CO concentration up line of the catalytic converter


(MPI SI engine).
0

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000


The level of the NOx raw emissions can also be influenced
Engine speed [1/min]
in stoichiometric operation by the adjustment of the opera-
tive parameters. When calibrating the engine in the map, a
Figure 4.8Exhaust gas recirculation rate (MPI SI engine).
retarded calibration of the ignition anglewithin limitsis
selected. However, this measure does result in a reduced
Continuously operating systems for camshaft adjustment
efficiency so that it also has to be considered when evaluating
are frequently used in mass-produced engines not only to
the consumption map. On the other hand, the exhaust gas
achieve an internal exhaust gas recirculation but also to improve
recirculation (EGR) in part-load operation offers a significant
the torque behavior at full load. Optimization of the ignition
potential for reducing the NOx raw emissions while at the same
timing as a function of the engine revs allows air expenditure
time improving efficiency due to the related dethrottling of
benefits to be achieved as a result of the improved torque curve.
the engine. Exhaust gas recirculation can be performed either
In contrast to the NOx and CO emissions, the level of the
externally via a valve or internally as exhaust gas recirculation
HC raw emissions is influenced far more strongly by design
by modifying the ignition timing. The map of the specific
parameters. The first aspect here is the form of the combus-
NOx emissions of an SI engine with external exhaust gas
tion chamber, with the surface-to-volume ratio representing
recirculation in Figure 4.7 and the corresponding map of the
a characteristic parameter. Although the HC emissions are
EGR rates calibrated with the EGR valve in Figure 4.8 show an
sensitive to operative parameters with the engine at operat-
example of the practical use of exhaust gas recirculation. The
ing temperature, it is of less significance in the normal range
minimum NOx emissions are achieved at the working point
of variations. An internal EGR using variable valve timing

can have a positive effect on HC emissions as the typical

HC peak observed toward the end of the exhaust cycle is


12 NOx [g/kWh]
returned to the combustion. A typical HC emissions map of

an SI engine with single-stage intake camshaft adjustment


10
is shown in Figure 4.9.
10
20
Effective mean pressure [bar]

15
The maps of the emissions down line of the catalytic converter
8
for modern SI engines with a three-way catalytic converter not
illustrated here are characterized by the practically complete
6

conversion of the pollutants. Deviations from the extremely

low emission levels occur in the map areas with substoichio-


4
5

metric operation where the catalytic oxidation of the HC and


10 15
20 25 30 CO contents remains limited due to oxygen
insufficiency.
2

Because of the combustion with excess air typical for the

diesel engine, the carbon monoxide and HC emissions are


0
1000 2000 3000
4000 5000 6000 significantly lower compared with the SI engine
(Figure 4.10

and Figure 4.11). The residual oxygen that always exists in the
Engine speed
[1/min]

exhaust gases from diesel engines permits a further reduction

of these pollutant components in oxidation catalytic converters.


Figure 4.7Specific NOx emissions up line of the catalytic converter
(MPI SI engine).

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4.2 Emission Maps

to limit the occurrence of NOx by influencing the combustion


12 HC [g/kWh]
process. The measures employed here are the same as with
Effective mean pressure [bar]
the SI engine, exhaust gas recirculation, and the retarding of
10

the injection process that is more or less the equivalent of the


8
5.0

retarded ignition of the SI engine.


4.0
4.0

3.0
6
2.5

18 NOx [g/kWh]

3.0
4
16

10.0
4.0

14

Effective mean pressure [bar]


5.0
8.0
2 7.0

3.0 12 6.0
0
10 4.0
1000 2000
3000 4000 5000 6000
8.0

8
Engine
speed [1/min]
6 2.0

4.0
Figure 4.9Specific HC emissions (MPI SI engine).
4 6.0

2 8.0 10.0
18
0
CO [g/kWh]
1000 2000 3000 4000
16
14
Engine speed [1/min]
Effective mean pressure [bar]

12

0.5 .5 Figure 4.12Specific NOx emissions


(DI-TCI diesel engine).
10
8
0.5 To increase the reduction effect of the EGR for the
emitted

nitrous oxides, the recirculated exhaust gases of the diesel


6
2.0
0.5
engine are cooled. The map of the EGR rates in Figure 4.13
4
5.0

10.0 shows that in this example, the exhaust gas


recirculation is
2
20.0 essentially calibrated for the emission-
relevant map area.

50.0
0
The exhaust gas recirculation rates can be as high as 50%,
1000
2000 3000 4000 and thus lie far higher than
those for an SI engine. In contrast
Engine
speed [1/min] with the SI engine, the
possibilities of exhaust gas recirculation

are not limited here by the occurrence of combustion misses.


Figure 4.10Specific CO emissions (DI-TCI diesel engine).
It must be remembered here that combustion takes place with

a large air surplus and that the oxygen concentration in the

exhaust gas is still as high as 15 vol.%.


18 HC [g/kWh]
16

AGR [%]

18
14
0.1
Effective mean pressure [bar]

16
12

14
10

Effective mean pressure [bar]

12
8
0.2

10
6

8 5 10
4
0.5

6 20
2
1.0
2.0
5.0
4
0
30
1000
2000 3000 4000
2 40

50

0
Engine
speed [1/min]
1000 2000 3000 4000

Figure 4.11Specific HC emissions (DI-TCI diesel engine).


Engine speed [1/min]
More critical for diesel engines, however, are the NOx raw
Figure 4.13Exhaust gas recirculation rate (DI-TCI diesel engine).
emissions (Figure 4.12). Because catalytic posttreatment with
excess air is not effective here, the primary solution pursued
is

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Chapter 4 Curves

In addition, for diesel vehicles, the law regulates the amount


angle is generally calibrated in the area of optimum efficiency.
of particulate emissions that can come out of the exhaust.
Figure 4.15 shows a fundamental trend to an increasing need
A common method for assessing the particulate emissions
for advanced ignition with increasing engine revs and decreas-
from diesel engines is the filter smoke number (FSN). The
ing load. This behavior is superimposed by further effects.
increased black smoke values in the emission-relevant map
In the lower load range, a significant advance adjustment of
area (Figure 4.14) are indicative of the relationship between
the ignition is seen (even at low engine revs). For the engine
particulate formation and EGR.
shown, an external exhaust-gas recirculation is calibrated in

this area. The recirculated exhaust gas that acts as an inert gas

delays the combustion process that therefore must be initiated


Filter Smoke Number FSN [-]
18

earlier. Furthermore, a retarding of the ignition is seen close

to full load at engine revs of approximately 4500 rpm. This


16

behavior is attributable to the frequently observed tendency


14
to knock in the area of the highest air expenditure. In line
Effective mean pressure [bar]

12
with the latest state of the art, the disadvantages resulting
2.0
10 0.5

from this measure can be minimized with the use of dynamic


1.0
knock control systems. These permit a torque-optimized
8
0.5

1.0 2.0 preignition angle without the risk of engine damage caused
6
by knocking combustion.
2.0
4
3.0
2

0.5 Ignition
timing [KW v. OT]

12
0
1000 2000
3000 4000

10
Engine speed [1/min]
20

Effective mean pressure [bar]

15

8 5 10
Figure 4.14Particulate emissions (DI-TCI diesel engine).
25

6
This relationship also draws attention to the known conflict

30
of goals between NOx and particulate emissions. Outside the
4
area of the map geared to EGR, the level of the smoke numbers
35
is relatively low and increases significantly only as full load
2
approaches, particularly at low engine revs because of the
lower airfuel ratio prevailing here.
0
Particulate formation has to be countered by good prepara-
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
tion of the injected diesel fuel. That is why the high-pressure
Engine speed [1/min]
injection with high-quality atomization represents one of the
major development directions of modern diesel engines. With
Figure 4.15Ignition timing (MPI SI engine).
a further tightening of the particulate emission limits, the use
of particulate filter systems will permit major developmental
In diesel engines, the combustion is primarily controlled
steps to be taken in addition to the internal motor measures.
by the fuel injection process. The start of injection therefore
Despite the relatively high cost, this technology is already in
has a significant effect comparable with that of the ignition
use in mass-produced vehicles. An almost nationwide use
angle in the SI engine. With the transition to direct injection
can be assumed in sensitive markets. In contrast with the
that predominates today, the fast combustion with sharp
stationary calibration documented in the engine maps, the
gradients of the cylinder pressure curve leads to acoustic
intermittent regeneration of the particulate filter necessitates
problems. An effective measure for reducing the cylinder
intervention in the calibration of the engine that serves to
pressure gradients with modern electronic diesel control (EDC)
temporarily increase the exhaust gas temperatures in certain
engine control systems is the preinjection. With preinjection,
map areas to promote the burnoff of the particles collected
the combustion is first triggered by a smaller injection of fuel.
on the filter surface.
Then the remaining volume of fuel is admitted to the process

during the main injection. Figure 4.16 and Figure 4.17 show

the maps for the start of injection for the preinjection and
4.3 Ignition and Injection Maps
main injection in a modern car diesel engine.

It can clearly be seen how the preinjection is limited to a


The typical calibration of the ignition angle in conventional
specific engine speed range by the EDC engine control system.
engines with control exhibits a strong dependence on the
Furthermore, the relatively late positions of the start of injec-
operating point. In the middle of the part load, the ignition
tion of the main injection indicate the use of the measures to

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4.4 Exhaust Gas Temperature Maps

reduce the NOx emissions described above. In the map area


4.4 Exhaust Gas Temperature Maps
without preinjection, on the other hand, the main injection
is shifted earlier.
The behavior of the exhaust gas temperature of an SI engine

is shown in Figure 4.18. The sharp increase in exhaust gas

temperature to high loads necessitates specific measures to


Start of preinjection
control protect the exhaust
gas catalytic converter from thermal aging
18
[KW v. OT]

or even destruction.
16
14
Temperature upstream of cat. [C]
Effective mean pressure [bar]

12
12
10
10

40

Effective mean pressure [bar]


8
900

35 No preinjection

8 850
6 30

800
4 20
6 700
2 15

600
10
0
4 500
1000 2000
3000 4000 400

2 300
Engine
speed [1/min]

0
Figure 4.16Start of preinjection control (DI-TCI diesel
engine). 1000
2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Figure 4.18Exhaust gas temperature map at the entry to the catalytic

converter (MPI SI engine).

Engine speed [1/min]


Start of main injection
control
18 [KW v. OT]
Both design measures and the calibration of the engine
16

operating parameters are employed here. For engines with

exhaust gas turbocharging, the gas temperature at the turbine


14
Effective mean pressure [bar]

inlet is also critical for component protection. For SI engines,


12
an enrichment of the fuelair mixture is therefore employed
10
as an effective component protection measure in the map area

16 with critical exhaust gas temperatures as described


above.
8
12

8 10 For operation with low load points,


on the other hand, an
6
4
2
excessively low exhaust gas temperature must be avoided
4
so that the catalytic converter does not cool down. For this
0 1
2
reason, a relatively retarded ignition timing would be neces-
2
0

sary. In addition to these measures recognizable in the static


1000 2000
3000 4000 maps, deviating control parameters
for the ignition angle and

EGR rates are normally calibrated after the engine cold start
Engine
speed [1/min]

so that the catalytic converter quickly reaches the light-off

temperature necessary for conversion of the raw emissions


Figure 4.17Start of main injection control (DI-TCI diesel
engine).

into harmless components.

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5 Fundamentals
of Thermodynamics
Internal combustion engines are heat engines in which chemi-
Hence, to obtain qualitative information on the relationship
cally bound energy is converted into mechanical energy [5-1],
of certain process variables to predetermined parameters, more
[5-2], [5-3]. This is done by means of a reaction, the
combustion or less simple model calculations are used. This allows
basic
process, in which energy is released. Part of this heat
released conclusions to be made regarding the effect of the conversion
into the combustion chamber of the cylinder is converted into
of energy based on engine-related parameters that are much
mechanical energy by the crankshaft drive, and the remain-
less complex.
ing energy is carried away with the exhaust and released to
A series of methodologies were produced in the past that
a coolant via the walls neighboring the combustion chamber
extended from a simple closed process control to more or less
as well as directly into the environment.
complicated open multizone models [5-9], [5-11], [5-12], [5-13].
The goal of the process of converting chemical energy into
mechanical energy is to attain the greatest possible process
efficiency (strongly dependent on the thermodynamics).
These conversion processes are very complex, especially
5.1 Cyclical Processes
the combustion process with its energy-substance exchange
To obtain basic information, simplified models are created
processes and the chemical processes of the gas in the cylinder
and described as cyclical processes. Cyclical processes are
[5-4]. In addition, the process of transfer of heat from the
gas sequential state changes of a fuel in which the fuel is returned
to the wall directly surrounding the combustion chamber, the
to its initial state. They are described as closed cyclical processes
neighboring engine components, and the coolant or oil can
with the supply and removal of heat (Figure 5.1) [5-14].
be approximated only with great effort [5-5], [5-6], [5-7], [5-
8].
Because the fuels for spark-ignition and diesel engines are

Pressure p

Temperature T

mixtures consisting of various hydrocarbons, it is practically


qin qin
impossible to describe the reaction kinetics of the many reac-
tions. Frequently, pure substances such as methanol, methane,
and hydrogen are used that have a sufficiently precise reaction
mechanism with all the associated substance data. Depending
on the methodology, it is sufficient to use specific reaction
processes such as formation of NO [5-9] or the simplifying
qout qout
assumption of an OHC equilibrium at the flame front [5-10].
If the process is considered from a locally
multidimensional,
nonstationary perspective with all the transport mechanisms
that actually exist in the gas, complex mathematical models
Volumen v Entropy s
result that yield somewhat imprecise substance data (if any
at all) for the physicalchemical description.
Figure 5.1State changes and work in a cyclical process [5-15].

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Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Thermodynamics

This type of model does not treat the conversion of the initial
Isothermic expansion
products of combustion such as air and fuels into exhausts
Isentropic expansion.
(CO, HC, NOx, CO2, HCO, H2, N2, etc.).
The four cycles of the combustion engines are compression,
In the T7s diagram, the Carnot process is portrayed as a
supply of heat as a replacement for the combustion process,
rectangle. The thermal efficiency results as a ratio of useful
expansion, and heat removal as a replacement of the charge
work to supplied heat:
cycle. The state of the medium, for example, at the beginning
qzu qab q

hth = = 1 ab (5.2)
of compression and at the end of heat removal is identical.
qzu qzu

State diagrams for internal combustion engines are as follows:


Pressurevolume diagram (pv diagram): The contained
Tmin ( s1 s2 ) T
area represents work that is termed the indicated work.
hth c = 1 = 1 min . (5.3)

Tmax ( s4 s3 ) Tmax
Temperatureentropy diagram (Ts diagram): The areas

represent heat. The cyclical process work is the difference


The thermal efficiency assumes the highest attainable value
between the supplied and the removed heat. The area enclosed
at a given temperature ratio in the Carnot process. In the pv
by the lines of the state changes is a measure of the useful
diagram, the diagram area of the Carnot process is so small
work of the cyclical process.
that the temperatures and pressures would have to be raised

to an unacceptable level to obtain acceptable useful work


Essential information on the engine process attainable

(corresponding to the area in the pv diagram). This was


with such cyclical processes relates to the process efficiency.

realized by Rudolf Diesel when he wanted to implement the


A definition of one such type of efficiency, thermal effi-

Carnot process with his rational heat engine. A rectangular


ciency, is

process in the pv diagram yields the greatest amount of


qzu qab q
work, but is much less efficient because of the small area
hth = = 1 ab
(5.1)
qzu qzu
in the Ts diagram. A rectangular process is therefore not

suitable in practice.
where qzu = supplied quantity of heat and qab = removed
The cyclical processes that are technically feasible with a
quantity of heat.
heat engine are subject to the restrictions of the geometry and
The theory of cyclical processes originates from the French
kinematics of the respective machine type, the conditions of
officer Sadi Carnot (17961832), who recognized that to convert
energy conversion, and the state of the art. The evaluative
heat into work there must be a temperature gradient. He also
criteria for comparative processes that are described in the
noticed that the thermal efficiency of a heat engine increases
following are
with the increase in temperature where the heat is supplied

Efficiency
and with the decrease in temperature where it is removed.
This becomes particularly clear with the optimum cyclical
Work yield
process that he described, the Carnot process (Figure 5.2).
Technical feasibility.
The state changes of the Carnot process are
Isothermic compression
Isentropic compression

pmax

qin

qin
pmax

Pressure p

Tmax
Temperature T

Tmax

Tmin pmin

qout
pmin
qout
Tmin

Entropy s
Volume v Figure 5.2State changes in the

Carnot process [5-15].

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5.2 Comparative Processes

5.2 Comparative Processes


Isentropic compression

Isochoric supply of heat


5.2.1 Simple Model Processes
Isentropic expansion
The cyclical processes of an engine describe the energy conver-
Isochoric heat removal.
sion where the individual state changes of the fuel most
closely It exhibits the thermodynamically most
favorable process
approximate the actual behavior in the engine. With this in
that can be realizedwith acceptable technical effortin a
mind, internal combustion engines represent closed systems in
machine with a cyclically changeable work area [5-1]. The
which the energy conversion is discontinuous. A characteristic
resulting thermal efficiency is larger than the Seiliger and
of the cyclical processes of internal combustion engines is
that constant pressure cycle at the same compression
ratio. The
state changes occur in a work area whose size changes as a
efficiency depends on the type of gas (isentropic exponent) and
result of the movement of the crankshaft drive over the course
the compression ratio. It increases with the rising compression
of the combustion cycle. Compression and expansion can be
ratio and is calculated as follows:
described by simple state changes. The combustion and the
charge cycle are replaced by heat addition and heat removal.
qzu v qab

hth = (5.4)
Ideal cyclical processes for internal combustion engines
qzu v

are differentiated according to the type of heat supply. A


general process can be represented by the heat supply at a
5.2.1.2 Constant Pressure Cycle
constant volume (isochoric) and at constant pressure
(isobaric), The state changes of the constant pressure
cycle are shown in
as described by Myron Seiliger (18741952) as the Seiliger
Figure 5.4. The sequence of the state changes in this process is
process. Borderline cases can be derived from this such as
Isentropic compression
pure constant volume (only an isochoric supply of heat) and

Isobaric supply of heat


pure constant pressure (only isobaric heat supply) cycles.
Isentropic expansion
5.2.1.1 Constant Volume Cycle
Isochoric heat removal.
Figure 5.3 presents the state change during the constant volume
cycle. The sequence of the state changes in this process is
It can then be used as a comparative process when, for

reasons of component load, the maximum pressure must

Constant volume
cycle
Pressure p

Temperature T

qin

qin

2
2

4
4 qout

1
1
qout

Volume v
Entropy s Figure 5.3State changes in the

constant volume cycle [5-15].

qin
qin
3

Temperature T
Pressure p
2 3

1 qout
1 qout

Volume v
Entropy s Figure 5.4State changes in the

constant pressure cycle [5-15].

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Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Thermodynamics

be limited. The thermal efficiency is calculated as follows:


At a given compression ratio, a maximum pressure limit
qzu p qab
must be specified. The heat supply is partly isochoric and partly
hth =
(5.5) isobaric. The thermal efficiency from this process control is
qzu p

qzu v + qzu p qab


The efficiency of this process depends on the gas type
hth = . (5.6)

qzu v + qzu p
(isentropic exponent), the compression ratio, and the supplied

quantity of heat at a constant pressure. It rises as the compres-


It must be noted that the quantity of heat qzu v is supplied
sion ratio increases and falls as the supply of heat increases. Of
at a constant volume, and therefore, it is measured from the
the three process controls considered, the constant pressure
temperature difference with reference to the specific heat
cycle has the least efficiency.
at a constant volume (cv). The supply of heat at a constant

pressure qzu p is measured from the temperature difference


5.2.1.3 Seiliger Process
with reference to the specific heat at a constant pressure (cp).
The state changes of the Seiliger process are shown in Figure
Depending on the distribution of the supplied quantity
5.5. Taken individually, these are
of heat between the isochoric and isobaric state changes, the
Isentropic compression
thermal efficiency results as a limit curve that would exist
Isochoric supply of heat
with constant volume and constant pressure.

Applying this process to a supercharged engine yields the


Isobaric supply of heat

relationships shown in Figure 5.6.


Isentropic (adiabatic reversible) expansion
Isochoric heat removal.

qin
qin
Pressure p
Temperature T

4
3 4
qin

qin

2
2

5
qout

qout
1

Volume v
Entropy s Figure 5.5State changes in the

Seiliger process [5-15].

q34
p01
p67
Pressure

3 4
p5
Compressor
Exhaust Turbine

collecting

pipe
q23
2

pL Charge pressure

pA Exhaust back-pressure

p0 Atmosph. pressure
5

q51
1
pL 11
7 7
pA 10
6
p0 9

0 8 8

Surface 1-2-3-4-5-1 Engine work


Volume
Surface 0-1-11-9-0 Compressor
work q80
Surface 7-8-9-10-7 Turbine work
Surface 5-7-6-5 Loss of
kinetic energy
Surface 7-7-8-8-7 Conversion of
kinetic
energy to heat
and
Figure 5.6State changes in the
utilization in
turbine
Seiliger process of an exhaust gas

turbocharging engine [5-15].

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5.2 Comparative Processes

Comparison of
processes
Equal compression
ratio e
Same amount of
supplied heat q

Constant
Pressure p Constant

volume cycle

Temperature T
volume cycle

Mixed cycle

Mixed cycle

Constant
pressure cycle
Constant

pressure cycle

Volume V
Entropy s

Additional removed heat in mixed cycle

Additional removed heat in constant

pressure cycle Figure 5.7


Comparative engine

processes [5-15].

In principle, supercharging does not change the process in


An illustration of this in an example of the constant volume
the engine; only the pressure level rises. The compression in
the process is provided in Figure 5.8. In the pV
diagram, two
engine is upstream from the compression in the compressor,
types of process loss can be illustrated:
and the expansion in the engine follows the expansion in the
If the medium is expanded from point 4 to point 5, that is, to
engine and expansion in the exhaust pipe:
the initial pressure, the work (area 4514) would be useful.
Isentropic compression in the compressor
The area 5615 would be useful if the medium is expanded
Isentropic compression in the engine
to the initial pressure as well as to the initial temperature.
Isochoric supply of heat in the engine
This must be followed by isothermic compression to the

initial pressure.
Isobaric supply of heat in the engine
Isentropic expansion in the engine
Isochoric heat removal from the engine

Pressure

Isobaric supply of heat to the turbine


3
Isentropic expansion in the turbine
Isobaric heat removal from the turbine.
The work of the exhaust turbine and the compressor are
correspondingly represented as the areas in the pV diagram
2
(Figure 5.6).
4

Pu 6
5.2.1.4 Comparison of the Cyclical Processes
1 II
Figure 5.7 compares the three processes considered in the pV

v
and Ts diagrams. The efficiency of the constant volume cycle
is the maximum attainable, given an equivalent compres-
3

Temperature

sion ratio. This is because of the lower quantity of heat that


is removed, given an equivalent compression ratio and the
v2 = const.
same amount of supplied heat in comparison with the two
other process controls.
4

v1 = const. I 5
2 p1 = const.
5.2.2 Exergy Losses
1 II
The exergetical perspective of the discussed process controls
Tu 6

III
shows that the exergy of the supplied energy can be only
0
partially converted into mechanical work.
a b
Exergy is the energy that can be converted into any other

Figure 5.8Thermodynamic loss with the example of the


form of energy in a predetermined environment. Anergy is the
constant volume cycle.
part of the energy that cannot be converted into exergy [5-1].

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Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Thermodynamics

However, in a real engine, this would require a substan-


and the composition of the fresh gas characterized by
tial amount of additional engineering that would be out of
the airfuel ratio .
proportion to the gain.
This is defined as
The third loss arises from the anergy of the supplied energy.
It is not directly attributable to the process control. If a medium
m Air

l= (5.7)
reaches the environmental temperature and environmental
Fuel mAir stoich

pressure, it is in a thermal and mechanical equilibrium with the

where Air refers to the air mass, Fuel the fuel mass, and
environment. The second law of thermodynamics prevents the

Air stoich the stoichiometric air mass of the correspond-


conversion of internal energy into exergy or useful work [5-1].

ing fuel. The compression ratio can be taken from the

corresponding test engine. As a representative of gasoline,

isooctane (C8H18) can be used because it more or less


5.3 Open Comparative Processes
approximates the physical and chemical properties of

commercially available fuels.

It is assumed that the gas composition during compres-


5.3.1 Work Cycle of the Perfect Engine
sion remains constant. The final compression state can
The ideal cyclical processes are only a crude approximation
be calculated with the aid of isentropic relationship
that can be used to arrive at a few basic conclusions. In regard
S1,T1 = S2,T2 and the thermal state equation for ideal gases
to efficiency, they yield overly good values in comparison

p v = s i Rm T , with p = pressure, v = specific volume,


with reality: the work yield is greater and the efficiency is better
i
than in real engines because the properties of the working
T = temperature, Rm = general gas constant, and i = specific
gas, air, are treated as those of a real gas. Further, the heat
moles of component i:
loss, charge cycle loss, friction loss, and chemical reactions
0 p1 0 p2
are not included.
s i,1 si,T

1 Rm ln 0 = s i,2 si,T 2 Rm ln 0 , (5.8)

p p
To obtain more detailed information on the process cycle
i i

and answers regarding the optimum process control, further


0

where si,T 1 is the entropy of the component i at standard


processes have been defined that allow a better approxima-
pressure p0 and temperature T.
tion of real engines. This is possible with open comparative
The solution to the equation can, for example, be found
processes. A helpful and frequently used comparative process
using an iterative process.
is the perfect engine process.

(b) Isochoric adiabatic combustion. It is assumed that there


The parameters under which this process occurs are

is total chemical equilibrium. The combustion products


as follows:

consist, for example, of the components:


The charge in the combustion chamber has no residual
exhaust gas.
CO, CO2, N2, NO, NO2, NH3, O2, O, H, N, H2, H2O, and OH.
The airfuel ratio is the same as that in the actual engine.
The state of the gas mixture in the cylinder after combustion
There is a loss-free charge cycle (no flow and leakage loss).
is characterized by the pressure p3, the temperature T3, and

the specific moles of the participating (in this case, thirteen)


Combustion occurs according to set laws.

components. To determine these quantities, fifteen indepen-


Heat-insulating walls are present.
dent equations are necessary. These equations are as follows.
Isentropic compression and expansion occur with specific
heats cp and cv depending on the temperature.
1. First law of thermodynamics for closed systems

If it is presupposed that heat is neither supplied nor removed


The combustion products are in chemical equilibrium.

during the combustion and no work is carried out, it follows


With the process defined in this manner, we can determine
that du = 0, that is, no change in the internal energy. We
the influences of the parameters of compression and airfuel
thus obtain:
ratio on average pressure, process effectiveness, and a few
concentrations of substance components (Figure 5.9).
s i,2 ui,T 2 = s i,3 ui,T 3 (5.9)
Depending on the methodology, a process control can be
i i

selected that uses simple cyclical processes. This can be an

2. Thermal state equation


isochoric (constant volume combustion), an isobaric (constant

This is expressed by the following:


pressure compression), or a mixed isochoric/isobaric cycle.

p3 v3 = s i Rm T3 (5.10)
5.3.1.1 Elements of Calculation
i

The calculation of the cycle of the perfect engine can be divided


into the following steps.
3. Chemical equilibrium

The thirteen gas components that chemically react with each


(a) Isentropic compression of the fresh mixture. The initial

other consist of the basic elements, namely, oxygen, nitrogen,


state is described by the pressure p0, the temperature T0,

hydrogen, and carbon. To describe the chemical equilibrium,

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5.3 Open Comparative Processes

12 500
45 5

hv
ppm
hi Vol%

10 000
40 4

n = 2 000 min1

e = 7,8

7 500
35 3
Process efficiency hi,
hv

hi

CO concentration
NO concentration

measured

measured { Frozen

concentrations
measured { Chemical

equilibrium

5 000
30 2

2 500
25 1

CO

NO
0
20 0

0,8 1,2 1,0 1,4


Figure 5.9Quantities calculated

with the working cycle of the

Air-fuel ratio

perfect engine, and quantities

measured on a test bench [5-16].

nine independent reaction equations are therefore required


combustion, the amounts of the four basic materials j = 14
with the stoichiometric coefficients j,i (j = 19):
O, H, N, and C do not correspondingly change so that the
mi t j,i = 0. is the chemical potential of the
component
i

material balances are expressed as follows:


i
i and is defined as:
s B, j = a j,i s i (5.12)

pi
i

mi = g i,T
0
+ Rm
T ln (5.11)

p0 where j,i is the number of atoms of the basic


material j in

component i.
where g represents the molar free enthalpy of component
i,T
The nonlinearity equation system that thereby arises consist-
i in a standard state.
ing of fifteen equations can, for example, be solved using a

Newtonian method.
4. Material balances
The remaining equations for determining the state after
combustion are provided by the material balances. During

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Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Thermodynamics

c) Expansion. The parameters to represent the expansion state


where uT and sT,P mean the specific internal energy or entropy at
are the chemical equilibrium and constant gas composition.
temperature T and pressure p and u0,T0 and s0,T0,P0 are quantities
The state change is isentropic. We thus obtain:
that result when the combustion gases are in a thermodynamic

equilibrium with the environment.


0 p3 0
p4
s i,3 si,T

3 Rm ln 0 = s i,3 si,T 4
Rm ln 0
p
p

(5.13) The relative exergy loss EV of the combustion can be defined


i i
as follows:

E2 E3
5.3.1.2 Work of the Perfect Engine
EV = (5.19)

E1
The work WVM of the perfect engine results from the difference

in the internal energy expressed as follows:


whereas the relative exhaust gas loss is
WVM = U 4 U 1 or by
(5.14) E4

EA = (5.20)

E1

WVM = m s i,1 ui,T 1 s i,4 ui,T


4 (5.15) Figure 5.10 shows the characteristic of the relative
exergy
i i

loss in a perfect spark-injection cycle.


where U and ui represent internal work.

5.3.1.3 Efficiency of the Perfect Engine


60
The efficiency VM of the perfect engine is basically defined
as follows:

Combustion

Rel. energy loss [%]


WVM
40
hVM =
(5.16)
mKr H u

with Hu as the bottom calorific value of the fuel and mFuel as


the fuel mass. If the effectiveness is defined as the ratio of the
20
obtained process work WVM to the maximum theoretically
obtainable work mFuel Hu must be replaced by the term
Exhaust
Wtheoretical. The quantity Wtheoretical then can be defined as the
maximum obtainable work in a reversible process control or
0

0 1 2 4 6 8
as the reversible reaction work.
This results from the difference in the free enthalpy from the
Air-fuel ratio
state of the fresh mixture and the exhaust gas with Wtheoretical:

Figure 5.10Exergy loss from combustion and exhaust (according to [5-16]).



HTn 0 HTnn0 T0 Si,p0,T
n
0 Si,p0,T 0
nn

i
The relative exergy loss of the exhaust falls as the airfuel
Wtheoretical = i

Hu (5.17)

ratio increases, whereas the relative exergy loss of combustion


mKr

rises as the airfuel ratio increases. The overall result is an


where HTn 0 and HTnn0 are the enthalpy of the material flows
increase in efficiency with the airfuel ratio.
of the combusted and noncombusted materials in reference
n nn
to the environmental state, respectively; Si,p0,T 0 and Si,p0,T 0
represent the entropy of the component i in the combusted

5.3.2 Approximation of the Real Working Cycle

The simple cyclical processes, as well as the process of the


and noncombusted materials in reference to the environmental

perfect engine, provide only limited information as to the


state, respectively.
real processes occurring in the engine. Models are therefore
The differences between the reversible reaction work and

necessary to further approximate the real process. In particu-


bottom caloric value are very low for a few substances defined

lar, information on the indicated average pressure, internal


as substitute fuels such as C7H14, C8H18, or methanol so that

effectiveness, combustion processes (combustion functions),


Wtheoretical is approximately the same as Hu. For hydrogen, the

combustion temperatures, pollutant formation, etc., is desirable.


difference is approximately 6% [5-16].

Such information is obtained from models that, for example,


5.3.1.4 Exergy Loss in the Perfect Cycle
can be described as two-zone models.
From the basic characteristic of the efficiency in a perfect engine,
Additional model calculations are possible that are based on
we can see that the efficiency rises with the airfuel ratio. To
the specified injection rate that can be used to gain informa-
further discuss these results, we need to look at exergy loss.
tion on the combustion and NO emissions [5-8], [5-17], [5-18]
The specific exergy for a closed system is defined as follows:
that use single-zone models with a set substitute combustion

characteristic [5-19].

( )
eT ,p = uT u0,T 0 T0 sT ,P s0,T 0,p0 + p0 ( v
v0 ) (5.18)

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5.3 Open Comparative Processes

Many of these models do not include the reaction process


(oxygenhydrogencarbon) equilibrium. The imaginary,
but instead use suitable functions that describe the energy
spatially nonexisting flame front, which is also considered
released from combustion [5-20], such as the Vibe function [5-
21]. to be without mass, separates both zones. These models, which
More extensive thermodynamic analyses can yield models
take reaction-kinetic effects into account, permit conclusions
that use local coordinates in addition to the progress over
time about the NOx formation in a defined combustion process [5-9].
of parameters. However, because of their multidimensionality,
Figure 5.11 shows a schematic representation of the
these require a large amount of computing.
two-zone model.

5.3.2.1 Zero-Dimensional Models


5.3.2.2 Models to Determine Combustion Behavior
Simple models for the work cycle calculation of combustion
Because it is practically impossible to directly determine the
engines are zero-dimensional models also known as the
conversion of material over time during combustion in the
filling and emptying method [5-22]. The process variables
engine, model calculations are used. Despite the simplifica-
are dependent only on time, but not on location. Two- or
tion, experience shows that they can yield at least very good
three-dimensional flow fields are ignored. The combustion
qualitative information.
chamber and the adjacent gas-conducting assemblies such
We now discuss a model based on thermodynamics that
as intake and exhaust pipes or containers, valves, etc., are
is defined as follows:
physically/mathematically described relative to the inflow
The use of the pressure characteristic is measured in the
and outflow processes.
engine for calculating the cycle.
The simulation system is created from containers with

At the time of ignition, the contents within the cylinder


corresponding volumes, flow resistors (throttles and baffles),

consist of residual exhaust gas and a fresh mixture.


and piping. For example, the throttles and baffles simulate
throttle valves, EGR valves, and significant diameter changes
The mass flowing into the cylinder remains completely in
[5-23]. For charged engines, the compressor and turbine are
the cylinder (no mass loss).
considered by using corresponding maps.
During compression, no chemical reactions occur.
The result of the differential equation system of the
balance The charge in the cylinder during combustion consists of
two
equations for mass and energy returns the mass, temperature,
homogeneous areas in reference to pressure, temperature,
and pressure variables in the corresponding model element,
and composition (area I = noncombusted material and area
taking the thermal state equation into account.
II = combusted material).
In the single-zone model as a zero-dimensional model,
The two homogeneous areas are separated by an infini-
a substitute combustion characteristic is frequently used to
tesimally thin flame front and exchange mass but no heat.
specify the release of the heat in the chemical energy of the

The state change of area I occurs at constant enthalpy.


fuel. The system is described in the mass and energy balance
within defined system limits. The necessary balance equations
The gas leaving the flame front is conveyed into area II
take into account the various options for fuel supply into
and mixes with it to form a new state of equilibrium.
the combustion chamber; the resulting differing parameters
The transfer of heat among the respective areas (combusted,
are important for the treatment (vaporization) of the fuel. In
noncombusted) to the combustion chamber wall occurs
addition to the release of energy, assumptions regarding the
according to fixed laws.
thermal transition [5-6], [5-7], [5-24], [5-25] and charge
cycle The composition in area I does not change during
combustion.
are required.
Another variant of the zero-dimensional models are
The goals are to determine temperature as a function of
two-zone models. The combustion chamber is divided into
time in the combusted and uncombusted materials, the specific
two zones separated by a so-called flame front.
moles in the combusted material, and the so-called combus-
Zone I represents the uncombusted airfuel mixture
tion function that expresses the ratio of combusted fuel mass
and Zone II the combustion products in the OHC
to the overall fuel mass. In the uncombusted material, the

specific moles do not change by definition. These quantities

Volume
Volume
change work
change work
Zone 1 Zone 1
Zone 2 Zone 2
Air and fuels
Combustion products

OHC equilibrium
Wall heat
Wall heat
losses Zone 1
losses
Zone 2

Infinitesimally thin
System limit Figure 5.11Schematic
flame front
representation of the

two-zone model.

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Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Thermodynamics

can yield information on the combustion speed, the duration


kII

ds i,II
of combustion, and the combustion delay. The process is then
a i,l

da

= 0 with l = 1b (5.25)

i=1
calculated with the following steps as a function of time or
the crankshaft angle .
The equations for the temperature of the noncombusted

material include
1. Cylinder charge and the beginning of the reaction
The temperature can be determined with the thermal
dTII 1

= kII
state equation
da

xB s i, j cpmi (TII )
p v = s i Rm T
(5.21) i=1

i
kII kII dx

hi,Flame s i, j H mi (TII ) B
and the empirically determined quantities of combustion
i=1 i=1 da
chamber pressure, the volume above the piston, and fresh
(5.26)

dqII xB dp II
gas composition.

+xB + Rm TII s i, j

da p da i=1
2. Combustion process
kII

ds i,II
Zone I of noncombusted material: The thermal state equation
xB H mi (TII )
and the first law of thermodynamics for open systems yield
i=1 da

p vI = s iI Rm TI and
(5.22) The equation for the percent fuel conversion is
i

dxB 1

=
dq R T dp kI
da R kII kI
dTI
=
1
I + m I
s iI (5.23)

TII s i,II T s i,I


da kI
p i=1 I i=1
da p da i=1

s c p mi (TI )

dV xB Rm ( 1 xB ) Rm
iI
i=1

m da p p


Zone II (combusted material): The unknown quantities

are the k II specific moles in the combusted material i II, the


kI kI (5.27)

TII ds TI dp ds
temperature TII, and the converted mixture mass. It is useful
da i=1 i,I p da i=1 i,I
to use the components CO2, CO, OH, H, O, O2, H2O, H2, and
N2 as inert components for the gas composition in zone II.
dT kII kII

ds T dp

kII

II s i,II + TII i,II II ds


r-independent equations for the chemical equilibrium and b
da i=1 i=1 da p da i=1

i,II

equations from the basic material balances (k II = r + b) serve

to determine the k II specific moles. The equation system is


There are accordingly k II + 3 equations for determining the
completed with an independent equation for the temperature
combustion function xB, the temperature in the uncombusted
in the combusted material and the material conversion. This
material TI, the temperature of the combusted material TII,
is characterized by the combustion function that is defined
and the composition of the combustion materials 1,II 8,II.
as follows:
Typical definitions that can be represented with such models

are shown in Figure 5.12 and Figure 5.13.


mII
xB =
mtotal
5.3.2.3 Multidimensional Models

Multidimensional models describe the processes during


Accordingly, r equations result in the following form:

process simulation of the engine behavior as a function of

time and place, taking three local coordinates into account.



The inflow behavior and the flow behavior in the cylinder can
kII
k be well represented. This is important for the calculation and
s p dT dp R T
II
vi, j Smi0 (TII ) Rm ln kII iII p0 daII da mp
II vi, j consideration of process-relevant parameters such as swirl
i=1
i=1


s iII
and tumble formation. Discharge processes, charge cycle,
i=1
EGR, and more can also be mapped.
kII
These CFD simulations are time consuming because of the
kII v vi, j
ds
mesh generation required for the calculation and determina-
= Rm TII vi, j i=1 iII
i, j

(5.24) tion of the corresponding initial and boundary conditions


i=1 s iII kII da


s iII
[5-26], [5-27].
i=1
Furthermore, the degree of complexity is significantly
#
increased when reaction-kinetic processes and energy and
and b equations from the basic material balance:
material transport processes are included in the calculations.

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5.4 Efficiency

known only in part or fragmentarilyfor example, gasoline


100
being a mixture of a multitude of individual components. For
l = 0,92
l = 1,6 this reason, model calculations are frequently
possible only
l
= 2,97 with individual components of the fuel
hydrocarbon mixture.
%

A closer approximation to the real combustion process in

the engine compared with, for example, zero-dimensional

3000 two-zone models can be achieved when transport processes

Base:

Pressure progression in such as diffusion and thermal


transmission in the gas are

the combustion chamber K included in the model calculation.


Converted mixture mass

at n = 4000 1/min This requires the description of


both the temporal and

Optimal ignition timing local behavior of important process


quantities. The necessary
50
2500 formulation of the balance equations is based on the thermo-
OT
dynamics of irreversible processes. Continuous systems are

Temperature

Flame temperature considered, that is, the intensive state


variables such as the

temperature, pressure, and density are always functions of time


and place. The balance equations describe the local changes

2000 in each volume element. In addition to the source therm for


OT
production or decomposition of the permitted components,

there is an exchange of energy and material with the neigh-

boring element [5-4]. If friction influences and the temporal


OT

and local pressure gradients are not included, the essential


0
1500 equations to describe such systems are the quantity balance
0 50
100 kW 150 and energy balance.
Angle
since ignition

(a) Quantity balance: Taking into account chemical reactions

and diffusion, the following results for the change of


Figure 5.12Calculated combustion functions and flame
temperatures in a specific moles i:
two-zone model (MethanolH2).

s i s I

( )

r = v r i i + v nj,i v nn

j,i J j . (5.28)

t x x j=1
6

Base:
(b) Energy balance: Not included are external force fields,
Pressure progression in
the combustion

friction effects, and local and temporal pressure gradients:


chamber at n = 4000
1/min
Optimal ignition timing

( vnj,i vnn

j,i ) J

H m,i k r
l =
0,99 s ri
t

= H m,i j

i=1 i=1 j=1


4
Combustion speed

l
= 0,7 div IQ
s i r v degree H m,i (5.29)

i=1

I i degree H m,i
l
= 1,7 i=1

(c) w

here i means the number of permitted components in

l = 2,2 the gas, j means the number of permitted


chemical reac-

tions, nn characterizes the combusted materials, n is the

noncombusted materials, Ij is the diffusion flow density, Jj

is the reaction speed of reaction j, IO characterizes the heat


0
flow, and Hm,i is the partial molar enthalpy of component i.
0 50
100 kW 150
Angle
since ignition

Figure 5.13Calculated combustion speeds in a two-zone model

5.4 Efficiency
(MethanolH2).
The consideration of the simple cyclical processes (Section 5.2)

yields efficiency defined as thermal efficiency th which can be


5.3.2.4 Multidimensional Model for the Combustion
evaluated as the maximum possible efficiency depending on
Simulation Without Fluid Mechanical Overlapping

the selected process. Given the previously cited prerequisites,


Even without an overlap of reaction-kinetic processes by fluid

the perfect engine yields efficiency v, which is less efficient


mechanical givens, the calculation effort is extremely high.
The

than th with the same process control.


principal obstacle is the specific fuel reaction, which may be

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Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Thermodynamics

As the computational models grow closer in their approxi-


5.5.1 Balance Equation
mation of the real process, we grow further away from the
If the material and energy flows that pass through the control
ideal. The obtained efficiency continually falls and more
chamber are balanced, the following results:
closely approximates reality.

H Fuel + H Air + H KWE = H KWA + Pc + Qres + H ExhaustT2 (5.30)


The deviations in efficiency of the perfect engine from

the internal efficiency i of a real engine are determined by


The energy difference from different gas flow speeds between
the following:
entering and leaving the engine is not considered. The air and
Incomplete combustion and combustion process. The exhaust
fuel are converted by means of a chemical process into exhaust.
still contains components that can be further oxidized and
For calculation, the definition of the calorific value is used:
hence represents a calorific value that is not exploited in the

H 1 H 1
process. In addition, the real combustion process deviates
Hu = (5.31)

m Fuel
from the comparative process.

Leaks, heat losses, and charge cycle loss.


where H 1 is the enthalpy flow of the noncombusted materials at

temperature T1 and H 1 of the enthalpy flow of the combusted


The internal efficiency i of a real engine can be determined

materials (exhaust) at temperature T1. The temperature T1 of


by the indication of the high-pressure and low-pressure loops.

the combusted materials is attained by cooling the combusted


The next step to obtain the effective efficiency e is to consider

materials to the initial temperature. The enthalpy flows are


additional loss such as friction loss (power train friction,

defined as
accessories, auxiliary drives, etc.).

H 1 = H Air + H Fuel and H 1 = H Exhaust T1 (5.32)

It accordingly follows that


5.5 Energy Balance in the Engine
H H KWE + Pe + Q Res + H Exhaust T2 = H um

Fuel + H Exhaust T1 (5.33)


If an engine is operated while stationary, that is, with a fixed
KWA
operating point, the process is a stationary flow process in
or
which technical work is accomplished. To portray an energy

Fuel = H KW + Pe + Q Res + H Exhaust

H um (5.34)
balance, a system limit is defined, and the material and energy

flows that go beyond this limit are considered (Figure 5.14).


It must be remembered that Exhaust is the enthalpy difference

between the exhaust at the respective exhaust temperature

T2 and temperature T1.


Fuel Air

From the preceding equation, we can clearly see the distribu-

tion of the energy supplied by the fuel or the calorific value.


System limit

It is divided into effective power, residual heat, the enthalpy

difference of the cooling water, and the enthalpy difference

of the exhaust gas.

The enthalpy of the cooling water is calculated with the


Effective
Cooling
power power
following equation:
Engine

KW c W (TKWA TKWE )

H KW = m (5.35)

with

Residual KW = #Flow rate of the cooling water,


heat
cW = #Specific heat of water (4.185 kJ/kg K),
Exhaust
TKWA = #Cooling water temperature at outlet

TKWE = #Cooling water temperature at inlet.


Figure 5.14Material and energy flows in the engine.

The enthalpy difference of the exhaust is found with


In particular, the following flows go beyond the system limit:
the equation:
Pe
QRes
= Effective performance
= #heat (flow of heat into the environment because of

H Exhaust = m ( T2 T1

Exhaust c p Exhaust T2 c p Exhaust T1

0 0 ) (5.36)

heat radiation, heat conduction, and convection)

with
Air = #Enthalpy flow of the air

Exhaust = Mass flow of the exhaust


Fuel = #Enthalpy flow of the fuel
T

c p Exhaust = Average specific heat of the exhaust.


KWE = #Enthalpy flow of the cooling water (inlet)
0

KWA = #Enthalpy flow of the cooling water (outlet)


Exhaust = m

The exhaust mass flow is m L +m

Kr .
exhaust = #Enthalpy flow of the exhaust gas.

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5.5 Energy Balance in the Engine

The residual heat that essentially consists of the radiated


5-13. Ohyama, Y. and Yoshishige, O. Engine Control Using a Real Time
heat, conducted heat, and convection can accordingly be calcu-
Combustion Model, SAE 2001-01-0256.
lated because all other quantities can be calculated from the
5-14. van Basshuysen, R. and Schfer, F (Hrsg.). 2006. Lexikon Motoren-
measured data:
technik. Der Verbrennungsmotor von AZ. Vieweg Verlag: Wiesbaden.

5-15. Zima, S. Unverffentlichte Darstellungen


Q Res = H u m
Kr Pe H KWA H
Exhaust (5.37)

5-16. Jordan, W. 1977. Erweiterung des ottomotorischen Betriebsbereiches

durch Verwendung extrem magerer Gemische unter Einsatz von Wasser-

stoff als Zusatzkraftstoff, Dissertation, Universitt Kaiserslautern.


Bibliography
5-17. Chmela, F., Orthaber, G., and Schuster, W. Die Vorausberechnung des
5-1. Behr, H.D. 1989. Thermodynamik. Springer: Berlin;
Brennverlaufs von Dieselmotoren mit direkter Einspritzung auf der Basis
Heidelberg; New York.
des Einspritzverlaufs, MTZ 59:7, 1998.
5-2. Pischinger, R., Kranig, G., Taucar, G., and Sams, T.
1989. Thermody- 5-18. Sams, T., Regner, G., and Chmela, F. Integration von
Simulation-
namik der Verbrennungskraftmaschine. Die
Verbrennungskraftmaschine swerkzeugen zur Optimierung von
Motorkonzepten, MTZ 61:91, 2000.
Neue Folge Band 5. Springer: Wien.

5-19. Barba, C., Burkhard, C., Boulouchos, K., and Bargende, M.


5-3. Heywood, J.B. 1988. Internal Combustion Engine
Fundamentals. Empirisches Modell zur Vorausberechnung des
Brennverlaufs bei
McGraw Hill International Editions: New York.
Common-Rail-Dieselmotoren, MTZ 60:4, 1999.
5-4. Schfer, F. 1983. Thermodynamische Untersuchung der
Reaktion von 5-20. Codan, E. Ein Programm zur Simulation des
thermodynamischen
Methanol-Luft-Gemischen unter der Wirkung von
Wasserstoffzusatz, VDI Arbeitsprozesses des Dieselmotors, MTZ 57:5,
1996.
Fortschrittberichte, Reihe 6, Energietechnik/Wrmetechnik Nr.
120. VDI
Verlag: Dsseldorf.
5-21. Vibe, I. 1970. Brennverlauf und Kreisprozess von Verbren-

nungsmotoren. VEB Verlag Technik: Berlin.


5-5. Eiglmeier, C. and Merker, G.P. neue Anstze zur
phnomenologischen
Modellierung des gasseitigen Wandwrmebergangs im
Dieselmotor, 5-22. Ramos, J.I. 1998. Internal Combustion Engine
Modelling, Hemisphere
MTZ 61:5, 2000.
Publishing Corporation: New York.

5-6. Bargende, M. 1990. Ein Gleichungsansatz zur Berechnung der


5-23. Seiffert, H. 1962. Instationre Strmungsvorgnge in
instationren Wandwrmeverluste im Hochdruckteil von
Ottomotoren, Rohrleitungen an Verbrennungskraftmaschinen. Springer
Verlag: Berlin;
Dissertation, TH Darmstadt.
Gttingen; Heidelberg.

5-7. Woschni, G. Die Berechnung der Wandwrmeverluste und der


5-24. Kleinschmidt, W. 1993. Der Wrmebergang in aufgeladenen Diesel-
thermischen Belastung der Bauteile von Dieselmotoren, MTZ 31,
1970. motoren aus neuerer Sicht, 5. Aufladetechnische Konferenz,
Augsburg.

5-8. Mollenhauer, K. 1997. Handbuch Dieselmotoren, Springer.


5-25. Merker, G.P. and Kessen, U. 1999. Technische Verbrennung: Verbren-

nungsmotoren, Teubner Verlag: Stuttgart.


5-9. Heider, G., Woschni, G., and Zeilinger, K. 2-Zonen
Rechenmodell zur
Vorausberechnung der NO-Emission von Dieselmotoren, MTZ 59:11,
1998. 5-26. Ferziger, J.H. and Peric, M. 1996. Computational Methods for
Fluid

Dynamics. Springer: Berlin; Heidelberg; New York.


5-10. Torkzadeh, D.D., Lngst, W., and Kiencke, U. Combustion
and
Exhaust Gas Modeling of a Common Rail Diesel Engine an
Approach. 5-27. Merker, G., Schwarz, C., Stiesch, G., and Otto, F.
2004. Verbren-
SAE 2001-01-1243.
nungsmotoren Simulation der Verbrennung und Schadstoffbildung.

Teubner Verlag.
5-11. Jungbluth, G. and Noske, G. Ein quasidimensionales
Modell zur
Beschreibung des ottomotorischen Verbrennungsablaufs, Teil 1
und Teil 5-28. Schwaderlapp, M., Bick, W., Duesemann, M., and Kauth, J.
200 bar
2. MTZ 52, 1991.
Spitzendruck, Leichtbaulsungen fr zuknftige Dieselmotor-blcke. MTZ

Motortechnische Zeitschrift 65, 2004. Vieweg Verlag: Wiesbaden.


5-12. Stiech, G. 1999. Phnomenologisches Multizonen-Modell der
Verbrennung und Schadstoffbildung im Dieselmotor, VDI
Fortschritt-
berichte, Reihe 12, Verkehrstechnik/Fahrzeugtechnik Nr. 399.
VDI
Verlag: Dsseldorf.
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6 Crank Gears
6.1 Crankshaft Drive
is articulated to the small conrod eye by the piston pin

and also moves back and forth.

with the large conrod eyearticulated to the crank


6.1.1 Design and Function
pinalso rotates.
The crank gear, a colloquial term for the crankshaft drive, is
a
functional group in reciprocating piston engines that
efficiently with the conrod shaft swings within the plane of the
transforms oscillating movement (back-and-forth movement)
crank circle.
into rotary movement (and vice versa), but is also excellent at
The crankshaft rotates (Figure 6.2).
converting thermodynamic processes to yield the maximum
work, efficiency, and technical feasibility. These advantages
are gained at the cost of serious disadvantages, however:
limitation of speedand, hence, the development of power
due to free inertia
uneven force transmission that requires special measures in
the form of multiple cylinder crank gears, a suitable throw
and
firing sequence, mass balancing, and mass balancing gears
excitation of rotational oscillations that place a great
deal
of stress on the crankshaft and the drivetrain
high fluctuations in the force characteristics in comparison
to the nominal values for these forces
problematic component geometry in regard to the flow of
force with high stress peaks
tribological problem.
The crankshaft drive consists of pistons with rings,
piston pins, conrods (connecting rods), a crankshaft with
Figure 6.1Crank gear of a V-8 passenger car SI engine.
countermass(es) (counterweights), bearings (connecting rod

During a single rotation of the crankshaft, the piston moves


bushing, connecting rod bearing, and crankshaft main bearing),

from top to bottom and returns to top dead center (TDC); it,
and the lubricant (Figure 6.1).

thereby, executes two strokes. It accelerates and decelerates


In the following discussion, we refer to the kinematically

while executing this movement. The crank gear movement,


relevant parts of the crankshaft drive. The individual parts

that is, the respective position of the piston, is described by


of the crankshaft drive execute various movements:
the crankshaft angle the angle between the cylinder axis
The piston oscillates in the cylinder.
and the crankshaft throw.
The conrod

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

Oscillating
movement

l cosj
Oscillating
l
movement

s0
Rocking

sx
motion

r cosf
Rotation
r

r
Rotation

l sinj = r sinf

Figure 6.2Movements of the crank gear parts.


Figure 6.3Geometric relationships in the crankshaft drive.

The crankshaft angle is a measure of both path and time,


The relationship between the crankshaft anglej and the
since it indicates the time in which the crank gear has reached
conrod angular travely can be represented as follows:
a certain position independent of the respective speed. The
l sin j
following numerical value equation applies:
y = arctan (6.6)

1 l 2 sin 2j

j [KW] = 6 n [min ]t [s]


1

(6.1)

The piston movement is calculated with the piston travel

s = r 1 cosj + 1 1 2 sin 2 j .

) (6.7)

equation, that is, by the relationship of the piston travel to


the crankshaft angle, s = f( ); it results from the geometric
Since it is difficult to use the radical in the piston travel
relationships (Figure 6.3).
equation, it is replaced by a quickly converging series that can

be terminated after the second element, because both and


r = Crankshaft radius
sin are <1, and their exponents or products are much less
s = Piston travel

1 1 1
l = Conrod length
1 + x = 1 + x x 2 + x 3 (6.8)

2 8 16
v = Piston speed
r
x = l 2 sin 2 j (6.9)
l= Conrod ratio

The simplified piston travel equation is accordingly (Figure


a = Piston acceleration

6.4):
s0 = l + r
(6.2)

s = r 1 cosj + l sin 2 j . (6.10)


sx = r cosj + l cosy
(6.3) 2

s = s0 sx
(6.4) By including time, we gain the piston speed (Figure 6.5)

1
s = l + r ( r cosj + l cosy )
(6.5) v = r w sin j + l sin 2j .
(6.11)

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6.1 Crankshaft Drive

The mean piston speed is the travel of two shafts completed


harmonic movement. Large conrod ratios, that is, relative to
during one rotation and relative to the corresponding time
the stroke of short connecting rods, reduce the engine height,
t = 1/n
yet they produce greater friction because of the stronger angle

of the connecting rods. Currently used values for vehicle


vm = 2 s
n (6.12)

engines are mostly within 0.2 and 0.35.


By double differentiating the piston travel equation
according
to time, we gain the piston acceleration (Figure 6.6)

15000
a = r w 2 ( cosj +
l cos 2j ) l
= 0,35

(6.13)

l = 0,25

10000

Piston acceleration [m/s 2]


100

l=0

5000

l=0 l = 0,15
80

0
Piston travel [mm]

l = 0,15 0 45
90 135 180
60
l = 0,25 5000
40

l = 0,35 10000
20
Crankshaft angle []

Figure 6.6Piston acceleration as a function of crankshaft angle for different


0
conrod ratios.
0 45 90
135 180
Crankshaft angle
[]

Different approaches are used to try and reduce the oscillat-


Figure 6.4Piston travel as a function of the crankshaft angle
for different ing masses or keep them from increasing
despite an increase
conrod ratios.
in output:

pistons with reduced compression heights, reduced piston

ring height, and, in some cases, reduced number of piston


25
ringsoptimized internal geometry (drawn-in bolt eyes

and reduced eye spacing)

load-optimized wristpin geometry (for example, conic inner


20
bores or so-called profiled piston pins with optimized outer
l=0
contour)
Piston speed [m/s]

l = 0,15
mass reduction in the area of the small conrod eye due to
15
l = 0,25
so-called trapezoid or stepped conrods
l = 0,35
clamp-type conrods (piston pin shrunk into the small conrod
10
eye results in the elimination of piston pin securing ring

and bearing bush)

small conrod ratios to reduce the second-order inertial


5
forces (portion superimposed on the harmonic vibration).

The masses increase substantially with the engine size and


0
load; for example, the mass of the naked piston of the V8
0 45 90
135 180
Crankshaft angle
[] Audi spark-ignition (SI) engine is 355 g [6-1]
and that of the

complete piston of the Porsche Carrera is 650 g [6-2].


Figure 6.5Piston speed as a function of crankshaft angle for
different By transposing or deaxising the
crankshaft drive, the
conrod ratios.
movement of the crankshaft drive can be changed as desired

(Figure 6.7). There are


The piston travel, speed, and acceleration are influenced by

axially offset crankshaft drives in which the piston pin is


the conrod ratio . Assuming an infinitely long conrod ( =
0),

moved from the middle of the cylinder


the term 2 l sin j. is superimposed to the purely harmonic
1 2

cosine vibration in the piston travel equation. In general, the


shifted crankshaft drives in which the crankshaft center is
bigger the conrod ratio , the larger the deviation from the
moved from the middle of the cylinder.

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

There are different reasons for shifting and deaxising. In


Deaxising
Shifting the early period of engine construction,
the crankshaft drive

was limited to 1/10 of the stroke [6-5]. This was to align the

Counterpressure side

Counterpressure side

connecting rod with the cylinder axis when it passed through

Pressure side
Pressure side

TDC to reduce the normal force (piston-side force) around the

ignition and, hence, reduce the load and wear.

Today, shifting is used with VR engines (V-engines with

V-angles between 10 and 20) to allow for the necessary free

travel of the opposing cylinder [6-6], [6-7].

Deaxising in the direction of pressure (direction in which

the piston contacts the cylinder barrel in the expansion stroke)

causes an earlier contact change for the piston when the normal

force on the piston is weaker. The tilting movement of the

piston causes it to first contact the cylinder with the soft

bottom part (piston skirt), which reduces impact. One, therefore,


speaks of deaxising to reduce noise. The optimum amount

of axially offsetting has been determined experimentally;

for a boxer engine, it is 0.9 mm, for example. For an opposed

cylinder engine, this is, for example, 0.9 mm. In automotive

diesel engines, thermal deaxising is usedaxially offsetting

to the counter-pressure side. This allows the piston (within

the piston play) to stay more in the middle of the cylinder,

which has a positive effect on the seal of the piston rings

and counteracts the collection of carbon deposits on the fire

land (Figure 6.8).


Figure 6.7Shifting and deaxising the crankshaft drive.

6.1.2 Forces Acting on the Crankshaft Drive


It is also possible to combine shifting and deaxising. By
The forces in the crankshaft drive of an internal combustion
shifting, the movement is changed so that the elongated
engine arise from the gas pressure in the combustion chamber
positions of the crank gear no longer lie in the cylinder axis,
and from inertial forces (Figure 6.9).
the piston travel is no longer symmetrical with BDC, and
The shares of gas and inertial forces within the crank gear
the piston speeds in the advance and return strokes assume
forces depend on the
different values. Depending on whether the shifting is dome
thermodynamic process: SI engine/diesel engine
at the pressure or counter-pressure side, we have different

engine design: naturally aspirated engine/EGT engine


signs for e. The piston travel, speed, and acceleration of the
shifted crankshaft drive can be determined with the shift y
load point in the map, for example:
that refers to the conrod length:
high gas force and low inertial force
y
low gas force and high inertial force.
e= to [3; 4]:
(6.14)
l
Because of the nonuniform processes of work and movement

in the reciprocating-piston engine, the size and direction


1
s = r cosj + 1 ( l sin j + e )
2

(6.15) of the forces in the crank gear change during a work cycle.
l

The following act on the crank gear:


cosj ( l sin j + e )
gas force
v = r w sin j +
(6.16) oscillating inertial
force of the piston
1 ( l sin j + e )
2

oscillating inertial force of the conrod



rotating inertial force of the conrod
l cos 2 j ( l sin j +
e )
a = r w 2 cosj +
rotating inertial force of the crankshaft throw
1 ( l sin j + e )2

2/3


rotating inertial force of the countermass.
l cos 2 j sin j ( l sin j + e )
The inertial force from the rotating motion of the conrod is
+
1 ( l sin j + e )
2

not included. In the following discussion, the cited forces are

those that occur briefly after ignition TDC with a crankshaft
cosj ( l sin j + e )
angle of 30 after TDC (Figure 6.10).
r w 2 sin j +
. (6.17)
1 ( l sin j + e )
2

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6.1 Crankshaft Drive

Influence of deaxising the


piston pin
on the change in contact after
ignition TDC

Pin deaxised toward


Pin not deaxised
the minor thrust face

Major Minor Major


Minor
thrust thrust face thrust
thrust face
face face
Strong pulse,
Weak pulse,
rigid liner
rigid liner

Weak pulse,
Strong pulse,
yielding liner
yielding liner

Slight cavitation
Strong cavitation

Crankshaft direction of rotation

Minor thrust face Pressure side

Major thrust face Counterpressure side

Figure 6.8Piston pin deaxising.

FK = FGas + FPiston osc + FConrod osc


Gas pressure in the cylinder
p

FGas = p(j) AK AK = d 2

Fosc = mosc r w 2 ( cosj + l cos 2j ) (6.18)

mosc = mPiston osc + mConrod osc


Uneven movement of
the FK = p(j) APiston r w 2 mosc ( cosj + l
cos 2j )

valve gear parts

Inertial
forces FGas

FPistons osz

Valve gear forces,


bearing forces
F

Conrod osz

Figure 6.9Diagram of crank gear forces.

The gas pressure that arises from the combustion of the


mixture depends on the amount and change of different

FConrod rot
influences, such as the
thermodynamic process
combustion process
power
operating point in the program map at which the engine
FCrankshaft rot.
is driven.
The gas pressure is determined with a process calculation
or by measurement (indication) (Figure 6.11).
To express it simply as is often done, the oscillating
inertial FCounterweight
forces are summarized as a single force Fosc. This counters
the gas force applied to the piston. The gas and inertial
forces Figure 6.10Forces acting on the crank gear.
together yield the piston force FK.

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

100 % Output
160
Gas pressure in the cylinder [bar]

Four-stroke diesel engine,


120
exhaust gas turbocharging

86 %

Performance points

corresponding to a running
80
resistance curve

71 %

40

48 %

39 %

0
Figure 6.11Gas pressure
300
360 420 480 540
characteristics of a supercharged

Crankshaft position [KW]


diesel engine with direct

fuel injection.

Since the connecting rod, apart from the dead centers,


assumes a position that deviates from the direction of the
cylinder axis, the piston force FK must be correspondingly
FK
diverted. This results in the rod force FST and the normal force,
Piston force FK
that is, perpendicular to the cylinder wall FN (also termed
piston-side force) (Figure 6.12 and Figure 6.13).
FK
FST =
(6.19)

cosy

180 360 540 720


FN = FK
tan y (6.20)
Crankshaft angle [}

Results become clearer when we look separately at the paths


of the individual forces from the combustion chamber to the
Figure 6.13Characteristic of the piston force of a fast-running four-stroke
crankshaft bearing or engine suspension [6-11].
diesel engine over a power cycle.

Forces acting on the piston

The gas pressure acting on the piston produces the gas

force; it is counteracted by the (oscillating) inertial force of


FN
the pistons. The sum of these two forces produces the piston

force FK . The piston force alternates between positive and

negative several times over the course of the power cycle of a

four-stroke engine and subjects the piston to a dynamic load.

FK = FGas + FPiston osc (6.21)

FST

FPiston osc = mPiston osc r w 2 ( cosj + l + cos 2j ) (6.22)

Forces acting on the piston pin


FK

The piston force acting through the top of the piston and

the bolt eyes on the piston pin FK . is diverted toward the

connecting rod. A force parallelogram results from the

piston force FK , the rod force FST

in the direction of the

conrod, and a normal force FN that is normal (perpen-


dicular) to the cylinder barrel. The wristpin is burdened

by the rod force FST.

FK FK

FST = (6.23)

cosy 1 l 2 sin 2 j
Figure 6.12Division of the piston force.

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6.1 Crankshaft Drive

l sin j
FN = FK tan y
= FK (6.24)

1 l 2 sin 2 j FST

Crankshaft angle FST


Forces acting on the connecting rod
The oscillating conrod force Fconrod osc acts in the
direction
of the cylinder axis

FConrod osc = mConrod osc


r w 2 ( cosj + l + cos 2j ) . (6.25)

It divides into a component in the direction of the conrod


180 360 540 720
and into a normal component. The first component reduces
Crankshaft angle [}
to FST, and the latter reduces
the
the conrod force from FST
normal force from FN to FN.

Figure 6.15Characteristic of the rod force of a fast-running four-stroke

1 F diesel engine over a power cycle.


FST = FST
FConrod
osc = K (6.26)

cosy cosy

FN = FN + FConrod
osc tan y = FK tan y (6.27)

The sign change of the normal force FN means that this


occurs several times during a power cycle (Figure 6.14).

FN
Normal force characteristic FN
180
360 540 720

Crankshaft angle [}

FR FT

FST
Figure 6.14Characteristic of the normal force of a fast-
running diesel
engine over the power cycle.

Figure 6.16Division of the rod force.


The piston is pushed from one side of the cylinder barrel
to the other with undesirable consequences:
In a cold engine, it becomes manifested in light
metal
FT

Tangential force FT

pistons by an annoying noise and piston rattle,


which can
be reduced by so-called control pistons and/or
deaxising.
The wet cylinder bushings are excited to execute
vibrations
that the coolant cannot follow, and cavitation may
occur.

180 360 540 720


The rod force FST is directed to the crank pin (Figure
6.15).
The crank pin rotates under the effect of the rod force
along
the circle of rotation of the crankshaft radius. Combined
with
the tangential component of the rod force, the tangential
Crankshaft angle [}
force (FT), the crankshaft radius yields the torque M
(Figure

Figure 6.17Tangential force characteristic of a fast-running diesel engine.


6.16 and Figure 6.17).

sin ( j + y ) The radial component, the radial force FR, does


not contribute
FT = FST sin ( j
+ y ) = FK (6.28) to the engine torque; it is applied
only to the crankshaft throw

cosy

upon bending (Figure 6.18), and it is a powerless or blind force.

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

The crank pin is subject to the rod force FST and the rotating
FR
inertial force of the conrod FPL rot. Added geometrically, these

forces yield the crank pin force FHZ.


Radial force FR

FHZ = FST2 + FConrod rot 2 FST FConrod rot cos ( j + y )

(6.33)

As a reaction to the crank pin force FHZ, the conrod bearing

force FPL acts on the conrod bearing (Figure 6.20).


180 360 540
720 FPL = FHZ
(6.34)

Crankshaft angle [}

Figure 6.18Radial force characteristic of a fast-running diesel engine.

cos ( j +
y )
FR = FST cos ( j + y ) = FK
(6.29)
cosy

Since every action yields an equal and opposite reaction;


a torque oppositethe useful torque on the engine block
necessarily arises the reaction torque. This results from the
FConrod bearing FConrod rot
normal force FN and the distance of the normal force b that
changes with the piston position.
M = FT r MReaction = FN b

(6.30)
b = r cosj + l cosy
Hence, the supporting forces FA and FB result from the
reaction torque and their distance a to (Figure 6.19)
MReaction
FA =
(6.31) FHZ
a
MReaction
FB = .
(6.32)
a

FST

Figure 6.20Crank pin force.

MR
When the size and direction of forces change during a

power cycle, as is the case with the conrod bearing force, for

example, these forces are represented in polar diagrams by

plotting them under the respective angle of their force-transfer


FN

direction in the sequence of the crankshaft angle (Figure 6.21).

The crankshaft angle and the angle of force are not identi-

cal. In order to follow the change of the force over time, the

crankshaft angle must be given for the individual points of the


b r
force characteristic. It is frequently useful to refer the forces

to the following different coordinate systems (Figure 6.22):

FB fixed spatial (or housing) system (main bearing forces, for

example)

FT

fixed pin system (such as the effect of the forces on


M
FA
rotating pins)

fixed rod system (such as the effect of forces on the conrod

bearing).

The crank gear forces are transmitted through the main


a

bearing pin and the main bearing to the crankcase. The rotating
inertial force of the crankshaft throws FKR rot, the crank pin

force FHZ or its components FT, FR, and Fconrod rot, and the forces
Figure 6.19Action torque, reaction torque, and supporting forces [6-
30].

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6.1 Crankshaft Drive

Polar diagram of the conrod bearing force


(fixed shell)
Four-stroke diesel engine

0
360
15 720
10
20 5
330
30
690
300
25 0

30
20
The force engagement
angle is not identical
35
to the crankshaft angle
40
710
300
90
660 200

420
100 540
225
500
485
80
610
260
270 455

60
630 680
450
430
290
675
415

240
600 385 335
120
380
480
The numbers in
the locus diagram
of the conrod bearing

150
force stand for the 210
510
corresponding 570 180
crankshaft angle. 540
Figure 6.21Polar diagram of the

conrod bearing force of a fast-

running diesel engine.

x
x

y
y

y x
y
x
Fixed shell diagram
Fixed pin diagram
Forces refer to a coordinate system
Forces refer to a coordinate
defined in the bore (shell)
system defined in the pin

Figure 6.22Coordinate systems.

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

of the countermass Fcountermass (counterweights) together to


supporting forces resulting from each throw are added to
form the main bearing force FGL (Figure 6.23).
yield the overall bearing force.

It is useful to calculate the crank gear force by dividing the

FGL = ( FKW rot + FR + FConrod rot FCountermass ) + FT2


(6.35) forces into their X and Y components, totaling the X and Y

componentstaking into account whether they are positive or


The rotating masses of the throw are related to the crank

negativeand geometrically adding these sums. The direction


pin axis.

of the resultant force is obtained from the quotients of the


mThrow = mCrank pin + 2 mCrank web
(6.36) X and Y componentstaking into account that the tangent

is periodic with .
rCenter of gravity
mCrank web = mCrank
(6.37) The quadrants in which the angles lie are obtained from
r
the sign of the individual components

( X ) + (Y )

2 2

Z= (6.38)

g = arctan

X . (6.39)

The gas force that presses the piston downward also attempts

to lift the cylinder head. This is prevented by the cylinder head

screws that hold the cylinder head on the cylinder crankcase.


On the other hand, the gas force acts through the piston,

conrod, and crankshaft on the crankshaft main bearings.

These are held by the main bearing bridges (main bearing

cap) and the main bearing screws. This closes the flow of

force, and the crankcase intermediate wall is (dynamically)

stressed from tension (Figure 6.24).

FKR rot

FKR rot

FHZ
FCountermass

FGL

Figure 6.23Main bearing force.

As a reaction to the main bearing force FGL, the equal and


opposite main bearing pin force FGZ arises. The main bearing
force FGL is divided into the two main bearings, neighboring
the crankshaft throw.
Apart from single-cylinder engines, the crankshaft has more
than two bearings and represents a statically indeterminate
Figure 6.24Flow of force in the crankcase.
system. In view of the fluctuating gas pressure from work cycle
to work cycle, the tolerances of the masses, the deformation
6.1.3 Tangential Force Characteristic and
of the crankshaft and the oil film, and the flexibility of the

Average Tangential Force


bearing, the supporting forces are not frequently determined

The tangential force (torsional force) also fluctuates with the


with (apparent) precision. The crankshaft is viewed as consisting

periodically changing gas and inertial forces. The average


of individual throws that are articulated to each other. The

tangential force is calculated from the tangential force charac-


difference between the results of the statically indeterminate

teristic over a power cycle. The area enclosed by the tangential


system and the statically determinate system is slight and can

force and the diagram axes is a measure of the (indicated or


be ignored for fundamental design in particular. The partial

internal) work Wi. If this work is related to the length of the

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6.1 Crankshaft Drive

power cycle, we get the average tangential force FTm. This is


only a fraction of the maximum tangential force (Figure 6.25).

Tangential force FT

jp
1
Mean tangential force FTm

j
p 0
FTm =
FT (j)dj (6.40)

( Sum of
positive areas )
90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720

+ ( Sum of
negative areas )
FTm =
mF mj (6.41)
Crankshaft angle KW

jp

Figure 6.25Tangential force characteristic and average tangential force.


mF = Measure of force
m = Measure of the angle
This evens out the tangential force so that the fluctuations
p = Length of the power cycle crankshaft degrees.
in the tangential force drop to a fraction of that of a single-

cylinder crank gear even in a six-cylinder inline crank gear


To even out the tangential force characteristic and increase
(Figure 6.26).
the power, engines are built with multiple cylinders, with
The irregular torsional force characteristic results in fluc-
certain exceptions. The tangential forces (torsional forces) of
the
tuations in the speed, because torsional force FT( ) above
individual cylinders add up in displaced phases corresponding
the average FTm accelerates the crank gear, and decelerates it
to the angular ignition spacing over the crankshaft to form
when the force falls below the average. The fluctuation of the
the overall torsional force on the clutch side of the engine.
25
25

Cylinders 1
Cylinders 1 + 2
20
20
Tangential force FT in [kN]

Tangential force FT in [kN]

15
15
10
10
5
5
0
0
5
5
10
10
0 180
360 540 720 0 180
360 540 720

Crankshaft angle []
Crankshaft angle []

Cylinders 1 + 2 + 3
Cylinders 1 + 2 + 3 + 4
25

25

Tangential force FT in [kN]

20
Tangential force FT in [kN]

15
20
15
10

10
5
5
0
0
5
5

10
10
0 180
360 540 720 0 180
360 540 720

Crankshaft angle []
Crankshaft angle []

25
25
Tangential force FT in [kN]

Tangential force FT in [kN]

Cylinders
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 20 Cylinders 1
+ 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6
20
15
15
10
10
5
5
0
0
5
5
10
10
0 180
360 540 720 0 180
360 540 720

Figure 6.26Overlapping tangential

Crankshaft angle []
Crankshaft angle []
forces of a four-stroke six-cylinder

inline engine.

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

energy supplied to the crank gear is termed work fluctuation


The crankshaft is subject to a load by the following:
WS. Given the moment of inertia I of the crank gear, we obtain
The useful torque or working torque from the average
the following:
tangential force that adds up from throw to throw.
1
The pulsating torque results from the strongly fluctuating
WS = I ( wmax
2
wmin
2
)
2
characteristic of the tangential force. The torsional forces
1
of the individual cylinder add up corresponding to their
= I ( wmax wmin) ( wmax + wmin)
(6.42)
2
phase shift (angular ignition spacing). On the clutch side,

the pulsating torque evens out; however, the primary factor


1
wm = 2 p n ( wmax + wmin ) .
(6.43) of the load on the crankshaft is the range of fluctuation in
2
the individual throws.
The speed fluctuation can be reduced with a flywheel. The
The rotational oscillations that cause additional torque in
flywheel acts as an energy accumulator that stores excess
the crankshaft. This vibrational torque can be a multiple
energy if a surplus of tangential force is present and releases
of the other types of torque.
this energy when tangential force is lacking. Depending on the

Figure 6.27 demonstrates the overlapping of the individual


type of machine driven by the engine, different requirements

stresses of a six-cylinder crankshaft over its individual throws.


are placed on the constant velocity. The speed fluctuation
is indicated by the cyclic irregularity . The smoother the
engine is to run, the lower the cyclic irregularity has to be;
Stress on the throws of a crankshaft (diagram)
in particular, when revving the engines under a load, the
cyclic irregularity is unpleasant, since it causes the engine

Stress from
accessories to vibrate.
rotational oscillations

wmax wmin
d=
(6.44)
wm

WS = I d wm2
(6.45)

WS WS

Stress

d= or I =
(6.46)
I wm2 d wm2

Stress from
The average tangential force can be derived from the internal
fluctuations on

torsional force
power of the engine:
Pi = AK s z wi n i
(6.47) Stress from average

torsional force
Pi = Mi w w = 2p n
(6.48)

Figure 6.27Stresses on a six-cylinder crankshaft.


s
Mi = FTm r r=
(6.49)
2

6.1.4 Inertial Forces


AK z wi ii
In reciprocating-piston engines, inertial effects arise that
FTm =
(6.50)
p
originate from the movement of the crank gear parts. The
1
inertial forces have both positive and negative effects:
wi = we
(6.51)
hm
On the one hand, they are undesirable, since they generate

additional loads and impair the development of power of


Pe = FTm r 2 p n hm
(6.52) the reciprocating-piston engine.

AK = Piston surface
On the other hand, they even out the release of force of the
crank gear by compensating for the force arising from gas
r = Crankshaft radius

pressure peaks and, hence, reduce force and load.


s = Stroke

The crank gear executes rotating, oscillating, and swinging


z = Number of cylinders

motions. To simplify the calculation, the crank gear is reduced


Pe = Effective power
to two mass points (Figure 6.28), in which the oscillating and
wi = Indicated specific work
rotating masses are viewed as concentrated:
we = Effective specific work
on the articulation point of the conrod on the piston
i = Cycles
(wristpin axis)
m = Mechanical efficiency.
on the articulation point of the conrod on the crankshaft

(crank pin axis).

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6.1 Crankshaft Drive

of the centers of gravity (a, b), so that the center of gravity of


Oscillating
masses the conrods is retained.
of piston and
conrod In connecting rods for automotive engines, this corre-

l
mosz
sponds approximately to a ratio of 1/3 (oscillating mass) to

2/3 (rotating mass).

mConrod osc = mConrod (6.53)

l b
f j

mConrod rot = mConrod (6.54)

These inertial forces and the inertial torque that they generate

proceed in an outward direction as free forces and free torques

that try and move the crankcase back and forth in a horizon-

mrot tal and perpendicular direction. In addition, they cause the


f

engine axes to tip. These free forces and torques can be more

or less compensated (even completely compensated with a

r corresponding effort) by countermasses (counterweights) and/

or by a corresponding number and arrangement of throws


Rotating masses
of conrod and
crankshaft

to make the engine externally stable.

6.1.4.1 Inertial Forces in Single-Cylinder Crank Gears


Figure 6.28Reduction of the crankshaft drive to two mass
points.

In crank gears, rotating inertial force arises, as well as oscillat-

ing inertial forces of the first order and higher. If the demands
The conrod also executes a swinging motion (Figure 6.29)

of precision are not particularly high, only the oscillating


that results in inertial forces. In fast-running engines, this

inertial forces up to and including those of the second order


cannot be ignored.

are taken into account.

Rotating inertial force

The rotating inertial force is a centrifugal force; it stays the

same at a constant engine speed, but its direction changes

with the crankshaft angle. The rotating inertial force rotates

at the crankshaft frequency. Its locus diagram is a circle.

Frot = mrot w 2 r (6.55)

Oscillating inertial forces

The oscillating inertial forces act in the direction of the

cylinder axis, and their size and sign (direction) change

over the course of the piston stroke:

Fosc = mosc w r ( cosj + l cos 2j ) (6.56)

Fosc = mosc w r cosj + mosc w r l cos 2j

2 2

(6.57)

First-order inertial force

To be understood as an order in this context is the frequency

at which an event occurs in relationship to the crankshaft

speed. The amount of the first-order inertial force changes


with the crankshaft frequencyhence first orderand

changes direction twice per rotation.

FI osc = mosc w 2 r cosj (6.58)

Figure 6.29Conrod pattern: envelope curve of all conrod


positions during Second-order inertial force
a crankshaft rotation.
The maximum is only the part of the oscillating first-order

inertial force (Figure 6.32); its amount changes at twice the


The mass of the conrod is divided into an oscillating and a
crankshaft frequency, and it changes direction four times
rotating part inversely proportional to the respective spacing
per rotation.

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

Resulting oscillating inertial force

Oscillating Oscillating
inertial force inertial
force
1st order 2nd order

90
270
Force

0 180
360

Crankshaft angle []

Figure 6.30Resulting oscillating

inertial force at a single-

cylinder crank gear.

FII osc = mosc w 2 r l cos 2j


(6.59) 6.1.4.2 Inertial Forces in a Two-Cylinder V-Crank Gear

If two cylinders at an angle to each other act together on


The characteristics of the oscillating inertial forces of the
a crankshaft throw (V-engine), the inertial forces of both
first order and of the second order add to form the resulting
cylinders are added as vectors (Figure 6.32).
oscillating inertial force (Figure 6.30).
This overall inertial force for a cylinder results from the
vectoral addition of the rotating and oscillating inertial forces

V angle d
of the first and second orders, and possibly the forces of a
higher order (Figure 6.31).
A B
Oscillating
inertial force
2nd. order
Oscillating
inertial force
1st order
f fB

fA

Rotating
inertial force

Figure 6.32Crankshaft angle designation in a V-crank gear.

The locus diagram of the rotating inertial forces of both

cylinders is a circle, and the locus diagrams of the oscillating

inertial forces (depending on the V-angle and the order of

the force under consideration) can be circles, ellipses, and

straight lines (Figure 6.33).

Rotating inertial force

As is the case with a single-cylinder crank gear, the resulting

rotating inertial force is constant with a vector that revolves

at the crankshaft speed. The rotating mass is composed of


Figure 6.31Locus diagram of the resulting inertial force in a single-
cylinder crank gear.
the rotating masses of the two conrods and the rotating

mass of the crankshaft throw; its locus diagram is a circle.

FV2 rot = mV2 w 2 r (6.60)

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6.1 Crankshaft Drive

cylinder axes A and B. The momentary values of the inertial

forces of the two cylinders determined in this manner are

added vectorally, and they yield the resulting inertial force

vector of the first order (Fosc I res) (Figure 6.34).


V angle d

Oscillating second-order oscillating inertial force

The resulting second-order inertial force also results from


B

the inertial forces of the cylinders A and B.

Since the oscillating second-order inertial force changes at

twice the crankshaft frequency, the vectoral rotary angle is

twice that of the first order. This amount is the th portion


2.0
of the first-order inertial force.
1.0
j A = 2 j + d (6.66)

0
0 jB = 2 j d
(6.67)

30

45

FII osc A = FII cos ( 2j + d ) (6.68)

1st order
80

FII osc B = FII cos ( 2j d ) (6.69)


90

V angle d
120
FII = l mosc w 2 r
135

(6.70)
150

FII osc res = 2 FII


180
1.0
cos 2 2j ( cos 2d + cos d ) + sin 2 d ( 1 cos d ) . (6.71)

The resulting force can be graphically determined by the


0.5

momentary values of the oscillating second-order inertial


2nd order
forces for the cylinders A and B and adding them vectorally.
0

The momentary value of the cylinder A is determined by

plotting, from the cylinder axis A, the inertial force vector F2


Figure 6.33Locus diagrams of the free inertial forces of V-
crank gears at the angle A = 2 + and projecting it onto the
cylinder
depending on the V-angle.
axis A. The momentary value of the cylinder B is obtained by

plotting the vector F2 at the angle B = 2 , but counting


mV2 = 2 mConrod rot + ( mKW rot
mCountermass ) (6.61) from the cylinder axis B, and projecting it on
the axis of the

cylinder B.
Oscillating first-order oscillating inertial force
The resulting oscillating first-order inertial force
results 6.1.4.3 Inertial Forces and Inertial Torque in
Multicylinder
from the vectoral addition of the inertial forces of the
two Crank Gears
cylinders A and B. If the crankshaft angle of the
crankshaft The inertial forces in the individual throws
produce torque
throw is measured from the bisector of the V-angle, then
corresponding to their distance from the engines center of
the crankshaft angle of the cylinder A is A = + ( /2)
and gravityinertial torque. The forces and torques are
vectoral
the angle of the cylinder B is B = ( /2). Between
the quantities, so that the force and torque vectors of the
individual
oscillating inertial forces of the cylinders A and B, there
is throws are shifted in the plane of gravity of the engine,
and
an operating time difference equal to the V-angle .
can be added to form resulting forces and torques. V-engines

are two inline crank gears separated by the V-angle. Therefore,


d
the mass effect of one line of crank gears can be determined
FI osc A = FI cos j +
(6.62)
2
and added to the other, phase shifted by the V-angle. Or,

the resultant force of the crank gears opposing each other


d
across the V-angle can be added like the inline crank gear.
FI osc B = FI cos j
(6.63)
2
The inertial effects are determined by the position of the

respective throws (Figure 6.35).


FI = mosc r w 2
(6.64)

Inertial forces

d The rotating forces act in the direction of throw, while


vectors
FI osc res = 2 FI cos d cos 2 j +
sin 4 (6.65)

2 rotating in the opposite direction represent the


oscillating

forces. By projecting the crankshaft throws on the plane of


The resulting force can be graphically determined by repre-

gravity of the engine, that is, the throw or crank diagram


senting the crankshaft throw in its respective position by
a

(also termed phase direction diagram), the directions of the


vector with the quantity FI. These vectors are projected
onto

inertial force vectors are represented.

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

A B
V angle d

f
fA fB

d = 60

360/0

rB
Cy

de
330
30
lin

lin
de

Cy
rA

mosz r v 2 cosfB
300
60
F1res

fA

fB

270
90

mosz r v 2 cos fA

240 120

mosz r v 2

210
150

Figure 6.34Locus diagram of the

180

oscillating first-order inertial force

of a 2-V 60 crank gear.

As a reference, the first throw (depending on whether you


2a
are counting from the force transmission side or the coun-

terforce transmission) is in the TDC position. The position


2a
a
of the following throws is determined by the respective
a
throw spacing (throw angle).
5
4
For the oscillating second-order inertial force, the throw
1
diagram of the second order (phase direction diagram of
3
the second order) is used that is obtained by placing the
1 2
2 throws under twice the throw angle.
1 3
72
288 144
Inertial torques
5 4 216
The torque vector is perpendicular to its plane of action.
72
288 144 5
4 The sign depends on the position of the relevant throw in
Throw
1st order 216
reference to the engines center of gravity; it, therefore, must
Throw
be correspondingly taken into consideration. If the throw
2 3 2nd
order is to the left of the center of gravity, the vector
is positive;

if it is to the right, the counting proceeds in a negative


Figure 6.35Crank diagram of a five-cylinder inline engine (ZF 12453).
direction. From the perspective of the torque diagram,

the vectors illustrate the torque that originates from the

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6.1 Crankshaft Drive

forces to the left of the engines center of gravity


proceed-
ing from the midpoint of the crankshaft, and proceeding

M X = a Frot 0.363

toward the midpoint for torque to the right of the center


of gravity. Because the torque vector is perpendicular to

MY = a Frot ( 2 cos 0 + cos 216 + cos 252 + 2 cos108)

its plane of action, that is, perpendicular to its throw,


the
torque diagram follows the crank diagram by 90. The torque

MY = a Frot 0.264
vectors can, therefore, be drawn in the direction of throw,
Mrot res = a Frot 0.3632 + 0.2642 = a Frot 0.4488
and the vector of the resulting torque can be set back 90

counterclockwise. In V-engines, the inertial forces of the


0.363

tan d = = 1.375 d = 54
two cylinders acting on a throw are combined and used
0.264

to determine the inertial torque.


Rotating inertial torques
The inertial torques result from the rotating inertial
force Throw 1st order
and the respective distance from the plane of gravity. It
is 1
MZyl 1
correspondingly geometrically added to the throw diagram.
Oscillating inertial torques
MZyl 1
Oscillating first-order oscillating inertial torque
5 MZyl 5 4
The vectors of oscillating first-order inertial torque
are
MZyl 4 108
plotted in the direction of the throw diagram of the
first MZyl 2 MZyl 4

MZyl 2
order. After adding the vectors, the resulting torque
252 MZyl 5

216
vector is projected onto the cylinder axis, because the
oscillating forces act only in the direction of the
cylinder 2 3
axis. The projection is rotated 90 counterclockwise;
this

MZyl 2
is then the resulting oscillating first-order inertial
torque.

MZyl 1
Oscillating second-order oscillating inertial torque
MZyl 4
The same procedure is used for the oscillating second-
order inertial torque, except the throw diagram of the

MZyl 5 d
second order is used as a basis.

Mrot res
6.1.4.4 Example
Mres 5 4
To illustrate these relationships, the functions of a five-
stroke

4 2 3
shaft are graphed and analyzed. We assume the following:
5

2
equivalent masses of the crank gears in all the throws

1
equivalent cylinder spacing a
the engines center of gravity is in the middle of the
engine Figure 6.36Determining the resulting rotating inertial
torque.
in the crankshaft axis
the first crankshaft throw is in the TDC position.

6.1.4.4.2 Oscillating First-order Inertial Force


6.1.4.4.1 Rotating Inertial Torque
The effective directions of the vectors are the same as for
The throw spacing in the throw diagram of the first order is
the rotating inertial torque (Figure 6.37) as is the calculation:
1 = 0 2 = 216
FI = mosc r 2
3 = 144 (not used since the throw is in the center of
gravity)

Mosc I max = a FI 0.3632 + 0.2642 = a FI 0.4488


4 = 72 5 = 288.

Taking into consideration the sign of the torque of the


0.363

tan d = = 1.375 d = 54
individual throws, we get the effective directions of the
torque 0.264

(Figure 6.36):
1 = 0 2 = 216
6.1.4.4.3 Oscillating Second-order Inertial Force
3 not used 72 (+ 180) = 252; 4 =
252 The throw spacing in the throw diagram of the second
order is

288 (+ 180) (360) = 108; 5 = 108


1 = 0 2 = 72

3 = 288 not used 4 = 144


Frot = mrot r 2
5 = 216.

M X = a Frot ( 2 sin 0 + sin 216 + sin 252


+ 2 sin 108)

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

Throw 1st order


Throw 2nd order

1 MZyl
1 1
MZyl 1

MZyl 5
MZyl 1

MZyl 1
5 MZyl 5 4
MZyl 2
MZyl 4
3 2 324 38
72
MZyl 4
108
MZyl 2
MZyl 4 MZyl 2

MZyl 2 MZyl 4
252
MZyl 5 MZyl 5

216

2 3

5 4
MZyl 2
MZyl 1

1 d
MZyl 4
4

max

4
sz 2

l5
MZyl 5
3

M*osz 1 res

Zy
d
5

Mo

1
Vectors
5 4 3

MZ
M*osz 1 res
1 2
are enlarged Mosz 1 max

yl

4
Mosz 1 res
2 3
2

M Zyl
4
5
3
MZyl 1
2
1

Mosz 2 res

Figure 6.37Determining the resulting oscillating first-order inertial


torque.

Figure 6.38Determining the resulting second-order inertial torque.


Taking into account the sign of the torque of the individual
throws, we get the effective directions (Figure 6.38).
(product of the mass and distance from the rotary axis) of the
1 = 0 2 = 216
rotating masses and the balancing mass(es) must correspond.
3 not used 4 = 144 (+180) = 324
FBalance = Frot

(6.72)
5 = 216 (+180) (360) = 36

mBalance rBalance = mrot r


F2 = mosc r 2
r (6.73)

mBalance = mrot

rBalance

M X = a F2 ( 2 sin 0 + sin 72 + sin 324 + 2


sin 36)

By dividing the balancing mass into two counterweights,

M Y = a F2 ( 2 cos 0 + cos72 + cos 324 + 2


cos 36 )

we obtain the following:

1 r

mBalance = mrot (6.74)

M X = a F2 1.539

2 rBalance

M Y = a F2 4.736
To keep the balancing mass small, it must be affixed at the

greatest possible distance from the rotary axis (crankshaft


Mosc 2max = a F2 1.5392 + 4.7362 = arot 4.98
axis); this is greatly limited by the constructive conditions.

Basically, mass balancing should include a large static torque


1.539
and a small moment of inertia.
tan d = = 0.325 d =
18
4.736
Oscillating inertial forces can also be compensated
by

revolving countermasses, since their force vector is composed

of components in the direction of the cylinder axis (Y direc-


6.1.5 Mass Balancing

tion) and perpendicular to the cylinder axis (X direction).


Mass balancing is defined as the compensation of imbalances

The balancing mass is selected so that the component in the


due to construction. The balancing of manufacturing-related

direction of the cylinder axis corresponds to the oscillat-


imbalances is merely termed balancing.

ing inertial force; this is balanced, but at the price of a free


6.1.5.1 Balancing Single-Cylinder Crank Gears
component perpendicular to the cylinder axis (Figure 6.39).
The rotating inertial force can be balanced by countermass(es),
FBalance = mBalance r w 2 (6.75)
where the condition must be fulfilled that the static torque

X Balance = mBalance r w 2 sin j


(6.76)

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6.1 Crankshaft Drive

YBalance = mBalance r w 2 cosj


(6.77) components perpendicular to the cylinder axis cancel each

other out (Figure 6.40).

F1 osz = mosz r v 2 cosf

F1 osz = mosz r v 2 cos f

x = mosz r v 2 sinf

0,5 mosz 0,5 mosz

r v 2 sinf r v 2 sin f

0,5 mosz 0,5 mosz

rv2 rv2

0,5 mosz 0,5 mosz


y = mosz r
v 2 cos f r v 2 cosf r v 2
cosf
Fbalance = mosz r v 2

Figure 6.40Complete balancing of the inertial forces of the first order.


Figure 6.39Balancing of oscillating forces using a revolving
mass.

To obtain a balance of the second order, the countermass


Better conditions result when the oscillating first-order
must rotate at twice the crankshaft speed (Figure 6.41).
inertial force is not completely balanced. Since the crank-
case along its height (Y direction) is more rigid than in the
transverse direction (X direction), the oscillating first-order
inertial force is not completely compensated, so that the free
X component does not become too large, and it is only 50%
balanced. Completely balancing the rotating inertial force
Frot and the 50% balance of the oscillating first-order
inertial
force is termed a normal balanceit was even used in the
nineteenth century for drivetrains of steam locomotives.
The mass balancing of designed passenger car engines is
50%60% of the oscillating inertial force and 80%100% of
the rotating inertial force.

mBalance rBalance = ( a1 mrot + a 2


mosc ) r (6.78)

r Figure 6.41Diagram of mass balancing of the second order in a


four-
mNormal balance = ( 1 mrot + 0.5 mosc )
(6.79)

stroke crank gear.

rBalance

Then, the two components in the direction of the cylinder


6.1.5.2 Balancing Multicylinder Crank Gears
axis compensate the oscillating inertial force. The oscillating
Automobile engines are built with multiple cylinders, that is,
first-order inertial force is completely balanced when two
with 312 (16) cylinders, as three-, four-, five-, and six-cylinder
balancing masses revolving in the opposite direction that
inline engines; V6, V8, and V12 (V16) engines; and VR5 and
are half the oscillating crank gear masses are symmetri-
VR6 engines.
cally arranged in relation to the vertical engine axis; the two

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

These engines have three-, four-, five-, and six (eight)-stroke


The following holds true for crankshafts of four-
crankshafts so that with a corresponding arrangement, the
stroke engines:
mass effects of the individual throws cancel each other out
Two-stroke shaft: For two-cylinder four-stroke inline engines,
(self-balance). For this purpose, the throws are to be evenly
all the three criteria listed above can be met simultaneously
distributed in the peripheral direction and the length-
only with the balancing mechanisms of a complex design,
wise direction:
First-order inertial forces and second torques do not incur
With centrally symmetrical shafts (equal to the throw spacing
in shafts with throws offset by 180; however, even angular
across the perimeter), the free forces cancel each other out.
ignition spacing can be achieved only in two-stroke cycles.
Centrally and longitudinally symmetrical arrangements of
Even angular ignition spacing in four-stroke cycles can be
the throws of a four-stroke engine shaft have no free forces
realizedeven if intended for balanced load cyclesonly
and torques of the first order; starting with six strokes, the
by crankshafts without crank pin offset (throws offset by
shafts are completely force-free and torque-free.
0 or 360), which will eliminate the first- and second-order

torques at the same time. However, this shaft design results


The criteria for the throw sequence are as follows:
in first-order forces. An innovative balancing mechanism
No or very low free mass effects: A simple rule of thumb for
uses a balancing conrod with attached balancing rocker
throw sequences with favorable mass balances is presented
(Figure 6.43) [6-10]. The rocker system is arranged in the center
in [6-8] and [6-9].
of the crankshaft to avoid the generation of new torques.
Additional torques may not arise from mass balancing, and
Depending on the design, the first-order forces can be
no additional inertial forces may arise from torque balancing.
fully balanced and the second-order forces are balanced
Even angular ignition spacing.
at high portions.
Free first-order inertial torque can be balanced by a shaft
rotating in the opposite direction at the crankshaft speed with
two countermasses of a corresponding size and lengthwise
spacing (torque differential). The arrangement in the engine
can be freely selected. Gears or chains provide the drive;
frequently, the oil pump drive is connected. To balance the
torque of the second order, the differential drive rotates at
twice the crankshaft speed (Figure 6.42).
Figure 6.43Crankshaft drive of a BMW two-cylinder inline engine with

balancing mechanism [6-10].

Three-stroke shaft: Free torque of the first and second orders


Oil pump drive
occurs. The torque of the first order is compensatedespe-

cially in V-engineswith a torque differential.

Four-stroke shaft: In four-cylinder four-stroke inline engines,

the inertial forces of the second order are additive. Balancing


Figure 6.42Torque differential of the Audi V6.

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6.1 Crankshaft Drive

Setting the tooth face


play
by means of disk
thickness

Spacer plates

Gear drive of the mass


balancing gearbox (BMW 318i)
Figure 6.44Differential for the

inertial forces of the second order.

these forces by two shafts with countermasses (differential)


For this reason, the effect of the height offset optimized for
oppositely rotating at twice the crankshaft speed becomes
speed and load (Figure 6.46) by, for example, the variation
increasingly important for engines at nominal speeds
of the height offset.
>4000 min1 due to increased demands in terms of comfort.
Five-stroke shaft: Large free inertial torques arise, depending
Because of the high peripheral speeds of the bearing pin
on the selected firing sequence, which are significant either
of this differentialup to 14 m/sthe bearing and drive
in the first order (for example, ZF 15234) or in the second
must be carefully designed. The balance shafts are driven
order (for example, ZF 12453)or represent a compromise
by a gear on a crankshaft web, where the tooth face play of
for both the orders. Passenger car and truck engines are
the drive must be harmonized to the shifts and rotational
built both with and without separate torque balance.
oscillations of the crankshaft (Figure 6.44).
Six-stroke shaft: Centrally symmetrical and longitudinally
By offsetting the height of the balance shaft (Figure 6.45),
symmetrical shafts (starting at six shafts) are balanced by
an additional oscillating torque of the second order can be
themselves; they do not have any free mass effects.
generated that can also balance with the gas force components

The most important considerations in designing the mass


of the oscillating torque.

balancing system are as follows:


complexity of design (differential)

operating behavior at high speed (second order): bearing,

lubrication, and so on

decreasing the load on the crank gear bearing

balance of the gas force

rotational oscillation behavior

inertia

friction behavior.

The free forces and torques of the different cylinder configu-

rations are summarized in tables in the relevant literature.

Mass balancing is used not only on the crankshaft drive

but also on the valve gear, that is, on camshafts:

The body is drilled eccentrically, so that the manufac-

tured imbalance can largely compensate for the free valve

mass forces.

Balancing masses are placed directly on the camshaft

(Figure 6.47).

Figure 6.45Mass balancing of the second order with height-


offset balance
shafts [6-11].

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

Force 2. Regulation on the motor bearing


Full load
without AGW Thrust without AGW
Full load with
AGW without height offset Thrust with AGW without height
offset
Full Load with
high offset AGW Thrust with height offset AGW

Eradication Point

Eradication Point

Full load
without height offset Thrust without height offset
Free torque 2. Order Engine Long Axis

Full load with


height offset Thrust with height offset

Eradication Point Eradication Point

Engine Speed [min1] Engine Speed [min1]

Figure 6.46System behavior of balance shafts with and without height


offset [6-12]. See color section page 1065.

Internal torque
a a a

F F

F F

Figure 6.47Camshaft with balancing mass.

Bending moment
6.1.6 Internal Torques
Fa characteristic
In addition to imbalanced inertial forces and inertial torques
in the crankshaft
that are perceptible free inertial effects, internal torques also
exist in engines. This includes the bending moments that arise
in the (freely floating) crankshaft (Figure 6.48).
These internal torques provide an additional load on the
crankshaft main bearing and subject the crankcase to flexural
Bending moment
stress. As the engine speed increases, the internal torques
characteristic
place higher demands on the construction of the engine,
in the crankcase
predominantly on V12 and V16 engines. The internal moment
increases from the crankshaft ends to the middle of the engine.

Figure 6.48Diagram of internal torque.


With longitudinally symmetrical shafts, the average bearing is

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6.1 Crankshaft Drive

subject to high loads from the inertial forces of the neighbor-


In two-stroke engines with a power cycle length corre-
ing throws in the same direction, which can be prevented by
sponding to a 360 crankshaft angle, the throw sequence
internal mass balancing, that is, balancing the inertial forces
corresponds to the firing sequence; four-stroke engines have
at their origin, that is, at every throw (Figure 6.49).
two dead centers with a 720 crankshaft angle power cycle:

firing TDC

charge cycle TDC.

Hence, for each throw sequence, there are several firing

sequences because of the following:

short angular ignition spacing (V-angle )

long angular ignition spacing (depending on the direction

of rotation: V-angle + 360 or V-angle 360).

The number of possible firing sequences for inline engines

with k = throw number [6-13] is

fully symmetrical shaft (four-stroke engines):

2 2

partially symmetrical shafts (four-stroke engines with an

uneven number of throws; two-stroke engines):

k!/2 k.
Figure 6.49Four-cylinder SI engine (Opel-Ecotec) balanced on
all cheeks.

V-engines represent a good compromise between high


The advantages of complete internal mass balancing need
power density and a compact basic design. The V-engine
to be weighed against the disadvantages of increasing the
is, therefore, a preferred design in passenger car engines
mass, moment of inertia, and cost.
as well. A small V-angle requires a longer conrod (smaller
conrod ratios l = r/l) and possibly a shifting of the crankshaft
6.1.7 Throw and Firing Sequences
drive to provide the necessary free travel of the cylinder. This
To obtain a very even torque characteristic, the ignition of
yields a higher crankcase with reduced piston-side forces,
the individual cylinders must be evenly distributed over
since the angular travel of the connecting rod is shorter. For
the power cycle. The requirement is that the throws must be
vehicle engines, the 90 V-angle is preferred, since it allows
evenly distributed over the perimeter. Hence, the following
the first-order inertial forces to be completely balanced with
throw spacing results:
rotating counterweights; in addition, in eight-cylinder V-90

four-stroke engines, the V-angle corresponds to the even


Four-stroke engines 720 crankshaft angle/cylinder number

angular ignition spacing, the so-called natural V-angle. If


Two-stroke engines 360 crankshaft angle/cylinder number
the number of cylinders and the V-angle do not correspond,
The firing sequence is also determined by the direction
an even ignition spacing is still attained by spreading the
of rotation of the crankshaft. For automotive engines, the
crank pins by the difference between the V-angle and the
direction of rotation is established in DIN 73021.
angular ignition spacing (thrown crank pin, stroke offset, and
Clockwise rotation: when viewed from the counterforce
split-pin crankshaft). Accordingly, six-cylinder passenger car
transmission side; the cylinders are counted from the coun-
and truck engines are being built today with the V-angles of
terforce transmission side.
90 (such as Audi, Deutz, and DaimlerChrysler), 60 (Ford),

and even 54 (Opel), and eight-cylinder engines with a 75


Counterclockwise rotation: counterclockwise looking at the

angle (DaimlerChrysler), which requires a total crank offset of


counterforce transmission side; the cylinders are counted

30, 60, 66, and 15. To select the V-angle, the clearance space
from the counterforce transmission side.

of the engine and the harmonization of the engine program


The cylinders in V-engines are (viewed from the counterforce
must be considered in addition to the crank gear mechanics.
transmission side) counted from the right row starting from
the left engine row that starts with z/2 + 1, counted from the
6.1.7.1 Determining the Firing Sequences
right row. In V-engines, the same angular ignition spacing
In two-stroke engines, the firing sequence corresponds to
can only be achieved when the V-angle corresponds to the
the throw sequence.
power cycle (720 or 360 crankshaft angle) divided by the
In four-stroke engines, the two crankshaft rotations of a
cylinder number. Other factors for the firing sequence are
power cycle are reduced to one rotation. This yields a 0.5th-

order phase diagram. The ignitions are evenly distributed


no or very small free inertial effects
over the perimeter and in the lengthwise direction. Viewed
favorable rotational oscillation behavior
in terms of crank gear mechanics, V-engines are two inline
good supercharging conditions.
engines offset from each other by the V-angle with half the

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

number of cylinders. The ignition spacing of the cylinders


system and converted into heat: the vibration is suppressed
that act together on a throw is as follows:
and slows at a greater or lesser rate depending on the damping.
(short angular ignition spacing)
If a periodic force acts on the system from the outside, then

it forces the system to assume different vibration behavior; the


( + 360) (long ignition spacing).

system vibratesafter a transient phaseat the frequency of


The phase diagrams of the two partial inline engines are
the exciting force. If the natural and exciting forces correspond,
superimposed for the short angular ignition spacing by ( /2),
resonance occurs. Without damping, the vibration amplitude
and for the long angular ignition spacing by ([ + 360]/2) from
would assume an infinite value. However, the always-present
which the ignition intervals can be determined.
damping limits the amplitude, and the size of the amplitude

depends on the strength of the damping. This situation is

illustrated by the magnification function V as a function of

frequency ratio / [The magnification function is the ratio


6.2 Rotational Oscillations
of the (maximum) vibration amplitude of the system to the

amplitude that would result if the spring of the system was


6.2.1 Fundamentals
under a static load from the exciting force.].
The crank gear is a spring-mass system that is excited to
If the path of the vibration amplitudes of the individual
vibrate (oscillating rotational movement of the sequential
masses is represented over the length of the shaft as a curve
individual masses on the shaft) by the periodic torsional forces
trace, we get the mode of vibrations with the zero transition
(tangential forces) that overlap the actual rotational movement
points of this curve as vibration nodes, in which two neighbor-
of the crankshaft. The rotational movement of the crankshaft,
ing masses vibrate in the opposite direction. No rotational
therefore, comprises the following three components:
oscillation movement occurs at these points (certainly rotational

oscillation stress, however) (Figure 6.50).


even rotation corresponding to the speed

For each possible form of vibration, there is a natural


speed fluctuation as a result of the uneven torsional force
frequency that the system can use to execute free vibrations
characteristic (tangential force characteristic) over a power
in the relevant mode of vibration. The mode of vibrations and
cycle (static speed fluctuation)
the natural frequencies depend on the size and distribution of
vibration over the displacement angle caused by the torsional
the torsional rigidities and the moments of inertia in the system.
force (dynamic speed fluctuation).
Since the resonance can lead to vibration amplitudes that

can destroy the crankshaft (Figure 6.51), it is important to


The movement of the system is described by the angle of twist

identify such dangerous conditions beforehand and undertake


of the moments of inertia in comparison to the initial position.

appropriate measures to eliminate them.


The kinetic energy stored in the moments of inertia is

The properties of the crank gear are, therefore, calculated


released to the coil springs and converted into potential energy

in this regard. Since it is a complex system, the crank gear


in order to be reconverted back into kinetic energy. Given

must be conceptually simplified (reduced), so that it can be


loss-free energy conversion, the free vibrations would last

computed with a reasonable amount of effort. The basis of


forever; the natural frequency depends exclusively on the

such a simplification (reduction) is the harmonization of the


system properties of spring rigidity and mass. Because of the

dynamic properties of the reduced system with those of the


resistance to the movement, energy is withdrawn from the

Vibration line

cn 1
c4
fn

f4
f3 c3

ln
f2 c2

l5
f1 c1 l4

Vibration nodes
l3
l2
Vibration
amplitude l1
Figure 6.50Diagram of a rotational
oscillation system.

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6.2 Rotational Oscillations

actual system. The calculation of the rotational oscillation


For passenger car engines, the BICERA formula is used.
consists of the following:
Since the shape of the crankshaft throw impairs its rotation,
reducing the machine system
its reduced length is generally greater than the length of the

throw (Figure 6.52).


calculating the natural frequencies and modes of natural
vibration

c = cred
calculating the exciting forces and the exciter works and
amplitudes
calculating the crankshaft excursions in the case of
resonance
calculating the crankshaft stress from the vibration excur-
sions in the case of resonance
calculating the critical speeds.

IThrow Ireduced

Figure 6.52Length reduction of a crankshaft throw.

6.2.3 Natural Frequencies and Modes of

Natural Vibration

The crank gear consists of coupled moments of inertia and

torsional rigidities with mutually influential vibration behavior.

Movement equations are created for the individual moments

of inertia according to Figure 6.53.

I k j + c k1 ( j k jk1 ) + c k ( j k jk+1 ) = 0 (6.80)

I = Mass moment of inertia

= Angle of twist of the moment of inertia


c = Torsional rigidity of the shaft piece

k = Counter for the moments of inertia.

Figure 6.51Torsion break of a passenger car crankshaft made of


GGG 70.
fk + 1

fk

6.2.2 Reduction of the Machine System


fk 1

ck
The crank gear with the coupled masses (flywheel, crank
wheel mechanism, valve gear, belt drive, and so on) is reduced
lk + 1

ck 1
to a simple geometrical model, so that potential and kinetic
energies of the actual and reduced systems correspond.
lk
Mass reduction: The crankshaft with the conrod, piston,
and masses that it drives (crank wheel, flywheel, damper,

lk 1
and so on) is replaced by regular cylindrical disks with
a constant moment of inertia. Although the moments of
inertia of the crankshaft drives change from the piston and
Figure 6.53Opposite rotation of the moments of inertia of the
conrod movement, for the calculation, constant moments
reduced crank gears.
of inertia are assumed.

A system is obtained for homogeneously coupled linear


Length reduction: The crankshaft throw is replaced with

differential equations with constant coefficients that describe


a straight, inertia-less shaft piece with the same diameter

the equilibrium between


as the crankshaft main bearing (or the crank pin) whose
length is such that the throw and shaft pieces have the
moments of acceleration from the moment of inertia arising
same torsional rigidity (spring constant). There is a series
from the inertial torque and the angular acceleration
of reduction formulas to accomplish this.
returning torque from the spring rigidity and difference

between the angles of twist on both sides of the examined mass.

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

The damping moment can be ignored when determining


the natural frequencies, since the natural frequencies are
only slightly influenced by the damping when it is weak. The
integration of these equations yields the natural frequencies
of the system. To solve these differential equations, a model
in the form of harmonic movement is created. Systems with
more than three moments of inertia make the equation systems

Residual exciter moment MRes


overly complex and difficult to deal with; for this reason,
different experimental procedures have been developed. Of
1. Natural frequency ve1
these, the procedure by GmbelHolzerTolle has gained broad
acceptance. It provides insight into the physical behavior of
the vibration processes, and can be carried out using a simple
and clear computational approach in which the results of one
calculation step are used in the other as a pattern. The basic
ve4

ve2 ve3
concept is as follows.
ve5
An oscillating torque is imagined that acts on the end of
a system capable of vibration, so that the system executes
forced (undampened) vibrations; the amplitude of this oscil-
lating torque (exciter moment amplitude) is set, so that the
vibration excursion of the first mass assumes the value 1. If
the exciter frequency is then changed, the exciter moment M
Exciter frequency V
(residual exciter moment) also changes, which is necessary
to maintain the vibration excursion 1 of the first mass. If the
Figure 6.54Residual exciter moment curve.
exciter frequency corresponds to one of the natural frequen-
cies of the system, the amplitude Mk of the necessary exciter
moment M is zero.
1.0

1. Natural frequency ve1

Mk+1 = Mk + I k 2 uk
(6.81)

0.5
Mk+1
uk+1 = uk
(6.82)
ck+1
Relative crankshaft excursions ux

0
u1 = 1 M1 = 0
(6.83)

1.0
M = Exciter moment
uk = Relative excursion
0.5 2. Natural frequency ve2
I = Mass moment of inertia
c = Spring rigidity
0
= Exciter frequency
1.0
k = Counter for the moments of inertia.
When doing the calculation, the residual exciter moment
0.5
is calculated for the different exciter frequencies that are
3. Natural frequency ve3
necessary to maintain vibration excursion 1 of the first mass,

0
and the residual exciter moment is plotted over the exciter
frequency. The intersections of the residual exciter moment
curve with the abscissa yield the desired natural frequencies
(Figure 6.54).
If the calculation is repeated with the natural frequencies
Reduced system
found in this manner, we obtain the respective modes of
c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7
natural oscillation (sum of the amplitudes of all the moments
of inertia that define the deformational state of the oscillat-
ing system for each frequency). However, only the relative
excursions, that is, the excursions of the individual moments
l1 l2 l3 l4 l5 l6 l7 l8
of inertia in reference to the excursion of the first moment of
inertia (Figure 6.55), are determined.
Figure 6.55Modes of natural oscillation for the three initial natural

frequencies of a six-stroke crank gear with crank wheel and clutch.

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6.2 Rotational Oscillations

We are, therefore, dealing with a problem of intrinsic value


of work cycles per unit time) and their integral multiples.
whose solution is for only one common factor. To determine
They are proportional to the crankshaft speed. All of these
the absolute amplitudes, we need the exciting forces. Another
exciting frequencies can resonate with one of the natural
solution corresponding to the GmbelHolzerTolle method
frequencies (Figure 6.58).
is a matrix calculation, which increasingly succeeds thanks
to computerized analysis. The relationships derived from the
motion equations between the amplitudes of the rotational
40
oscillation excursions and the return torques provide an
20
equation system that can be represented with matrices and
0
solved using a computer.
20
I
j + D j + c j = M(t) . (6.84)

40

1. primary harmonic k = 1

20
6.2.4 Exciter Forces, Work, and Amplitudes
0
The vibration-exciting torsional force (tangential force) is
20
composed of the following:
40

2. primary harmonic k = 2
gas torsional force (Figure 6.56)
40
torsional force of the oscillating inertial forces (the
rotating 20
inertial forces do not participate in the excitation)
(Figure 6.57). 0

20

Amplitude in kN
40

3. primary harmonic k = 3
60
40

20
Gas torsional force FTG in kN

40
0

20
20
40 4. primary harmonic k = 4

40

20
0

20
20

40 5. primary harmonic k = 5
0 100
200 300 400 500 600 700 20

Crankshaft angle f [] 0

20
Figure 6.56Gas torsional force characteristic of a four-stroke
diesel engine.
6. primary harmonic k = 6

20

20
Inertial torsional force FTm in kN

60
0 90 180 270 380 450 540 630 720
40

Figure 6.58Fourier analysis of a tangential force diagram: the tangential


20
force curve is composed of the first six harmonics.

0
The exciter work is the essential determinant in exciting
20
vibration. An exciter force (resulting exciter force amplitude
0 100
200 300 400 500 600 700 from the amplitudes of the gas
and inertial torsional forces

Crankshaft angle f [] for the individual exciter


frequencies) generates a greater

excursion the farther it acts from the oscillating nodes (exciter


Figure 6.57Inertial torsional force characteristic of a four-
stroke

work = exciter force vibration amplitude).


diesel engine.

The phase angle of the exciting forces, that is, their sequence
Since the gas torsional force is a function of the load
(specific over time, is represented
in phase direction diagrams. The
work) and the inertial torsional force is a function of the
square phase direction diagrams of
the individual orders result from
of the rpm, their influence is investigated separately. The gas
the order throw diagram of the 0.5th order (four stroke) and
torsional force cannot be described by a closed function, and
of the first order (two stroke) (Figure 6.59).
is, therefore, subject to a Fourier analysis; this is composed
Taking into consideration the vibration amplitude of the
of a static component (nominal load torque) and a dynamic
individual throws and the phase shift (firing sequence), we
component (a basic vibration and overlapping harmonics). The
get the effective exciter force of the engine.
exciting frequencies are, hence, the basic frequency (number

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

j = ( ux ux+1 ) A1 (6.87)
k = 0.5 k=1 k = 1.5

1 1,6 1,2,3
Md cx A1 ( ux ux+1 )

t= = (6.88)

Wp Wp
4 5

In particular, the gas forces excite vibrations of an order that

are an integral multiple of the number i of ignitions within


2 3 3,4 2,5
a crankshaft rotation.
6 4,5,6
Four-stroke engine: i = z/2 ignitions per crankshaft rotation
1,6 1
1,2,3,4,5,6

Two-stroke engine: i = z ignitions per crankshaft rotation.


5 4

All integral multiples of z/2 (four-stroke engine) or z (two-

stroke engine) are dangerous, since the exciters of all the


3 2
cylinders are aligned for these orders. The critical speeds
2,5 3,4

result from the intersections of the main harmonics with the


6

exciter frequencies. The extent of the danger to the engine at


k=2 k = 2.5 k=3
the individual critical speeds can be found by calculating the

resonance excursions of the crankshaft.


Figure 6.59 Phase direction diagrams up to the sixth order for an
inline
six-cylinder four-stroke-crank gear.

6.2.5 Measures to Reduce Crankshaft Excursions


The relative crankshaft excursions of the individual cylinders
Without damping, the excursions of the crankshaft would
are added geometrically in the direction of the rays of the
become increasingly large until the shaft breaks. In practice,
phase direction diagrams. This shows us that certain orders
however, damping always existsmaterial damping, friction
are particularly dangerous, because their geometric sum
damping, and damping from the lubrication film. However,
becomes very large. The geometric sum is described as the
these are usually insufficient in todays highly stressed crank
specific exciter work, that is, the exciter work of the engine in
gears, so that additional measures must be taken. To avoid
reference to force 1. Depending on the order and phase angle,
hazardous rotational oscillation states, one can
the specific exciter work assumes different values.
influence the exciter work by varying the firing sequence and/or
The amplitudethe absolute excursionof mass 1 is

shift the natural vibration frequency by changing the mass


calculated from the equilibrium of the excitation work and

and spring rigidity.


damping work (per vibration). This allows us to determine
the absolute excursions A of the individual masses of the
The feasibility and effectiveness of these measures is limited,
substitute system:
however. An apparently simple measure is to increase the
z
moment of inertia of the flywheel. This lowers the natural

FTk ux
frequency, but at the same time, the oscillating nodes are
A1 = z
1
(6.85) displaced toward the flywheel, and the shaft load is increased.
we bx ( ux )
2

For these reasons, the only possibility is to reduce the


1
rotational oscillations to a safe level. There are basically two
Ax = ux A1
(6.86) options for this.

Damping: Converts the vibration energy into heat. In the


FTk = Resulting exciter force amplitude from the amplitudes
case of stationary forced vibrations and speed-proportional
of the gas and inertial torsional forces (assumed to be the
damping, there is an equilibrium among the moments of mass
same for all cylinders)
inertia, damping, return force, and excitation. The greater
ux = Relative crankshaft excursions
the damping moment, the smaller the vibration amplitude.
e = Natural frequency
Absorption: That is, extinguishing resonances by detuning
x = #Damping coefficient of the xth cylinder; usually the
the system or, more precisely, shifting the natural frequen-
same damping coefficient is assumed for all cylinders
cies into other speed ranges by counteracting with a mass:
A1 = #A mplitude (absolute excursion) of the first mass of
by coupling an additional mass, the absorber, the system
the system
is given one more degree of freedom. The original natural

frequency splits into two natural frequencies that lie closely
ux = #Geometric sum of the relative crankshaft excursions

above and below the original. If the system is excited in the


Index x = Number of cylinders
original natural frequency, then it remains unexcited while
Index k = Order.
the absorber vibrates. Such absorbers, however, are effective
The relative twist of the masses x and x + 1 from the
only for a single frequency. A pendulum attuned to a specific
rotational oscillation stresses the crankshaft in addition to
vibration frequency and articulated to the oscillating system
static torsional force.
enters a reverse phase when this vibration arises and, hence,

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6.2 Rotational Oscillations

counteracts the exciting moment. The resonance speed is


split and shifted upward or downward. Centrifugal force
Influence of the rotational oscillation damper on
absorbers are speed-dependent.
the rotational oscillations of the crankshaft

Example of a six-cylinder boxer engine


The effect of vibration dampers in passenger vehicle engines
is based on both damping and absorbing. With regards to
Without oscillation damper
spring rigidity, damping behavior, and mass inertia, they
Sum of 3rd to 6th order

Rotation angle
are designed to continuously reduce the rotational oscillation
excursions of the system.
For passenger car engines, rubber vibration dampers are
used: an annular damper mass (secondary part) connected to
the primary-side L-shaped driving disk is elastically coupled
through a vulcanized rubber layer. The vibration energy is
converted by the material damping (hysteresis) of the rubber
2000 4000 6000
into heat. The resonance peak is divided into two resonances
Engine speed [min 1]
whose peaks are reduced by the damping. Depending on the
design, the damper mass is affixed radially and/or axially to

Rotation angle
the primary part. Two-stage dampers are also used in which
With oscillation damper
two damper masses are tuned to two different frequencies [6-14]
Sum of 3rd to 6th order
(Figure 6.60). An example of this is seen with the two-mass
rubber vibration damper for a five-cylinder diesel engine
(2.5L) in which both masses are harmonized to the torsion.

2000 4000 6000

Engine speed [min 1]

Figure 6.61Effect of a rotational oscillation damper.


Figure 6.60Two mass rubber vibration damper (by Palsis) with
vulcanized
strips of rubber, V-belt strip on the primary side, primary
side with shaft
sealing flange made of St24W, secondary side made of EN-GJS-
400-15,
primary mass moment of inertia = 0.008 kg m2, secondary side
0.012 kg m2/220 Hz and 0.006 kg m2/360 Hz, and rubber AEM
(Vamac)
(source: Palsis).

By reducing the rotational oscillation amplitude (Figure


6.61), not only are the crankshaft and camshaft mechanically
relieved, the play-induced noise of the engine and the
excitation
of the accessories to vibrate are reduced [6-15].

Figure 6.62Viscose vibration damper with a decoupled belt pulley


Passenger car engines increasingly require vibration dampers
(torsionally elastic rubber coupling) for inline six-cylinder diesel engines
to deal with large engine dimensions (stroke volume) and
(Palsis). The natural frequencies of passenger car crank gears range from
greater specific work (effective average pressure) because of
300 to 700 Hz for which viscous dampers are increasingly used, like the

ones that have been used for larger engines.


the stronger excitation. These are also used to lower natural
frequencies as a result of greater crank gear masses.

Chatter: The engine excites the transmission primarily with

fourth-to-sixth-order vibrations, so that gears and synchro-


6.2.6 Two-Mass Flywheels
nizer rings that do not lie in the flow of force vibrate against
The drivetrain of a vehicle consists of an engine, a trans-
each other at comparatively large amplitudes.
mission, and the vehicle itself. The vibrations excited by the

In addition, the drivetrain is twisted during load changes


engine are also transmitted to the other components of the

and swings, which is only slightly dampened. These vibrations


drivetrain. Engine-induced vibrations of the transmission

are noticeable; they impair driving comfort, and additionally


are manifested as

put stress on the components. To improve the vibration and


Bucking: The engine excites the system with 0.5th-order
noise behavior of the drive, two-mass flywheels are used:
vibrations, and it vibrates against the vehicle.
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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

Two-mass fly wheel


(mechanical torsion damper)
Starter ring gear

Key Primary Splash plate

Grease plate

Cover Cover plate

plate Secondary

Pressure flywheel

spring Secondary

flywheel

Reinforcement

ring

Rivet

Plain bearing

Eccentric

plate

Shear key

Figure 6.63Two-mass

flywheel (GAT).

the mass of the engine flywheel is divided into a primary


6.3 Variability of Compression and
part rigidly fixed to the crankshaft and a secondary part
articulated to the primary part. The primary and secondary
Swept Volume
parts are connected by torsionally elastic springs. This isolates
the vibration; that is, the operating range is shifted to the
supercritical range of the enlargement function. Since different
6.3.1 Variable Swept Volume

Swept volume is the product from the stroke and the surface
rigidities and damping properties are required to suppress

determined by the bore diameter of the cylinder. It is the


the transmission chatter in the different operating ranges

central value determining the torque and, in conjunction with


(traction, thrust, and idling), the characteristics of the springs

the speed, the output of an engine. In diesel or SI engines for


must be correspondingly engineered. This is accomplished,

passenger cars, the swept volume is mostly between one and


for example, by a series of springs with different rigidities.

three liters, depending on the number of cylinders. In most


With correspondingly adjusted feather key systems, friction

cases, the swept volume per cylinder is somewhere between


provides the desired damping [6-16] (Figure 6.63).

350 and 600 cm3.


The rotational oscillation behavior of the engine drivetrain

Unlike a diesel engine, the drawn air or mixture mass must


changes because of the lower moment of inertia of the primary

be reduced by throttling (quantity control) in a conventional


part of the flywheel (Figure 6.64).

SI engine under partial load. This throttling process generates


With two-mass flywheels, not only is the driving comfort

losses, so that the filling does not match the one that the piston
improved, but the transmission is freed from additional

displacement would theoretically support.


oscillating torque. They are primarily used in passenger car

Of the several methods used to reduce throttling losses


engines with piston displacement 2l, particularly in diesel

in engine operation, the two most important are as follows:


engines [6-16]. Three-mass flywheels are now also being used.

System with two-mass


Conventional system
flywheel

2 104

Engine
acceleration inm s2
AAmplitude of angle
Engine
1 104

Transmission

Transmission

0
1000 2000
3000 1000 2000 3000

Engine speed in min 1 Figure 6.64


Effect of a

two-mass flywheel.

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6.3 Variability of Compression and Swept Volume

variable swept volume


close to full load, the geometrical compression in a charged SI
cylinder shutdown.
engine must be reduced in comparison to a naturally aspirated

engine, causing a further decrease in efficiency at partial load.


Both the methods enable the reduction in load cycle losses,
Figure 6.67 demonstrates the effective compression ratio in
because throttling is decisively reduced for a specified load
point an SI engine in the map.
at reduced swept volume, regardless of the method applied.
When the displacement is decreased, the motor must be
operated at a higher load range to obtain the same specific
work, thus reducing the manifold vacuum pressure and throttle
losses. The effect of reducing the gas exchange cycle results
in less fuel consumption [6-22], [6-23], [6-27].
Because functional reasons prevent the realization of a
bore variability, engineering efforts focus on piston stroke
variability. At a given bore and stroke reduction, this also
changes the stroke-bore ratio that becomes less. This then
results in a change in the surface-volume ratio of the combus-
tion chamber with the familiar influence on HC emissions
[6-24], [6-25], [6-26]. The efficiency and the NO emissions are
also affected [6-25].
Technical solutions for a constant variation of the piston

Figure 6.65Compression ratio and thermal efficiency.


stroke are well known, and represent an optimal solution in
view of a reduction in the gas exchange cycle, because, in
extreme cases, the throttle valve can be fully dispensed with.
Engine Type Limited by
The design considerations in conjunction with variable swept
SI engine (two stroke) 7.510 Autoignition
volumes always start with a modification of the kinematics

SI engine (two valve) 810 Knock and autoignition


of the crankshaft drive. For example, by a lateral shifting of
the crankshaft, the stroke is reduced, as is the swept volume.
SI engine (four valve) 911 Knock and autoignition
Although experiments with variable swept volumes have
SI engine (direct injection) 1114 Knock and autoignition
been made, the technical solutions derived, however, proved
to be very expensive.
Diesel (indirect injection) 1824 Loss in efficiency and

component stress

Diesel (direct injection) 1721 Loss in efficiency and


6.3.2 Variable Compression
component stress
The compression process is one of the four work cycles of a
Figure 6.66Compression ratios.
combustion engine. It ensures that temperature and pressure
are increased in the work medium and the combustion occurs
with higher efficiency. The dependency of the thermal effi-
SI-engine e = 12,5 (geometrical)
ciency from the compression ratio is demonstrated in a model
1,2
process (Figure 6.65).
[kJ/dm3]
High thermal efficiency of the model process suggests a high
1,0

12,5
degree of efficiency of the engine process with the subsequent
minimization of fuel consumption. Figure 6.65, however,
12

0,8
shows that the thermal efficiency increases at a continuously

Specific work

decreasing rate, the higher the compression ratio becomes.


11
The consequences thereof, in respect to the realization of a
0,6 10
variable compression in the engine and the constructive efforts
involved, suggests to increase the compression ratio only to
9

0,4
a certain extent. In the engines shown, a compression ratio

8
between 8:1 and 16:1 has been realized [25].
Figure 6.66 shows the possible ranges of the compression
0,2 7

ratios for common engines.


6

5
In an SI engine, increased throttling causes the effective
0,0
compression ratio to drop at constant geometrical compression.
1000 3000 5000 [rpm] 7000
The result is a lower degree of efficiency. This fact becomes
Engine Speed
even more obvious when a charged SI engine is examined.
In consideration of the increased knocking sensitivity when
Figure 6.67Effective compression ratio in an SI engine.
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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

The variable compression increases the efficiency of an


upward or downward. The rotational movement of a pivotable
SI engine, because its compression ratio is limited due to
crankshaft axis is transmitted to the fixed axis of the gearbox
the gasolines tendency to knock under full load. If the
input. This technically very expensive solution increases the
compression ratio is increased at partial load, the internal
engine mass only marginally [6-17], [6-18], [6-19], [6-20], [6-27].
effectiveness improves considerably. In the area relevant for
An inclination of the cylinder head, designed so that the
the CSV bag analysis, a 10% savings in consumption can be
separation plane between the head and the block is shifted
achieved compared with engines with fixed compression. The
down, that is, the block height is reduced compared with
improvements are even more significant in charged engines
a conventional engine [6-17], [6-21]. This is a very expensive
with variable compression, because an additional gain is
solution as well. Figure 6.68 and Figure 6.69 demonstrate
realized by shifting the operating point in this case. In a given
the pivot mechanism by which the cylinder head can be
case, the compression of a charged engine was increased to
pivoted by up to 4, enabling a change in the compression
a compression ratio of e = 13.5 for a charged engine under
ratio from 8:1 to 14:1.
partial load, while the compression ratio at full load was e =
8. The consumption gain in this case was >20% during CVS
testing at the same driving performance. Supercharging with
up to 100-KW/L displacement can yield up a 30% reduction
in fuel consumption in the New European Driving Cycle [25].
Systems with variable compression have not yet prevailed
in series vehicles, due to the effort and high costs involved.
Amongst others, the following systems have been examined
as examples:
Piston with variable compression height. The disadvantage
here is the large mass of the piston causing high mass forces
at high speeds.
Enlargement or reduction of the combustion chamber by
shifting, for example, a cylinder in the cylinder head. This
concept results in deteriorating combustion conditions due
to a fissured combustion chamber.

Figure 6.68Mechanisms for turning the cylinder head (source: MOT).


Displacement of the crankshaft axis by a parallel crank gear,
See color section page 1066.
for example. An eccentric unit would reposition the crankshaft

14:1 8:1
Figure 6.69Longitudinal section

through the Saab Variable

Compression engine (source: MOT).

See color section page 1066.

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6.3 Variability of Compression and Swept Volume

Another option to design the compression ratio to be variable

is designing the connecting rod with an eccentric wristpin

bearing [6-28], [6-29]. This eccentric bearing in the small

conrod eye (Figure 6.70) enables a length-variable connecting

rod that uses the crank gear forces for the shifting action.

We have a number of options with which to realize a variable

compression. Figure 6.71 demonstrates some other theoreti-

cal possibilities.

Which procedure will ultimately be implemented in series

production cannot yet be finally evaluated at this point in

time. Some essential issues certainly are important for series

production, in addition to a reliable functioning:

package capability (space)

production costs

transferability to other engine models

engine mass.

Figure 6.72 shows an assessment of the advantages and

disadvantages of individual concepts for compression variation.


Figure 6.70 Variable compression ratio conrod (source:
MTZ/Pischinger).
See color section page 1066.

Vertical shift of cylinder Vertical momentary


Piston with adjustable
block combustion chamber
due compression height
to secondary piston
Conrod bearing in eccentric Eccentric crankshaft
Power transmission with
crank pin bearing (VCR
principle) gear-wheel drive

Second movable articulation Second movable


articulation Second movable articulation Figure 6.71Schematic
of a variable
point of the conrod (1) point of the conrod
(2) point of the conrod (2) compression (source: MOT).
See

color section page 1067.

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Chapter 6 Crank Gears

Figure 6.72Comparison of various systems for the variable setting of


compression ratios (source: MTZ/Pischinger).

Bibliography
6-16. Nissen, P.-J., Heidingsfeld, D., and Kranz, A. 2000. Der MTDNeues
6-1. Bauder, A., Krause, W., Mann, M., Pischke, R., and Plzl, H.-W.
1999. Die Dmpfungssystem fr Kfz-Antriebsstrnge. MTZ 61, 6.
Neuen V8-Ottomotoren von Audi mit Fnfventiltechnik. MTZ 60, 1: p. 16.
6-17. Blumenstock, K. U. 2004. Ungenutzte Potenziale. MOT, 14.
6-2. Dorsch, H., Krkemeier, H., Peiters, S., Rutschmann, S., and
Zwickwolf, 6-18. Schwaderlapp, M., Pischinger, S., Yapici, K. I., Habermann,
K.,
P. 1989. Der 3,6-Liter-Doppelzndungsmotor des Porsche Carrera
and Bolling, C. 2001. Variable Verdichtungeine konstruktive Lsung
4. MTZ 50, 2.
fr Downsizing-Konzepte. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und
6-3. Biezeno, C. B. and Grammel, R. 1953. Technische Dynamik, 2.
Motorentechnik.
Nachdruck. Springer: Berlin.
6-19. Guzella, L. and Martin, R. 1998. Das SAVE-Motorkonzept. MTZ 10.
6-4. NN. Kolben fr Pkw- und Nkw-Motoren. Kapitel 1: Grundlagen.
6-20. Fraidl, K. G., Kapus, P., Piock, W., and Wirth, M. 1999. Fahrzeugklas-
Kolbenschmidt: Hsg.
senspezifische Ottomotorenkonzepte. MTZ 10.
6-5. Riedl, C. 1937. Konstruktion und Berechnung moderner Automobil- und
6-21. Bergsten, L. 2001. Saab Variable Compression SVC. MTZ 62, 6.
Kraftradmotoren, 3. Aufl. R.C. Schmidt: Berlin. pp. 224231.

6-22. Schfer, F. and Basshuysen, v. R. 1993. Schadstoffreduzierung und


6-6. Krger, H. 1990. Sechszylindermotoren mit kleinem
Kraftstoffverbrauch von Pkw-Verbrennungsmotoren, Die Verbrennungsk-
V-Winkel. MTZ 51, 10.
raftmaschine, Band 7. Springer Verlag: Wien, New York.
6-7. Krger, H. 1993. Der Massenausgleich des VR6-Motors. MTZ 54, 2.
6-23. Basshuysen, R. and Schfer, F. (Hrsg.). 2006. Lexikon Motorentechnik.
6-8. Kraemer, O. 1476. Kurbelfolge gnstigsten Massenausgleichs 1.
Vieweg Verlag.
Ordnung. ZVDI 81, 51: p. 1476.
6-24. Kreuter, P., Gand, B., and Bick, W. 1989. Beeinflussbarkeit des
6-9. Kraemer, O. 1963. Bau und Berechnung der Verbrennungsmotoren, 4.
Teillastverhaltens von Ottomotoren durch das Verdichtungs-verhltnis bei
Aufl. Springer: Berlin. p. 74.
unterschiedlichen Hub-Bohrungs-Verhltnissen, 2. Aachener Kolloquium

Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik.


6-10. Gumpesberger, M., Landerl, C., Miritsch, J., Mosmller, E.,
Mller, P.,
and Ohrnberger, G. 2006. Der Antrieb der neuen BMW F800. MTZ 67, 6.
6-25. Gand, B. 1986. Einfluss des Hub-Bohrungs-Verhltnisses auf den
Prozessverlauf des Ottomotors, Dissertation. RWTH Aachen.
6-11. Neukirchner, H., Arnold, O., Dittmar, A., and Kiesel, A.
2003. Die Entwicklung von Massenausgleichseinrichtungen fr
6-26. Bick, W. 1990. Einflsse geometrischer Grunddaten auf den
PKW-Motoren. MTZ 64, 5.
Arbeitsprozess des Ottomotors bei verschiedenen Hub-Bohrungs-

Verhltnissen, Dissertation. RWTH Aachen.


6-12. Gruber, G., Prandsttter, M., and Hollnbuchner, R. 2008.
Integriertes
Ausgleichswellensystem des neuen Vierzylinder-Dieselmotors von
6-27. Pischinger, F. 1990. Gedanken ber den Automobilmotor von morgen,
BMW. MTZ 69, 6.
Vortrag VW-AG.
6-13. Lang, O. R. 1966. Triebwerke schnelllaufender Verbrennungsmotoren.
6-28. Pischiner, S., Wittek, K., and Tiemann, C. 2009. Zweistufiges
Springer: Berlin. p. 66.
Verdichtungsverhltnis durch exzentrische Kolbenbolzenlagerung.

MTZ Jahrgang 70.


6-14. Anisits, F., Borgmann, K., Kratochwill, H., and Steinparzer, F.
1998.
Der neue BMW Sechszylinder Dieselmotor. MTZ 59, 11.
6-29. Wittek, K. 2006. Variables Verdichtungsverhltnis beim Verbren-

nungsmotor durch Ausnutzung der im Triebwerk wirksamen Krfte,


6-15. Pilgrim, R. and Gregotsch, K. 1989. Schwingungstechnisch-
Dissertation. RWTH Aachen.
akustische Entwicklung am Sechszylinder-Triebwerk des Porsche Carrera
4. MTZ 50, 3.

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7 Engine Components
7.1 Pistons/Wristpins/
gasoline, and diesel engines), the aluminum silicon alloys are, as
Wristpin Circlips
a rule, the most suitable piston materials. Steel pistons are used

in special cases, but they then require special cooling measures.

In the interest of weight reduction, a carefully worked out


7.1.1 Piston
engineering design for the pistons is necessary, combined with

the requirement for good piston cooling. Important terms


7.1.1.1 Requirements and Functions

and dimensions used to describe the geometry are shown


The functions carried out by the piston include accepting the

in Figure 7.2 and Figure 7.3.


pressures created by the ignition of the fuel and air mixture,

The increase in the engines specific performance is affected


transferring these forces via the wristpin and the connecting

in part by increasing engine speed. The strong rise in the


rod to the crankshaft, and, in addition, providing guidance

mass inertias that results in the reciprocating engine compo-


for the small conrod eye.

nents is largely compensated for by reducing the compression


As a moving wall that, working in conjunction with the

height (CH) and optimizing the weight in the piston engi-


piston rings, transfers power, the piston has to reliably seal

neering design.
the combustion chamber against gas escaping and lubricant

Particularly in smaller, high-speed engines, the total length


oil flowing by in all operating situations. Increases in engine

of the piston (GL), referenced to piston diameter, is shorter


performance have caused parallel increases in the demands

than in larger engines running at medium speeds.


on the pistons.

The compression height CH influences the overall engine


One example for piston loading: when a gasoline engine

height and most decisively the weight of the piston. The


is running at 6000 rpm, every piston (D = 90 mm) at a peak
engineer thus strives to keep this dimension as small as
cylinder pressure of 75 bar, fifty times a second, is subjected

possible. Consequently, the compression height is always


to a load of approximately 5 tons.

a compromise between demands for a short piston and for


Satisfying the various functionssuch as adaptability

high operational reliability.


to various operating situations, security against the pistons

The values given in Figure 7.3 for the head thickness s apply
seizing while at the same time achieving smooth running, low

generally for pistons with a flat and level head, as well as for
weight at sufficient strength, low oil consumption, and low

those with a convex or concave crown. In the case of pistons


pollutant emissionsresults in requirements for engineering

for diesel engines with direct injection, with deep recesses,


and materials that in some cases are contradictory. These

the head thicknesses, depending on the maximum cylinder


criteria have to be weighed carefully against each other for

pressure, lie between 0.16 and 0.23 times the maximum recess
each type of engine. Consequently, the solution that is ideal

diameter (DMu).
in any particular instance may be quite different.

We learn from the guideline values in Figure 7.3, with


Compiled in Figure 7.1 are the operating situations for the

regard to the wristpin diameter BO, that the higher working


pistons, the resultant requirements for their design, and the

pressures in diesel engines require larger wristpin diameters.


requirements in terms of engineering and materials.

The piston ring zone, with the piston rings themselves,


7.1.1.2 Engineering Designs
represents moving seals between the combustion chamber
We find that, given the operational requirements of the various
and the crankcase. The length of this zone depends on the
internal combustion engine designs (two-cycle, four-cycle,
number and thickness of the piston rings used and the lengths

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

Operating Conditions Requirements for the Piston


Engineering Solution Materials Solution
Mechanical loading High static and dynamic
strength at Sufficient wall strength, stable Various AlSi
casting alloys, with
a.Piston head/combustion recess high temperatures.
engineering design, uniform power heat exposure (T5) or hardening by
High surface pressure in
the flow and heat flow. precipitation (T6),
cast or forged
Gasoline engines:
bores in the bosses. Little
plastic Boss bushing, special brass, bronze,
tempered
Ignition pressures 50120 bar
steel
deformation.
Ferrotherm piston heads made
Diesel engines:

from steel or one-piece steel piston


Ignition pressures 80230 bar
b.Piston skirt: Lateral force:
approximately 6%8% of maximum
ignition pressure
c.Piston bosses: Permissible
surface pressure, temperature
dependent
High temperature in combustion Strength must be maintained
even Sufficient thermal convection cross As above
chamber: Mean gas temperature at higher temperatures.
sections, cooling channels
approximately 1000C Indicator values: Hot
hardness,
At piston head/edge of recess: permanent strength, high
thermal
200400C conductivity, resistance to
scale
For ferrous materials: (steel)
approximately 350500C
At the wristpin boss: 150260C
At the piston skirt: 120180C
Acceleration of piston and conrod Low weight, resulting in
small Lightweight construction with AlSi alloy, forged
at higher speeds: In some cases, far inertial forces and moments
of maximum utilization of material
above 25,000 m/s2 inertia
capabilities
Sliding friction in the ring grooves, Low friction resistance, high
wear Sliding surfaces of sufficient size, AlSi alloys,skirt
tinned,
at the skirt, in the wristpin bearings. resistance (influences service
life), uniform pressure distribution.
graphited,coated;groove
Unfavorable lubrication situation in low tendency to seize
Hydrodynamic piston shapes in reinforcement by ring carriers
cast
some cases
the skirt area. Armored grooves, in place

oil supply
Change of contact from one side of Low noise, low piston
slapping Low play when running,elastic skirt Low coefficient
of thermal
the cylinder to the other (above all with engine cold and warm,
little design with an optimized piston expansion.
at top dead center) susceptibility to
cavitation, low shape, offset bores in the bosses Eutectic or
supereutectic AlSi
impact pulses
alloys
Figure 7.1Operating conditions and the resulting demands on the piston
as well as for solutions based on the engineering design and materials selection.

Diesel

Engines

Dmax
Gasoline Engines (Four-
Cycle)

Passenger
F
Two-cycle Four-cycle car
diesel s

ST
Diameter D (mm) 3070 65105 6595
KH DL

Overall length GL/D 0.81.0 0.60.7 0.8


0.95
Compression height 0.40.55 0.300.45 0.5
0.6
GL
CH/D
BO

SL
Wristpin diameter 0.200.25 0.200.26 0.32
0.40
BO/D
UL
AA
Fire landF (mm) 2.53.5 28 415
1. First ring land St/D* 0.0450.06 0.0400.055 0.05
0.09
Groove height for first 1.2 and 1.5 1.01.75 1.75
3.0 F Fire land BO Boss bore-
ring (mm)
s Bottom thickness (bolt-)

ST First ring land SL Skirt length


Skirt length SL/D 0.550.7 0.40.5 0.5
0.65 KH Compression height UL Lower length

DL Strain length AA Boss clearance


Boss clearance AA/D 0.250.35 0.200.35 0.20
0.35 GL Overall length D Piston
diameter

Dmax max. recess diameter


Head thickness s/D 0.0550.07 0.060.10 0.15
0.22
or s/DMu**

Figure 7.3Important terms and dimensions at the piston.


*Values for diesel engines are applicable to pistons with ring carriers,
depending
on peak combustion pressure.
**For direct-injection models ~0.2 combustion recess diameter (DMu).

Figure 7.2Major dimensions for lightweight metal pistons and


passenger cars.

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7.1 Pistons/Wristpins/Wristpin Circlips

Control
Piston Without Regulating Strips

Modern Lightweight
Piston Designs Hydrothermik
Hydrothermatik Al Piston
Pistons
Operating principle Gasoline
Gasoline and diesel Gasoline (two-cycle) Diesel
Gasoline (four-cycle)
Installation play (nominal 0.30.5
0.61.3 0.71.3 0.30.5
dimension range)
Upper end of skirt 0.61.2
1.82.2 1.44.0* 1.82.4 1.7
2.2
*Only for single-ring designs and maximum performance engines
(end of skirt near the fire land).

Figure 7.4Normal installation play dimensions for light-alloy


pistons in vehicular engines (as of nominal diameter; installation in gray cast
engine block).

of the lands between the rings. The compression ring set,


7.1.1.4 Installation and Running Plays
with just a few exceptions, comprises two compression rings
One attempts to keep installation play at the piston skirt
and an oil control ring. The three-ring piston is the standard
as small as possible so that uniformly smooth running is
design today.
achieved in all operating situations. When working with
The length of the first ring land is selected in accordance
light-alloy pistons, this objective can be achieved only with
with the ignition pressure occurring in the engine and the
special engineering efforts. This is because of the high coef-
temperature of the land. The lengths of the lands located below
ficient of thermal expansion for lightweight alloys. In the past,
are shorter, which is because of the falling temperature and
steel strips were often cast in place to influence expansion in
loading because of gas pressure.
response to heat (control piston).
The piston skirt is used to guide the piston within the
Figure 7.4 provides an overview of the amount of play
cylinder. It transfers to the cylinder wall, in sliding
fashion, found at the skirt and fire land for various piston
designs.
the lateral forces occurring because of the deflection of the
The amount of play at the wristpin, inside the wristpin
conrod. With sufficient skirt length and close guidance, the
boss, is important for smooth piston running and low wear at
so-called piston slapping, occurring at the moment when
these bearing points. When determining the minimum play
contact shifts from one side of the piston to the opposite side
(Figure 7.5), it is necessary, in the case of gasoline engines, to
(secondary piston motion), is kept to a minimum. This is
determine whether a floating wristpin is used or whether it is
important for smooth engine running and to reduce wear at
fixed in the small-end eye by shrink fit. The floating wristpin
all the pistons sliding surfaces.
is the standard design and the version that can handle the
The piston bosses must transfer all longitudinal forces
highest loads in the piston bosses. The shrink-fit conrod,
from the piston to the wristpin and must therefore be well
which according to statements by some engine builders is more
supported against the head and the skirt. Sufficient distance
economical, is used only in gasoline engines. The shrink-fit
between the upper face of the boss bore and the inside of the
conrod design is not suitable for modern diesel engines and
piston head favors a more uniform distribution of stresses at
for turbocharged gasoline engines.
the cross section for the support area. At high loads, particu-
larly careful design of the support area is thus required. To
Floating Wristpin Shrink-Fit Wristpin (Fixed Pin)
avoid fissures forming at the bosses, the mean calculated
0.0020.005 0.0060.012
surface pressure in the boss bore (dependent on the boss
Figure 7.5Minimum wristpin play in gasoline engines, in millimeters (not for
and wristpin configuration and particularly dependent on
racing engines).
the boss temperature) should not exceed values of between
55 and 75 N/mm2.
Attaining higher values is possible only by adopting special
7.1.1.5 Piston Masses
measures to increase the strength at the boss bore.
The piston and its accessories (rings, wristpin, and circlips)
The distance between the two bosses AA depends on the
form, with the oscillating share of the conrod, the oscillating
width of the small-end eye. This value has to be optimized
masses. Depending on the engine design, free mass inertias
in the interest of lower deformation values for the piston and
and/or free moments occur; in some cases, these can no longer
wristpin. Only with the smallest possible boss clearances,
ideal be compensated for or may be compensated for only with
support can be achieved and the oscillating masses kept small.
considerable effort. It is because of this phenomenon that,

above all in the case of high-speed engines, the need to achieve


7.1.1.3 Offsetting the Boss Bore
the lowest possible oscillating masses arises. The piston and
Offsetting the axis of the wristpin in relation to the
pistons the wristpin account for the largest share of the
oscillating
longitudinal axis optimizes the contact properties for the
piston masses. Consequently, weight optimization has to start
here.
at the change of sides. The impact pulses can be influenced
Approximately 80% of the piston weight is located between
decisively with this measure. The location and amount of
the center of the wristpin and the upper surface of the head.
offset to the pistons longitudinal axis can be optimized by
The remaining 20% is located between the center of the
calculating for the piston movement. Thus, a reduction of the
wristpin and the end of the skirt. Of the major dimensions
piston running noise and minimization of cavitation hazard
previously discussed, the determination of the compression
at the cylinder liner is achieved.
height obtains decisive significance; with the determination

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

of the compression height, approximately 80% of the piston


weight is predetermined.
301.0

[C]
When dealing with direct-injection gasoline engines, the
290.0
piston head is used to deflect the stream and is shaped accord-
280.0
ingly (see Figure 7.6). The pistons are both taller and heavier.
269.0
The center of gravity shifts upward. In jet-controlled injection
259.0
processes, the heads become more level.
248.0

237.0

227.0

216.0

206.0

195.0

184.0

174.0

163.0

153.0

142.0

Figure 7.8Temperature distribution at a piston for a gasoline engine. See

color section page 1067.

375.0

[C]
Figure 7.6Piston for a gasoline engine with direct injection.
359.0

343.0
The pistons masses GN can best be compared when one
327.0
references them to the comparison volume V D3 (without
311.0
piston rings and the wristpin).
295.0
The mass indices GN/D3 (without rings and the wristpin)
279.0
for proven piston designs are shown in Figure 7.7.
263.0

247.0
Material Operating Principle GN/D3 (g/cm3)
231.0
Aluminum alloys Four-cycle gasoline engines* 0.400.55
215.0
Two-cycle gasoline engines* 0.50.7
199.0
Four-cycle diesel engines 0.801.10
183.0
* Intake manifold injection.
167.0
Figure 7.7Mass indices for passenger car pistons <100-mm diameter.
151.0

135.0

7.1.1.6 Operating Temperatures


Figure 7.9Temperature distribution at a piston with cooling channel for a
An important factor regarding operational reliability, safety,
diesel engine. See color section page 1067.
and service life is the component temperature for both the
pistons and the cylinders. The piston head, exposed to the hot
Severe thermal loading, on the one hand, reduces the
combustion gases, absorbs varying amounts of heat, depend-
durability of the material from which the piston is made.
ing on the operating situation (engine speed and torque).
The critical points in this regard are the zenith of the boss
These volumes of heat, where the pistons are not oil cooled,
and the edge of the recess in direct-injection diesel engines,
are given off to the cylinder wall primarily through the first
and the transitional area between the hub connection point
piston ring and, to a far lesser degree, through the piston skirt.
and the piston head in gasoline engines.
When piston cooling is affected, by contrast, a major part of
On the other hand, the temperatures in the first piston
the heat volume is transferred to the motor oil. Because of the
ring groove are significant with regard to oil carbonization.
material cross sections determined by the engineering, there
Whenever certain limit values are exceeded, the piston rings
heat flows appear which result in characteristic temperature
tend to stick and, as a result, are limited in their functioning.
fields. Figure 7.8 and Figure 7.9 show typical temperature
In addition to the maximum temperatures, the dependency
distributions at pistons for gasoline and diesel engines.
of piston temperatures on engine operating conditions (such

as engine speed, mean pressure, ignition angle, and volume


injected) is of significance. Figure 7.10 shows typical values

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7.1 Pistons/Wristpins/Wristpin Circlips

for gasoline and diesel engines used in passenger cars, in the


come to approximately 5 kg/kWh. A cooling channel cast
area around the first piston ring groove, depending on the
directly at the ring carrier (cooled ring carrier) provides
operation conditions.
ideal effectiveness with regard to groove cooling.

Figure 7.11 shows the typical application ranges for various


Change in
Piston piston designs.
Change in Engine Temperature
at
Engine Conditions Conditions Groove 1
(C)

Operating
Water temperature 48
Principle Loading
Water cooling 10C

No piston cooling Piston with spray Forged piston


50 % antifreeze +5 to 10
cooling with spray
Lubricating oil 10C 13
Gasoline cooling
temperature (without
Low 40 kW/L Medium 65 High 60 kW/L
piston cooling)
kW/L
Injection nozzle in 8 to 15 on
one side Spray cooling Cooling channel Cooled
ring
conrod big end
Passenger piston carrier
Normal injection 10 to 30
car diesel Low 35 kW/l Medium 3560 High >45 kW/l
Piston cooling with nozzle (stationary
kW/l
motor oil nozzle)

Figure 7.11Survey of cooling variants.


Cooling channel 25 to 50
Cooling oil 48 (also at
edge of 7.1.1.8 Piston Designs
temperature 10C recess)
Ongoing piston development has produced many designs,
Mean pressure (n = 0.1 MPa 510 (1520
at edge the most important of which, having proven themselves in
constant) of recess)

practice, are presented here. In addition, new directions for


Engine speed (pe = 100 L/min 24
development are being pursued, for example, pistons for engines
constant)

with an extremely low profile, pistons made of composites


Ignition point, start of 1 kW 1.53.5
injection

with local reinforcing elements, or pistons with a variable

compression height (VKH pistons), which permit variable


Fuel-to-air ratio, Lambda = 0.81.0 Little
influence
lambda
compression ratios.
Figure 7.10Influence of engine operating conditions on the
piston

Modern gasoline engines use lightweight designs with


groove temperatures.
symmetrical or asymmetrical oval skirt shapes and, if indicated,

differing wall thicknesses for the contact side and the opposite
7.1.1.7 Piston Cooling
side. These piston designs are distinguished by optimized
Focused piston cooling becomes increasingly important in
weight and particular flexibility in the center and lower skirt
gasoline engines because of the increased engine output
areas. It is for the reasons mentioned here that the control
and charging.
piston is becoming less and less common. Older designs are

also discussed briefly in the interest of completeness.


7.1.1.7.1 Spray Cooling
One version often found is a nozzle located at the lower end
7.1.1.8.1 Pistons with strip inserts to regulate thermal
of the cylinder, through which motor oil is sprayed onto the
expansion, for installation gray cast iron engine blocks
inside contours of the piston. The cooling effect is dependent
The primary objective in regulating piston design, and for
upon the volume of cooling oil and the surface area available
many inventions in this sector, was and is the effort to reduce
for heat transfer. In this way, temperature reductions of up
the relatively large differences in the coefficients of thermal
to 30C can be attained at the first groove and the boss. A
expansion between gray cast engine blocks and aluminum
simpler version is a bore through the big-end eye, which is
pistons. Known solutions range from Invar strip pistons to
provided with oil from the conrod bearing lubrication system.
the Hydrothermik or Hydrothermatik pistons.
In addition to a lesser cooling effect, the part of the stream
of
oil that meets the cylinder running surfaces provides better
7.1.1.8.2 Hydrothermik piston
lubrication, which, in turn, offers greater security against
Hydrothermik pistons (Figure 7.12) are designs with a skirt
fuel friction.
profile formed in accordance with hydrodynamic aspects.
They are installed in gasoline engines for passenger cars.
7.1.1.7.2 Pistons with Cooling Oil Cavities
The pistons are slotted at the transition from the piston head
A more complex but more effective option for piston cooling
to the skirt, at the level of the third groove. These pistons
is to provide cavities in those areas at the piston head and
are characterized by particularly smooth running and long
the ring grooves that are subjected to severe thermal loading.
service lives. The strips cast in place between the skirt and the
An annular cooling channel is supplied with oil, through a
wristpin bosses, made of non-alloyed steel, in conjunction with
feed opening, by a spray nozzle; after taking on heat (T up
the lightweight metal that surrounds them, form regulation
to approximately 40C), the oil passes through a discharge
elements that reduce the thermal expansion of the skirt in the
opening on the opposite side of the piston and returns to the
direction that is important for guidance within the cylinder.
oil sump. The recommended specific masses for cooling oil

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

In the Hydrothermatik piston, the transition from the head

area to the skirt is not slotted; the transitional cross sections are

dimensioned so that, on the one hand, the flow of heat from

the piston head to the skirt remains relatively unhindered,

while, on the other hand, the effect of the steel strips, because

of the connection of the skirt with the rigid head section, is

not affected in any essential way.

Thus, this piston design joins the high strength of the

non-slotted piston with the advantages of the design using

regulation strips. The Hydrothermatik piston is also suitable

for use on naturally aspirated diesel engines.

7.1.1.8.4 Asymdukt piston

This modern piston design is distinguished by very low weight,

optimized support, and a boxlike, oval-shaped skirt section.

It is outstandingly suited for use in modern gasoline engines

for passenger cars. It is suitable for both aluminum engine

blocks and gray cast engine blocks. With the flexible skirt
Figure 7.12Hydrothermik piston.
design, the differences in thermal expansion between the

gray cast block and the aluminum pistons can be excellently


7.1.1.8.3 Hydrothermatik piston
compensated for within the elastic range. The pistons may
Hydrothermatik pistons (Figure 7.13) operate on the same
be either cast or forged. The forged version is used above
expansion regulation principle as the Hydrothermik pistons.
all in high-performance sport engines or in heavily loaded,

turbocharged gasoline engines.

7.1.1.8.5 Evotec piston

The Asymduct piston is further developed for weight optimi-


zation under the name Evotec piston, which is characterized

by a significant advantage in the oscillating masses without

compromising the load-handling capabilities.

7.1.1.8.6 Piston for race cars

These are always special designs (Figure 7.15). The compression

height (KH in the illustrations) is very short, and the piston

as a whole is superbly optimized for weight.

Only forged pistons are used here. Weight optimization

and piston cooling are decisive criteria for the design of

these pistons. In Formula 1 engines, specific output of more

than 200 kW/L and engine speeds exceeding 18,000 rpm are

common. The service life of the pistons is matched to the

extreme operating conditions.

7.1.1.8.7 Pistons for two-cycle engines

In the two-cycle piston (Figure 7.16), the thermal loading is

particularly high because of the more frequent exposure to heat;

there is one ignition event for each rotation of the crankshaft.


Figure 7.13Hydrothermatik piston.

Figure 7.14Asymduct and

Evotec pistons.

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7.1 Pistons/Wristpins/Wristpin Circlips

In addition, it has to close or open the inlet and outlet


channels
in the cylinder during its upward and downward strokes.
This means that it has to control the exchange of gases. The
result is severe thermal and mechanical loading.

Figure 7.17Ring carrier piston with boss bushings made from special brass.

The ring carrier material is made of a non-magnetic cast

iron with a coefficient of thermal expansion similar to the

material used for the piston itself. This material is particularly

resistant to friction and impact wear. The groove that is most


Figure 7.15Forged Formula 1 piston.

seriously endangered and the piston ring seated in it are

effectively protected in this way against excessive wear. This is

particularly advantageous where high operating temperatures

and pressures are encountered, such as those found in diesel

engines in particular.

7.1.1.8.9 Cooled pistons

There are various types of cooling channels and cooling

spaces to achieve particularly effective heat dissipation in

the area near the combustion chamber and to combat the

elevated temperatures resulting from performance increases.

The cooling oil is generally delivered through fixed nozzles

mounted in the crankcase.

In the cooling channel piston (Figure 7.18), the ring-shaped

cavities are created by inserting salt cores during casting.


These cores are dissolved and removed with water introduced

at very high pressure.

Figure 7.16Piston and cylinder for a two-cycle engine.

Two-cycle pistons are equipped with one or two piston


rings and, with regard to their outward design, can vary from
the open windowed piston to the full skirt piston version.
This depends on the design of the overflow channels (long
or short channels).
In this case, the pistons are normally manufactured from
the MAHLE 138 supereutectic AlSi alloy.

7.1.1.8.8 Ring carrier piston


In the case of ring carrier pistons (Figure 7.17), introduced
to
mass production as early as 1931, the topmost ring groove
and, in some cases, the second ring groove lie in a so-called
ring carrier or groove insert that is joined permanently with
the piston material by a metallic bond.
Figure 7.18Cooling channel piston with ring carrier for a passenger car

diesel engine.

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

7.1.1.8.10 Piston with cooled ring carrier


Another cooled piston variant is the piston with a cooled ring
carrier (Figure 7.19). The cooled ring carrier permits much
improved cooling of the first ring groove and the edge of the
combustion recess, which is subjected to extreme thermal
loading. The intensive cooling of the first ring groove makes
it possible to use a rectangular ring instead of the double
trapezoid ring normally employed.

Figure 7.20Ferrotherm piston.

With this design, the Ferrotherm piston offers not only


Figure 7.19Passenger car piston with cooled ring carrier.
greater strength and temperature resistance but also low

wear values.

Its constant, low oil consumption, its small dead space, and
7.1.1.8.11 Piston with bushing in the boss bore
its relatively high surface temperature offer good prerequisites
One of the most heavily loaded areas of the piston is the
for complying with low exhaust emission limit values.
wristpin bearing area. There the piston material is subjected to
thermal loads of up to 240C, and thus enters the temperature
7.1.1.8.13 Monotherm piston
range in which the strength of the aluminum alloys declines.
The Monotherm piston 4 (Figure 7.21) grew out of development
When dealing with extremely heavily loaded pistons,
work for the Ferrotherm piston. This new design is a one-piece
measures such as shaped bores, relief pockets, and oval boss
piston made of forged steel and highly optimized for weight.
bores are no longer sufficient to increase the load-carrying
capacities of the boss. That is why reinforcing was developed
for boss bores into which shrink-fit bushings made of a higher
strength material (e.g., CuZn31Si1) are inserted.

7.1.1.8.12 Ferrotherm piston


In the Ferrotherm piston (Figure 7.20), the guidance and sealing
functions are separated one from another. The two sections,
that is, the piston head and the piston skirt, are joined one
with another in a movable fashion by the wristpin.
The piston head, made of forged steel, transfers the ignition
pressure through the wristpin and the conrod to the crankshaft.
The lightweight aluminum skirt handles only the lateral
forces that are created by the angular positions of the conrod
and, being of the appropriate shape, guarantees the oil cooling
necessary for the piston head. In addition to this shaker
cooling via the skirt, enclosed cooling cavities can also be
integrated into the piston head. For this purpose, the outer
cooling cavity for the steel piston head is closed off with split
tabs made of spring steel (Figure 7.20).

Figure 7.21Monotherm piston for utility vehicle engines.

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7.1 Pistons/Wristpins/Wristpin Circlips

At smaller compression heights and with machining above


are normally used as the feedstock material. Reforming results
the clearance for the eye (on the inside), the piston weight,
with in much higher and much more uniform strength values than
the wristpin, can almost match the weight of a comparable
those can be achieved with casting. A further option is found
aluminum piston with its wristpin. In the interest of improving
in using semi-finished products made of blast-compacted
piston cooling, the external cooling cavity is closed with two
materials or those made up in a powder metallurgical process.
halves of a spring steel plate. The Monotherm piston is used
This process technology makes it possible to employ extremely
primarily for utility vehicle engines subjected to heavy
loading. heat-resistant materials for high-performance (racing)
pistons,

which could not be manufactured with hot metal technology.


7.1.1.9 Piston Manufacture
The latest in casting and machining equipment, in conjunction
7.1.1.9 Liquid Pressing (Liquostatik, Squeeze Casting)
with an integrated quality management system, guarantees
Squeeze casting differs from gravity die casting by the pressure
maximum quality across the entire product range.
applied to the molten material (up to and beyond 100 MPa),

which is maintained until the casting has fully solidified.


7.1.1.9.1 Die casting
The extremely good contact of the molten material with the
Pistons made of aluminum alloys are manufactured, in the
mold walls as it solidifies makes for very fast solidification.
main, using the gravity die-casting process. The molds, made
In this way, a very fine structure, advantageous in terms of
of ferrous materials, cause quick solidification of the molten
material strength, is created.
metal; a fine-grained structure with good strength proper-
Squeeze casting makes it possible to manufacture pistons
ties is formed at short casting cycle times. Optimized mold
that are reinforced locally with ceramic fibers or porous
casting, in conjunction with carefully designed riser and
metallic materials at the piston head or in the areas around
gating technology, is necessary to achieve the most error-
the ring grooves or bosses. These cast-in-place components
free and dense casting possible. Graduated solidification
are penetrated completely by the piston alloy owing to the
aligning with the differences in wall thickness from the thin
pressure applied to the molten metal.
skirt to the thick piston head as mandated by the design lead
to optimzation. Multi-part casting forms and casting cores
7.1.1.9.6 Tempering
provide great latitude in laying out the piston geometry so
Lightweight alloy pistons, depending on their alloy and the
that even undercuts inside the piston, for example, can be
manufacturing process used, are subjected to single-stage
realized. To increase wear resistance at the ring grooves, ring
or multi-stage heat treatment. In this way, the hardness and
carriers made of austenitic cast iron with intermetallic
bonding strength of most alloys can be increased. In addition, the
(Alfin bonding) can be cast in place with as little trouble as
remaining changes in volume (growing) and the dimensional
for expansion-regulating steel struts or other engineering
changes that would otherwise occur under the influence of
elements. By casting around cores made of compressed salt,
operating temperature are pre-empted.
which are then dissolved and removed with water, hollow
cavities can be formed for piston cooling purposes. To do
justice 7.1.1.9.7 Machining
to high demands for quality and economy, multi-cavity molds
Leading piston manufacturers themselves develop manufactur-
and casting robots are used in mass-production operations.
ing concepts and special equipment for machining pistons.

The distinguishing features are found in


7.1.1.9.2 Centrifugal casting
complex shapes at the exterior of the pistons and close
The centrifugal casting process is used to manufacture the
tolerances in piston diameter
ring carriers used to reinforce the piston ring grooves. Tubes

complex piston head shapes (round, oval, or special shapes)


made of austenitic cast iron with flaked graphite are cast in

and close boss bore tolerances


rotating molds, and the ring carrier rings are then made up
from the tubes.
high surface quality and geometry in rectangular and

trapezoidal grooves in aluminum piston alloys as well as


7.1.1.9.3 Extrusion casting
in ring carriers made of Niresist
This process is known for use with wrought alloysprimar-
close compression height tolerances.
ily for bars, ingots, and blocks. MAHLE has further refined

Thus, complex exterior piston shapes are machined on


this process, in which the extrusion is cooled with water

user-programmable shaping lathes whose Computerized


immediately after leaving the mold so that it can be used

Numerical Control (CNC) guarantee great flexibility and


with standard piston alloys. The high solidification speed

high quality. Irregular piston shapes that may, for example,


has beneficial effects on the internal structure.

be discovered empirically in engine test series can be easily


The extrusions are cast in various diameters and serve as

manufactured in volume.
the feedstock material for forged pistons or piston components.
The same applies to the machining of the boss bore. Using
7.1.1.9.4 Forging (pressing)
a precision drill press, which is also user programmable,
Forging or warm flow pressing is used to manufacture pistons
differing boss bore shapes are possible along the direction of
and piston skirts (assembled pistons) from aluminum alloys for
the boss bore axis and at the circumference of the boss bore.
engines subject to heavy loading. Sections of extrusion
castings

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Machining the piston grooves in the ferrous material making


7.1.1.10.2 Increased wear protection
up ring carrier type pistons places particularly high demands
FERROSTAN pistons are paired with non-coated SILUMAL
on machinery capabilities.
cylinders or other non-coated, AlSi-based cylinder materials.

The skirts of FERROSTAN pistons are iron-plated to a thick-


7.1.1.10 Protection of Running Surfaces/Surface Protection
ness of 6 m and hardness of 350600 HV. The iron layer is
The materials that have been highly developed to date, and
galvanically precipitated out, to precise dimensions, from
the precision machining processes used for pistons, ensure
special electrolytes. To conserve and improve slip properties,
high wear resistance and good running properties. In spite of
the iron-plated piston is finished with an additional layer of tin,
applying protective coatings to the piston skirt, offering special
1-m thick. Something new in technology is the application of
emergency running properties is advantageous for the break-in
layers, containing iron particles, using a screen-printing process.
phase and unfavorable dry-running operating conditions
Known as FERROPRINT layers, they have been successfully
following frequent cold start attempts, temporary loading,
introduced into mass production.
and insufficient lubrication. Under certain circumstances,
Owing to increased thermal and mechanical loads, wear
wear protection finishes may be required in the groove area.
and fretting effects are more frequently seen along the
Severe thermal loading at the piston head must be counteracted
flanks of the first groove in gasoline engine pistons. Hard
with additional local protective measures. The coatings and
anodizing for the endangered area has been introduced in
finishes described below have proven their suitability for the
volume production as an effective countermeasure. When
various tasks in many applications.
hard anodizing aluminum alloys, a zone near the surface of
With the use of automated machinery engineered, especially
the aluminum substrate is transformed by electrolytic means
for surface treatment, pistons may be finished by
into aluminum oxide. The layer created here is ceramic in
tin plating the entire piston surface
nature, with a hardness of approximately 400 HV. In this
applying phosphate and graphite (spray process)
application, a layer of approximately 15-m thick is specified,
applying graphite (screen printing) with and without
and the process parameters are optimized so that the layer
phosphate
roughness is relatively moderate, eliminating the need for

subsequent machining of the groove flanks.


a. piston skirt
b. piston shaft and ring section
7.1.1.10.3 Thermal protection
partial iron plating of the piston skirt (in conjunction with
Pistons for diesel engines are subjected to severe tempera-
cylinder running surfaces made of aluminum)
ture fluctuation stresses in the area at the top and in the
hard anodized finishing
combustion recess. The result may be fissures resulting from

temperature fluctuation.
a. first groove

A hard oxide layer at the top of the aluminum piston, shown


b. piston head (complete or partial).
in Figure 7.22, typically approximately 80-m thick, improves

resistance to the effects of temperature fluctuation, and thus


7.1.1.10.1 Improving slip properties
prevents fissuring at the edge of the recess and/or in the top.
A thin plating of tin, which is applied by a chemical process to
Cutouts along the direction of the wristpin make sense to avoid
the lightweight metal piston, protects against seizing during
notch effects in the area where maximum tensile strain occurs.
cold starts and during break-in at unfavorable lubrication
conditions. The layer is approximately 1- m thick.
Where there are narrow installation tolerances and very
high requirements for protection against seizure, the GRAFAL
running surface is used. This finish comprises a graphite-
filled synthetic resin that adheres permanently to the piston
running surface. This layer is generally 20- m thick. Pistons
for passenger car engines are typically finished with the
GRAFAL 255 version, applied in a screen-printing process,
while the sprayed GRAFAL 240 or the screen-printed GRAFAL
255 version is used on pistons for utility vehicle engines and
industrial engines.
In aluminum pistons, the pairing of the wristpin and the
boss is normally not critical in terms of sliding processes,
and they require no special coatings assuming the correct
shapes and tolerances. In steel pistons, on the other hand,
special protective measures are required. As an alternate
to boss bushings, a slip phosphate coating becomes more
important here.

Figure 7.22Hard anodized piston head.

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7.1 Pistons/Wristpins/Wristpin Circlips

7.1.1.11 Piston Materials

MAHLE MAHLE MAHLE

Designation 124 138 142


7.1.1.11.1 Aluminum alloys

20C 80000 84000 84000


Pure aluminum is too soft and too susceptible to wear for use

Youngs modulus 150C 77000 80000 79000


in pistons and for many other purposes. That is why alloys

E (N/mm2) 250C 72000 75000 75000


have been developed that are matched particularly to the

350C 65000 71000 70000


requirements found in piston engineering. They combine,

20C 155 143 130


at low specific weight, good heat strength properties with
Thermal conduction

150C 156 147 136


a low tendency to wear, high thermal conductivity and, in
coefficient

250C 159 150 142


most cases, a low coefficient of thermal expansion as well.
(W/mk)

350C 164 156 146


Two groups of alloys have come into being, depending on

20 20 18.6 19.2
the primary additive silicon or copper.
100C 21 19.5 20.5
Aluminumsilicon alloys:
20

Mean, linear thermal 21.9 20.2 21.1


Eutectic alloys contain from 11% to 13% silicon and smaller
200C

expansion 22.8 20.8 21.8


amounts of Cu, Mg, Ni, and the like. Included in this group
20

(1/k 106)

300C
of piston alloys, the ones used most frequently in engine

20
construction, is MAHLE 124, which is also used for
cylinders. 400C
For many applications, they offer an ideal combination of
Density (g/cm3) 20C 2.70 2.68 2.77
mechanical, physical, and technological properties. The

Figure 7.23Physical properties of MAHLE aluminum piston alloys.


MAHLE 142 alloy, with a greater proportion of copper and
nickel, was developed for use particularly at high tempera-
Aluminumcopper alloys: To a lesser extent, alloys contain-
tures. It is distinguished by better thermal stability and
ing copper but almost no silicon and just a small amount of
considerably improved strength when heated. A further step
nickel as an additive are used for their good heat strength. In
in this direction is the nearly eutectic MAHLE 147+ alloy.
comparison with the AlSi alloys, they exhibit greater thermal
Supereutectic alloys contain from 15% to 25% of silicon
expansion and less wear resistance. While the AlSi alloys
and use copper, magnesium, and nickel as additives to
can be both cast and reformed when warm, the AlCu alloys
deal with high temperatures; examples include MAHLE
are more suitable for warm reforming.
138 and MAHLE 145. They are used for pistons wherever
a need for reduced thermal expansion and greater wear
7.1.1.11.2 Lightweight alloy bonded materials
resistance is in the forefront. The MAHLE 147 (SILUMAL)
The introduction of bonded materials technology opened a
alloy is used for cylinders and/or engine blocks without
number of different options for significantly increasing the
any special treatment for the running surfaces.
load-bearing capacities of lightweight metal pistons. Here

reinforcement elements such as ceramics, carbon fibers, or


Figure 7.23 and Figure 7.24 show characteristic values for

porous metallic materials are arranged in closely defined


the materials.

Strength values are applicable to test


bars made up separately.
Designation MAHLE124 G
MAHLE 124 P MAHLE 138 G MAHLE 142
20C 200250
300370 180220 200280
Tensile strength 150C 180230
250300 170210 180240
Rm (N/mm2) 250C 100150
110170 100140 100160
350C 4065
4070 6080 5070
20C 190230
280340 170200 190250
Elongation limit 150C 180220
230280 150190 180220
Rp0.2 (N/mm2) 250C 70110
90120 80120 80120
350C 2030
1030 2040 4060
20C 0.11.5
13 0.21.0 0.10.5
Ductile yield 150C 1.01.5
2.54.5 0.31.2 0.21.0
A (%) 300C 24
810 1.02.2 13.5
400C 915
3135 57 513
20C 80120
110140 80110 90130
Fatigue strength at
150C 70110
90120 6090 70110
reversed bending
250C 5070
6070 4060 5070
sbw (N/mm2)
350C 1530
1525 1530 3050
Relative wear index 1
0.9 0.95

Figure 7.24Mechanical properties


Brinell hardness HB 2.5/62.5 90130
100150 of MAHLE aluminum piston alloys.

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

positions in regions of the piston that are subject to particu-


The essential aspects for the design of the wristpin are
larly high loading. The bonded material is manufactured by
sufficient wristpin strength (operating safety)
infiltrating the reinforcing elements with lightweight metals

reverse effect on piston loading


such as aluminum or magnesium using the squeeze casting
process. High price and unfavorable creep properties are the
weight (mass inertia)
primary reasons that magnesium is not yet used in large-
surface quality and dimensional accuracy (running properties)
scale production.
surface hardness (wear).
Among the many options available, reinforcing aluminum

Today, the wristpin is usually dimensioned with the aid of


pistons with short ceramic fibers made of aluminum oxide is

three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element (FE) calculations, in


the one most widely adopted for series production. Following

some cases taking into account the shape of the lubricating oil
a washing process to remove components that are not fiber

film (pressure distribution) in the boss and the conrod. Solid


shaped, the fibers are processed to create mold components

knowledge in the dynamic behavior of the material is required


that can be cast (preforms) with fiber content of between 10%

to evaluate a materials dynamic properties. Guideline values


and 20% by volume. In this way, considerable improvements

for selecting the wristpin diameter for the various application


in strength can be achieved at the edge of the recess in direct-

ranges can be found in Figure 7.25.


injection diesel pistons, for instance.
A reinforcing element made of porous sintered steel with
7.1.2.4 Materials
uniform porosity from 30% to 50% was developed for ring
The materials that are used primarily today are 17Cr3 and
grooves. The Porostatik material offers favorable wear properties
16MnCr5 case-hardened steels. Nitrated steel alloy 31CrMoV9
and a sure bond with the surrounding aluminum material.
can be used where higher loading is anticipated. Figure 7.26
It is suitable, for example, for reinforcing ring grooves that
shows characterizing values for the materials used in wristpins.
are at an extremely high location, leaving hardly any room
Wristpins for racing use are manufactured in an electro-slag
to cast around on the side toward the piston head.
remelting process (Elektro-Schlacke-Umschmelzverfahren) to

ensure a higher degree of purity in the material.


7.1.2 Wristpins
7.1.2.1 Function

7.1.3 Wristpin Circlips

Because the wristpin is not held in the connecting rod by


The wristpin makes the connection between the piston and

shrink fit, it has to be secured against wandering laterally from


the connecting rod. It is subjected to the extreme, alternating

the holes in the boss and making contact with the cylinder
loads exerted by the pressure of the exploding gas and the

wall. Used almost exclusively for this purpose, inside circlips


mass inertias. Because of the small relative motions (rotary

(made of spring steel) are installed in grooves at the outer


motions) between the piston and the wristpin and between the

edge of the boss holes (see Figure 7.27).


wristpin and the conrod, the lubrication situation is unfavorable.

7.1.2.2 Designs
The wristpin with cylindrical inside and outside contours
has been successful in most applications. To reduce weight
and, with it, the mass inertias, the outer ends of the wristpins
inside bore may be conical because the load is less there.
Wristpins in passenger car gasoline engines are often held
in the conrod with a tension because of shrinkage (shrink-fit
wristpin and clamp-type wristpin). In more heavily loaded
gasoline and diesel engines, the wristpin floats in the conrod.
It is secured with circlips to keep it from wandering laterally
and out of the piston (see Section 7.1.3).

7.1.2.3 Requirements and Dimensioning


Under the influence of the forces described above, loading on
the wristpins is very complex and is influenced, in addition,
by the deformation of the piston and wristpin.
Figure 7.27 Wristpin circlips.

Ratio of Wristpin
Outside Ratio of Wristpin Outside
Diameter to Piston
Diameter to Wristpin
Application Diameter
Inside Diameter
Small two-cycle engines 0.200.25
0.600.75
Gasoline engines
Passenger cars 0.200.26
0.550.70

Figure 7.25Wristpin dimensions


Diesel engines Passenger cars 0.320.40
0.480.52 (guideline values).

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7.2 Connecting Rod

L (17Cr3) M (16MnCr5) N (31CrMoV9)


Material Class
Tool Steel Tool Steel Nitriding Steel
C
0.120.20 0.140.19 0.260.34
Si
0.150.40 0.150.40 0.150.35
Mn
0.400.70 1.001.30 0.400.70
Chemical composition in P
maximal 0.035 maximal 0.035 maximal 0.025
wt. % S
maximal 0.035 maximal 0.035 maximal 0.25
Cr
0.400.90 0.801.10 2.32.7
Mo
0.150.25
V
0.100.20
Surface hardness HRC
5965 5965 5965

(vol. const. 5765)


Core strength in N/mm2
From 700 to 1500, From 850 to 1350, 10001400

depending on wall thickness depending on wall thickness


Mean linear thermal expansion 1/K 106 20200C
12.8 12.7 13.1
Heat conductivity index 20C
51.9 50.0 46.4
(W/m K) 200C
48.2 48.7 45.5
Youngs modulus (N/mm2)
210,000 210,000 210,000
Density (kg/dm3)
7.85 7.85 7.85
Use
Standard material for For heavily loaded wristpins For heavily loaded
wristpins

wristpins (special cases)


Figure 7.26Wristpin steels DIN 73 126.

Where the wristpin diameters are small, wound rings made


7.2.1 Connecting Rod Design
from round wire are normally used.
The connecting rod has two so-called conrod ends [7-7].
In engines that run at slower speeds, the ends of the snap
It is at the small conrod eye that the connection to the
rings may be bent inward to form a hook-like shape to
facilitate piston is made by the wristpin. Because of the lateral
deflec-
installation. Such rings, when made up for racing use, are
tion of the connecting rod as the crankshaft turns, the rod
often bent outward at one end to keep them from rotating.
end has to be attached to the piston in a way that allows it to
If, in isolated cases, greater axial thrust is encountered in
the rotate. This is done with the help of a sliding bearing. For
this
wristpins, outside circlips may also be used. These circlips
purpose, a bearing bushing is pressed into the small conrod
are mounted in grooves at the ends of the wristpins.
eye during assembly (Figure 7.28). Alternately, the bearing

may be integrated into the piston. In this case, the wristpin

is held in the small connecting rod eye with shrink fit.


7.2 Connecting Rod
The split, large connecting rod eye is located at the crankshaft

end of the rod. Proper functioning is ensured with a sliding


The power system for reciprocating internal combustion
bearing (rolling bearings are used less often) and by fixing
engines uses a crank drive in which the connector rod end
and screwing down the conrod bearing cap.
or the connecting rod joins the piston with the crankshaft.
The conrod shaft joins the two connecting rod eyes. This
The connecting rod converts the reciprocating movement of
section may have a special cross section, depending on the
the piston into rotary motion. Moreover, the connecting rod
requirements at hand, for example, I-shaped or H-shaped.
transfers forces from the piston to the crankshaft. A further
The connecting rod has to ensure sufficient slip in the
function of the connecting rod is to accept channels used to
bearings at both the small and the large ends.
supply lubricating oil to the piston bushing in cases where
Grooves may be machined in the ends to improve lubrica-
the wristpin is of a floating design.
tion at the large end and/or to lubricate the cylinder and the
The weight and design of the connecting rod have a direct
wristpin; these grooves facilitate lubricant feed.
influence on the power-to-weight ratio, power output, and
The wristpin bearing may be lubricated by means of a hole
smooth engine operation. This is why connecting rods that
along the longitudinal axis of the shaft, through which oil
have been optimized in terms of weight are gaining more
is fed from the large end. This channel interferes with the
importance in terms of engine running quality.
structural relationships within high-performance conrod
Corresponding to the inverted attitude of the connecting
bearings. That is why, as an alternative to a longitudinal
rod in the early engines, those built in the nineteenth
century, channel through the shaft, one or more holes may be
drilled
the lower section (at the piston) is sometimes referred to as
at the small end in the surface facing the piston (Figure 7.28).
the conrod foot, while the upper end (at the crankshaft) is
This solution is more economical.
called the connecting rod head.

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

are influenced by the masses of the piston, the wristpin, and


4 24
the conrod.
1
2

A
23
22
17
5
8
1 Small conrod eye 9
2 Conrod bushing
3 Wristpin bore
4 Oil bore 25
5 Conrod length
6 Support surface
7 Skirt
l

l cosb
8 Shoulder 6
9 Sprayed oil bore
b
10 Boss 20

r+l
11 Bolt
12 Conrod nut 16
(not provided)
13 Conrod end 26
14 Conrod bearing shells
15 Balancing mass 14

l sinb
16 Pin bore
17 Conrod width
18 Screw head
19
contact surface
19 Separation plane 21
20 Retaining nose
13
21 Conrod thickness
10
r cosa
22 Rib thickness
23 Wall thickness
a
24 Front face
11 r
18 15
25 Groove in front face
26 Large conrod eye

24
r sina

Figure 7.28Geometry and designations for a connecting rod with straight


split (source: Federal Mogul).

7.2.2 Loading
Figure 7.29Kinematics for the crank drive.
The connecting rod is subject to a load exerted by the gas forces
inside the cylinder and the inertia of the moving masses. Figure
To simplify the determination of the resulting forces, the
7.29 shows the kinematic relationships in the crankshaft drive.
mass of the conrod is divided into rotating and reciprocating
The lateral deflection in the conrod oscillation plane gener-
portions, assuming that the overall mass and the center of
ates centrifugal forces leading to bending that, however, can
gravity for the conrod are retained unchanged. The masses
be neglected in the first approximation.
concentrated in the large eye are assigned exclusively to
The acceleratedly decelerated motion of the masses in the
rotational movement; those concentrated in the small eye
conrod and piston causes tensile strain in the shaft and at the
are assigned to reciprocating motion.
transition from the shaft to the large eye. Thus, the conrod
To determine the various shares of the overall mass, it is first
is subjected to alternating tensile and compressive forces; in
necessary to find the center of gravity (SP in the equation) for
diesel and turbocharged gasoline engines, the magnitude of
the conrod. The share of mass for the small eye results from
the compressive force exceeds that of the tensile force. For this
SP
reason, resistance to buckling has to be examined carefully
mPl, small eye = mPl, total (7.1)

l
when engineering the conrod.
The tensile forces are also decisive in todays high-speed
with l as the distance between the centers of the conrod eyes,
gasoline engines.
which is defined as the conrod length. The difference between
The inertial forces generated during accelerated and decel-
this and overall weight gives the share of mass for the large
erated motion within a reciprocating engines working cycle
eye [7-6].

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7.2 Connecting Rod

The reciprocating masses for the conrod (and the piston


b. guidance by small pins next to the bolts or the bushings
with the wristpin and piston rings) influence, by the inertial
that surround the bolts (Figure 7.31)
forces they generate, the loading and the smooth running of
c. milling toothed ridges into the parting plane
the engine. These reciprocating forces can be fully compen-

d. guidance by the separation surface at split (cracking)


sated for only by providing additional compensating shafts.

(Figure 7.32).
Thus, it is necessary to reduce the conrod mass and/or the
conrods share of reciprocating mass. This can be done by
If pins, bushings, or fracture-split conrods are used, one
optimizing the shape of the conrod shaft and, for example,
may do without body-fit bolts. In this case, the structure at
by using a trapezoidal design for the small eye.
the parting surface or the pins and bushings offer sufficient
The true movement situation for a particle of mass in a
conrod resistance to relative motion between the upper and lower
and thus the force effects are far more complex than what is
halves (see Section 7.22.3.3).
reflected in the breakdown described above, this being only
an approximation. Essentially, each particle of mass between
the small and large conrod eyes executes a reciprocating and
a rotating movement. The reciprocal component declines in
the direction of the large conrod eye.
Suitable FE method (FEM) calculation processes make it
possible to simulate this dynamic behavior and to assess the
forces exerted. The elasto-hydrodynamic bearing calculations
(see Section 7.19.2.3) have also demonstrated how essential the
deformations of the conrod eyes are for the running behavior
of the conrod bearing and the conrod bushing.
For this reason, the conrod design should be optimized
with the bearing calculation.
Figure 7.31Fitting bearings and expanding bolt.
The masses for various conrods are shown in Figure 7.30.

Application Mass (kg) Material


Mass-production diesel truck 1.65 Forged steel
Mass-production Spark Ignition 0.41 Forged steel,
gray
(SI) engine car casting,
sintered steel
Sport use 0.40.7 Steel, titanium
Racing engine/F1 0.30.4 Titanium, carbon
fiber
Compressor 0.20.6 Aluminum
Figure 7.30Conrod masses for various applications.
7.2.3 Conrod Bolts
The upper and lower halves of the big end are held with the
conrod bolts.
These threaded connections must fulfill two functions [7-8]:
Figure 7.32Fracture-split conrod.

The conrod bolts must prevent any gap forming in the


separation plane between the lower half and the upper half
7.2.4 Design
of the big end. The forces that are effective on the conrod
The following aspects are of significance with regard to
bolts include the inertial forces of the conrod and the
piston, conrod design:
along with a transverse force resulting from off-center
loading Dimensional stability of the areas that accept the two
and the forces resulting from crushing the bearing shell
bearing shells.
protrusion. During engine assembly, the bolts, opposing the
Oil channels for lubricating the small-end eye may be required
effective inertial force, are normally preloaded by
controlled (unusual in modern designs).
tightening to the offset limit or rotary torque plus
rotation

Separation of the big end bearing for mounting on the crank


angle [7-9], [7-10].

shaft journal.
The conrod and the cap have to be moved toward one another

Fixing and securing the conrod cap.


precisely and secured against shifting (offset). There are
several options to choose from:
Engineering the conrod web to optimize design and/or

reduce masses.
a. guidance by the conrod bolts, the shoulder or grooves
of which are in the parting plane and thus prevent the
Design of critical zones in accordance with loading.
upper and lower halves from shifting

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

Figure 7.34Warm blanks (source: Krupp Gerlach).

Figure 7.33Stress analysis for a conrod with an angular split, with

The lateral forces on the piston rise with the conrod ratio.
a trapezoidal small end (half model, Federal-Mogul). See color
This can, for instance, result in modified specifications for
section page 1068.
the pistons engineering design. As the conrod ratio falls, the

overall height of the engine rises as a result of the increase


To reduce the mass of the piston and/or the conrod, the small
in cylinder block height. Finally, restrictions imposed by the
end may be flattened toward the top, creating a trapezoidal
manufacturing process (cylinder block height) may prohibit
shape. This shape, for reasons associated with the loading (in
a change in the conrod.
turbocharged engines, for example), is advantageous because it
permits close spacing to the wristpin bosses and thus reduced
wristpin flexure.
The big end of the conrod is split to permit assembly on
the crankshaft and is held with two bolts.
The big end is normally split perpendicular to the long axis
of the conrod. As an alternative, to reduce the maximum width
of the conrod, the big end can also be split at an angle. This
angular version makes it possible to pass the conrod (without
the cap mounted at the big end) through the cylinder for
assembly. The angled split conrod has some disadvantages.
The separation plane is forced to handle great lateral forces.
The unsymmetrical structure of the big end in load direc-
tion results in further advantages because uneven static and
dynamic deformations of the bearing housings are considerably
impeded. Conrods with an angled split are used primarily in
V-block engines and large diesel engines, which, because of
the loading involved, have large-diameter crankshaft journals.
The big end and small end are joined by the conrod web,
which has an I or H cross section. This makes it possible to satisfy
requirements for reduced weight at a high section modulus.

7.2.4.1 Conrod Ratio


The conrod ratio is a comparative geometric magnitude, based
on the crank radius r and the distance l between the centers of
the small-end and big-end eyes (Figure 7.34). It is defined as

l = r /l
(7.2) Figure 7.35Blasted blanks (source: Plettac).

In passenger car engines, this value is normally between


0.28 and 0.33 with the lower values applicable to diesel engines.
7.2.5 Conrod Manufacture
The selection of conrod length is influenced by many factors

7.2.5.1 Manufacturing the Blank


such as the stroke/bore ratio, piston speed, engine speed,

The blank for the conrod may be manufactured in any of a


peak combustion chamber pressure, engine block height,

number of different ways, depending on the particulars of


and piston design.

the application.

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7.2 Connecting Rod

(a) Drop forging: The feedstock material for making up


Because the forging procedure in this manufacturing
the blank is a steel bar with a round or rectangular cross
process is costly, developments are now being pursued
section, which is heated to a temperature of between
with the goal of eliminating this by using new powder
1250 and 1300C. A roll-forging process is used to effect
a technologies [7-16], [7-17].
preliminary redistribution of the masses toward the big
and
small ends. As an alternative to roll forging, cross-wedge
rolling may also be employed, improving the preliminary
geometry for the blank.
The major reforming process takes place in a press or
a hammer unit. Excess material flows into flash, which is

Powder
removed in a subsequent operation. Simultaneous with
flash removal, the big eye and, in the case of larger
conrods,
the small eye are punched.
To achieve the required structural and strength charac-
teristics, the conrod requires various treatment processes,
the choice depending on the steel alloy used:
hardening with the forging heat (VS)
controlled cooling in an air stream (BY)
conventional hardening.
Then the scale on the blank is removed by blasting;
here compression stresses of 200 MPa are generated near

Preform, pressed and sintered


the surface. Additional procedures such as fissure inspec-
tions follow.
In most cases, the conrod web and the end are cast
as a unit, and then separated during later machining.
Depending on the conrod and the capacity of the avail-
able equipment, productivity can be boosted by tandem
forging, that is, shaping two conrods simultaneously.
(b) Casting: The starting point for making up the blank is a
model made of plastic or metal, comprising two halves
which, when put together, create a positive image of the
conrod. Several such identical halves are mounted on a
Forged and finished
model plate and joined with the model for the casting and
gating system. In a process that can be reproduced many
times, the two model plates are imaged by compacted
green sand. The sand molds represent a negative image
of the corresponding model plate. Placed one above the
other, they form a hollow cavity in the shape of the
conrod Figure 7.36Processsinter-forged conrod.
being manufactured. This is filled with liquid casting
iron
that is melted in a cupola blast furnace or electric
furnace 7.2.5.2 Machining
with steel scrap used as the feedstock material. The metal
The blanks are machined down to the final dimensions. In
solidifies slowly inside the mold.
mass production, this is done in fully automatic lines that are
(c) Sintering: The manufacturing process begins with servo-
integrated into the engine manufacturing process. Machining
hydraulic pressing of the powder, in its final alloy, to
create centers with a lower degree of automation are available for
a powder preform. Weighing follows to ensure that this
smaller production runs.
preform is within narrow weight tolerances of 0.5%.
After machining, the finished part is weighed and classified.
The sintering process, illustrated in Figure 7.36, takes
Conrods in a particular weight class are then installed in any
place at approximately 1120C in an electrically heated
given engine. If the blank was already manufactured to close
continuous charge furnace. The parts remain here for
weight tolerances, then it may be possible to do without this
approximately 15 min.
classification step.

To achieve the specified weight for the finished conrod, tabs


Subsequent forging merely reduces the height of the

can be provided at the small and/or big end of the blank (Figure
component to increase the component density to the

7.37). During mechanical finishing, these tabs are ground


maximum theoretical limit. Then ball blasting is used

down far enough that the specified weight value is attained.


to relieve the strain in the surface to the desired level.

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

the separation surfaces, which used to be standard, is elimi-


Cam weight

nated. The two halves fit together exactly pursuant cracking

and, with the irregular surface, are secured against relative

movement, without the need for any additional guide elements.

A further benefit is found in the use of a simplified conrod

bolt because it does not need to carry out guidance or lateral

fixing functions [7-12].

Figure 7.37Conventional conrod, body and cap forged separately, with


bolts and nuts.

In more modern manufacturing processes, the manufactur-


ing parameters can be monitored exactly so that blanks can
be made within adequate weight tolerances.
Thus, grinding to remove excess material provided delib-
erately for this purpose is rarely seen today.
The processing steps are described below, by example, for
Figure 7.38Design differences between a fracture-split conrod (above) and
conrods that are split after manufacture (cracking):
a sawn conrod.

grinding the faces of the big and small ends


prespindling the big and small ends
drilling and tapping the bolt holes
cracking, blowing off fracture waste
bolting the cap to the upper half of the big end andif
necessaryinserting the guide bushing
loosening bolts, opening cap, retightening bolts
finishing final grinding, milling the trapezoid of the small eye
drilling out the small eye
Notching by laser
spindling the big end and optional honing.
The term cracking or fracture splitting describes the
separation of the conrod web and the cap by breaking the latter
away during processing. The prerequisites for this process
are, in terms of the materials, a coarse-grain structure and, in
terms of equipment, a cracking unit that can apply the required
breaking energy at high speed. If the material exhibits a ratio
of tensile strength to tensile yield strength (0.2 offset limit)
that is near 2:1, then cracking can be carried out without any
major deformation of the part. Blanks made with any of the
modern manufacturing processes can be split by cracking
[7-11]. The difference in the design of the conrod is shown
in Figure 7.38.
In preparation for cracking, notches are made in the side
Separating by wedge fracturing
surfaces of the big-end eye by laser or broaching to achieve a
deep notch effect at the desired separation plane (see Figure 7.39).
Figure 7.39Conrod fracture splitting.
The large eye is positioned over a two-part breaker drift and

Fracture-split conrods are an economical alternative to


fixed in place. The breaker drift is spread at high speed, and

conrods separated in a conventional fashion.


the stresses created in the workpiece initiate breaks within
the notches. These breaks then propagate radially outward.
If this process runs optimally to conclusion, then the out-
7.2.6 Conrod Materials
of-roundness following cracking will be 30 m at the most.
Depending on the particulars of the application and the
The advantage offered by fracture splitting is found, primar-
resultant loads, any of a number of different materials may
ily, in reducing the number of processing steps. Machining
be used for connecting rods.

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7.3 Piston Rings

7.2.6.1 Cast Materials


this sinter material by increasing the copper portion from
The casting materials used most widely for connecting rods
2% to 3% have resulted in a 10% improvement of the tensile
are nodular cast iron (GGG-70) and black malleable cast iron
strength and an increase of 22% in fatigue strength under
(GTS-70). GGG-70 has both technical and economic advantages
alternating loads [7-19].
when compared with malleable cast iron. In particular, the
specific oscillation resistance, which is important for
conrods, 7.2.6.4 Alternate Materials
is considerably greater for GGG-70.
In addition to the obligatory materials used for conrods in
GGG-70 is an ironcarbon casting material; graphite inclu-
mass production, explorations into using alternate materials
sions that are largely spherical are introduced into a basic
pursue principally the objective of reducing conrod weight
structure that is primarily pearlitic. The compact shape of
while maintaining load-handling capabilities. Carbon fiber
the graphite gives the material an optimum strength and
reinforced aluminum or carbon fiber reinforced plastic is
ductility. At the same time, the graphite is also responsible
for used for this purpose.
the good casting properties. The required structure is created
Widely used in racing are titanium conrods, with which a
during the casting process without additional heat treatment.
considerable weight reduction is achieved. The disadvantage
In the case of malleable iron, which is also an ironcarbon
of the titanium conrods is the strong tendency for bores to
material, the structure is determined by applying heat subse-
expand during operations, which has a deleterious effect on the
quent to casting.
tightness of the seat for the bearing shells. Another drawback

is the fact that titanium is not a good friction partner for


7.2.6.2 Forged Steel
steel. Consequently, slip coatings on the mating surfaces are
Most conrods are manufactured from steel in the drop forge
needed to protect against scuffing (friction-induced damage)
process. In most cases, micro-alloyed steel such as 27MnVS6
and/or on the bearings steel backing to prevent fretting.
BY or carbon manganese steels like C40 mod BY are used.
Common to all conrods made of these alternate materials
Steel with high carbon content (C70 S6 BY) is used for forged
and fabricated for individual engines are the high manufactur-
and fracture-split (cracked) conrods. These materials attain
ing costs that hinder greater use in mass production engines.
a tensile strength of Rm = 1000 MPa [7-13].
The most important materials and their properties are
Available for high-performance conrods is 34CrNi-Mo6 V
summarized in Figure 7.40.
(or 42CrMo4), a steel alloy that achieves a tensile strength
of
1200 MPa. In this case, additional heat treatment (hardening)
is required.
New developments in steel have reached tensile strengths
7.3 Piston Rings
even in materials used for crackingof up to 1000 MPa at 0.2
Piston rings are metallic gaskets whose functions are to seal
offset limits in excess of 700 MPa. These steels are
identified the combustion chamber against the crankcase, to
transmit
with the designation C70+ in the table of materials [7-14].
heat from the piston to the cylinder wall, and to regulate
To meet the demands for higher tensile strengths to reduce
the oil required, on one hand, to ensure a minimum oil film
mass, the precipitation-hardened ferriticpearlitic steel
36MnVS4 to create a hydrodynamic lubrication film on the cylinder
is integrated in the development. Similar to C70S6, this new
sleeve and, on the other hand, to keep oil consumption as
steel has good cracking properties and exhibits 30% higher
low as possible.
fatigue strength [7-18].
It is necessary, for this purpose, that the piston rings be in

close contact with both the cylinder wall and the flank of the
7.2.6.3 Powdered Metal
groove machined into the piston. Contact with the cylinder
The material P/F-11C50 is now the most common for conrods
wall is ensured by the spring action inherent to the ring itself,
made from powdered metal. The strength-increasing elements,
which expands the ring radially. Figure 7.41 shows the forces
2% Cu and 0.5% C, achieve a tensile strength of up to 950 MPa
at a piston ring.
after sintering and forging [7-15]. Further developments of

P/F-11C50
HS150 C70S6/
Material Name NCI Cu2C5
Cu3C6 C70+ 36MnVS4 C38 42Cr Al TiAl4V4
Process comment cast forged in
open die forged and fracturable BY HT cast forged
open die
truck/car aircraft
Young modulus (GPa) 170 199
200 213 210 210 210 68.9 128
Fatigue strength (pull) (MPa) 200 320
390 300/365 430 420 480 50 225
Fatigue strength (push) (MPa) 200 330
395 300/365 430 420 480 50 309
Rp 0.2% yield strength (MPa) 410 550
700 550/650 750 550 >800 130 1000
Compressive yield strength (MPa) 620
550/650 700 620 850 150
Rm: tensile strength (MPa) 750 860
950 900/1050 950/1100 900 1050 200 1080
Conrod material density 7.2 7.6
7.8 7.85 7.85 7.85 7.85 2.71 4.51
Figure 7.40Properties of conrod materials (source: Federal-
Mogul).
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Chapter 7 Engine Components

Gap width m

Ring gap Gap ends


Gas pressure
uncompressed

ring

compressed ring
Gas
pressure Spring force

d
Friction force
Ring running

surface

Gas pressure

Ring back

a
Inertial force Piston
movement
h
direction
Ring flanks
Friction force

a = (radial) wall thickness

h = (axial) ring height


Figure 7.41Forces at a piston ring.

d = Nominal diameter

Oil control rings are usually given further support with

Figure 7.42Piston ring terms.


an additional spring.
The gas pressure acting on the ring is significantly supported
Bevel edge ring [Figure 7.43(b)] with a conic running
by both radial and axial contacts in the ring groove in the
surface that shortens the wear-in period: Because of its oil-
piston. Axial contact may alternate between the lower and
stripping effect, it also supports oil consumption control.
the upper flanks of the groove because of the influences of
Double trapezoid ring [Figure 7.43(c)]: The conical flanks
gas, mass, and friction forces [7-20].
of the ring significantly reduce sticking at the rings, because
Trouble-free piston ring functioning depends on the partially,
they are continuously freed of soot and combustion residues.
very dynamically changing thermal and mechanical loads
It is used only in diesel engines.
generated by combustion, the engineering details, machin-
Single trapezoid ring [Figure 7.43(d)]: This ring has a
ing quality, and the choice of materials for the piston, piston
sloped flank at the top. Similar to the double trapezoid ring,
rings, and cylinder. The quality of the rings themselves but
it reduces sticking and is mostly used in diesel engines.
also the precise matching of these components to each other
Ring with inner chamfer or inner shoulder, top [Figure
has a decisive influence on their operating properties [7-20].
7.43(e)]: The interruption in the cross section by the inner
The number of rings per piston influences the friction
chamfer or the inner shoulder of rectangular or bevel rings
inside the engine. The rings masses represent a part of the
causes the ring to deform when it is installed, thus creating
reciprocating mass forces. These reasons have driven the
a concave shape.
trend to fewer rings per piston. A three-ring combination of
This forces the ring in all running phases to contact the
compression rings and oil control rings is standard. Two-ring
cylinder wall only with the lower running surface edge and the
arrangements to reduce friction losses are also found in mass-
lower flank of the groove only with the inner edge (a so-called
production models.
positive twist). The conical running surface formed in this
Figure 7.42 shows the most important terms and concepts.
manner results in an improved oil-stripping effect. However,

under gas pressure, the ring is pressed plane creating an


7.3.1 Designs
additional dynamic stress during operation.
One may differentiate among the types of piston rings on the
Ring with inner chamfer or inner shoulder on the lower
basis of their primary functions:
flank [Figure 7.43(f)] or the so-called negative torsion ring: This
sealing rings to seal the combustion chamber against the
interruption in the cross section causes a negative twist after
crankcase
installation, that is, in the inversed direction of the positively

twisting ring. To avoid a contact of the upper running edge


oil control rings to regulate the oil balance.

with the cylinder wall, the conicity of the running surface


7.3.1.1 Compression Rings
must be designed larger than for the bevel edge ring with or
Among the types of compression rings available (Figure 7.43),
without positive twist.
one differentiates the following:
L-shaped compression ring [Figure 7.43(g)]: This design is
Rectangular ring [Figure 7.43(a)] with its rectangular cross
used primarily in small two-cycle SI engines as the so-called
section: This piston ring is used for sealing purposes at normal
head-land ring; the end of the vertical arm of the L is
operating conditions.
flush with the piston head upper surface. Because of the gas

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7.3 Piston Rings

pressure effective behind the vertical arm of the L, this


Oil control rings that practically are compression rings
ring seals tightly even when in contact with the upper flank
with particular oil-stripping effect as they are used in the
of the piston ring groove.
second groove of SI and diesel engines [Figure 7.44(a)(c)]

One-part, self-expanding oil control rings for the lowest

piston ring groove [Figure 7.44(d)(f)]

Multi-part, spring-expanded or spring-supported oil control


a) Rectangular ring
rings, also for the lowest piston ring groove. Here, one

differentiates between two-part [Figure 7.45(a)(e)] and

three-part systems [Figure 7.45(f)(h)].

Shoulder and shoulder/bevel ring: Thanks to turned or

relief groove in the area of the bottom ring running surface,


b) Bevel edge ring

the shoulder ring [Figure 7.44(a)] achieves an excellent oil-

stripping effect. To strengthen this effect, the running surface

is additionally realized as a conic shape in the shoulder/bevel

ring [Figure 7.44(b)].

Shoulder/bevel ring, closed at the gap: This special type


c) Double trapezoid ring

of the shoulder/bevel ring [Figure 7.44(c)] is characterized by

an improved gas seal because the shoulder is closed in the

gap area and realized without relief groove. In some cases,

it is inserted in the first groove.

Oil slotted ring: Because of the reduced height of the


d) Single trapezoid ring

running edges in the oil slotted ring [Figure 7.44(d)] compared

to the overall height, a significantly higher surface pressure

can be obtained with this self-expanding ring than with the


rectangular ring. The flanks of the oil slotted ring are parallel

with each other.

Beveled-edge oil control ring: The beveled-edge oil control


e) Ring with inner chamfer
ring [Figure 7.44(e)] differs from the oil slotted ring by outside-
or inner shoulder, top
chamfered running edges for an even higher surface pressure.

Double-beveled oil control ring: In the double-beveled oil

control ring [Figure 7.44(f)], the running edges are each cham-

fered at their flanks pointing to the combustion chamber. At

the same surface pressure as the beveled-edge ring, a lower

oil consumption can be achieved thanks to the improved

oil-stripping effect.

In addition to the surface pressure at the running surface,

the capacity for filling of oil control rings is an important


f) Bevel ring with inner
chamfer characteristic to ensure low oil consumption. The normal
or inner shoulder, top

method used to combine both demands is the use of multi-part

oil control rings with an additional spring which supports

itself at the ends to press the optimized ring body against

the cylinder wall. Springs supporting in the groove bottom

are no longer used today because the rings would be forced

to also transfer the lateral piston forces.

Oil slotted, beveled-edge and double-beveled oil control


g) L-shaped compression
ring rings with tubular spring: The ring types shown in Figure

7.45(a)(c) feature a groove at the internal diameter to accept

the tubular spring, in addition to the corresponding single-

part oil control rings.


Figure 7.43Compression rings.
Beveled-edge ring with chromium-plated profile-ground

running edges and tubular spring: The chromium-plated


7.3.1.2 Oil Control Rings

running surfaces ensure a high long-term stability. For this


Oil control rings are of particular significance in managing
the

reason, this ring type [Figure 7.45(d)] is used mostly in diesel


engines oil supply [7-21] and consumption; they are
subdivided

engines. Because of the profile grinding of the running edges,


into the following:

tight tolerances can be achieved at these important func-

tional surfaces.

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

a) Shoulder ring

a) Oil slotted ring

with tubular spring

b) Shoulder/bevel ring

Beveled-edge oil

b) control ring

with tubular spring

c) Shoulder/bevel ring,
closed at the gap
Double-beveled oil

c) control ring

with tubular spring

d) Oil slotted ring

Beveled-edge ring

d) with chromium-plated

profile-ground running edges

and tubular spring

e) Beveled-edge
oil control ring

e) Nitrided profile steel ring

f) Double-beveled
oil control ring
f) VF-system

Figure 7.44Stripping or single-part oil-stripping rings.

Nitrided profile steel ring: This beveled-edge ring is made


from a high-chromium alloyed steel and nitrided on all sides
for wear protection [Figure 7.45(e)].

g) MF-system
Three-part oil-stripping systems comprise two thin steel
strip ringsalso called rails or steel platesand a distance
spring which, on the one hand, keeps the rails in the desired
axial distance to each other and, on the other hand, simultane-
ously presses them against the cylinder wall. For the spring
types, three fundamental designs are established, which lend
their names to these three-part systems.
h) SS50 system
VF system: Figure 7.45(f) shows this three-part system
that features a spring bent from a slotted steel strip into a
U-shape with the opening pointing to the inner diameter. It
is mostly made from simple C-steel or a nitridable CrNi steel.
Figure 7.45Two- and three-part oil control rings.
MF system: The spring consists of an axially crimped
CrNi strip [Figure 7.45(g)]. Systems with untreated spring and
chromium-plated rails and fully nitrided systems are used.
7.3.2 Ring Sets
SS50 system: Similar to the MF spring, the spring in the
Piston ring designs are mostly determined by their func-
SS50 system is also manufactured from CrNi steel. Unlike the
tional demands which, in turn, depend on the technical and
other version, the steel strip is radially crimped [Figure 7.45(h)].
commercial marginal conditions of the SI engine passenger car,

diesel passenger car, and diesel commercial vehicles sectors

but also customer-specific application experience. Thus, the

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7.3 Piston Rings

specific requirements of the engine designs are always the


defining factor in the optimization of each piston ring set.
For 1. Groove Double trapezoid ring,

one-sided spherical running surface


this reason, Figure 7.46 and Figure 7.47 show only typical set
material: spheroid casting or steel,
samples for the individual market segments.
running surface coating

from chromium-ceramic (CKS) or

chromium-diamond (GDC)

axial height: 2.5-4.0 mm


1. Groove
Rectangular ring,
spherical running
surface,
material: Nitrided steel
2. Groove Bevel ring material:
axial height: 1.01.2 mm
Gray-cast iron, chromium-plated

running surface

axial height: 2.0-3.0 mm


2. Groove Shoulder/bevel ring or
bevel ring material:
Gray-cast iron,
uncoated running surface
3. Groove Oil control ring with tubular
axial height: 1.2-1.75 mm
spring material: GG/GGG or

steel profile, chromium-plated or

nitrided running surface

axial height: 3.0-4.0 mm


3. Groove MF system untreated or
nitrided spring,
rails with chromium-
coated
running surface or
nitrided surface Figure 7.47(a) Ring set for passenger car diesel engines.
(b) Ring set for
axial height: 2.0 or 2.5
mm utility vehicle diesel engines.

Alternatively:
For utility vehicle engines, the double trapezoid ring with
Two-part oil control ring
adjusted axial height is standard but will be also realized in
with tubular spring
material:
Gray cast iron or steel
profile, steel, unlike the passenger car model. Figure 7.47(b) displays
uncoated or nitrided
running surface a typical utility vehicle set.

Figure 7.46Ring set for passenger car SI engines.


7.3.3 Characterizing Features

7.3.3.1 Tangential Force

The tangential force Ft is that force which must be present at


1. Groove Rectangular or double
trapezoid ring,
one-sided spherical
running surface

the ends of the ring, at the outside diameter, to compress the


material: spheroid
casting, piston ring to the specified gap (Figure 7.48).
running surface coating
This is the determinant factor for the contact pressure. The
from chromium-ceramic
(CKS) or

contact pressure influences the sealing function and is the force


chromium-diamond (GDC)
axial height: 1.75-3.5 mm
with which the piston ring presses against the cylinder wall.

2. Groove
Bevel ring or
shoulder/bevel ring
material: alloyed gray-cast
iron,
uncoated running surface
Ft Ft
axial height: 2.0-2.5 mm

p = const.

3. Groove Oil control ring with


tubular spring Ring gap
material: Gray-cast iron
or
steel profile, chromium-
plated or
nitrided running surface
axial height: 2.0-3.0 mm

Figure 7.48Tangential force at a piston ring.


The ring set shown in Figure 7.46 is a typical design for
passenger car SI engines.

It is calculated as shown below, where p = contact pressure,


A typical combination for passenger car diesel engines is

d = nominal diameter, and h = ring height:


shown in Figure 7.47(a).
At higher thermal loading, the ring of the first groove is
2 Ft

p= N/mm 2 (7.3)
a double trapezoid ring which otherwise exhibits identi-
dh
cal characteristics.

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

7.3.3.2 Radial Pressure Distribution


the ring external diameters is assumed which are offset in
Contact pressure can be set up to be constant around the circum-
direction of ring gap/ring back and measured.
ference of the ring or to correspond to specified graduations
in radial pressure, the so-called radial pressure distribution.
7.3.3.3 Installed Flexure Tension
Radial pressure distribution is important for the sealing
This is the flexure load to which the piston ring is subjected
function of the piston ring at the running surface of the cylinder
when installed in the cylinder. The maximum tension is found
wall. The further development of constant contact pressure
at the back of the ring and is calculated for the rectangular
resulted in inconstant radial pressure distributions as shown
ring as follows:
in Figure 7.49, for a focused effect on the functional behavior
a E
of the rings within the engine.
db = 2 k N/mm 2 (7.4)

da

and for an oil control ring as follows:


a) Four-cycle characteristic (positive oval)

xl E I +I

db = k u s N/mm 2 (7.5)

da Is

where a = ring wall thickness ; d = nominal diameter; E =

Youngs modulus for the ring material; k = piston ring param-

eter; xl = twice the distance of the center of gravity to the

outside diameter; Iu = geometrical moment of inertia for the

cross section without slotting; and Is = geometrical moment

of inertia for the slotted oil control ring.

7.3.3.4 Opening Stress

The greatest stressing of the ring occurs during assembly,

as the ring must be stretched open sufficiently to enable the


inner contour to slip over the outer diameter of the piston.
b) Constant pressure characteristics (circular)
The standard formula for the opening stress b found in

the literature makes the assumption that the closure stress and

opening stress are equal. This assumption is only true in very

limited marginal conditions and can lead to significant errors.

Based on the mathematically exact, but complicated, approach

to calculate the opening stress, more convenient formulas for

the calculation of rectangular cross sections and those of oil

control rings were derived. These extensively documented

[7-20] formulas differentiate between slipping the ring with

a purely tangential load and opening the ring by means of a

sleeve. It must be noted that, as a rule, the purely tangential

load leads to a maximum opening force in the back of the

ring, while, when opening the ring by means of a sleeve, this


c) Two-cylce characteristic (negative oval)
load is mostly found in the 90/270 area.

7.3.3.5 Piston Ring Parameter

The piston ring parameter k characterizes the elastic property

of the ring. For rings with a rectangular cross section, for

instance, it is defined as

k = 3

( d a )2 Ft (7.6)

h a3 E

where tangential force is used Ft, or

2 m

k= (7.7)

3p d a
Figure 7.49Radial pressure distributions.

when using the gap width m (Figure 7.42).


In the past, inconstant characteristics could be generated
only by the additional requirement of a positive or negative
7.3.3.6 Capacity to Fill the Space
ovality. As the dimension for the ovality, the difference in
The capacity to fill the space is the capability of the piston

ring to adapt even to cylinders that are out of round. Good

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7.3 Piston Rings

shape-filling capability ensures correct sealing against the


selected for the compression rings but also special profiles
gas and the lubricating oil.
for oil control rings as well.
Taking ui as the radial, harmonic deformation of the
cylinder
of the ith order, the shape filling capacity QR at which the
7.3.4.1 Shaping
ring is just in contact with the cylinder wall, exerting
radial While conventional processes (face milling and lapping) are
pressure of p = 0, is calculated as follows:
used to work the flanks of the rings, the outside contour,

which determines piston ring characteristics, is shaped using


ui k
the special processes of tandem turning (cast-iron rings) and
Qr = = 2
(7.8)
r ( i 2 1)
winding steel rings.

where r = (d a)/2.
7.3.4.1.1 Tandem turning
Because with increasing ordinal i, the filling capacity
Here the blank, the flanks of which have been ground, is
decreases at nearly fourth power, cylinder warping of a
worked simultaneously on the inside and outside using a
higher power is extremely critical for the functioning of the
copying lathe, ensuring uniform wall thickness all around
piston rings.
the circumference of the ring. Once the section of the ring
In compression rings, the gas pressure behind the ring
corresponding to the width of the gap has been removed,
increases the shape-filling capacity, while in oil control
rings, the ring exhibits the uncompressed shape that will develop
the additional support by spring force acts so that the
overall the desired degree of radial pressure distribution once it
has
shape-filling capacity results in
been inserted into the cylinder. The shape of the copying
Qges = QR ( 1 + x )
(7.9)

cam is determined mathematically, separately for each radial

pressure distribution pattern.


pz pf
with x = for compression rings and x = for oil
control
p p
7.3.4.1.2 Winding
rings; pz = contact pressure by gas pressure; and pf = contact

Winding is the process used for steel piston rings. The steel
pressure by spring force.

wire, having been drawn to the appropriate profile, is wound


It must be noted that the simplified equations (7.8) and

around a mandrel; The coil that is thus created is split length-


(7.9) enable only statements on the shape-filling capacity in

wise, separating the turns, and the rings that result are then
the back of the ring, but not the local capacity at the ring

mounted on a shaping mandrel and annealed to set the shape.


circumference [7-22].

The outside contour of the mandrel is calculated and designed


7.3.3.7 Ring Gap
for certain radial pressure characteristics.
The ring gap is the space left between the ends of the ring
Profiling of the running surfaces of chamfered, shoulder and
after installation; this space is necessary to allow for
thermal oil slotted rings, in particular, is carried out, depending on
the
expansion in the piston ring (Figure 7.48). If the ring gap is
too ring design, on automatic lathes or profile grinding machines
large, then gas loss (blow-by) will result; if it is too
narrow, then using special profile cutting tools before or after coating.
ring expansion can exert pressure on the ends of the rings and

7.3.4.2 Wear-Protection Layers


cause ring failure. In this event, thermal expansion of the
ring

To diminish piston ring and cylinder wear, the ring running


is obstructed by touching gap ends. The result may be ring

surfaces, in particular, are provided with wear-reducing protec-


break or seizing between ring and cylinder running surface

tive layers [7-25]. The following types of protective finishes


because the contact pressure rises to impermissible levels.

are used.
Ring gaps with straight end surfaces are normally used.
Bevel joints and lap joints are not used for passenger car and
Chrome plating: In the tribological system piston ring/
utility vehicle engines and do not offer any advantages with
cylinder wall, electrochemically deposited hard chromium
regard to the tightness of the seal. Ring gaps with increased
coatings on piston ring running surfaces are noted for their
sealing quality (roll shaped or beveled) improve the sealing
high wear resistance and the low cylinder wear they generate.
quality of the rings in comparison with the butt joint. These
Normal chromium plating is today used only on rings in
types are often used in hydraulic applications, but their
testing the second groove and oil control rings. Special surface
in combustion engines leads to indifferent results
topologies to optimize the oil film treatment have been

developed to protect from damage to the layer, such as

burns and/or fatigue-related breakouts that mostly occur in


7.3.4 Manufacturing
the run-in phase. The special lap finish must be mentioned
Piston rings made of cast iron are manufactured in a single
in this context [7-20].
casting process as single, double, or multiple blanks, on mold

Chromium ceramic coating (CKS): With demands on the


plates following a mathematically determined model, and are

load levels of modern internal combustion engines ever


cast in stack molding. Another manufacturing option is to

increasing, there is often a need to improve the thermal


make up cast bushings in stationary or centrifugal casting.

and/or mechanical load-carrying capacity of piston rings


Cold-drawn, profiled steel is preferred for manufactur-

in the first groove and for oil control ring coatings beyond
ing steel piston rings. Here, not only simple profiles may be

early life. The inclusion of ceramic particles (Al2O3) in an

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

electrochemically generated hard chromium layer not only


surface hardness (approximately 1300 HV 0.025), which
improves the scuff resistance for the entire service life of
imparts high wear resistance to the layer. Layer hardness
the layer but also provides resistance against scuffs, that
and thickness rise with the amount of alloying elements that
is, against thermal overload (Figure 7.50).
form nitrides in the ring material (largely steel containing
Chromium microdiamond coating (GDC): The CKS coating
13% or 18% chromium). In gasoline engines, this is used as
was further developed for even higher engine loads by
an alternative to electroplated chromium layers and in part
embedding minute diamond particles in the hard chromium
also to thermal spray layers, particularly at ring thicknesses
layer, instead of ceramic. The inherent coating wear is nearly
of 1.2 mm. Additional advantages are dimensional trueness,
halved and the scuff resistance further improved without
which makes it possible to create sharp running edges at
significantly increasing cylinder wear [7-26].
the piston ring, and coating on all the surfaces, providing

additional protection against wear at the flanks. The burn


Molybdenum coating: It is used above all because of its

resistance of these layers is similar to the chromium layers


great resistance to scuffing. Molybdenum is applied to

deposited with normal electroplating processes while that


the piston ring running surface as a thermal spray layer,

found in thermal spray layers is not reached.


usually in a flame spatter process. The molybdenum layers
great resistance to burns can be traced hypothetically to the
Physical vapor deposition (PVD) layers: Employing the
materials high melting point (approximately 2600C) and
modern technology used to vapor-deposit hard materials
its porous structure.
such as CrN gives wear protection layers that replicate exactly

the contour of the surfaces. In this way, one can treat only
Plasma spatter layers: Plasma spatter technology makes

the functional surfaces of the paired wearing materials,


it possible to apply mixed metallic and/or metal-ceramic

which may be advantageous. PVD layers are characterized


layers whose component materials exhibit particularly high

in part by great wear resistance, high burn resistance, and


melting points. The wear protection layers created in this

low Top Dead Center (TDC) wear at cylinders in diesel


way have even higher wear resistance than molybdenum

engines. The layer thicknesses that can be created (50 m)


layers and higher resistance to scuffing than chrome layers.

limit the life span expectations for truck applications, in


High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) layers: HVOF coating, a
particular. The expected improvement of the layer systems
high-velocity flame spray, is based on the plasma coatings
compared with the CrN systems mostly used today will
superior resistance to burns, further reducing inherent
result in expanded applications in the future. Additional
wear values and cylinder wear values. In HVOF coating, a
applications are given because of the advantages relative
supersonic flame is used to accelerate and heat the sprayed
to friction minimization; in this area diamond-like coating
material. This creates a layer that is considerably denser and
coatings will become more important in engines with Al
stronger than one applied with plasma spatter [7-23]. These
cylinder tracks, in particular [7-27].
fundamental advantages for the engine, when compared with
plasma, can be achieved only when the coating materials
7.3.4.3 Surface Treatments
are ideally matched to the properties of the process being
The surface treatments listed below are employed with piston
used. The materials most frequently employed are metals
rings primarily to protect against corrosion during storage, to
with high carbide content.
cover up minor surface defects, to improve break-in properties,
Nitriding and nitrocarburizing: Thermochemical treatment
secondarily to reduce wear at the running surfaces and flanks,
(diffusion) is used to introduce nitrogen and, in some cases,
and to not increase burn resistance during the run-in period.
carbon into the surface of the piston rings (primarily in
Phosphating (zinc-phosphate and/or manganese-phosphate
rings made of steel). This diffusion process creates extreme
layers): The surface of the piston ring is transformed into

Network of fissures

Time

Fissure width

Flow density
Layer thickness
fissure depth
Figure 7.50Schematic representation of chromium layers with solid
particle inclusion.

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7.3 Piston Rings

phosphate crystals with chemical treatment. This phosphate


by the inward bending stresses imparted when the ring is
layer is softer than the substrate material and thus wears
compressed so that it can enter the cylinder. Dynamic loading
away more easily, which accelerates ring wear-in. This
layers also occurs, namely, an axial motion of the piston ring caused
thicknesses are between 2 and 5 m.
by the interactions of gas, mass, and friction forces. In extreme
Tin and copper plating: Both these metallic layers are
situations, uncontrolled axial and radial movements of the
applied by electroplating. Because of their softness, they
ring are caused which can lead, in SI engines in particular,
act somewhat like lubricants. Standard layer thicknesses
to significantly reduced sealing capacity and thus to high
are also between 2 and 5 m.
blow-by losses at low mean pressure and high speeds.

These extreme ring movements may also cause ring failure


Black oxiding: Black oxiding is used mainly for coating

in some cases, as do extreme pressure rise rates at knocking


the sides of rails made of carbon steel. These very thin
iron

combustion in an SI engine and pinging combustion in a


oxide layers (thickness < 1 m) provide a certain amount

diesel engine. Extraordinarily high loading on the ring can


of corrosion protection.

arise from soot collecting in the piston ring groove, which


CPS and CPG: CPS (for nitrided steel rings) and CPG (for
can cause sticking. Additional ring damage includes burn
nitrided cast rings) are processes of chemical passivation
traces and seizure.
which reduce the risk of the so-called micro-welding
The service life of the seal made at the piston rings is deter-
because of a focused change in the surface morphology
mined to a large degree by the amount of wear. This includes
[7-24]. Corrosion resistance and geometrical stability are
radial wear (wear on the running surface), axial wear (wear
also positively affected.
at the flanks, microwelding, and piston groove wear), and

secondary wear at oil control rings (wear between the ring


7.3.4.4 Materials for Piston Rings

and the tubular spring and between the rails and the spacer
Determinants for the selection of the piston ring materials

spring). The tribologic system surrounding the seal created


include demands for good running properties in both normal

by the piston ring is extremely complex because most normal


and emergency situations (wear behavior), for good elastic

types of wearsabrasive, adhesive, and corrosiveoccur to a


properties, for good heat conductivity and thermal expansion,

greater or lesser extent and effect. The piston group accounts


and high corrosion resistance. Great strength is required

for approximately 40% of all the mechanical losses of an


whenever extreme conditions such as high engine speeds or

engine. The piston rings cause a bit more than half of this
high gradients in the combustion pressure are present. The

loss. The essential factors that influence piston ring friction


following materials may be used [7-25]:

include the surface pressure, ring thickness (width of the


Cast iron with flaked graphite, non-hardened: This is the
running surface), the rail height in oil control rings, the shape
standard material for piston rings, with good break-in
(crowning; various designs, see Figure 7.51) of the contact
and emergency running properties and satisfactory wear
surface, the coefficient of friction for the running surface
properties. The values for resistance to flexure with 350
N/ layer (only in mixed friction areas at TDC and BDC, where
mm2 at minimum are relatively low. The standard material
the piston speed is very slow), and the number of rings per
is used today only for the ring in the second piston ring
piston required for sufficient sealing function. Measures taken
groove and for oil control rings.
to reduce piston ring friction must not interfere with ring
Cast iron with flaked graphite, alloyed, hardened: The low
functioning. The sealing effects of the ring set for both gases
strength properties of the standard material are improved
and the lubricating oil have to be maintained undiminished.
by hardening. Resistance to flexures is at least 650 N/mm
2,
and hardness is increased. This material is also for rings
in
the second piston groove.

Ring with spherical


Cast iron with spheroidal graphite (nodular cast iron),
running surface

a)
alloyed, hardened. This type of cast iron is distinguished
particularly by its great resistance to flexure, of at
least 1300
N/mm2. Because of its high resistance to flexure, nodular
cast iron is given preference for rings mounted in the
first Ring with asymmetrically

spherical running surface


piston ring groove.
b)
Steel: Because of its great breaking strength, steel is
used, for
example, at low ring heights (1.2 mm) for gasoline engines
and in diesel engines with steep rates of pressure rise.
Steel
is also used for the rails and spacer springs in oil
control

Ring with optimized


rings, as well as in profiled oil control rings.
spherical running surface

c)
7.3.5 Loading, Damage, Wear, and Friction
The piston rings are loaded by outward stresses when they
Figure 7.51Contact surface shapes.
are stretched to pass over the cylinder and, when installed,

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

7.4 Engine Block


internal torsion moments (tipping moments) among indi-

vidual cylinders
The engine block is the component that encloses the cylinders,

crankshaft torque and the resulting reactive forces in the


the cooling jacket, and the engine block shell.

engine mounts

free mass forces and moments, resulting from reciprocating


7.4.1 Tasks and Functions
mass forces, which have to be borne by the engine mounts.
The primary functions that the engine block fulfills are

Working processes and operating limits determine the


Absorbing the gas and mass forces in the crankshaft bearings

maximum forces occurring. For example, diesel engine usually


and at the cylinder head bolts.

requires larger dimensioned engine blocks than SI engines,


Accepting the energy conversion assembly, comprising the
because of their higher peak and mean pressures. The level
pistons, conrods, crankshaft, and flywheel.
of inertial forces occurring is determined by the maximum
Accepting and connecting the cylinders or, in the case of
speed and the design of the crankshaft drive. The trend to
multi-section engine blocks, connections to the individual
charging diesel and SI engines and to downsizing with the
cylinders or to the cylinder bank block or blocks.
same output as smaller working volumes increases the forces
Carrying the crankshaft from, possibly, an intermediate
to be absorbed by the engine block.
shaft for the control drive and from one or two balance
The effect of forces and the resulting moments, both inside
shafts for mass balancing.
the engine block and outside (engine mounts, mechanical

vibrations, and noise emission), depend on the engineering


Accepting channels to convey operating media, primarily

design of the engine.


lubricants and coolants. Lubricants must be delivered to

The major parameters in the engine design that have effects


crankshaft and connecting rod bearings, possibly piston

on engine block loading are the number and arrangement of


spray nozzles for piston cooling, any installed hydraulic chain
the cylinders, the arrangement of the crankshaft throws, and
tensioners, and the components arranged in the cylinder

the ignition sequence. The loads occurring in the engine block


head. These are camshaft(s), push rods, rocker arms or cam

influence the type of engine block selected and its specific


followers, any installed hydraulic elements for automatic

design in view of achieving sufficient strength, minimum


compensation of the valve play, and any installed adjustment

deformations, economical manufacturing, recyclability,


mechanisms for control time adjustment. The lubricant

noise emissions, engine block weight, and, with it, the total
return from the cylinder head(s) is usually designed as

engine weight.
channels also arranged in the engine block.

The strength of the engine block is determined by the


In liquid-cooled engines, the engine block also comprises
material used, by the choice of heat treatment (which depends
the so-called water jacket around the cylinders and, possibly,
on the material and the casting process), and by the engineer-
other channels containing further coolants. Frequently, this
ing design (characterized by the type of engine block, ribs or
is also the mounting point for the coolant pump.
fins, wall thickness, etc.). Common engine block materials,
Integrating a system for crankcase venting.
in comparison with vermicular graphite cast iron, and the
Connecting to the transmission and to the valve actuators
most important material properties are shown in Figure 7.52.
(with cover) and carrying and guiding power transmission
Engine blocks are characterized by the following major
elements such as chains.
dimensions, which depend on the engine configuration, such
Connecting to and mounting position for various auxiliary
as inline, V-block, or boxer (pancake) engine (Figure 7.53):
assemblies, such as the engine mounts, coolant preheat-
length, measured from the front edge of the engine block
ing components, oil/water heat exchanger, oil filter, oil
to the transmission flange
separator for crankcase venting, and a variety of sensors
width, as maximum overall width
for oil pressure and temperature, crankshaft speed, knock
height, measured from the center of the crankshaft, along
detection, and so on.
the axis of a cylinder, to the top plate plane
Isolating the crankcase from the outside world with the oil
cylinder bore, expressed as the nominal inside diameter
pan andby way of radial shaft sealsat the point where
of the cylinders
the crankshaft passes through the engine block.

cylinder spacing, given as the distance between the centers


Because of the variety of functions to be carried out, the
of two adjacent cylinders
engine block is subjected to different types of loads that are
cylinder offset in V, W, and boxer engines, specified as
superimposed one upon another. It is exposed to tensile and
the distance between the centers of two cylinders located
compression loading, bending, and torsion as a result of mass
opposite each other in adjacent banks of cylinders
and gas forces. Taken individually, these are

cylinder length, measured from the top plate to the lower


ignition gas forces, which have to be absorbed by the cylinder
end of the cylinder.
head bolts and the crankshaft bearings

Dimensions and drilling pattern for cylinder head bolts:


internal mass moments (flexural moments), resulting from

depending on their design, for example, four or six per cylinder.


rotating and reciprocating mass forces

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7.4 Engine Block

Materials

(standard materials for crankcases)


Material group: Aluminum
Iron
Material: AISI6Cu4
AISi17Cu4Mg AISi9Cu3 G3L-240 G3L-300 G3V
Remark: Subeutectic
Cast iron Cast iron Vermi-

Super- Super- Subeutectic with flaked with flaked cular

eutectic eutectic graphite graphite graphite


Material state: Casting state

Heat-treated Casting state Casting state

Casting technique: Sand and


Sand and Sand and
permanent Die casting
permanent Die casting permanent Die casting
mold casting
mold casting mold casting
Elongation limit R p02(N/mm2) 90100 140
190320 150210 90180 150 165228 195260 240300
Tensile strength R m(N/mm2 ) 150170 240
220360 260300 150170 220 250 300 300500
Ductile yield A6 (%): 1 1
0,5 0,3 1 1 0,80,3 0,80,3 26
Brinell hardness HB: 6075 80
90150 25 6075 80 180250 200275 160280
Fatigue strength at reversed 6080 7090
90125 7095 6095 7090 87,5125 105150 160210
bending stresses (N/mm2)
E-module (kN/mm2): 7376 75
8387 8387 7478 75 103118 108137 130160
Thermal expansion coeff. 2122,5
22,5 1819,5 1819,5 2122,5 21 11,7 11,7
1114
(20200 C) (104/K):
Thermal conductivity(W/mK): 100110 100110
117134 117150 110120 110120 48,5 47,5 4244
Density (kg/dm3:) 2,75 2,75
2,75 2,75 2,75 2,75 7,25 7,25 7,07,7
Sources: Kolbenschmidt AG, Neckarsulm, Handbuch
Aluminium Gussteile, Heft 18 DIN EN 1706, Aluminium und Aluminiumlegierungen,
Gussstcke, chemische Zusammensetzung und
mechanische Eigenschaften DIN EN 1591, Gusseisen mit Lamellengraphit Porsche
Technische Lieferungsbedingungen 2002
Vermiculargraphitguss (GGV) Ein neues Material fr den Verbrennungsmotor,
Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und
Motorentechnik 95, Prof. Dr. techn. F. Indra, Dipl. Ing. M. Tholl, Adam Opel AG,
Rsselsheim

Figure 7.52Materials for engine blocks.

(f) height of the lower engine block section in two-section

engine blocks.

6
Figure 7.53 shows the most important dimensions.
3
The conrod executes a swinging motion with each revolu-

tion of the crankshaft. The path that it follows, determined by

the outside contour of the conrod and the cranking radius,

has a shape similar to the body of a violin (Figure 7.54). It is


8

1 Length
2 Width
3 Height
4 Cylinder bore
5 Cylinder
spacing
6 Cylinder
length
5 7 Dimensions
drilling pattern
8 Dimension
from crankshaft
center to
flange to oil pan
1

Conrod pattern

7
2

Figure 7.53Major dimensions of the engine block.

These dimensions from the center of the crankshaft to the


oil pan flange are defined:
(d) equal to zero where the oil pan separation
plane is level
with the center of the crankshaft
(e) height of the deep skirts where the engine block
side
walls extend downward
Figure 7.54Conrod pattern.

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

necessary, when laying out an engine block, to ensure that


top plate. This has positive effects on top plate deformation,
there is sufficient clearance for this outline. The most critical
cylinder warping, and acoustic properties.
close clearances between the engine block and the envelope
for the conrod are normally
lower surface of the cylinder and in V-block, W-block, and
boxer engines that of the opposite cylinder, too
engine block sidewalls with channels located next to the
conrod for oil return or for crankcase venting.
The clearance is, as a rule, between 3.5 and 4.5 mm and is
determined after having taken into account all the tolerances
for the components involved, and to include the casting toler-
ances for the engine block itself.

7.4.2 Engine Block Design


7.4.2.1 Types of Engine Blocks
The types of engine blocks can be classified according to the
engineering design in the areas at the
top plate
main bearing pedestals
cylinders.
Because a separate section is devoted to the cylinders, they
are not dealt with here.

Figure 7.55Closed-deck design.


7.4.2.1.1 Top plate
A basic engineering feature, one that limits the selection of
Selecting an engine block with closed-deck design does,
the casting process, is the engine block top plate. Here, one
however, limit the casting processes that can be used. The
differentiates between closed-deck and open-deck designs.
sand core required for the water jacket makes it possible
a) Closed deck: In this version, the top of the engine block
to fabricate the closed-deck type only in sand casting and
is largely closed in the area around the cylinders. In the top
die-casting processes.
plate, there are always, depending upon the specifics of the
The lost-foam process applicable for creating the water
design, openings for the cylinders, openings for the tapped
jacket core is used only in rare cases.
holes for the cylinder head bolts, and bores and channels for
Engine blocks made of gray cast iron, made in a sand casting
oil feed and return (Figure 7.55).
process, are almost exclusively of closed-deck design. Engine
Here, except the cylinders, the top plate is penetrated essen-
blocks made of aluminumsilicon alloys in a closed-deck
tially only by the smaller openings of appropriate cross sections
design are manufactured in mass production primarily as
to allow for coolant passage. These openings join the water
die castings, as low-pressure castings, and, more recently, in
jacket surrounding the cylinders (with the water jacket inside the
an automated sand casting process.
cylinder head) through specified channel cross sections in the
b) Open deck: In the open-deck version, the water jacket
head gasket and at openings in the cylinder head combustion
surrounding the cylinders is open at the top as shown in
chamber plate. This design suffers disadvantages regarding
Figure 7.56. From the casting technology viewpoint, this means
cylinder cooling in the TDC area. Producing the engine block
that no sand core and, thus, no core inserts are required to
water jacket requires a sand core in the closed-deck version
form the water jacket. The casting core for the water jacket
because the water jacket, in the upper area of the engine
requires no undercuts and may be made up as a steel mold.
block, is largely sealed off by the top plate. Consequently,
Compared with the closed-deck design, the water jacket
the water jacket cannot be created as a feature of the external
open at the top enables better cooling of the cylinders hot
casting mold for the engine block upper section; a core has
upper section.
to be inserted inside the casting mold. These bearing points
There is less stiffness in the top plate of the open-deck
are generally found in the finished engine block as casting
design than that of the closed-deck version.
eyes in the engine block side walls. The openings for the
A metallic head gasket is used to compensate for the increase
core inserts are closed off with sheet metal plugs. Once the
in negative influence on the top plate by deformation resistance
engine is assembled, core insertion points such as this are an
and cylinder warping. In comparison with the conventional
indication that it is a closed-deck engine block.
soft-material cylinder head gasket, the metallic head gasket
The advantage of the closed-deck design in comparison
permits a lower preload value for the head bolts, thus reducing
with the open-deck version is the greater stiffness of the
top plate deformation and cylinder warping.

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7.4 Engine Block

upon the crankshaft, accepting the corresponding bearings

including the thrust bearing (collar bearing or thrust washers),

as well as accepting a radial shaft sealing ring at the transmis-

sion output end, at the final main bearing, to seal the rear

end of the crankshaft.

The main bearing caps and main bearing pedestals in the

engine block are machined together and are joined during

post-machining assembly procedures. The normal methods

used for fixing these items are surfaces broached at the side

in the main bearing pedestals or bores for guide bushings.

Main bearing caps are manufactured exclusively as gray

castings and are combined with engine blocks made both of

gray cast iron and of aluminum alloys. Working the aluminum

main bearing pedestal and the gray cast bearing cap simultane-

ously is not without its difficulties because of the differences

in ideal cutting speeds (specific to the materials). This is the

procedure used in mass production today. The combination

of an aluminum main bearing pedestal and a cast iron main

bearing cap has advantages resulting from the gray cast iron:

the low coefficient of thermal expansion in the main bearing cap

made of gray cast iron limits the amount of play in the crank-

shaft bearings that develops during operation. This reduces

the amount of oil that passes through the main crankshaft

bearings. Reduced main bearing play and greater stiffness in

the cast iron bearing cap (Youngs modulus for gray cast iron
Figure 7.56Open-deck design.
is higher than that for aluminum) reduce noise generation

and emissions in the area around the main bearing pedestals.


Manufacturing open-deck engine blocks enables the use
The version previously most widely used in mass produc-
of essentially all types of casting processes.
tion was the engine block made of gray casting with main
The open-deck design made it possible to manufacture engine
bearing caps of the same material. The engine blocks were
blocks from an aluminumsilicon alloy using the economical
engineered either with the oil pan flange level with the center
die-casting process. Over and above this, it enables the use
of the crankshaft or as an engine block with side walls or
of special techniques for the cylinders and cylinder sleeves.
skirts that extend downward. In V-block engines, one most

commonly found an aluminum engine block combined with


7.4.2.1.2 Main bearing pedestal area
individual cast iron main bearing caps.
The main bearing pedestal area in engine blocks is the area
Since the early/mid-1990s, new engine designs featured
around the crankshaft bearings. The engineering design for
and feature the engine block increasingly as all-aluminum
this area is of particular importance because, among other
versions in mass production.
things, the forces acting on the crankshaft bearings have to
be taken up here.
Main bearing pedestal: The upper section of the crankshaft-
Options for further structuring the design of the engine
bearing surface in the engine block is referred to as the main
block include selecting the location for the separation plane
bearing pedestal. Regardless of the engineering design of
between the engine block and the oil pan, and the engineering
an engine block in the area around the crankshaft bearings,
of the main bearing caps.
the main bearing pedestals are always a part of the casting
One uses this separation plane to distinguish between an
for the engine block or for the upper section of the engine
oil pan with the flange level at the center of the crankshaft
block (Figure 7.57).
and one that is below the center of the crankshaft.
The number of main bearing pedestals for an engine block
In designing the main bearing caps, one distinguishes
depends on the engine type and, in particular, on the number
among individual main bearing caps, their integration into
of cylinders and their arrangement. Today, for reasons associ-
a longitudinal frame unit, and integration into the engine
ated with vibration phenomena, engine blocks are almost
block lower section.
always made with a full set of bearings for the crankshaft.

Crankshafts such as these have a main bearing journal next


Main bearing cap: The main bearing caps represent the lower
to each crankshaft throw. A four-cylinder inline engine thus
boundary of the main bearing pedestals; the caps are affixed
has five main bearing pedestals, six-cylinder inline and boxer
and bolted to the main bearing pedestals. The main bearing
engines have seven main bearings, V-6 engines have four main
caps and the main bearing pedestals have essentially the same
bearings, V-8 engines have five main bearings, and so on.
function, that is, absorbing the forces and torques imposed

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

block lower section form the outer limits of the crankcase; the

lower plane forms the flange to the oil pan.

An engine block lower section offers essentially the same

engineering design options as those described for the longi-

tudinal frame concept. Because engine block lower sections

are mass produced almost exclusively from aluminum alloys

and in a die-casting process, additional functions can be

integrated into it:


Breakthrough
oil removal, that is, radial stripping of the motor oil around the

envelope for the crankshaft counterweights and the conrods


Oil feed bore

parts of the motor oil circuit such as the oil intake channel

between the oil pump and the oil sump, the oil channel
Main bearing
between the oil filter head and the oil pump, the oil filter
pedestal

head itself, the oil return channels, the main oil channel

and oil channels to the individual main bearing points,

partial integration of the oil pump housing


Main bearing cap
accepting shaft seal rings to seal the crankshaft.

Engine block lower sections are used in mass-production

all-aluminum engines and in racing engines.


Figure 7.57Main bearing pedestal/main bearing cap.

Longitudinal frame concept: Similar to the situation where an


The major functions of the main bearing pedestals are
engine block lower section is used, in the longitudinal frame
accepting axial and radial forces and moments impinging
concept, the individual main bearing caps are consolidated
upon the crankshaft bearing system
into a single component (Figure 7.58). In contrast to the engine

block lower section, the longitudinal frame has no flange


accepting the upper sliding bearing shell for the crankshaft
plane interfacing the oil pan.
radial bearings along with accepting the collar bearings or
thrust washers in a main bearing pedestal, the so-called
thrust bearing, for axial control of the crankshaft
accepting the threads, fixing holes, or fixing bushings used
in attaching and fixing main bearing caps or longitudinal
frames or the lower section of the engine block
accepting oil feed bores and oil grooves used to supply the
crankshaft main bearings with oil
depending on the engine design, accepting the radial shaft-
sealing ring in the last main bearing pedestal, used to seal
the rear end of the crankshaft.
The main bearing pedestals often exhibit passageways to
equalize pressures in the individual chambers in the crankcase
area and, thus, reduce losses because of internal engine friction.
Vertical holes or channels for oil return from the cylinder
head or for crankcase venting through the main bearing
pedestals are commonly found.
These many functions require great care in the engineering
and design of the main bearing pedestals and the components
that interface with themthe main bearing caps or longitudinal
frame or lower engine block section. Engineering for these
assemblies is carried out today almost exclusively with the
engineering aids now available, such as FEM calculations.

Figure 7.58Longitudinal frame concept.


Engine block lower section: Just as in the longitudinal frame
design, the individual main bearing caps in the engine block

Rather, the longitudinal frame lies inside the engine and,


lower section are combined into a single component. In contrast

thus, is enclosed by the oil pan in the version where the oil pan
to the longitudinal frame, the engine block lower section does

flange is centered on the crankshaft or by the deep sidewalls


not lie within the engine. Instead, the sidewalls of the engine

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7.4 Engine Block

of engine blocks that incorporate the same. The advantages


of a longitudinal frame are
greater stiffness in comparison with individual main
bearing
caps and thus better acoustic properties, and easier and
faster installation
almost the same degree of engineering freedom as the engine
block lower section with regard to integrating functions
more economical and lighter in weight than an engine
block lower section.
Longitudinal frames made of aluminum alloys can be
Center crankshaft

manufactured using die casting. This also allows the integra-


tion of cast oil grooves to supply oil to the main bearings.
In the areas around the individual bearing points, insets
Main bearing cap
made of cast iron with spherical graphite (e.g., GJS 600) can
be cast in place. This yields the same advantages (reducing

Oil pan
the bearing play at the crankshaft, increasing stiffness of
the
longitudinal frame, and reducing noise radiation in the main
bearing pedestal area) as for the combination of aluminum
engine block and main bearing cap made of cast iron.

Figure 7.59Oil pan flange level with the center of the crankshaft.
In existing engine block designs with individual cast iron
main bearing caps, these may be replaced with a longitudinal
frame construction to increase stiffness and/or to improve
Oil pan flange below the center of the crankshaft: With the sepa-
acoustic properties without having to completely re-engineer
ration plane between the crankshaft and the oil pan in this
the block. Also possible are combined solutions in which
location, one differentiates between two types of engine
individual bearing caps are joined by bolting them to a
separate block construction.
cast part shaped like a ladder.
The engine blocks are engineered either with the oil pan
a. Design with upper engine block section and lower engine
flange level with the center of the crankshaft or as an engine
block section [Figure 7.60(a)]:
block with side walls or skirts that extend downward.
In this version, the main bearing caps are joined to form a

bearing case, the so-called engine block lower section. The


Oil pan flange level with the center of the crank: A further
design separation plane between the upper and lower sections of the
characteristic is the position of the separation plane between
engine block is level with the center of the crankshaft. This
the engine block and the oil pan being level with the center
of means that here the component designated as the engine block
the crankshaft (Figure 7.59). In this version, the upper
halves upper section corresponds to the engine block of the type
where
of the crankshaft bearing seats are integrated into the
casting the oil pan flange is level with the center of the
crankshaft.
for the engine block as main bearing pedestals. The lower
The lower face of the lower engine block section forms the
halves of the crankshaft bearing seats are engineered either
flange surface with which the oil pan mates. Depending on
as individual main bearing caps, as a longitudinal frame or
the engine design, the crankshaft is sealed at the rear end
as engine block lower section.
(toward the transmission) by a radial shaft seal in the last
The seal between the engine block and the oil pan is
between main bearing pedestal and at the front end with another
the two flanges congruent with the separation plane. The seal
radial shaft seal (located in the oil pump housing or front-end
for the crankshaft at the front and rear ends depends on the
cover, for example).
particular engine design. The front end of the crankshaft may
The advantages of this concept are great stiffness, good
be sealed by a radial shaft seal in the oil pump housing or in
acoustic properties, and the engineering design options available
the front-end cover. The rear end of the crankshaft may be
for the lower engine block section as made clear at the descrip-
sealed by a radial shaft seal in the last main bearing
pedestal tion of the lower engine block section and longitudinal
frame
or in a separate cover.
design (e.g., casting in place for inserts made of cast iron with
Cast iron engine blocks, in which the separation plane for
spherical graphite in the area of the individual bearing points
the oil pan is level with the center of the crankshaft and
with for lower engine block sections made of aluminum alloys and
individual main bearing caps, were often used for small-
manufactured in a die-casting process). The disadvantages
displacement (to approximately 1.8 L) four-cylinder, inline
are higher manufacturing costs and, in some cases, slightly
engines and in some V6 and V8 engines.
greater weight than if individual main bearing caps are used.
The advantages of this design are found in favorable
This concept is built in mass production with the upper
manufacturing costs. The disadvantages of this design, in
and lower engine block sections made of aluminum alloys.
comparison with engine blocks with deep skirts or a lower
Because racing engines are often integrated into the frame
engine block section, are less stiffness and less favorable
as a load-bearing component in the overall concept for the
acoustic properties.

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

Top part

Center crankshaft

Center crankshaft

Main bearing cap


Bottom part

Crankcase

Oil pan

Oil pan

#
Figure 7.60 (a) Version with upper and lower engine block sections. (b)
Engine block with side walls extended downward.

vehicle, racing engine blocks (because of the high degree of


requirements, is an important development target. This is
stiffness required) are designed almost exclusively using this
achieved by low noise radiation, avoiding natural frequencies,
engineering principle.
and damping resonance-inducing vibrations.
b. Engine block with side walls extended downward [Figure
The loading on the engine block resulting from the non-
7.60(b)]. In this version, the outside walls of the engine block
uniform progression of torques in the crankshaft because of
are extended to below the middle of the crankshaft and end at
the free mass forces and moments causes mechanical vibra-
the flange interfacing the oil pan. The separation of the main
tion. Their exciter frequency is in a specific relationship to
bearing pedestals continues to be centered on the crankshaft
the rotational speed of the crankshaft, according to the orders
for reasons associated with the machining. Designs that have
of excitation for the free effects of ignition gas and mass.
been realized exhibit both individual main bearing caps
Mechanical vibrations are caused by low exciter orders, are
and main bearing caps that have been combined to form a
at a low frequency, and are found primarily in the area of the
longitudinal frame.
main bearing pedestals and the crankcase.
The benefits of using a longitudinal frame are stiffness
High-frequency vibrations in the engine block walls are
and acoustic properties similar to the concept with separate
induced by the combustion process itself, and are in part
upper and lower engine block sections. The manufacturing
caused by pulse-like power transmissions in the valve actuators
costs for this method may be slightly lower, depending on
and by forces induced at the pistons. The high frequencies
the manufacturing volume.
are in the audible spectrum and are referred to as acoustic

vibrations. A part of the high-frequency acoustic vibrations

is radiated from the sidewalls of the engine block.


7.4.3 Optimizing Acoustic Properties

Low- and high-frequency vibrations exert their effects


Complying with noise emission regulations and satisfying

through the interface of the engine block with the engine


owners expectations for quiet operation are key areas of

mounts in the vehicle. Depending on the type of engine mount


attention in acoustic development for drive components.

used, vibrations and structural noise may be transferred to the


The acoustic properties and smooth running of an internal

vehicle. To be taken into account in the acoustic optimization


combustion engine depend on many parameters and are

of an engine are the following:


predetermined to a great degree by the selection of the design
for the engine and engine block.
the above-mentioned causes for initiation of structural noise
Optimizing the acoustic properties for the engine block
the structural noise propagation paths in the cylinder head,
structure, such as increasing stiffness at the engine block
cylinders, pistons, wristpins, conrods, and crankshaft
sidewalls, taking into account the many and varied functional

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7.4 Engine Block

the design of the engine mounts and their connection to the


Using a cast aluminum oil pan with a flange interfacing
engine block or to other engine and drive train components
with the transmission provides a stiff engine and trans-
the structure of the engine block in conjunction with the
mission group.
engine block engineering concept selected.
When optimizing the acoustic and vibration-associated
7.4.4 Minimizing Engine Block Mass
properties, the interaction with the flanged transmission
The important objectives in engine development are the reduc-
must be taken into account, as it affects not only the
vibration tion of pollutants, the lowering of fuel consumption, and an
of the entire engine-transmission assembly but also their
improvement in vehicle performance. This target requires,
transmission to the vehicle structure.
in addition to other measures, consistent implementation of
Modern engine block development is undertaken in a closed
lightweight engineering techniques for all vehicle compo-
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) process chain. The 3-D
nents. Reducing the engine block weight is one contribution
Computer Aided Drawing (CAD) depiction and networking for
to reducing weight for the entire drive train.
the housing structure form the foundation for FEM calculations
Depending on the engines size, design, combustion prin-
of strength, stiffness, and dynamic and acoustic properties.
ciple, and engine block design, the engine block accounts for
An experimental model analysis at the finished engine
between 25% and 33% of the overall engine weight (as per
block provides additional information on the forms of its
DIN 70020 A). Reducing the engine block weight thus makes
own vibrations.
a vital contribution to reducing overall vehicle engine weight.
Both experience and the engineering calculation and
analysis The measures undertaken to reduce engine block weight can
options available today support the basic claim that noise-
be subdivided into weight reductions attained by optimizing
optimized engine block design requires the stiffest possible
the structures and weight reductions specific to the materials.
engine block and the stiffest possible combination of engine
The trend for weight reduction is opposed by the trend for
and transmission.
higher loads on the engine block because of downsizing with
This is achieved by measures that are independent of the
increased peak and medium pressure and (high) charging.
selected engine block design and by exploiting advantages

7.4.4.1 Reducing Weight by Optimizing the Structure


specific to a particular design, such as the following:

The design of the engine block has a critical influence on


Manufacturing engine block surface structures with
total engine block weight. The engineering and calculation
reinforced areas and ribs or fins to reduce airborne noise
methods (such as CAD and FEM) that are commonplace
propagation.
today enable more closely targeted optimization of the design
Stiff top plate and a force engagement point for the head
needs, along with loading and functional needs, than could
bolts that are well below the top surface of the top plate.
be achieved in the past.
They minimize deformations at the sealing surfaces and
This means that the wall cross-sections required to carry
cylinder warping. The latter is a prerequisite for low
piston out important functions such as the exact position, number,
play and, thus, low piston noise.
and geometry of ribs (which increase stiffness and improve
Stiffness at the crankshafts main bearing pedestal
configura- acoustic properties) can be designed using minimal amounts
tion, which permits only slight play at the bearing.
of material. Cylinders that are cast together and the integra-
Stiff flanges interfacing with the oil pan and the
transmission tion of many functions into the engine block also
contribute
as a prerequisite for a stiff engine and transmission
assembly. to reducing overall engine weight.

The various engine block designs have differing specific


7.4.4.2 Weight Reductions Through Material Selection
acoustic advantages:
Until the early/mid-1990s, most engine blocks in mass produc-
The closed-deck design has a stiff top surface with
benefits, tion were gray castings. The necessity to reduce weight
resulted
in comparison with the open-deck design, with regard to
in using aluminum silicon alloys more frequently for mass-
deformation at the sealing surfaces and cylinders.
produced engine blocks for SI engines and even diesel engines.

The weight reduction potential in engine blocks made


A design comprising upper and lower engine block sections

from cast iron is lower than the weight reduction achieved by


gives a stiff engine and transmission group in comparison

using AlSi alloys. In cast iron engine blocks, a weight-saving


with an engine block with side walls extended below the

potential of approximately 30% is available by optimizing the


center of the crankshaft in combination with individual
main

structure and using thin-wall casting and vermicular graphite


bearing caps. In the latter design, stiffness is increased
by

cast iron (GJV). The advantage of GJV compared to cast iron


joining the individual main bearing caps to form a longi-

with flaked graphite (GJL) is the Youngs modulus, while its


tudinal frame.

disadvantage is higher material costs.


In solid aluminum engine blocks, composed of upper and
In comparison with gray cast iron engine blocks, the weight
lower sections, gray cast iron components that are cast
into of AlSi alloy engine blocks may be reduced by 40%60%,
the engine block at the main bearing points reduce thermal
depending on the size of the engine.
expansion and, in turn, bearing play.
This weight reduction is less than the ratio of the specific

weights of AlSi alloy and cast iron, because the different

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

material properties, fatigue strength, and Youngs modulus


7.4.5 Casting Process for Engine Blocks
must be considered during the design.
Engine blocks for automotive engines are manufactured from
Figure 7.61 shows the data for some materials used for
cast iron or aluminumsilicon alloys. The costs, numbers
engine blocks.
produced, and engineering design are the main criteria applied

when selecting the casting process.


0.2 % Offset Youngs Fatigue
Limit Density Modulus strength
7.4.5.1 Die Casting
Material (N/ mm2) (g/cm3) (kN/mm2) (N/mm2)
Permanent molds made of hardened, hot-work tool steels
Die-cast 140160 1.8 45
are used in the pressure die-casting process. The sections of
magnesium alloy

the mold have to be treated with a parting agent before each


Die-cast AlSi 140210 2.75 7478 7090
casting is made.
alloy

In contrast to sand casting and die casting, no cores can


Gray cast iron 7.27.7 100160 85210

be inserted into the mold because the lightweight metal


Figure 7.61Materials for engine blocks.
melt is introduced into the casting form at high pressure

and high speed.


Magnesium exhibits an even lower density than aluminum

The pressure level depends on the size of the casting and


and becomes interesting for this reason. The low specific

is between 400 and approximately 1000 bar. The pressure


weight supports using magnesium alloys for engine blocks.

is maintained during solidification. In larger castings, the


Disadvantages in comparison with the AlSi alloys normally

two halves of the form are cooled, allowing a directional


used today in mass production are the high costs of the material,

solidification of the cast component.


the lower material strength, and lower resistance to corrosion.

In contrast to sand casting and die casting, pressurized die


Because of the lower material strength, it is established that
casting provides the most precise reproduction of the hollow
engine block from Mg alloys cannot be lighter at a proportion

cavity in the mold and thus for the greatest precision in the
corresponding to the ratio of their specific weights, compared

cast component. Thin-walled castings with close dimensional


with Al alloys. In working out an engineering design that

tolerances, great exactness of shape, and superb surface quality


is in line with the loading, the differences in the material

can be fabricated. Casting eyes, holes, passages, and letter-


properties must be taken into account. In comparison with

ing to exact dimensions eliminates the need for subsequent


an engine block made of an AlSi alloy, using a magnesium

machining and casting in place bushings such as the cylinder


alloy in a comparable design can cause weight savings in

sleeves made of gray cast iron.


an order of magnitude of 25%.

Pressure die casting, when compared with sand casting or


The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy components,
die casting, offers the highest productivity because almost all
where no additional protective measures are adopted, is
the casting and mold movement processes are fully automated.
lower than that for components made from AlSi parts;
The drawbacks include the limited engineering freedom for
their natural surface or skin after casting already provides
the cast component, because undercuts are not possible. Air
sufficient corrosion resistance. Surface and contact corrosion
or gas bubbles that might be trapped in the casting preclude
will occur at unprotected surfaces. Contact corrosion arises
double heat treatment, as for sand casting and die casting.
when parts made of magnesium alloys come into contact
Engine blocks made of aluminumsilicon alloys, in particular
with components made of other metals or alloys. It results
with special cylinder sleeve technologies, are produced to an
from the differing positions of the various metals along
even greater extent in pressure die-casting.
the electrochemical series. Contact corrosion may arise at
threaded connectors and at holes for fixing elements such
7.4.5.2 Die Casting
as alignment bushings and pins.
A die is a permanent metal mold made of gray cast iron or
The cost advantage for AlSi alloys in comparison with
hot-worked steels and is used to manufacture cast components
magnesium alloys is an order of magnitude of about the
from lightweight metal alloys. Just as in sand casting, sand
factor three and results essentially from the absence of a
cores are inserted into the casting mold, offering the benefit
recycling market for magnesium. While AlSi alloys are
of greater freedom in the engineering design. Undercut areas
available at low cost in the form of secondary alloys from
are possible, which is in contrast to pressure die casting. The
components that have been melted down, it is necessary to
die-casting process makes it possible to use each mold for
draw upon the costly primary alloys for magnesium alloys.
many casting cycles, unlike in sand casting where new sand

cores are required for each cycle.


The modern design of a 3-L SI engine in series design
Again, in contrast to the sand-casting mold, solidification of
compensates for these disadvantages by casting around an
the metal melt in the die is fast and directional. Closely defined
aluminum insert containing the cylinder sleeves, the crankshaft
cooling of the die is possible, and this option is often used.
main bearing pedestals, and the coolant system. The coolant
The die has to be protected against the lightweight metal
cannot touch the magnesium jacket of the engine block and
melt by applying a parting agent.
corrosion is thereby avoided. Weight savings of 57% compared
with a comparable gray cast block and 24% compared with an
aluminum engine block are claimed for this design.

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7.5 Cylinders

In comparison with sand casting, castings taken from the


During the casting process, the hollow cavities between
die exhibit a finer inner structure, greater strength, greater
the outside mold and the cores are filled with molten metal.
dimensional accuracy, and better surface quality.
Following the filling process and after the metal has solidified,
Double heat treatment is possible for die-cast components.
the casting is removed from the sand mold. The sand mold
In addition to carefully defined control of cooling for the
cast is destroyed when doing so. The casting is then reworked to
component inside the die, the first heat treatment undertaken
remove traces of the gating, sprues, casting skin, and flash.
is often a further heat treatment, controlled cooling.
In sand-cast components made of AlSi alloys, double heat
In die casting, one differentiates between gravity die
casting treatment to increase the strength is possible. The first heat
and low-pressure die casting. The difference lies essentially
treatment phase is found in the controlled cooling period for
in the way in which the melt is introduced to the mold.
the casting inside the sand mold. The second heat treatment
In the low-pressure casting process, the molten metal is
occurs during time- and temperature-controlled storage of
introduced into the die from below at a gauge pressure of from
the casting in a kiln. The sand mold can be used to produce
0.2 to 0.5 bar, which is then maintained during
solidification. only a single casting.
The almost perfectly directional solidification of the casting
Sand casting is the process traditionally used for engine
that results is one of the fundamental reasons for the high
blocks made of gray cast iron. Engine blocks in AlSi alloys
quality of low-pressure cast components.
are also produced in large numbers using a precision sand-
In gravity die casting, by contrast, the mold is filled at
casting process.
atmospheric pressure, using the force of gravity acting upon
Further applications for sand-casting are creating prototypes
the molten metal.
and performing short production runs.

7.4.5.3 Lost-Foam Process


7.4.5.5 Squeeze Casting
This is a special variation of the sand-casting process. A
The squeeze-casting process represents a combination of low-
plastic model is made of the piece to be cast, using expanded
pressure die-casting and the die-casting process. Permanent
polystyrene, by foaming in place and, if necessary, by gluing
metal molds are filled from below with molten lightweight metal
individual segments together. The expanded polystyrene model
at a gauge pressure of from 0.2 to 0.5 bar. This is followed by
is coated with a water-based parting agent. The model, coated
solidification under high pressure at approximately 1000 bar.
and dry, is placed in a casting shell in which pure quartz
sand The excellent density attained when filling the mold also
(without any binders) is filled using vibratory compaction. In
makes it possible to use high-strength alloys with less favor-
this fast casting procedure (taking 1520 s), the molten metal
is able properties.
directed to the plastic model as a so-called full-mold
casting. The solidification of the melt while under high pressure
The heat in the molten metal degrades the plastic model: the
imparts a very fine internal structure to the cast component.
liquid and gaseous components are absorbed by the casting
Slow filling of the mold and solidification under high
sand. Following cooling and deforming, a flash-free casting
pressure give a structure virtually free of pores. As a result,
is obtained.
the material is capable of enduring high strength against
The particular advantages of this process are found in
alternating loads along with great resistance to temperature
the capabilities of making up plastic models that replicate
changes in comparison with both low-pressure casting and
casting geometries not possible with conventional sand-casting
die casting.
processes because of technical limitations on the latitude for
As in die casting, the use of sand cores is not possible
mold fabrication. The disadvantage of this casting process
when utilizing squeeze casting. Because undercuts cannot be
is that larger wall thicknesses are required than die casting,
created, the same engineering restrictions apply to squeeze
for example.
casting as for die casting.
The lost-foam process is suitable for making up both gray
In contrast to die casting, double heat treatment is possible
castings and lightweight metal alloy castings.
in squeeze casting, because there are virtually no pores in

the structure.
7.4.5.4 Sand Casting
Thus, squeeze casting combines the advantages of die
Models and core boxes made of hardwood, metal, or plastic
casting, low-pressure casting, and pressure casting.
are used to replicate the later engine block casting inside
the
sand mold. The casting molds are normally made of quartz
sand (either natural or synthetic sand) and binders (synthetic
resin and CO2). The sand is introduced, using sand shooting
7.5 Cylinders
machines, to make the cores. Combining individual cores
The piston group is mounted in the cylinders. With their
to form a core package, and assembling this core package
surface and the material usedand working in concert with
and the outer casting mold, is handled mechanically and
the piston ringsthe cylinders also support slip and sealing
fully automatically, even when producing only moderate
functions. Over and above this, they contribute, depending on
numbers of castings.
the design, to heat dissipation via the engine block or directly
Model, core, and mold parting in various planes and insert-
into the cooling water.
ing cores in the casting mold make it possible to produce
complex cast components with undercut areas.

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

7.5.1 Cylinder Design


with pistons and piston rings made of conventional materi-
Both engineering and materials aspects have to be taken into
als and platings. The layer is, however, to a certain extent,
account when designing the cylinder and the cylinder running
sensitive to corrosion when using fuels that contain sulfur.
surface. Both aspects are linked to each other. Taking the
The nickel dispersion layer is better known under trade-
materials as the starting point, the designs for the cylinders
marked names such as NISKAL, GALNICAL, and GILNISIL.
and engine block may be subdivided as follows:
The nickel dispersion layer can be combined with both
monolithic design
closed-deck and open-deck designs. Because even minuscule
insert technique
porosity in the cylinder running surface can cause plating

problems in that the plated layer spalls off, the selection of


bonding technology.

the casting processes that may be used for AlSi alloy engine
7.5.1.1 Monolithic Design
blocks is restricted. The conventional pressure die-casting
Typical representatives for a monolithic design are engine
process, for example, cannot be used without special tech-
blocks made of cast iron alloys in which the cylinders are
niques such as vacuum support. Nickel dispersion plated
an integral part of the engine block. The required surface
cylinders are used frequently for single-cylinder motorcycle
quality is achieved by machining in several steps, including
engines. Multi-cylinder engine blocks for automotive use,
preliminary and precision reaming and honing. Monolithic
incorporating nickel dispersion finished cylinders, are mass-
engine blocks made of AlSi alloys are found in two versions:
produced only to a very limited extent.
Manufacturing the engine block casting from a hypereutectic

7.5.1.1.1 Cylinder engineering for monolithic designs


AlSi alloy. AlSi alloys are deemed to be hyper-eutectic

One differentiates between cylinders that are cast as a single


if their silicon content exceeds 12%. The primary silicon

unit along the engine blocks longitudinal axis and those


precipitated out in the cast component, following the machin-

that are not cast together. In the past, engine blocks in both
ing of the engine block at the cylinder running surfaces,

closed-deck and open-deck designs made of either cast iron


is exposed by a chemical etching process or with special
or aluminumsilicon alloys were executed with cylinders
mechanical honing. A hard, wear-resistant cylinder running

that were not joined together along the engine blocks longi-
surface (referred to as non-reinforced) is created; it has to

tudinal axis. This was done to achieve the most uniform


be mated with an iron-plated piston.

possible temperature distribution in the cylinders (by coolant


Because of the high share of silicon in hypereutectic AlSi
present between the cylinders) and the smallest possible
alloys, workpieces made of this material cannot be machined
degree of cylinder warping (by preventing mutual influencing
as readily as cast components made of hypoeutectic alloys.
of neighboring cylinders). The greater length of the engine
The primary silicon crystals precipitated out in the cast part
block that this involved proved to be detrimental. Today,
are damaged and splinter during mechanical processing.
suitable engineering measures can be employed to ensure that
This results in undesirably short chips. In hypereutectic AlSi
cylinders that are cast as a single, solid unit along the engines
alloys and a closed-deck design, this monolithic cylinder
longitudinal axis can exhibit almost uniform temperature
block or engine block design can be manufactured in a
distribution in spite of the absence of coolant between the
low-pressure process, and in hypoeutectic AlSi alloys and
cylinders. This eliminates any appreciable warping problems
open-deck design, in a pressure casting process. When
and the concomitant functional problems such as excess oil
using this latter process, the primary silicon grains are
consumption or blow-by. The advantages of unitized cylin-
found, which are far smaller than with low-pressure casting
ders include greater engine block strength, a shorter engine
processes. This improves machining properties significantly.
block, and lower engine weight. Today, the reduced engine
Because of the reduced tendency to splinter, the smaller
length is a dominant criterion in view of transverse engine
silicon crystals can be worked faster while better cutting
mounting and in light of the ever-declining amount of space
results are achieved at the same time.
available for installing drivetrain components. Depending
Manufacturing the engine block from a hypo-eutectic AlSi
on the particular engine design (inline, V-block, or boxer
alloy in combination with a finish for the cylinder running
engine), designing the engine block with cylinders cast as a
surface. The finish may be applied either by electroplating
unit results in differing degrees of reduction in length and
or with a thermal spatter process. In the meantime, cylinder
weight. The lower limit for joining cylinders is represented
running surfaces that are remelted or plated using lasers
by the web remaining between the cylinders. Regardless
are in the development phase.
of the material used, engine blocks manufactured in mass
Used exclusively in mass production to date is the quasi-
production incorporate cylinder webs thinner than 5.5 mm.
monolithic engine block design in which a nickel dispersion
This was made possible by employing metal head gaskets
layer is electrodeposited on the cylinder running surface. This
with low compression and setting properties, thus requiring
layer consists of a nickel matrix into which silicon carbide
lower preload values at the head bolts. In addition to perfect
particles are inserted at uniform distribution. Cylinder
sealing at the cylinder web, cylinder deformation is reduced
surfaces finished in this way exhibit excellent running
to a minimum because of the lower preload values in the
properties and low wear. Moreover, they may be combined
aggregate comprising the cylinder head and the engine block.

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7.5 Cylinders

7.5.1.2 Insert Technique


has a negative effect both on the surface pressure applied by
Insertion techniques are normally used for cylinder sleeves
the head gasket around the cylinder and on cylinder deforma-
in automotive engines in conjunction with aluminum engine
tion. Consequently, sleeve protrusion or depression must be
blocks. Sleeves made of any of a variety of materials are
inserted reduced to a minimum.
into the engine block. Following differentiation by function
Inserting fully machined, wet cylinder sleeves into an
into wet and dry cylinders, one distinguishes whether the
engine block after the top plate has been finished is done by
sleeve is cast in place, pressed in place, shrink fit, or slid
in imposing extremely close tolerances on the relevant sleeve
place in the engine block. Moreover, one may distinguish
dimensions. When installing standing sleeves, shimming is a
according to the material used for the sleeve, possibly cast
commonly used technique. A further option is final machining
iron or aluminum.
of the engine block top plate and the sleeves after the latter

have been installed.


7.5.1.2.1 Wet cylinder
Wet sleeves are normally manufactured from gray cast
Wet cylinders are slid into the engine block, mating with
iron. The less common aluminum sleeves may be made of
mounting areas machined and prepared accordingly. The
either hypereutectic or hypoeutectic AlSi alloys.
water jacket around the cylinder is formed between the engine
For economical reasons, wet sleeves are preferably installed
block and the sleeve (Figure 7.62).
in engine blocks with open-deck design and are manufac-

tured in a die-casting process. The advantages in using wet

sleeves are freedom in selecting the material for the sleeve,


Water space

flexibility with regard to the cylinder bore, and thus, displace-

ment specified by combining the appropriate sleeves with

one and the same engine block. Further benefits are simple

interchangeability and repairs. Unfavorable factors are the

higher manufacturing costs when compared with monolithic

concepts. Wet aluminum sleeves are found almost exclusively

in lightweight metal engines for sports cars or racing cars,


where lower weight and better heat transfer are given prefer-

ence over cost considerations.


Cylinder sleeve

7.5.1.2.2 Dry sleeves


Housing
Dry sleeves are pressed, shrink fit, or cast in place in the

engine block (Figure 7.63). When cast in place, the sleeves are

inserted in the engine block mold, and the molten aluminum

alloy is cast around them. In contrast to wet sleeves, the water

jacket is not between the sleeve material and the engine block

casting, but, as in the monolithic design, is a component of


Figure 7.62Wet cylinder.

the engine block casting.


The hanging cylinder sleeve features a collar at its upper
end; this collar is clamped between the engine block and
the head gasket or cylinder head. The sleeve is centered in
Water space
the engine block at the collar itself or at a diameter below
the
collar. Using the collar for centering offers the advantage of
good cooling for the top end of the cylinder sleeve, which
is subjected to severe thermal loading. The disadvantage is
the heavy loading at the fillet in the engine block. Centering
the sleeve at a point below the collar causes less
satisfactory
cooling at the upper end of the sleeve, but does relieve the
heavy loading at the fillet. O-rings are used at wet sleeves
that Cylinder sleeve
are suspended from the top to seal against coolant at the top
and against oil from the crankcase at the bottom.
Housing
In the standing wet cylinder, the support and centering
functions are at the lower end of the sleeve or approximately
the center (the so-called mid-stop design). This sleeve
concept
requires particularly careful engineering to keep down
cylinder

Figure 7.63Dry sleeve.


deformation. Sealing is by the head gasket at the top and a
flat
gasket at the bottom, below the sleeve support surface or by

Consequently, no sealing is required between the dry sleeve


O-rings. Misalignment of wet cylinder sleeves at the top
plate,

and the engine block.


resulting in protrusion or depression, can be a problem. This
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Chapter 7 Engine Components

Any protrusion of the dry sleevepressed or cast in placein


developed by Honda. The limitations that the technology
relation to the top plate level is corrected by machining the
places on die-casting and casting-related processes make it
deck plate and the inserted sleeve together. Dry sleeves may
necessary to adopt an open-deck design when implementing
be made of either gray cast iron or (hypereutectic) aluminum
a bonding process. Cylinders that are cast together as a unit
alloys; sintered sleeves made of powdered metal materials are
and those that are cast separately can be realized.
another option. The running surfaces for dry sleeves made of
Regarding the use of preforms, one may differentiate between
gray cast iron or aluminum are treated the same way as wet
two bonding technology processes:
sleeves and, thus, exhibit the properties listed there.
Honda Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) process: This metal
Dry sleeves, regardless of the material, may be used for
matrix composite process has been in volume production for
both open-deck and closed-deck designs and can be combined
some years now. It is similar in principle to the KS Lokasil
with all the casting processes that are normally used for
process. Fiber preforms are inserted into the mold prior to
engine blocks. Aluminum engine blocks are found in mass
casting. The preforms consists of a bond of Al2O3 fibers and
production and are characterized by the closed-deck design,
carbon fibers and, in the new Honda die-casting processes,
made in die-casting or low-pressure casting, with gray cast
are infiltrated by the molten aluminum alloy.
iron cylinder sleeves pressed in place; also seen is the open-

KS Lokasil process: A high-porosity, cylindrical body made


deck design made with pressure casting where gray cast

of silicon is infiltrated by a liquid aluminum alloy at high


iron sleeves are cast in place. To obtain geometrically locking

pressure during the squeeze-casting process. The cylinder


connections during the casting in place, the outer surface of

running surface is prepared with three honing phases. In


the sleeve is profile machined or cast with a rough surface

preliminary honing using diamond strips, many of the silicon


(so-called rough-cast sleeve) [7-39].

crystals in the surface are damaged. Intermediate honing


The advantages of dry cylinder sleeves are freedom in the

using silicon carbide removes this damaged silicon crystal


selection of the materials, the easy repair option (in the case

layer. The third honing phase, using grains bound up elasti-


of gray cast sleeves) by reaming out to oversize dimensions,

cally in the honing strips, exposes the silicon grains. Similar


separate manufacture (in aluminum sleeves) of the cylinder

to the silicon crystals that are exposed in the monolithic


running surface, and the option for combining sleeves with

version by etching the hypereutectic aluminum alloy, these


an engine block made of a different aluminum alloy. One

crystals form a hard and wear-resistant cylinder running


embodiment of this is the cast-in-place sleeve made of a hyper-

surface. An iron-plated piston is required for use as the


eutectic, spray-compacted aluminum alloy with the trademarked

mating material. As a rule, a set of piston rings similar to


designation SILITEC. A disadvantage in this concept, inherent

that used with cylinders made of gray cast iron is sufficient.


to the concept, is poorer heat transfer between the cylinder
running surface and the water jacket.
When using bonding technology with metallic sleeves, it
Regarding manufacturing costs, there may be advantages
is possible, in one embodiment, to cast in place (during die
or disadvantages when compared with a monolithic design
casting) a sleeve made up completely by thermal spraying
depending on the number of units produced, the casting
and comprising various materials in multiple layers (GOEDEL
process selected, and the engineering details of the engine
technology). The inter-metallic bond between the sleeve and the
block and sleeve. Particularly, when manufacturing large
molten aluminum alloy is ensured by the appropriate choice
numbers of units in pressure die-casting or automated sand-
of materials (normally an AlSi alloy similar to that used for
casting processes, cast-in-place gray cast sleeves can be very
the engine block) and the special surface at the outside face
economical in terms of overall costs.
of the thermal spray sleeve.

Regarding the material used for the cylinder running surface,


7.5.1.3 Bonding Technology
with its influence on tribologic properties, the thermal spray
Bonding technology can be used only in engine blocks made
process allows a broad choice of FE-based alloys. Machining
of aluminum alloys. In aluminum engine blocks incorporating
for the cylinder running surface in each case (as a rule, by
bonding technologyand in contrast to aluminum engine
a two- or three-step honing process) is chosen to suit the
blocks in classical monolithic designan inseparable unit
material selected. The same applies to the selection of the
comprising the engine block and the cylinder running surface
mating materials in the pistons and piston rings.
is created. There are two fundamental embodiments. In the
In another embodiment, the desired inter-metallic bond
first, shaped cylindrical bodies, so-called preforms, made of a
can be achieved by applying the thermally sprayed outer
bond of suitable metallic and ceramic materials, are inserted in
layer of the GOEDEL sleeve on a conventional gray cast
the casting molds and are infiltrated by the molten aluminum
iron sleeve (referred to by the manufacturer as the HYBRID
alloy at high pressure during the casting process.
sleeve). Thus, the usual situations apply to machining the
Alternatively, sleeves made up of several layers and/or of
cylinder running surface and selecting the pistons and piston
several metallic materials are joined with the engine block by
rings for the gray cast iron running surfaces. This option is
an inter-metal bond during the casting operation. The bonding
thus particularly economical and has been used for mass
technology limits the choice of casting process to pressure
production. This is different from other bonding technology
die casting and processes derived from pressure die casting,
solutions that are limited essentially to sports cars and other
such as squeeze casting or the new die-casting process
high-performance engines.

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7.5 Cylinders

Forcing lever
Bayonet connection

Measuring

air intake

Double cone

Tool body

Guide strips
Strip holder

Air measuring nozzles

Honing strips

Return spring Figure 7.64Multi-strip honing

for strip holder tool with air measurement

system (Mfg. Nagel).

7.5.2 Machining Cylinder Running Surfaces


7.5.2.1 Machining Processes
The cylinder running surface in internal combustion engines
In standard honing in a single-stage or multi-stage machining
is the tribologic mating material and sealing surface for the
process, a surface structure exhibiting normal distribution is
pistons and piston rings. The properties of the cylinder
running created so that in the roughness profile, there are as many
surfaces have a determinant influence on establishing and
valleys as peaks.
distributing an oil film between the mating components.
Plateau honing, on the other hand, levels peaks with a
There is a strong interrelation among cylinder roughness,
supplementary machining step, creating a plateau-like slide
oil consumption, and wear inside an engine.
surface with deep scoring that retains oil.
The final machining of the cylinder running surface is
Helical slide honing is a further refinement of plateau honing.
effected by precision boring or turning and subsequent honing.
It differs from plateau honing primarily by the reduced rough-
During the honing process, rotational and alternating trans-
ness (and, in particular, the peak roughness) and a very large
lational motions are superimposed upon each other to create
honing angle of from 120 to 150 for the deep scoring. Very
a cutting motion. In this way, a cylinder shape of less than
uniform surface roughness is achieved using special honing
10 m and uniform surface roughness can be achieved. The
strips that follow the shape of the bore.
scoring arising from the cutting motion includes the so-called
Laser texturing offers almost unlimited freedom in surface
honing angle.
design through carefully defined removal of material by the
This processing, as shown in Figure 7.64, should be as
gentle laser beam [7-36]. The cylinder running surface is textured
in
on the material as possible to avoid breakout, pinching at the
the TDC area and is otherwise made as smooth as possible.
edges, and the formation of burrs. The material is cut with
Textures and structures such as helically arranged slots and
the assistance of honing strips running under a water-based
pits, as well as cupping, are possible in addition to conventional,
coolant/lubricant or special honing oil [7-35]. At the
prescribed uniform cross-scored textures.
surface pressure or advancing speed, material removal of 100
The roughness profiles for various honing processes are
m in diameter is achieved in less than a minute.
shown in Figure 7.65. The influence of the running surface

A
5m

Figure 7.65Roughness profile for


0 2,5 5
7,5 10 12,5 (a) standard honing, (b)
plateau
Total measuring path l
m in mm honing, (c) helical slide
honing,

(d) laser-imparted texture, and (e)

smooth standard honing.


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Chapter 7 Engine Components

topology on oil consumption and particle emission has been


Other elaborate special processes are nitriding and phospha-
clearly established at the example of a Direct Injection (DI)
tizing the honed cylinder running surfaces. Nitriding creates
diesel engine [7-37].
a very rough and hard layer that is not suitable for use as a
A complex variation of honing, in which free grinding
cylinder running surface without supplementary treatment
grains are used, is lapping. Here loose grain is used to give
such as phosphatizing. Phosphatizing is also used without
the cylinder running surface a random high/low structure.
nitriding and has a smoothing effect while also acting as a
Solid strips press this hard lapping agent in part into the
solid lubricant.
surface, and a plateau surface is created.
The 3-D surface images after honing gray cast iron and
In brush honing, the surface texture is rounded and deburred
aluminum cylinder running surfaces are shown in Figure
following standard honing; a brush coated with a carbide
7.66 and Figure 7.67.
material is used for this purpose. Fluid blasting is yet another
process used to remove the metal frost (sometimes also
referred to as spangle) from the surface and to flush out pores
present in the surface. In this process, the entire cylinder
running surface is blasted with a water-based coolant/lubricant
at a pressure of approximately 120 bar.
Also used is a process in which gray cast cylinder running
surfaces are exposed to excimer laser beams, which opens the
graphite precipitates and simultaneously melts on the surface
to improve running properties [7-38].
Exposure honing for aluminum cylinder running surfaces
employs specially designed honing strips to depress the soft
aluminum matrix in comparison with the reinforcing fibers
or particles. The particles can also be exposed by etching. The
purpose is to depress the aluminum, which has a tendency
to weld, by 0.51 m. The oil retention spaces created by the
suppression of the aluminum improve the running properties
of the surface.
Plasma or flame-sprayed cylinder sleeves can be smoothed
to a great extent, similar to inductance-hardened gray casting.
The oil retention spaces created by the materials porosity
guarantee good running properties.

Figure 7.67The 3-D surface image of an aluminum cylinder running surface

with exposed reinforcing particles.

7.5.3 Cylinder Cooling


7.5.3.1 Water Cooling

With just a very few exceptions, todays automotive engines

are water-cooled. In contrast to air-cooled cylinders which

are fitted with cooling fins, the cylinders are surrounded by

a water-filled cavity, the water jacket.

An important engineering dimension is the water jacket

depth, defined as the distance from the top plate plane to the

lowest point in the water jacket. In modern cast iron engine

block designs, the water jacket ends in the area swept by the

lower piston ring, that is, in the area between the first compres-

sion ring and the oil control ring when the piston is at BDC.

The water jacket is even shorter in aluminum engine blocks.

The water jacket depth corresponds to approximately one-third

of the length of the cylinder running surface. This is made

possible by the greater thermal conductivity of aluminum

alloys in comparison with cast iron materials and by pistons


Figure 7.66The 3-D surface image for a honed, gray cast iron cylinder
with ever shorter compression heights. A short water jacket
running surface with metal frost (white marbling) and the honing
reduces the coolant volume in the engine and, thus, the engine
angle sketched in.

weight. The smaller coolant volume and thermal capacitance

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7.6 Oil Pan

shortens the engines warm-up phase, with positive effects in


applied. This gives an inter-metallic bond between the
terms of unburned hydrocarbon emissions and the response
cylinder sleeve and the rib jacket and results in uniform
time for the catalytic converter.
heat flow.

7.5.3.2 Air Cooling


In engines subjected to less severe loading, cylinder designs
Only a very few manufacturers still use air-cooled cylinders
were also used in which a lightweight metal rib jacket was
in automotive engines today. Heat removal in air-cooled
cast around a cast iron sleeve without any particular bonding,
cylinders is dependent upon the thermal conductivity of the
or a cast iron sleeve was shrink fit into a prepared aluminum
cylinder fins and of the cylinder materials, shape of the
cooling fin jacket.
fins, and the way in which cooling air passes across the fins.

7.5.3.2.2 Cooling air flow


7.5.3.2.1 Shape of the cooling fins
In air-cooled automotive engines, forced or positive cooling
In air-cooled cylinders, cooling fins are located on the
cylinder using a fan is implemented without exception. Here the cooling
outside walls to increase the effective surface area for heat
air is routed from the fan housing, through baffle plates that
transmission. In theory, fins with a triangular cross section
surround the cylinder and cylinder heads, and is thus directed
are the most effective. In cast cylinders, the particulars of
onto and between the cooling fins. The more favorable the
the process result in slightly trapezoidal fins with rounded
flow characteristics and the thermal conductance values in
edges being formed; these are hardly any less effective than
each case, the lower the required amount of cooling air and
fins with a triangular cross section. Heat transfer at cooling
fan output.
fins can be increased by
increasing the fin surface area by, for example,
lengthening
and by greater fin height
7.6 Oil Pan
increasing cooling air velocity
The oil supply for passenger engines today is provided almost
converting from random to directed cooling air flow by
exclusively with a wet sump lubrication design. In such engines,
installing air baffles and deflectors, for example
the oil pan forms the bottom termination for the engine block
using a material with the highest possible heat
transmission (Figure 7.68). The design and construction of the oil
pan is
capacity for the cylinder and fins, such as aluminum alloys
strongly determined by the installation situation (package)
instead of gray cast iron.
in the actual vehicle. Under certain circumstances, the same

engines may have different oil pans, depending on whether


The fins on motor blocks carry out other functions in
addition

they are installed in a longitudinal or in a transverse direction.


to heat removal:
increasing the stiffness of the engine block side walls,
which
improve acoustic properties
optimizing force transmission from less stiff areas into
load-bearing areas of the engine block structure
optimizing the casting process to achieve better flow of
the Sheet metal oil pan
molten metal to areas in the engine block.
Modern calculation methods make it possible to optimize
fins
with regard to weight, structural strength, and heat removal.
The thermal conductivity of aluminum alloys is almost three
times that of cast iron materials. That is why cast iron
cylinders,
once suitable running surface finishing technologies had been
developed for aluminum cylinders, are increasingly replaced
by cylinders made of aluminum alloys. In air-cooled gasoline
and diesel engines that are in harsh service the dimensional
stability of the pure lightweight metal cylinder may in some
cases not be sufficient. It was for that reason that cylinders
were used in which a cast iron or steel liner is surrounded
by a jacket of fins made of lightweight metal. These so-called
bonded cast cylinders were made up in two processes:

Al die cast oil pan with dipstick,


Casting around a gray iron cylinder sleeve (with a
roughened engine 944 turbo
outer surface) a rib jacket made of a lightweight metal
alloy
in a pressure casting process.
Figure 7.68Oil pan.
Casting around a steel or cast iron sleeve to which, prior
to
the casting process, a thin ironaluminum coat had been

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

The most important of the oil pan functions are as follows:


Weight reductions of approximately 30% with the hybrid
Serving as a container to receive the motor oil when oil
solution and approximately 60% with the purely plastic
is first installed and as the collecting basin for motor oil
design, compared with, for example, an aluminum type
returning from the bearings and lubrication points.
weighing 2.2 kg.
Enclosing the crankcase, it serves, in specially engineered
The high integration density enables packaging advantages.
oil pan types, at the same time in stiffening the engine
For example, not only oil channels and channels of the
and transmission assembly. This improves the acoustic
crankcase ventilation system can be integrated but also an
behavior of the engine and transmission assembly in the
oil filter, an oil pressure regulator, and an oil cooler. With
low-frequency range.
suitable dimensioning, this can also result in a reduction

of the pressure loss in the oil channels and the drive power
It drives the oil through oil guide fins to the oil intake

required for the oil pump.


point, contains slug plates to steady the oil, and enables
the separation of air from the oil.
Taking the threads for the oil drain plug and the dipstick
guide tube and often housing, in addition, an oil level gauge
7.7 Crankcase Venting
showing the oil fill in the vehicle.

Because of the limited tightness of the piston rings during

reciprocating engine operation, gases (the so-called blow-by


7.6.1 Oil Pan Design
gases) from the combustion chambers pass through the gap
In mass production engines, the oil pan is normally a single-
between the cylinder and the pistons and into the crankcase.
layer, deep-drawn component made of sheet steel. To improve
Other causes for leak gas flows into the engine block are
acoustic properties, a design is now used that incorporates two
leaks at the valve guides and the shaft bearings of turbo-
layers of sheet steel with a plastic film between them. Used in
chargers but also the vacuum pump used in diesel and SI
conjunction with large-displacement engines incorporating
engines with direct fuel injection (brake servo pump). The
cast iron or aluminum engine blocks are oil pans made of
high pressure differences present at the piston rings, in
AlSi alloys, manufactured by die casting or pressure casting.
particular, in conjunction with high temperatures cause a
This is achieved with a stiff design for the oil pan side walls
portion of the engine oil adhering to pistons and cylinders
and, primarily, with an integral flange at the clutch end of
to atomize in a fine oil droplet mist which then flows, with
the engine, as the connection to the transmission flange.
the blow-by gases, into the engine block. Separate from this,
This design makes a significant contribution to stiffening
mostly larger oil droplets are thrown off the moving transmis-
the engine and transmission group and, consequently, to
sion components (crankshaft, pistons, camshaft, and timing
better acoustic properties. This design is used in about half of
chain) when the engine is running. The injection oil cooling
European engine concepts. Oil pans made of aluminum alloys
of the pistons common in high-performance engine must
are made in single- and two-component versions. Two-part
also be regarded as a major source of oil mist; furthermore,
oil pans compose an upper section made of a lightweight
condensation processes of previously vaporized, low-boiling
metal and a lower section made of sheet steel which is bolted
lubricating oil components contribute to oil particle forma-
to the upper section. The steel component can be changed
tion in addition to the lubricating oil atomization. Figure 7.69
more economically in case of deformation (if the car bottoms
shows blow-by oil paths and transport mechanisms for oil mist
out). In comparison, an oil pan made entirely of aluminum
and oil wall film in the ventilation system of an exhaust gas
would have to be completely replaced if deformation occurs.
turbocharging engine. To avoid an unwanted pressure rise
Today, this advantage is only of slight significance because
in the crankcase during engine operation (risk of gas and oil
of the underbody claddings being used more frequently to
leaks, environmental hazards, and shaft sealing ring failure),
enclose the engine.
a crankcase venting system must constantly discharge the
A more recent development is the use of fiber-glass reinforced
blow-by gas from the crankcase.
polyamide in oil pan construction. This application leads to
special demands on the synthetic material because of the

7.7.1 Regulatory Marginal Conditions


long-lasting contact with air and oil at high temperatures.

In the early decades of engine construction, the crankcase


For this reasons, the aging behavior is tested with oil wetting

venting gases were discharged directly into the atmosphere.


at 160 C for more than 5000 h. Mechanical demands on the

The high portions of hydrocarbons in the blow-by gases of SI


synthetic material arise also from lifting and lowering the

engines were the backdrop for the first voluntary (and later
engine, for example, by forklifts in the body shop.

stipulated by law) introduction of closed crankcase venting


From a design point of view, it is differentiated between

systems (closed crankcase ventilation (CCV) systems). These


purely synthetic oil pans and synthetic oil pans with aluminum

were the first to return the blow-by gases into the intake tract
die-cast components (hybrid). They allow again the support of
in the 1960s, initially in California and then the other U.S. states
the transmission. The sealing of the plastic oil pan is similar

[7-44]. Corresponding legal provisions were subsequently


to the one of cylinder head shrouds; T- or I-profile seals are

adopted in all important markets and extended to include


used. Sealing with liquid silicone is also possible.

passenger car and truck diesel engines [7-45]. However, for


Oil pans made from synthetic materials have some advantages:

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7.7 Crankcase Venting

Oil Exhaust

TurbochargerTurboscharger

Intake silencer with air filter

Leak gas flow from

the turbocharger shaft


Intercooling

Separator unit with


crankcase pressure-
regulating valve

Leak gas flow at the

valve guides

Fine oil generation via

atomizing mechanism

in the piston ring gaps

Fine oil generation via


Coarse oil as
droplets and splashes,
Coarse oil in form of
condensation of
generated by
shearing, swirling and Figure 7.69
Illustration of
oil entrained at the walls
vaporized lubricant
thrown oil at
moving crank gear component blow-by gas paths
and transport

portions
and piston
spray cooling.

mechanisms for oil mist and

oil wall film in a exhaust gas

turbocharged SI engine.

engines for off-road applications and heavy utility vehicles,


in respect of oil consumption of the engines, contaminations
venting the crankcase into the atmosphere is still permitted
and deposits in the intake system components, the combus-
in principle (open crankcase ventilation systems). Figure
tion chambers, and the exhaust gas treatment systems (in
7.70 shows a summary of the relevant statutory milestones
particular, in combinations of cooled EGR systems with CCV),
in selected markets. According to the Directive 70/200/EEC,
in particular, require that lubricating oil components present
Annex V, Test Type III applicable for passenger cars in the
in the venting gas must be separated as completely as possible
European Union, evidence must be provided that no gauge
to prevent soot deposits in tacky HC components.
pressure is present in the crankcase in three different engine
operating points. The compositions and mass flows (in European

7.7.2 Technical Requirements


applications up to 1% of the intake air mass flow) of the
crank-

The statutory marginal conditions result in many techni-


case ventilation gases depend, to a significant extent, on the

cal requirements for crankcase venting systems. Essential


combustion process, the crank gear design, the operating state

requirements concern maintaining a specific pressure in the


(effective mean pressure, speed, and coolant temperature),

crankcase, the separation of oil components from the venting


and the wear condition of the crank gear. Correspondingly,

gas, and the recirculation of the separated oil into the oil
the gases must be continuously returned into the engine

sump of the engine. To maintain the prescribed pressure in


intake system. Compared with the gas recirculation and the

the crankcase, throttles or flow-limiting valves are arranged


return of the activated carbon filter purge gases of the tank

in the intake and discharge flow line to the crankcase or, in


ventilation system (SI engines) where the mass flows can,

modern crankcase venting systems, prevalently used pressure


principally, be freely applied according to the requirements

control valves (PCVs). In conventional venting systems, the


in the map, the blow-by mass flows imprinted by the crank

pressure differential between the crankcase and the intake


gear significantly complicate a pollution-optimized mixture

system is used to transport the venting gases into the engine


formation and thus compliance with strict exhaust emission

intake system and to separate the lubricating oil particles.


limits in SI engines in particular. The tougher requirements

As can be seen in the intake manifold pressure and blow-by

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

Region Regulation, Limit Value


Legislation In Force From
U.S. California Voluntary installation of so-called semi-open
Recommendation: Vehicle Combustion Products 01.01.1961
systems
Committee
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) systems
Californian Health and Safety Code 01.01.1964
for passenger cars with SI engines
U.S. Federal Installation of systems installed in California
Voluntary measure Year of manufacture 1963
100% elimination of hydrocarbons emitted from
Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Year of manufacture 1968
the crankcases of SI engines
Japan Use of PVC systems in all new passenger
Code of Federal Regulations for Road Vehicles 01. 09. 1970
vehicles with SI engines
(SRRV) Chapter II, Article 31(12) (new models), 11.01.1971

(current production)
Sweden Closed system for crankcase ventilation in SI
F12-1968 01.01.1969
engines
Adoption of the US Federal legislation
Code of Federal Regulations 1976

(40 CFR)
Canada Adoption of the US Federal legislation
Code of Federal Regulations 1971

(40 CFR)
Germany Limit for HC emission from crankcase
Adoption of Directive 70/220 EEC as Annex XIV 01.10.1970
ventilation: 0.15% of consumed fuel
to 47 StVZO in German national legislation
EU (passenger car) Limit for HC emission from crankcase
ECE/R15 01.10.1971
ventilation: 0.15% of consumed fuel
(published 1.8.1970)

70/220/EEC (published 4.4.1970)


EU (utility vehicle) General scope of validity:
88/77/EEC Annex I 09.02.1988
Emission of gaseous pollutants and air-
polluting particles (requires recycling of
crankcase gases)
Figure 7.70Introduction of regulations for the limitation of emissions
from the crankcases of vehicles (Data derived from [7-44] and information provided
by
Berg-Automotive, Stuttgart).
gas maps of an exhaust gas turbocharged SI engine with fuel
size distribution spectra as a rule). Further influences result
direct injection in Figure 7.71 and Figure 7.72, the blow-by mass
from pressure pulses at the crankcase and intake manifold
flows and pressure drops for recirculating the venting gases
side which are usually amplified at certain engine speeds
into the engine intake system vary significantly. The map
because of pipe or acoustic oscillations. The quantity regula-
shows difficult conditions for effective oil separation when
tion of conventional SI engines with stoichiometric or rich
adverse relationships between blow-by gas flows and present
(for a short time) airfuel ratios causes significant portions of
intake pressures during, for example, full load at low engine
high-boiling fuel components conveyed with the blow-by gas
speeds (large blow-by gas flows, low pressure differentials
into the crankcase and the water generated during combustion
than can be used for oil mist separation, and small particle
to condensate in the crankcase.

Figure 7.71Pressure differential map, intake manifold pressure


Figure 7.72Blow-by gas flow map, intake (without ventilation) of a
atmospheric pressure of a turbocharged, quantity-controlled 1.8-L
turbocharged, quantity-controlled 1.8-L passenger SI engine with fuel direct
passenger SI engine with fuel direct injection. See color section page
1068. injection. See color section page 1068.

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7.7 Crankcase Venting

These condensates can accumulate in the crankcase during


can be used for fine oil separation become lower. In charged
lasting low-load and short-drive operation, in particular in
an SI engines, the changing pressure levels in the intake system
engine not having reached operational temperature. Apart
make it necessary to arrange two or, in some charging concepts,
from the deterioration of the lubricating oil quality and in
even three inlet points for the introduction of venting gases
consideration of a general tendency of extending the oil
change into the intake system and to use the corresponding check
intervals, frozen condensate in winter can cause severe engine
valves. This leads to a high degree of complexity of the venting
problems or engine damage by blocking the crankcase ventila-
systems. At the same time, the limited space conditions in
tion system or the supply with lubricating oil. The problem
the engine compartments of modern vehicles force compact,
shown concerns, in particular, charged SI engines with direct
space-saving designs of individual components and the inte-
gasoline injection when large fuel quantities must be
processed gration of different functional scopes into modules. It
should
for combustion in short time intervals. A non-optimal
formation also be mentioned that the continuing cost pressure in the
of mixture in particular has the danger that, mostly in high
automotive sector forces the development of less expensive
load map points, large volumes of liquid fuel are conveyed
into components, modules, and systems despite higher demands
the crankcase within relatively short times. In addition to a
for functionality and reliability.
reduction of the lubricant viscosity, very large portions of
fuel
in the oil (up to 20%), can cause the failure of proven
sealing

7.7.3 System Structure of Current Crankcase


elastomers (severe swelling, weeping seal) which must be

Venting Systems
considered when defining the specification and stipulating

To return blow-by gases into the engine intake system, many


materials for the development of an engine.

different ventilation concepts are used in practical applica-


To avoid the accumulation of water and fuel condensation

tions: important differentiation characteristics are the use


in the crankcase, a small part of the intake air in SI engines

or the omission of a crankcase PCV and the question as to


is often conveyed as purge air through the crankcase (PVC
whether the crankcase is only vented or also ventilated. Figure
systems: positive crankcase ventilation). It is essential for
the

7.73 provides an overview of various ventilation systems for


functioning of PVC systems that water and fuel condensates

charged SI engines [Figure 7.73(a)(d)] and diesel engines [Figure


are not separated into the oil mist separator and recircu-

7.73(e)(g)] with each systems advantages and disadvantages


lated into the crankcase, but are, for example, conveyed in a

[7-48] (corresponding to the overview of naturally aspirated


gaseous state through the separator, which is promoted by

engines in the third and fourth editions). In modern vehicle


a low pressure and high temperature level in the separator.

SI engines, mostly ventilation concepts with PCVs are used


The high hydrocarbon concentrations in the venting gas in

to ensure sufficient oil mist separation efficiency. In charged


the warm-up phase also in engines at operating temperature

diesel engines, the venting gases are introduced upstream of


cause, under the consideration of increasing blow-by gas flow

the turbochargers compressor.


with increasing engine operational performance, essential
influences on the mixture formation and the lambda control
and, therefore, on the exhaust gas emissions. To minimize
7.7.4 Oil Mist Separation
the influences as much as possible, the inlet point(s) of the
An essential function of the crankcase ventilation system is
venting gas flow into the intake system must be arranged
the separation of the oil portions carried with the blow-by
and designed so that a very even distribution of the blow-by
gas. The gas flow conveyed through the ventilation system
gas on all cylinders of the engine (uniform air conditions and
from the crankcase is a multi-phase flow with which, in most
knocking limits in the individual cylinders) can be attained.
cases, lubricating oil droplets of different sizes and an engine
The examinations shown at the example of the tank venti-
oil wall film are conveyed with the gas in the direction of the
lation system in [7-46] with respect to the influence of the
intake manifold. Following term definitions from process
introduction of the gas flows loaded with hydrocarbons into
engineering [7-49], oil mist particles in the blow-by gas are
the intake system demonstrate that good mixture conditions
often designated with xP < 10 m as fine oil and xP < 1 m as
and a good distribution can be realized with an introduction
super-fine oil (nanoparticles). For oil components in this flow
distributed across the channel circumference in the area of
that are visible with the naked eye, the term coarse oil has
the throttle (high air speeds and turbulences).
become accepted. Because the separation capacity drops with
For crankcase ventilation systems for future vehicle
engines, large volumes of coarse oil in most oil mist separators used
for
the significantly increased requirements result mostly from
the fine oil separation and the oil quantities to be returned into
general trend to extending or eliminating maintenance
intervals, the crankcase against a high pressure differential should
be
the toughening of emission standards and the extension of
minimized, coarse oil separators (such as volume separators,
the same to high driving performance, and the verification
baffle plate separators, wire mesh separators, or coarse oil
of compliance with these requirements by on-site monitoring
cyclones) are usually installed upstream of fine oil separators.
or on-board diagnosis (OBD) [7-47]. Meeting these require-
Some of the criteria used in the selection of a coarse oil
ments is generally made difficult by the fact that, because of
separator are space conditions or space requirement, costs,
increasing dethrottling of the entire intake systems in modern
scalability and pressure loss. These coarse oil separators must
SI and diesel engines in critical map areas in particular
(full reliably prevent a transport of surge oil through the ventila-
load and low engine speeds), the pressure differentials that
tion system (oil entrainment) which may occur under adverse

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

Single-strand
Single-strand
throttle RSV-
throttle RSV-
controlled crank-
controlled crank-
case ventilation
case ventilation
with introduction upstream
with introduction upstream
turbocharger and downstream
turbocharger and downstream
DK, map focus of ventilation in
DK, map focus of ventilation in
engine partial load
engine partial load
Good pressure control process,
Good pressure control process,
good crankcase ventilation behavior
god crankcase ventilation behavior
in cold operation
at full load lubrication

Expensive
Expensive

Single-strand
Two-strand
throttle RSV-
throttle-
controlled crank-
controlled
case ventilation
crankcase ventilation with
with introduction upstream
flow reversal in the venting
turbocharger and downstream
line at full load
DK, map focus of ventilation
in engine partial load
Limited expense
Simple structure
Application and tolerance sensitive,

2 oil separators required


limited ventilation effect
Uncontrolled crank-
Controlled crank-
case ventilation with
case ventilation
introduction up-
with introduction
stream turbocharger
upstream turbocharger
Possibly uncontrolled crankcase
Good pressure control
ventilating with discharge
behavior
into ambient (OCV system)

Low possible pressure


Simplest structure
differentials for oil separators
Low possible pressure differentials
for oil separators
Low tolerable intake resistance

Controlled crank-
Intake air filter
case ventilation
with RSV-controlled
Compressor
introduction up- and down-
stream of turbocharger
(usability depending on
Pressure control valve (PCV)
charger tuning)

Auxiliary oil separator (AOS)


Use of maximum available
vacuum
Throttle valve (TV)
Increased expense
Check valve (CV)

Throttle

Intercooling (IC)

Figure 7.73Overview of various ventilation systems in (a)(d) charged


SI engines and (e)(g) charged diesel engines with each systems advantages
and disadvantages.

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7.7 Crankcase Venting

conditions. The decisive factor for a reliable function of a


coarse disadvantage in diesel engines in particular is their tendency to
oil separator is that the flowing venting gas does not
exercise leave deposits on the separating media which will often
require
high pushing forces on the oil wetting the surfaces of the
a replacement of the separator insert during the vehicle service
ventilation system which would cause previously separated oil
life. Furthermore, the capacity of the separating medium to
to be carried away. While the oil consumptions caused by the
hold condensate has the inherent risk of the separator freezing
crankcase ventilation can be lowered to 1 g/h (approximately
during the winter months. To avoid a harmful crankcase
1%2% of the direct oil losses caused by piston rings and
overpressure because of blockages, emergency valves are
valve guides) in passenger cars with well-designed coarse
frequently used in through-flow fiber separators which will
and fine oil separating systems, the entrained oil volumes
open a bypass when a blockage is detected.
carried away by the venting system can be 102000 g/h. Aside
For the aforementioned reasons, mostly cyclone separators
from a purposeful design of the coarse oil separator and the
are used in the crankcase ventilation systems of modern vehicle
corresponding oil recirculation, the risk of oil entrainment
engines, representing a compromise among capacity, space
can be reduced with these measures:
requirement, and costs. They are not particularly sensitive to
selection of a favorable removal point screened from
sprayed contamination and do not require replacement. Many detail
oil for the blow-by gas flow in the crankcase or cylinder
head optimizations at several small-dimensioned, parallel-connected

cyclones have substantially increased the fine oil separa-


sufficient dimension of the ventilation and oil
recirculation

tion capacity in recent years, relative to the same separator


cross sections

pressure losses. A fundamental disadvantage is that, under


limitation of the venting gas flows from the crankcase (by
the marginal condition of limited pressure gradients available
using an optimized piston ring arrangement, for example)
for oil mist separation, cyclone separators, but also other oil
screen of the rotating crank gear components from the oil
mist separator type, deliver optimal separation efficiency
sump by using baffle plates or oil strippers
only at a gas throughput determined by the dimensioning
limitation of the engine oil filling levels
of the separator.
limitation of the oil temperatures
One approach to mitigating this advantage is to install

a pressure-limiting valve in parallel to the relatively small


limitation of the reduction in viscosity of the used engine
oils

dimensioned separating unit as shown in Figure 7.74. When


reduction of pulsations.
a defined pressure differential is exceeded, this pressure-
The ventilation flows, pressure pulsations in the crankcase
limiting valve will open an impact separator as a bypass
and the intake manifold which strongly fluctuate during engine
and thus prevents an unwanted buildup of overpressure in
operation, different phase distribution states (illustrated in
the crankcase in the event of large blow-by mass flows. The
[7-50]) of coarse oil in pipes, and the pressure differentials
design of the pressure-limiting valve as impactor prevents an
limited in individual map areas for use in separation,
combined unwanted decrease in separation efficiency of the separator
with increasing requirements for the separation quality
overall, with a pressure-limiting valve flown through in parallel.
present high demands on the separator system used. For
Figure 7.75 displays the relevant pressure loss characteristics
the separation of oil mist from the gas flow of the crankcase
and separation efficiencies of a cyclone separator unit with
ventilation, many different oil mist separators are available
as a and without pressure-limiting valve. If a pressure-limiting
rule, as shown in [7-51], which utilize the pressure
differential valve is omitted, a very large dimensioned fine oil
separator
between intake manifold and crankcase, mechanical drive
must be used to avoid impermissible gauge pressure levels in
energy, or electric energy for the separation. The essential
the crankcase at large blow-by mass flows (worn crank gear).
selection or evaluation criteria include here the separation
This has the effect of fine oil separation capacity being low
efficiency, the pressure losses across the separator, the
costs, in the low blow-by mass flows that are present in large map
maintenance requirements, and the principal feasibility of
each areas (Figure 7.75, cyclone variant II).
separation principle in a given vehicle engine. To assess the
Alternative to the mentioned mat, winding and cyclone
fine oil separation capacity of a separator, often the
separation separators, some engine manufacturers use a coarse oil
centri-
efficiency for a medium droplet size spectrum of xP = 1 is
fuge for oil mist separation, which is driven by either camshaft
used. This is a particle size range in which special measures
or the mass balancing shaft. With these centrifuges, larger
are necessary to realize effective separation according to the
quantities of the coarse oil conveyed with the blow-by gas
physically effective separating mechanisms [7-52].
flow can be reliably separated. However, the fine oil separa-
The wire mesh separators frequently used in the past have
tion efficiency of these centrifuges is relatively low because
the disadvantage of limited separation capacity for fine oil
of the limited speeds of camshafts or balance shafts, limited
in particular. In comparison, fiber separators allow high to
component dimensions, and relatively high conveying speeds
ultrahigh separation efficiency. According to their functional
of the venting gas through these separators.
principle, fiber separators can be classified into through-
flow High fine oil separation levels can be obtained with fine oil
fiber separators and impact mats. Through-flow fiber separa-
centrifuges which have their own advantages and disadvan-
tors have relatively high space requirement, but, if correctly
tages [7-53]; they are mechanically driven via the crankshaft,
dimensioned, are significantly more efficient with very small
hydraulically via pressure oil, pneumatically, or electrically.
particle sizes, compared with impact mat separators. Their
The hydraulic drive with the engine pressure oil allows an

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

Raw
gas discharge

Purge air inlet to crankcase

Check valves

Pure gas
discharge
Core-less shaped

cooling water channels

Crankcase pressure
control valve
Figure 7.74Sectional view of a

crankcase ventilation module for a


Multi-cyclone unit

turbocharged direct fuel-injected


Coarse oil consumer
SI engine with coarse oil separator,

Pressure-limiting

fine oil separator, discontinuous

valve

oil recirculation through collection


Oil drain valve
Collection tank tanks and check valves, crankcase

for separated oil PCV, and check valves at the

pure-gas side (Hengst).


Differential pressure [hPa]
Degree of separation

Blow-by-Volumetric flow rate [l/min]

Differential
pressure behavior, Cyclone I without DBV
Differential
pressure behavior, Cyclone I with DBV or bypass
Differential
pressure behavior, Cyclone II without DBV
Degree of
separation, Cyclone I without DBV
Degree of
separation, Cyclone I with DBV
Degree of
separation, Cyclone I with non-separating bypass
Degree of
separation, Cyclone II without DBV
Figure 7.75Pressure loss

characteristics and separation

efficiencies of a cyclone separator


DBV: Pressure-
limiting valve (impactor valve)

unit with and without pressure-

limiting valve.

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7.7 Crankcase Venting

inexpensive and reliable application. However, the usable


of the disk type shown in Figure 7.76. The illustration shows
capacity is limited by the permissible shut-off volume flow,
the rise in separation efficiency with increasing rotor speed as
the discharge cross sections, and the oil pressure provided in
it is typical for separator centrifuges. As a rule, disk separa-
the engine map. Changes in oil viscosity (temperature and oil
tors allow the realization of highest separation efficiencies,
condition) represent a challenge in the design of such drives.
in particular for small particle sizes. Conceptually, the gas
The necessary hydraulic interfaces limit universal applica-
can flow through disk separators from outside to inside, but
tion options. With respect to the overall efficiencies and the
also from inside to outside.
required separation capacities, an electric drive is the more
advantageous solution, compared with a hydraulic drive. This
drive would be also independent from the operating state of
Intake
the combustion engine and would even allow operation as
manifold
needed up to targeted run-on of the centrifuge after shutting
down the combustion engine (start/stop in hybrid engines).
The OBD monitoring demanded by tough emission rules can

Crankcase
be achieved very easily.
Finally, standardized components can be installed
relatively
universally in small series applications. The achievable
higher
continuous speeds enable the miniaturization of separating
centrifuges. The development of inexpensive, long-lasting and
temperature-resistant brushless electric motors is
challenging.
The disk separator sectionally shown in Figure 7.76 repre-
sents a classic type of such separating centrifuges which

Figure 7.76Sectional view of a disk separator for oil mist


have been used in process engineering for more than 100
separation (schematic).
years. The core of this separator type is the rotor in which
a number of hollow cone-shaped disks are axially clamped
A flow from inside to outside has the advantage of a
after each other with the shaft. By flowing through the narrow
negative differential pressure in many operating ranges.
gaps between the disks, the centrifugal force radially moves
The conventional design of the disk separator with individual
the oil mist droplets to the outside, because of their higher
disks clamped with the shaft has challenges with respect to
density, where they impact on the lower side of each axially
tolerances, balancing and manufacturing costs. In principle,
arranged plate above and form a wall film there. At the outer
centrifuges with alternative rotor designs, such as honeycomb,
radius of the disks, the separated oil is thrown off in the
form may be used as fine oil centrifuges in
crankcase ventilation.
of larger drops which are no longer carried away by the gas
In the case of very high demands on oil mist separation
flow and gather at the inner wall of the centrifuge housing.
efficiency including ultrafine particles and low pressure
This oil accumulates at the bottom of the centrifuge housing
gradients usable for separation, the use of E separators [7-54]
and can be returned to the crankcase. Figure 7.77 shows the
may be considered. These separators utilize the forces on a
dependency of the separation capacities to the rotor speed for
charged particle in an electric field [7-52] for separation. For
various mid-sized particle spectra for a separation centrifuge
pipe separators, an emission electrode is centrally arranged
Degree of fraction separation [%]

Figure 7.77Dependency of the fine

oil separation efficiencies of a disk

Medium particle size [m]


separator from the rotor speed and

the mean particle size.

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

in a pipe-shaped channel, with the channel wall acting as


dependency of the crankcase pressure on each intake manifold
collecting electrode. By applying high voltage between the
pressure and the blow-by mass flow.
emission and collecting electrodes of approximately 10 kV,
an electric field is generated. Free electrons in the immedi-
ate vicinity of the negatively charged emission electrode are
accelerated in the direction of the positive electric potential
of the collecting electrode and generate further electrons
and cations when they collide with neutral gas molecules.
The corona discharge generated by this process is stabilized
by cations ejecting further electrons from the emission elec-
trode. Excited gas ions also generate further charge carriers
by photoionization. On their way to the emission electrode,
the generated electrons attach to the oil droplets which are
then separated on the emission electrode because of the forces
acting in the electric field. In diesel engines, E separators
enable fine and ultrafine oil separation efficiencies of nearly
100% at minimum pressure losses. The disadvantages of the
current conceptual approaches are mostly the comparatively
high costs but also the risk of deposits in the separator. The
risk of combustion of blow-by gases with high fuel content
in the event of a flashover opposes the use in SI engines.
Figure 7.78Sectional view of a crankcase PCV.

7.7.5 Crankcase Pressure Control


To transport the venting gases into the intake tract and to
Crankcase pressure
separate the lubricant oil particles, the pressure differential
large
between crankcase and intake system is used in conventional
Gauge pressure
crankcase ventilation systems. This requires a small underpres-
Intake
sure (pamb. CC < approximately 30 hPa) in the map for strongly
manifold
fluctuating intake manifold pressures and different blow-by
pressure small Vacuum pressure
mass flows. With the introduction of CCV systems in the 1960s,
this was resolved with PCV systems in (quantity-controlled)
SI engines. In these systems, the venting gas volume flowing
Figure 7.79Characteristics comparison between two crankcase
from the crankcase into the intake manifold is dosed by a fixed
PCVs (schematic). Valve A: unfavorable characteristics. Valve B:

favorable characteristics.
throttle cross section or, alternatively, by a cross-section-variable
spring-loaded flow control valve. To prevent an impermissible
Such a characteristic has the inherent danger that an
pressure drop in the crankcase at low blow-by gas volumes
unwanted overpressure is generated in the crankcase at low
in partial load, fresh air is transported into the crankcase
absolute pressures in the intake manifold and large blow-by
through another conduit. In high blow-by gas volumes and
gas flows. The problem shown is intensified by the fact that,
high absolute pressures in the intake manifold (full load),
with large blow-by gas flows, significant pressure losses are
the direction of flow reverses in the fresh-air line to intro-
generated in the oil mist separator which is usually installed
duce the venting gases upstream of the throttle valve under
upstream of the PCV. Accordingly, the pressures present in
these conditions. In current crankcase ventilation systems
the crankcase under these conditions are even increased by
for SI and diesel engines, PCVs [Figure 7.73(a), (b), (f), and (g)]
the value of the pressure losses in the oil mist separator. In
inserted in the conduit system between the crankcase and the
comparison, the curve of valve B exhibits a desired far-reaching
intake manifold ensure that the pressure differential between
independence of the pressure regulating characteristic from
crankcase and environment remains mostly constant, even
the blow-by mass flow and the pressure in the intake manifold.
for widely varying blow-by gas flows and intake manifold
Favorable pressure-regulating characteristics can be achieved
pressures. Figure 7.78 shows a sectional view of a PCV with
with large effective membrane surfaces or a two-stage design.
conventional essential characteristics.
A less expensive alternative approach with fewer tolerance
The flow cross section through the valve formed by the
issues can be seen in Figure 7.78.
membrane and the corresponding flow-off port regulates
In this solution, a pin is concentrically arranged over radial
according to the force balance among the regulating spring,
fins in the flow-off cross section from the membrane. This
the ambient pressure acting on the top side of the membrane,
pin is either flush with the face surface of the flow-off cross
and the pressure acting on the bottom side of the membrane
section and the radial fins or protrudes some tenths of a
in the in-flow space and the flow-off port of the valve. Figure
millimeter. When the membrane approaches the face surface,
7.79 shows a schematic comparison of the characteristics of
the elastic membrane first touches on the pin or the fins. This
two different PCVs. The curve of valve A displays a large

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7.7 Crankcase Venting

causes a substantial portion of the pressure forces acting on


also EP 1723480), concentrically progressing narrow fins are
the membrane in the area of the flow-off cross section during
arranged with a radial distance of approximately 1.3 mm to
high intake manifold pressures to be supported directly on the
each other in the flow-off cross section arranged at the front
valve housing when the valve is mostly closed. In this manner,
side of the membrane. When the valve is in control position,
a premature closing of the valve at high intake manifolds
the elastomer membrane approaches the fin geometry of the
pressure can be avoided. The solution shown allows, at the
flow-off cross section depending on the gas throughput and
same regulating characteristic and same pressure loss over
the pressure differential at the valve. The venting gas that
the fully opened valve, a significant reduction of the compo-
radially flows at high speed into the gap between membrane
nent dimensions or, conversely, in unchanged component
and fin geometry is sharply deflected during axial flow into
dimensions, a substantial improvement of the regulating
the concentrically progressing flow cross sections between
characteristic. Apart from that, the components of PCVs must
the fins so that large portions of fine oil droplets, which are
have an unrestricted medium resistance against blow-by
unable to follow the gas flow because of their inertial mass,
gases. The risk of functional faults caused by the valve, also
are separated at the side surfaces of the fins and, with the
the conduits and oil mist separator, freezing in winter can be
remaining coarse oil, are recirculated into the crankcase. In
minimized by positioning it in the warm areas of the crank
large venting gas throughputs or low pressure differentials,
gear and designing and arranging the components so that
the membrane of the PCV withdraws from the fin geometry
unrestricted condensate drainage is possible.
of the flow-off cross section, reducing the deflection of the
A fundamental problem when using conventional PCVs
flow and thus the separation of fine oil in this area. In these
in the crankcase ventilation is that, because of the
throttling operating points, the focus of fine oil separation moves to
of the venting gas flow in the PCV, only a fraction of the
two fine oil cyclones installed in series with the PCV and a
large pressure differentials between intake manifold and
bypass valve installed in parallel to the cyclones for fine oil
crankcaseprevalent, in particular, in large map areas of
separation. Figure 7.81 shows the fine oil separation gradients
conventional SI enginescan be used for fine oil separa-
of this separator unit depending on the differential pressure
tion. The oil mist separator insert shown in Figure 7.80 is an
over the separator for various volumetric flows. Because of
example for the effective use of the pressure energy throttled
the principle of adaptation of the separator geometry to the
in the PCV for fine oil separation in wide map areas and
gas throughput in the impactor PCV in particular, high or
without significant additional effort. At the PCV shown (see
very high fine oil separation gradients can be achieved over

Diaphragm

Pure gas

Raw gas

Oil drain

Figure 7.80Sectional view of a fine

oil separator insert with impactor

PCV, fine oil cyclones, fine oil

separating bypass valve, and oil


Oil
drain recirculation via oil
collection tank

and check valve (Hengst).

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

Degree of separation T_1,0 m [%]

Only cyclone

Cyclone impactor combination 30 l/min

Cyclone impactor combination 50 l/min

Cyclone impactor combination 80 l/min Figure 7.81Fine oil


separation

gradient curves of the fine oil

separator insert shown in Figure

7.80, with dependence on the

pressure differential over the


Differential
pressure [mbar] separator at
different venting gas

volume flow rates.

broad map areas of the engine at relatively little constructive


respect to the available spaces and attempts to reduce the
effort and will remain maintenance free for the entire service
design and logistics interfaces in car production, form the
life of the engine.
backdrop for function integration and module creation in
A further optimization potential of this separation concept
various functional systems in the vehicle. With respect to
consists in diameter enlargement of the impactor fin geom-
the crankcase ventilation system, a corresponding trend is
etries in the flow-off port of the PCV (enlargement of the
to unify the pressure control, coarse and fine oil separation,
PCV membrane) and the use of high-efficient small fine oil
and the check valves for returning separated oil into one
multi-cyclones and a fine oil separating bypass valve (see Pat.
module. The integration of PCVs and components for coarse
WO 2007000281 Fig. 24, Impacting flow control valves) which
oil separation in the valve bonnets of SI and diesel engines
sharply accelerates the flow prior to deflection, regardless of
has been standard practice for many years.
the throughput.
More recently, it is also required to integrate an effective

fine oil separation in such valve bonnets. Figure 7.82 presents


an example of a valve bonnet model in a passenger car diesel
7.7.6 Modules and Valve Bonnet Integration

engine with integrated coarse separator, PCV, cyclone separa-


In particular, the continuous efforts in the automotive sector

tor, and oil return line for the separated oil. Figure 7.83 shows
to reduce component and assembly costs, restrictions with

Cleaned blow-by

gas discharge

Blow-by gas Coarse oil


Pressure-regulating Cyclone aerosol
inflow separator
valve separator

Figure 7.82Sectional view of a valve bonnet with integrated coarse oil


separator, PCV, cyclone separator, and oil return line for the separated oil
(Woco/ Hengst).

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7.8 Cylinder Head

Pressure control valve


Filter bypass valve
Cleaned blow-by
gas discharge
Lubricating oil supply

for cylinder head

Pressure-limiting valve

Lubricating oil filter insert


Cyclone aerosol
separator

Oil return

Oil drain valve for service

Oil pressure

sensor connection
Blow-by gas inflow

Oil/water heat exchanger

Cooling water
Return shut-off valve
preheating connection
Pressure-limiting valve

Pure oil discharge

Return to oil sump

Figure 7.83Sectional view of a multi-function module with


integrated cap oil filter, oil/water heat exchanger, oil diverting valve,
temperature and pressure
sensors, oil mist separator, and crankcase PCV (Hengst).

a multi-function module for the engine in a utility vehicle


should be used in the new design. Current technologies such
with integrated cup oil valve, oil/water heat exchanger, oil
as variable valve actuation or direct-injection combustion
diverting valve, temperature and pressure sensors, and an
concepts in gasoline and diesel engines take a prominent
oil mist separating unit with PCV.
place in the discussion accompanying the new development

of any engine. Not every company in the automotive industry

follows the same path, because of differing requirements and

the signposts set within the companies themselves. As was


7.8 Cylinder Head
the case approximately 100 years ago, this is the reason for
Great importance is attached to cylinder head design and
employing a variety of designs in passenger car engines.
engineering during engine development. The cylinder head
The cylinder head contains the fundamental elements used
determines, like no other subassembly in the engine, operating
for mechanical control of gas exchange and combustion. The
properties such as performance level, torque, exhaust emis-
valve timing concept is of particular importance here. In the
sions, fuel consumption, and acoustic properties.
last 20 years, it is in this sector, in particular, that the techniques
The section which follows provides insights into develop-
and components used in valve timing have become far more
ment work and on current cylinder head design. The key
sophisticated. The two-valve engines, in which two valves are
issues dealt with during cylinder head development and in
used for each combustion chamber, have been largely displaced
the manufacturing processes are discussed in sequence below.
by the more modern, multi-valve engines. In particular, the
Because of the scope of the material involved, the discussion
great increase in volumetric efficiency achieved in recent
is limited to passenger car engines; two-cycle engines will
years demands refined geometries for the charge exchange
not be included.
process. The features inherent to multi-valve technology,

such as the use of two camshafts, provide greater freedom in

engine management. Variable valve timing is used in almost


7.8.1 Basic Design for the Cylinder Head

all modern gasoline engines [7-56].


The engineering designs for the cylinder head have been
continuously developed and refined over the past 100 years
7.8.1.1 Layout of the Basic Geometry
of engine history. Even today new developments require deci-
A number of technical requirements have to be satisfied when
sions on what shape and which cylinder head components
laying out the basic geometry for the cylinder head. At the

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

beginning of any new development for a cylinder head, it


be kept compact with regard to its outside dimensions. There
is still possible to influence the individual parameters for a
is great latitude in selecting the shapes for the gas exchange
gasoline engine such as valve angle, cylinder head exterior
ports. In addition to, and because of, this design freedom,
dimensions, location of the gas ports, and the location of the
the component geometries can be better controlled in mass
spark plugs. Once the main geometries for these items have
production with respect to the casting models and the shape
been established, the developers choices with regard to the
of the cores. That is why the two-valve engines continue to
remaining cylinder head geometries are limited.
be widely used in the standard engines, both gasoline and
Shown in Figure 7.84 are the factors that influence the shape
diesel, offered by many car makers.
of the cylinder head. If, at the beginning of a new development
The exact design of the cylinder head varies widely, in
project, only the overall engine type has been determined
accordance with the general designinline, boxer, or V-block
(inline or V-block), then it is necessary to find a compro-
enginebecause of the fact that many engine components are
mise that considers several factors. These factors include the
mounted on the cylinder block and the cylinder head. These
space available in the engine compartment, installation of
include the intake manifold, exhaust system, camshaft drive,
the complete engine in that space, other influencing factors
and vacuum and pressure pumps. Only rarely are engineers
(such as the valve train components and their dimensions,
successful in using one cylinder head, with all its complexity,
and the shape of the gas ports), and requirements stemming
for a four-cylinder or for a V-8 engine. As a rule, a unique
from manufacturing, such as the technologies available for
cylinder head has to be developed for each engine variant.
casting and mechanical machining.
It is thus in the pursuit of controlling costs that an attempt is
A great deal of experience is required to identify the
made to use as many identical parts as possible in assembling
compromise that culminates in improvements in the objec-
the various cylinder heads.
tives set for the engine, such as reducing consumption and
exhaust emissions.
7.8.1.2 Determining the Manufacturing Processes
Not all the paths taken while developing a new cylinder
The casting process used for the cylinder head should be
head lead toward the defined goal. This may be the reason
established very early in the proceedings. It is advisable, once
why the engines produced in the course of a series exhibit
the casting technique has been selected, to take into account
differing cylinder head designs. For example, the number of
the knowledge and expertise available in the model shop
valves per multi-valve cylinder may vary between three and
and casting department when laying out the basic cylinder
five in mass-production gasoline engines.
head design. Not all the geometries that the engineer might
Traditionally, the two-valve cylinder head is the most
want can be realized with each and every casting process.
economical solution. Its valve train components are limited to
The development team often faces a daunting challenge in its
a minimum, with just one intake valve and one exhaust valve.
attempt to boost product quality in the highly complex cylinder
The number of moving parts is small, and its contribution to
head casting while at the same time realizing the complex
friction loss is commensurately low. The cylinder head can
geometries in the head. In this scenario, it is important to

Engine type,
series or V engine
for example
Thermodynamics
Number of valves

Valve train

Costs
components

Combustion process,
Manufacturing process

SI or diesel

Variable valve train

Figure 7.84Factors influencing

cylinder head design.

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7.8 Cylinder Head

continuously refine the casting processes suitable for produc-


components needed to vary valve stroke length are novel, and
ing cylinder heads.
extensive adaptations have to be made in the cylinder head
Also considered early in the development phase is choosing
geometry. The amount of development work associated with
the techniques to be used for machining the cylinder head;
this concept is considerable; several cylinder head construc-
this depends in part on the numbers to be produced. Here,
tion stages have to be tested before the overall concept can
new designs in particular are subject to severe cost
pressures. go into volume production. The parameter studies
required

to optimize gas exchange ports, valve diameters, combustion


7.8.1.3 Gas-Switching Element Design
chamber variations, and timing, as well as the control of valve
The shape and location of the intake and exhaust ports and the
stroke lengths, are very extensive.
shape of the combustion chamber contribute to the determina-
tion of the overall cylinder head geometry. Many studies in
this regard are carried out either empirically, through
experi- 7.8.2 Cylinder Head Design
mentation and trials, or calculated based on 3-D simulations.
The cylinders bore and spacing determine the basic layout for
Flow trials in the ports, carried out using rapid prototyping
the cylinder head. As a rule, the number of valves per combus-
models, serve to determine flow values. Fabricating single-
tion chamber has already been specified for new engineering.
cylinder engines during preliminary development work makes
The minimum wall thickness required by manufacturing
it possible to respond flexibly to developments at the ports.
constraints and the necessary degree of stability narrows
Depending on the combustion process, either gasoline or
the space available for installing valve train components.
diesel, a wide range of basic investigations are conducted
Because the number of camshafts is specified at the outset of
prior to defining the geometries. These basic studies are also
engineering work, it is then necessary to specify the locations
performed in parallel to cylinder head development. The
and arrangement of the valve train components, taking the
concept for a diesel should, for example, identify a favorable
geometry of the gas exchange elements such as the ports and
shape for a swirl-inducing intake port. When exploring a new
combustion chamber, into account. Studies then follow to deter-
combustion concept, such as is the case when developing a
mine how the rough dimensions of the cylinder head change
direct-injection multi-valve diesel engine, it is necessary to
when parameters such as the valve angle, unrestricted valve
test many versions. Only in the course of overall cylinder
flow area, or design of the gas exchange ports are modified.
head development are all the geometries for the components

7.8.2.1 Rough Dimension Determination


in the cylinder head determined.

One method to determine the cylinder head geometry is the


7.8.1.4 Variable Valve Actuation
creation of a rough design for valve train components. For this
As a rule, the implementation of variable valve control
purpose, CAD files are used, enabling the parameterization of
concepts makes it necessary to develop new cylinder head
the individual geometrical dimensions of the components. By
concepts. Using camshaft shifters in modern gasoline engines
varying the dimensions such as the valve angle, valve spring
requires adaptation work only at the camshaft drive and
installation dimensions, position of camshaft, or spark plug
for the oil management concept in the cylinder head. Fully
bearings, the geometrical effects on the overall concept can be
variable valve control such as that implemented by BMW
roughly analyzed. Figure 7.85 displays rough dimensioning for
in its Valvetronic system [7-57] makes it necessary to use
a parameter study used in the design of a five-valve cylinder
cylinder heads developed entirely from the ground up. The
head with pushrod [7-58]. The cylinder head is designed with

129
80,3 124,5

a4,5

a2
139,5

139,5

130

a1,3

1 1
1
5 5
5
2
2 2
4 4
4
3 3
3

a1,3 = 21,6 a2 = 14,9 a1,3 = 20,5 a2 =


14,5 a1,3 = 23 a2 = 15,9
a4,5 = 20,2 a4,5 = 0
a4,5 = 19,5 Figure 7.85Study on the basic

geometric design of a five-valve

cylinder head [7-58].

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

three intake and two exhaust valves. The spark plug is shown
possible to compare variations with one another both quickly
at the center of the combustion chamber. Indicated beneath the
and simply [7-60]. Concept studies using various numbers of
cam geometry shown, there is the installation space required
valves can be carried out quickly and easily. To ensure that
for the pushrods. The locations of the head bolts, which also
these studies can be completed quickly, in the early phase of
require a certain amount of free space for installation, restrict
cylinder head conceptualization, simple PC programs should
the latitude for varying the valve angle. Accessibility to the
be used, as is mentioned in [7-58] and [7-60]. Depicted in
head bolts after the head has been completely assembled is
Figure 7.86 are examples of the parameters that are pertinent
mandatory for almost all engines because of manufacturing
to the basic design of a six-valve cylinder head. Minimum web
and maintenance requirements.
widths between the valves have to be maintained for both
Illustrated in the figure at the center, for example, is the
cooling and cylinder head strength. One objective here is to
situation in which, with a vertically suspended exhaust valve
incorporate the largest possible valve diameters. The results
having a valve angle of 0, the head bolts are located outside
of such examinations are geometric magnitudes such as the
the camshaft axis for accessibility. In a V-block engine, this
utilization of available surface areas. This term is understood
type of cylinder head design provides more space on the
to be the quotient of the total intake or exhaust surface to
exhaust valve side for the design of the exhaust components.
the surface area for the cylinder bore. The results vary in
Exhaust routing in the manifolds could be optimized. These
dependency on the cylinder bore; when interpreted, this
studies help in cylinder head development by allowing better
information gives differing numbers of valves. This phase of
evaluation of the overall effects on the engine. Using param-
cylinder head development is particularly exciting because
eterized assumptions in the CAD system can, particularly in
specifying the number of valves at a predetermined cylinder
this development phase, make it possible to examine the basic
bore has decisive impact on cylinder head design.
cylinder head geometry with regard to its effects on the engine
as a whole. Concept comparisons between pushrod and cam
7.8.2.2 Combustion Chamber and Port Design
follower designs can also be carried out very well in this way.
The geometry of the combustion chamber is of major
One criterion for selecting the valve angle and the location
significance in cylinder head engineering. For this purpose,
and size of the valves is the determination of the unrestricted
technical calculations are executed simultaneously in the
flow area around the valve disk. This is the unrestricted area
early development phase. The geometries to be developed
available for gas exchange, as a function of the valve stroke,
for the combustion chamber variant are determined prior to
as described by Dong [7-59]. To influence engine breathing, an
the actual concept determination. In coordination with the
attempt is made, in coordination with the remaining potential
portion of the combustion chamber volume accounted for by
geometric configurations for valve train components and
the bowl at the top of the piston, extensive basic examinations
gas exchange runners, to make this area as large as possible.
are performed. Concepts such as charge stratification in direct-
Structural requirements and values resulting from experi-
injection gasoline engines are assessed in conjunction with
encesuch as the width of webs between the runnershave
the port and combustion chamber geometries and are tested
to be maintained. In basic examinations of the geometric layout
on real-world models. Three examples for the development
to preassess the situation regarding valve angle geometry, it is
of a two-valve concept with various combustion chamber

View A
Anwav Anwev

Dzk

Xzk
Dnw

vzk

Aa

vzk

Ae

Aavr
Aevr

Dev
Dav
v
VLa
VLe

aa ae
v

Hzk

Aa

Ae

ax

ay
Aevav
Hev
Hav
Hav,y

Hev,x

Figure 7.86Study to establish


A
geometry for the valve cross

section [7-60].
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7.8 Cylinder Head

Figure 7.87Combustion

chamber variants for a two-valve

cylinder head.

designs are shown in Figure 7.87. The rough geometry of the


surface share of 7% proved to be favorable. In modern, four-
combustion chamber is also determined by the variation
cylinder engines with external fuel mix blending, the trend
of the valve angle. In this example, in the interest of better
is toward flat piston heads with the bulk of the combustion
comparison, the same cam follower design was used for all
chamber located inside the cylinder head.
three embodiments.
With the development of new ignition concepts such as
Among the matters examined was the extent to which the
direct-injection gasoline and diesel engines, the development
charge volume available burned most favorably. The overall
of the ports has become a science in itself. Attaining specific,
influence becomes clear in specific consumption values, the
reproducible charge flow is the subject of many basic research
amenability to leaning out the mix, and, in particular, raw
projects that are taking place parallel to overall cylinder head
NOx and hydrocarbon emissions in the exhaust gases. The
development. The design of the port has to be seen in conjunc-
situation shown in the right-hand depiction proved to be
tion with the designs for the intake and exhaust manifolds.
advantageous. The spark plug, extending well into the combus-
This topic is dealt with primarily through trials and flow
tion chamber, is arranged so that it is totally surrounded by
simulations. Here the engineer pays attention to finalizing
the mix drawn into the combustion chamber. In the design
these geometries early in the work because changes at the
selected here, approximately 70% of the combustion chamber
port can often trigger major changes in the cylinder head.
volume is inside the cylinder head and 30% is in the piston.
Often so many thermodynamic interactions occur while
The interdependencies described here between combustion
defining the geometries for ports and combustion chambers
chamber geometry and the effects on the engine are to be
that it is difficult to estimate how much time engineering will
found again in direct-injection gasoline engines now under
take. Figure 7.88 represents possible port arrangements for
development where fully variable valve control is used. The
a diesel engine with direct injection [7-61]. In diesel engines,
development effort required there is considerable. The
parameter the incoming air is forced into a swirl motion to intensify
the
studies to be defined for combustion chamber trials demand
mixture formation. There are two basic options for intake
a great deal of experience and development discipline by the
port design that may be drawn upon here:
thermodynamics engineers.
helical (swirl or helical port)
Four-valve cylinder heads with the spark plug at the center

sloped port configuration (tangential port).


offer the fundamental advantage of short combustion paths in

In selecting the shape for the port, one pursues the objective
the combustion chamber. Because of the valve heads large
share

of achieving the required swirl characteristic and the best


of the total surface that defines the combustion chamber, the

possible flow throughput. This effect is to be preserved to


casting contour has only a slight influence on the volumetric

mass production. In the swirl port shape, the port imparts the
tolerances, which can be kept very narrow at, in one example,

swirling motion on the incoming air. This results in smaller


0.5 cm3. To reduce thermodynamic losses during combustion,

swirl deviation at relatively less favorable flow throughput


one strives to achieve the lowest possible ratio of combustion

values. In the tangential design, in contrast to the above, the


chamber surface area to combustion chamber volume. One

incoming air is set in rotation by the cylinder wall, because of


key thrust in development is optimizing the geometry of the

the ports off-center location. Typical here are high through-


squish surface. Here the location varies in relationship to
the

puts at good cylinder fill. Combining a swirl chamber with a


valves shape and size. An excessive share of squish area

downstream tangential port is thus a very good compromise


has proven to be detrimental because of the increase in the

in the conflict of goals between throughput and swirl stability.


surface-to-volume ratio and the associated heat losses. Using

The helical port design, oriented vertically from the top to


the example of the four-cylinder engine shown here, a squish

the combustion chamber, as shown in Figure 7.89, improves


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Chapter 7 Engine Components

Exhaust side

Intake
side

Figure 7.88Intake and discharge port variants for a four-valve diesel


engine [7-61].

port quality when compared with an arrangement at the side.


7.8.2.3 Valve Train Design
Additionally, the glow plugs can be situated on the colder
As to which valve train concept is the best for a particu-
side of the cylinder head, where the thermal load is less.
lar engine will not be discussed at this point. The engines
Because of the short run of the discharge ports in the cylinder
requirements profilewhich depend on its useresults in
head, heating is limited to a low level [7-61]. The described
differing engineering strategies and, in turn, in differing valve
port configuration also allows a symmetrical valve image
train concepts. One does observe, however, a trend toward
with positive effects on the arrangement of the valve train
roller-actuated cam followers or rocker arms in passenger
(Figure 7.89).
car series engines. These designs have the lowest friction

valves for the individual valve trains. But these solutions, in

comparison with sliding cam follower concepts, are heavier;

consequently, they are not used in sports car engines, for

example. The masses in motion are to be kept as small as

possible and elasticities are to be minimized. For this reason,

concepts with mechanical valve play adjustment are used in

sports car engines.

The design of the valve train takes high priority in cylinder

head development. In new developments, pushrod concepts

have proven their superiority to cam follower concepts. The

installation situations for the valves are different. Different


valve guide lengths have been worked out through time for

pushrod and cam follower heads. Cam follower timing requires

a better, and thus longer, valve stem guide than a pushrod

concept because the pushrod itself has a guide.

The valve length, in turn, results from the installation length

required for the valve spring. During new developments,

these mutual interdependencies result in increased employ-

ment of simulation techniques during the pre-development

phase to keep the number of prototypes required for testing

as low as possible.

Taking the refinement of the valve train for a BMW six-cylin-

der engine as an example, Figure 7.90 shows the development

steps undertaken over several model years in efforts to reduce

the weight of the valve train.

To keep the valves from lifting at high engine speeds,

the valve spring has to be built for a minimum force of F1,

and the shape of the cam lobe has to be selected to suit. The

required spring force and the associated spring geometry


Figure 7.89Arrangement of gas exchange ports in the cylinder head [7-
61].

determine the minimum installation space for the springs. To

limit spring force F2 at maximum valve stroke, the primary

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7.8 Cylinder Head

Year of manu-
Year of manu- Year of manu-
facture 1990
facture 1993 facture 1995
Cup 35, 80g
35, 65g 33,48 g
Spring collar 15 g
11,1 g 7,9 g
Valve keeper 1,5 g
1g 1,0 g
Cylindrical
Cylindrical Conical
Spring double spring
single spring single spring
69 g x = 34,5 g
51 g x = 25,5 g 40,5 g x 1/3 = 13,5 g
Valve Skirt 7, 58g
Skirt 6, 46g Skirt 6, 46g
Sum 189,5 g
148,6 g 116,4 g

Figure 7.90Development steps


Base: 2,5-l-Engine at intake valve
side for reducing weight in
valve train

components [7-62].

thrust in valve train engineering is to keep down the masses


A more powerful oil pump is often required where camshaft
that act on the valve.
shifters are employed. In spite of this, it has been possible in

recent years to keep the total oil volume, even in multi-valve


7.8.2.4 Cooling Concepts
engines, within reasonable limits. This goal was met with
In discussing cooling for the cylinder head, differentiation
is higher precision in machining to minimize play, through
made where water cooling is used, among cross-flow cooling,
more precise tuning of the oil circuit and through techni-
longitudinal flow cooling, and a combination of these two
cal calculations.
types. In cross-flow cooling, the coolant flows from the hot
The oil flows back to the sump through return bores of
exhaust valve side to the intake valve side; in longitudinal
appropriate size, located between the cylinder head and the
flow cooling, the coolant flows parallel to the long axis of
engine block. These returns are situated at the lowest possible
the cylinder head. The objective in cooling is to equalize
point, which depends in part on the engines placement when
temperature distribution within any cylinder head segment
mounted in the engine compartment. The rotation of the
at a low level and to create uniform cooling conditions for
all camshafts in some cases slings the oil so severely that it foams.
the cylinder segments. Moreover, the top of the combustion
Accordingly, sufficient cross sections are also provided in
chamber and the valve webs are to be generously supplied
the area below the camshafts to ensure draining toward
while, at the same time, keeping pressure loss throughout the
the engine block. Particularly in boxer or V-block engines,
cylinder head flow pattern as small as possible. The coolant
it is necessary, because of the installation placement for the
passes from the engine block, through several transfer ports
cylinder head, to engineer the design to ensure sufficiently
and the head gasket, into the lower face of the cylinder head.
large drain cross sections.
The shape, location, and size of these transfer ports have to
be harmonized appropriately. The coolant flow calculations
7.8.2.6 Engineering Design Details
described in Section 7.8.2.9 represent the state of the art.
Only The cylinder head bolts are normally bolts with collars. Here
by simulation, problem areas such as the webs between the
the collar, because of the surface pressure to be transferred
exhaust ports or the area around the spark plugs can be engi-
between the bolt contact surface area and the cylinder head,
neered for complete reliability.
is broader than the bolt head itself. In monolithic cylinder

heads, this can impose limitations on the camshaft arrange-


7.8.2.5 Oil Management
ment. The diameter of the tool used to tighten the bolts or
Motor oil under pressure, used to lubricate the cylinder head,
the outside diameters of the bolts themselves thus determine
is generally delivered by the oil pump in the engine block,
the locations of the camshafts if the latter are to remain in
through transfer ports in the head gasket. The oil passes
place inside the cylinder head while the cylinders are being
through lateral bores or special supplementary lines to the
installed. In some cases, the cylinder heads are made in two
points served, such as the camshaft bearings, hydraulic valve
or more sections, and the valve timing elements are borne by
lifters, hydraulic valve play compensating elements, camshaft
one or two separate cast components. In this case, the design
shifters, or oil spray nozzles above the cams. The pressurized
of the lower cylinder head section is simpler, as is the casting
motor oil supply for the cylinder head is managed by the cross
technology. Because of cost considerations, monolithic cylinder
sections of the supply tubing and specially provided choke
heads are used in most passenger car engines.
points to keep the oil consumption to an absolute minimum.
Depending on the combustion process, appropriate space
To keep the hydraulic valve play adjusters and the camshaft
must be provided in the cylinder head to accommodate spark
shifters from running dry, check valves are provided in the
plugs, glow plugs, or injection nozzles and the diameters of
lines supplying these elements. Multi-valve cylinder heads,
the tools used to install and remove them. Wherever possible,
because of their greater number of lubrication points, are
more spark plugs should be selected which use commonplace
difficult to coordinate and involve greater oil requirements.
thread diameters and wrench sizes. In diesel engines or

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

direct-injection gasoline engines, the arrangement of the


those used in mass production. Thus, small numbers of cylinder
cylinder head components is tight, particularly where a multi-
heads to be used as prototypes may be built in a low-pressure
valve concept is used. It is for these reasons that the number of
sand-casting process.
valves per combustion chamber is limited to four. The space
required for these components can be modeled by assigning
parameters using 3-D CAD when defining the basic layout
Project release
for the cylinder head. This makes it easy to depict potential
Project organization
geometric arrangements. The wall thicknesses required around
Concept Construction-related

Cost analysis
these components in the rough cylinder head casting reduce
determination preliminary

Concept selection examinations


the overall installation space for the valve assembly or the
Manufacturing
camshafts. The cross sections required for cooling are also
specification Concept analysis Initial testing
limited in the same fashion.
and determination

Calculations
Modern multi-valve engines incorporate camshaft shifters
in the cylinder head. The systems in mass production are all

Design version I Design version II


located on the camshaft drive and are driven by the crankshaft
by either a timing belt or a timing chain. Suitable oil supply

Calculations Head manufacture


lines have to be built into the cylinder head to serve the shifter.
with series tooling
This is simpler when a cylinder head is developed from scratch.
Prototype
The space required by the shifter is not particularly great for
construction Version I Mechanical Thermodynamic

testing testing
the vane-type system normally used today. With these shifters,

Mechanical Thermodynamic
the adjustment angle of the camshaft can be continuously
testing testing Endurance testing
variably rotated to the crankshaft [7-56].

Initial endurance Release


The diameter size of the drive sprockets of the camshafts is
responsible for the minimum camshaft distance. Particularly
tests, if appropriate

Pilot series
where the camshafts are driven directly by the crankshaft, this
manufacturing
distance has great influence on the cylinder head design. Often,

Series manufacturing
and in multi-valve engines too, the camshafts are driven by
intermediate gearing. When using camshaft shifters, however,
drive directly at the end of the cylinder head is the most
Figure 7.91Example of development steps for cylinder heads in two

construction steps.
economical. In this camshaft drive concept, the clearance
between the camshafts is of appropriate size or an intermediate

Figure 7.92 shows an example of the flowchart for fabri-


gear is used between the crankshaft and the camshaft. The

cating cylinder head prototypes by this procedure. Smaller


most widely used arrangement is with the camshaft drive

companies have specialized in this particular field and are


at the forward end of the engine, that is, at the end opposite

able to deliver initial prototypes, quickly and economically.


the clutch. Drives centered between the cylinders are seldom
used in passenger car engines, while they are being seen more
frequently in motorcycle engines. Drives at the clutch end of
3D CAD 3D CAD model Solidification
the engine are also unusual.
data cylinder head cylinder head blank simulation

7.8.2.7 Engineering in Construction Steps


Construction:

Models, molds,
It is impossible to predict all the influences that are encoun-
cores,
tered while engineering the cylinder head, particularly when
core packages Milling programs

new combustion processes are being developed. Computer


assistance in the basic design or the calculation processes
Laser-sintered Casting CNC

sand cores unit manufacture machining


used in simulation technologies do, indeed, help to generate a
great deal of information in advance. The mutually influenc-
ing factors on cylinder head development are very complex,
CNC

machining
however, so that there is much to be said for using several
construction stages in cylinder head development. Moreover,
Mechanical

Quality assurance
testing the engines thermodynamic and mechanical proper-
machining
ties delivers many findings that also cannot be predicted in
advance (Figure 7.91).
Figure 7.92Example of a flowchart for making up cylinder head prototypes

according to Becker [7-63].


When developing entirely new cylinder head concepts,
it may make good sense to obtain cylinder heads as proto-
To reduce the overall cylinder head development time,
typesquickly and economicallyfor use in preliminary
the goals to be met in any given construction stage must
development. When building these prototypes, it is often
be defined exactly. The project management work required
advisable to use manufacturing techniques that differ from
here is of vital importance. As a rule, the development of

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7.8 Cylinder Head

the second construction step is commenced while the first


chamber, and gas exchange port geometries. To a greater
construction step is still being tested. Here the
manufacturing extent, 3-D CAD data for the head geometry, once it has
been
processes foreseen for mass-production use should be employed.
prepared, can be used directly for technical calculations.
Particularly, the rough cylinder head casting should be made
During the development of a cylinder head in construction
up using the casting process selected for volume production.
stagesunderstood to be differing cylinder head component
The development of a cylinder head to readiness for mass
development stagestechnical calculations start right at
production in a single step is possible for designs based on
the outset of development. During the course of develop-
existing heads and exhibiting only minor modifications.
ment, the largest share of calculations is performed in the

first construction stage. The goal here is to provide support


7.8.2.8 Using CAD in Engineering
in identifying and defining the concept for the main cylinder
Because of the multiple uses of CAD data, cylinder heads are
head geometries. During testing in subsequent construction
modeled in the CAD systems in complete, 3-D renderings. The
steps, technical calculations are used more to lend precision
specifications for the model and the casting equipment can be
to the concept and to specify details. Calculation activities
derived from these data. The geometries can also be used for
decline the closer the design gets to mass-production launch.
simulation calculations. When engineering a new cylinder head,
At this point, we mention briefly only a few activities that
interdependencies among its components can be parameter-
play a vital part in dimensioning the cylinder heads. Technical
ized. This makes it possible to carry out basic studies simply
calculations contribute to making it possible to interpret, in a
and quickly. Model builders and casting specialists should
more understandable fashion, the complex processes involved
be consulted continuously during detailed engineering work,
in cylinder head development.
beginning as soon as the rough cylinder head concept has
The PROMO10 program [7-65] is used to calculate the gas
been finalized with the definition of the internal components
charge exchange. Here dynamic gas flows in the intake and
and the major dimensions. In this way, manufacturing consid-
exhaust systems of aspirated and turbocharged systems
erations are accounted for in the process early. Engineering
are calculated. The gas exchange components in an engine,
methods vary, depending on which CAD system is used. It
with its intake and exhaust systems, are assembled to form a
makes sense, for example, to limit parameterization of the
virtual model. Events associated with flow, such as pressure
cylinder head to a few parameters to maintain flexibility when
fluctuations or mass flows, can be analyzed at various points
changes are made to the model. All the engineers involved in
in the engine. The program provides information on the
the project should use identical software with identical
default characterizing values to be expected for the engine, such as
settings. Because of the complexity of the CAD methods, one
charging efficiency, maximum torque, or power output for
person on the development team should be responsible for
a particular engine configuration. The core for calculations
adherence to the methods. Because the cylinder head involves
is embedded in an interactive graphic user interface from
many interfaces to adjacent components, transfer conditions
which data record conditioning and result evaluation are
to these components have to be defined.
undertaken. By establishing the geometry for the ports in
The consistency of the CAD process provides many advan-
the cylinder head, the PROMO program is particularly well
tages. Data become more reproducible, can be used more
suited for initial dimensioning of the gas exchange components
easily for series of cylinder heads, and largely preclude any
in the early concept definition phase and, in particular, for
inaccuracies between engineering and manufacturing. Cylinder
laying out the timing. Cost-intensive trials can be minimized
head engineers who prepare the overall concept for a new
in, for example, the development of cylinder head concepts
component need a great deal of practical experience. Today
with variable valve actuations.
the designs are generated completely using CAD.
For the engine development, the program also provides

conclusions about
7.8.2.9 Computer-Assisted Design
A number of calculation methods are now used to dimension
intake manifold dimensions
the cylinder head geometries [7-64]. With calculation efforts
concepts for switching and resonance intake manifolds
in the early stagebeginning with the concept phasethe
evaluation of cam lobe contours and timing
calculation results are applied in the initial cylinder head
estimating the potentials of various concepts for variable
prototypes. This makes the steering of subsequent development
valve timing
steps more effective, and in this way, the number of compo-

evaluating different port shapes


nents used in testing can be reduced. Ongoing verification
of calculations against test results continues to be
necessary. exhaust manifold design with regard to pipe length and
Computer support ranges from rough component dimen-
diameter.
sions and detailed design to optimization and simulation
In addition, 3-D flow simulations are conducted to design
calculations. The target criteria for new enginesimproved
the intake and exhaust ports and the combustion chambers
environmental compatibility, reduced exhaust emissions and
in the cylinder head and pistons. The charge motions are
fuel consumption, improved performance, product quality, and
simulated on the basis of the CAD description of the port and
ridecan be better satisfied through technical calculations.
the combustion chamber surfaces. The calculations provide
Before the first prototypes are fabricated, the
calculations insights into the flow situation in the intake and
exhaust ports,
are devoted primarily to specifying the valve, combustion

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Chapter 7 Engine Components

as well as for the charge as it flows into the cylinder. Solving


head with cross-flow cooling. The cylinder head receives the
the equations makes it possible to simulate the complex flow
coolant through transfer bores in the cylinder head gasket.
processes for static situations and for those which change
Their graduated diameters ensure nearly identical distribu-
through time. When dealing with transient calculations (i.e.,
tion of coolant to the various cylinders. About two-thirds of
for states that change through time), the calculation network
the coolant passes into the cylinder head at the exhaust valve
to be prepared is modified at each timing phase in accordance
side. The coolant flow passes across the top of the combustion
with momentary valve and piston positions.
chamber and past the exhaust ports to the spark plug well.
The results of the simulationwhich include pressures,
Behind the spark plug, the flow continues along a center
velocities, turbulence, and blending valueshave to be assessed
coolant collector channel that runs longitudinally through
with an eye toward perfect combustion. Figure 7.93 shows an
the cylinder head. Figure 7.94 shows an example of the results
example of the calculation results for an intake valve at center
of a simulation calculation, in the depiction of the convective
stroke position; reproduced there is the velocity distribution
heat transfer coefficients in the area around the exhaust port,
for the charge as it flows into the cylinder (here 90 after intake
which is subjected to severe thermal loading. The dark areas
TDC). The 3-D flow simulation is helpful, particularly when
correspond to a high thermal transfer coefficient, a result
developing new combustion processes. Swirl or tumble effects
that is achieved by the optimized position and selection of
can be better analyzed and further refined in accordance
the diameters for the transfer bores in the head gasket. By
with the findings.
optimizing the cylinder head cooling pattern, with the support

of simulation calculations, the temperature level at all the

cylinders can be kept constant, with only minor deviations.

This method makes a major contribution to cylinder head

development, which could be achieved using conventional

techniques only with extensive effort in trials and testing.

Figure 7.93Flow simulation at an intake valve [7-64].

The design of the valve lifting lobes and the simulation of


the valve train dynamics take a prime position in cylinder
head development. The findings here have a direct impact
on cylinder head design. Geometries such as the pushrod
diameter, valve length, valve stem diameter, valve spring
dimensions, and finger follower geometry are determined by
Figure 7.94Section of the water jacket for coolant flow simulation [7-64].
these calculations. Imaging of the entire valve train in mechani-
See color section page 1068.

cal models also makes it possible to determine precisely the

Strength calculations represent a major area where technical


dynamic properties. These findings are directly applied to the

calculations are used in engine development to determine the


geometry of the camshafts or valve train components [7-66].

dimensioning and geometries of cylinder heads and their


An essential contribution to the design of the coolant water

components. To keep cylinder heads at as low a weight as


chamber of the cylinder head is provided by the 3-D flow

possible and, at the same time, sufficiently stiff, FE calculations


simulation of the entire coolant circuit [7-64]. This method is

of the entire cylinder head are performed [7-64], [7-67]. The


integrated in a larger calculation framework serving in the

structural strength of camshafts and their bearings can, for


optimization of the entire engine cooling system, including

example, be examined with respect to the shape and position


water pump and cooler design. The geometry of the cylinder

of the camshaft bearings. Wall thicknesses can be minimized


block and head cavities through which coolant flows is modeled

by using strength analysis. Stiffening ribs are provided to


and then compiled in a calculation matrix.

increase structural strength. Thus, designs with a favorable


Figure 7.94 shows the section of the water jacket as an

effect on force flow can be predetermined in detail. Figure


example of coolant flow simulation in a five-valve cylinder

7.95 displays a section of the FE model of a complete cylinder

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7.8 Cylinder Head

high

low

Figure 7.95Strength analysis at

the cylinder head [7-67]. See color

section page 1069.

head [7-67]. The stress variables used for the calculations


are Oil circuit calculations can be conducted to fine-tune oil
the spring and mass forces of the valve train, belt and chain
management in the cylinder head [7-64]. Calculations for
forces at the camshaft end, and the forces arising from
cylinder subsystems, such as for oil management at the cylinder head,
head bolt. Figure 7.95 shows the comparative stresses accord-
make it possible, by simulating the entire motor oil supply
ing to Mises at the deformed cylinder head when subjected
system, to minimize the amount of oil required. This, in turn,
to thermal loading at nominal power.
keeps the amount of power consumed by the oil pump as
Because of intense demands for reliability and smooth
low as pos