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Baseline Survey in Lowland Rice Systems in Cambodia

ACIAR project (CSE 2009-037) Improved rice establishment and productivity in Cambodia and Australia

1. LOCATION IDENTIFICATION
1.1 Name of the farmer ………… 1.2. Age……………… 1.3 Farmer’s no. …………………….
1.4 Village Address………………………… 1.5. Commune………………… 1.6. District ………………….. 1.7 Province …………………..
1.8. Enumerator’s Name ………………… 1.9 Date (s) of interview…………….. 1.10 Checked by ……………………11 Date (s) of checking………………
1.12. Data entry by ……………………… 1.13 Data entry validated by……………………………. 1.14. GPS location of Farm House…………………….

2. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
2.1. General family Characteristics
Name Age1 (years) Gender2 Civil status3 Relationship to Main occupation Years of
the household
head4 Schooling5 Farming
experience6

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Age: Over 60=1, ‘Between’ 40-60=2, 25-40=3, 15-25=4, 5- 15=5, under5=6.
2
Gender: Male=1, FM=2
3
Civil status: Married=1, Single=2, Widow / widower=3
4
Relationship: Self=1, spouse=2, child=3, other=4
5
Schooling: Illiterate=1, Literate=2, Primary=3, High school=4, Degree and above=5
6
Farming experience: Over 30yrs=1, 20-30yrs=2, 10-20yrs=3, under10yrs=4

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2.2. Household infrastructure
Roof Walls Floor Others
Thatched � leaves � Bare soil � On the ground �
Iron sheets � wooden � wooden � Elevated �
Tiled � Iron sheets � Concrete � Comments:
……………………………………
Other: ………………… � bricks � Concrete � ……………………………………
…………………………………….
Poor: � Fair: � Good: Poor: � Fair: � Good: � Poor: Fair: � Good:
� � �

I envisage many houses will be of mixed construction and the evaluator’s assessment of condition and quality will be subjective. Many houses will have two
or three boxes ticked for “walls” and unless clear explanation is given as to what is required the answers will be confused. I maintain 4 or 5 photographs
with a statement “which one most closely resembles” would give the same result.

2.2.1. Type of fuel mostly used for cooking: Firewood � Oil � Other (specify) �
2.2.2. What type of lighting arrangements you have at home? oil � Battery � Other (Specify)�
2.2.3. What is the main source of drinking water? Private Tap � Village tap � Private Hand Pump � Village hand pump � Other (specify) �

2.3. Main sources of household income


Source Amount / quantity
Income from agriculture (Riel, 000)
- Cropping
Rice
Other crops
- Supplementary activities (number per animals / year) Riel/animal
- Poultry
- Cattle
- Piggery
- Others –specify
Income from off-farm – casual labour (agriculture) (days/year) Riel/day
- Head of family
- Spouse

2
- Others
Off-farm – non agriculture
- Head of family
- Spouse
- Others

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3. FARM STRUCTURE, LAND USE AND CROPPING ROTATION
Interviewer drawsevelops rough map ofwith farm house and field layout, and numbers/labels all fields N

Farm homestead

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3.1. Size of operational holding
3.1.1. Overall size of holding (total area farmed from land owned or leased in), ha: ……………
Details:
Ownership Field No. Area (ha) Main soil Elevation Bunded3 Drought / Land rent Source of Method of irrigation6 Average operating
1 2
status or Label type submergence Riel/ha irrigation5 costs + fee if any
problem4 (Tenant’s share) Riels / field / year
Dry Wet Dry Wet
Season season Season season
Owned

Leased-in

Leased-out Reasons for leasing out

1
Soil type: 1=Clay, 2=Loam, 3=Sand ; 2Elevation: 1=Upper fields, 2=Middle fields, 3=Lower fields 4 = other (eg. especially low) ; 3Bunds: 1=Yes, 2=No
4
Drought / submergence problem: 1=Drought, 2=Submergence, 3=Floods6&7Method ; 5Source: 1=pond, 2=canal, 3=bore, 4=well, 5=river
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Method of irrigation if any: 1=Gravity, 2=Motor pump owned, 3=Motor pump hired, 4= Manual, 5=other, specify

3.2. Land use history (Owned + Leased in fields – NOT leased out fields)
Field number Crops1 grown during the last three years
or label 2009 crop seasons *
2008 crop seasons* 2007 crop seasons*
SEASON: DS EWS WS DS EWS WS DS EWS WS

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Crop: 1=Traditional rice variety, 2= CARDI rice variety, 3=other improved rice variety of rice, 4=deep water rice, 5=maize, 6=soybean, 7=Mungbean, 8=Peanuts, 9=Others-specify
……………………
*Cropping seasons: DS=Dry Season (December-April), EWS=Early Wet Season (May August), WS=Wet Season (May – January)
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3.3. Rice cropping history in the most important rice field for each season during the last cropping year
Note: what makes the most important rice field (why ?) ………………………………..…………………
Field number/label Method of sowing* Name of variety Main reason for using this Yield kg/ha (interviewer to Date of sowing/planting
variety1 convert) or kg per tant
Dry Season (December 2008–April 2009)

Early Wet Season (May-August 2009)

Wet Season (May 2009-January 2010)

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*Method of sowing: TP: Transplanted – DSW: Direct Seeded WET – DSD: Direct Seeded DRY, Other (specify) ; Main reason: 1=taste preference, 2=yield, 3=tolerance, 4=market,
5=others (specify ………………)

4. SOURCES OF WATER
4.1 Do you have access to any source of water for supplementary irrigation during dry season or early wet season ? Y/N,
If not, why? (specify reasons) ………………………………………………………………………………..
4.2. If yes, provide the following information: Do you have access to:
On-farm pond ? � if yes, how many hectares can you irrigate? EWS: ……………..…..ha ; DS: …………..……ha.
Community pond ? � if yes, how many hectares can you irrigate EWS: ………………....ha ; ; DS: …………….……ha.
with your share ?
A shallow tubewell ? � if yes, how many hectares can you irrigate? EWS: ……………..…..ha ; ; DS: ………….………ha.
Channel water with gravity feed ? � if yes, how many hectares can you irrigate? EWS: ……………..…..ha ; ; DS: ………..………ha.
Channel water with pump ? �
Any other source of water? � if yes, how many hectares can you irrigate? EWS: ……………..…..ha ; DS: ………..………ha.
EWS: Early wet seaon ; WS: Wet season ; DS: Dry Season

4.3. Irrigation practices for growing rice


4.3.1 Do you control the water depth differently in your field at different rice growth stages Y/N? If yes, how ?……………………………………
4.3.2 Do you drain the water off the rice at any stage? Yes No If yes, Why/for what purpose?..........................................................
4.3.3 Is your irrigation source always sufficient for the DRY SEASON ? Yes No
4.3.4 If no, when are you most likely to be short of water – at planting , mid season , end of season , other
4.3.5 How often does water shortage occur? (Out of 10 dry seasons)

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4.3.6 Is your irrigation source sufficient for the EARLY WET SEASON ? Yes No
4.3.7 If no, when are you most likely to be short of water – at planting , mid season , end of season, other
4.3.8 How often does water shortage occur and for how long? (estimate average for 10 wet seasons)……………………
4.3.9 What do you do if you run out of water? Borrow pump rely on GDA intervention
4.3.10 If you use tubewell, is your water quality good? Yes No If No, specify problem: …………………………
4.3.11 Do you lose rice yields from too much water (flooding) in your fields? Yes No
4.3.12 How long for? (Days)……………… 4.2.13 How often? (Out of 10 wet seasons)…………………..

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5. ASSETS AND LIABILITIES
5.1 Farm Assets
5.1.1. Farm equipment owned by the farmer

Power source
Draft animals (specify animal and how many) Y/N
Hp or brand name, year purchased, if purchased: new or used ?
===========================================================
Small engine, portable Y/N . ………………………………………………………………………..……………....
Two wheel hand operated tractor Y/N ………………………….……………………………………………..………….…..
Four wheel tractor Y/N ……………………………….………………………………………..………….…..
Others: Nissan truck Y/N …………………………………..…………………………………….……………...
Other: Reaper Y/N ………………………………..……………………………………….……….…..…
Other: Combine harvester Y/N ………………………………...……………………………………………….…..…
.
4 wheel tractor implements
Two wheel hand operated tractor implements
plough Y/N
plough Y/N
harrow Y/N
.harrow Y/N
rotary tiller Y/N Draft animal implements
leveling board Y/N
leveling blade Y/N
trailer Y/N
trailer Y/N Mouldboard plough Y/N
water pump Y/N
.. Other ? …………………….……. Tooth peg harrow Y/N
thresher Y/N
Peg puddler Y/N
.. Other ? …………………………….
Small engine operated tools Blade-harrow Y/N
Cutting machine Y/N Cart Y/N
Other mechanized machinery
Water pump Y/N Any other ? …………………..
Hand pump for herbicide spraying. Y/N
Thresher Y/N
Knapsack sprayer Y/N
Milling machine Y/N Small milling machine (village mill) Y/N
..Other ? ………………………….…. Other: ………………………………

If the farmer does NOT OWN a tractor with implements:

5.1.2 Do you sometimes hire in machinery or contractor? Y/N,


If NO specify main reasons ………………………………………………………………
If YES, specify for which operation:: ………………………………………………….

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If the farmer OWNS a tractor with implements:

5.1.3 How critical is mechanization to your farming enterprise ? optional ; important ; very critical
5.1.4 If important or very critical, specify what are the significant benefits from your mechanisation?
(e.g. better timing of operation, additional income opportunity, greater cropping intensity etc.)
1. ……………………………….., 2. ………………………………… 3. ……………………………….. 4. ……………………………………. 5. …………………………………

5.1.5 What have been your main issues/challenges faced with the adoption of mechanical power and machinery ?
(e.g. affordability/cost, training, maintenance, repairs etc…)
1.………………………….., 2………………………..…., 3………………………………, 4 …………………………………….

5.1.6. Do you contract out your machinery (part-time /full-time)? Y/N


5.1.7. if Yes: please detail in table below
Specify Draft animal /Tractor / machinery used Purpose/operation Payment details*

*1=Contract rate (specify: Riels/ha) ; 2= in-kind (specify …………….,) 3= exchange

If you do not contract out your machinery, do you exchange access to machinery or implements with other farmers Y/N
If yes specify what implements / machine access you exchange …………………………., ………………………………….., ………………………….

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5.2 Liabilities
5.2.1. Are you currently repaying a loan / micro credit? Yes/No
5.2.2. If yes, please provide information in the table given below:
Purpose of current Source of Type of loan 3 Interest rate (% Total amount Year when
1 2
borrowing finance per month) borrowed borrowed

1
Purpose: 1= Crop production, 2= Farm implement (specify………….……………………), 3 power,source (specify………….……………………),
4=Land improvement, 5=Supplementary farm activity ; 6=Non agricultural loan
2
Source of borrowing: 1=Collector, 2=NGO, 3=local money lender, 4=input provider, 5=commodity trader, 6=Fellow farmer, 7=other (specify)
3
Type of loan: 1=Short term (1yr), 2=medium term (2-5 yea)r, 3 long terms (over 5 years)

5.2.3 Are you facing any kind of difficulty in repaying loan Y/N
5.2.4. If yes, specify why you are facing difficulty?...........................................................................................................................................
(eg. high amounts per repayment, high frequency of repayments, poor season, low commodity prices, poor planning, unexpected event etc..)
5.2.5. Do you sometimes take a new loan to repay the previous loan ? Y/N
5.2.6. Would you consider another loan to adopt a new mechanization need for the farm ? Y/N - If Yes, specify what for: ……………………………………………
5.2.7. What would be the main benefits from new mechanised investment (specify)?

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6. Rice crop production practices in during 2009 : What was your practice ?
6.1. OVERALL PRACTICE OVERVIEW: CROP ESTABLISHMENT TECHNIQUE
6.1.1. Do you manually transplant seedlings? Y/N
6.1.2. If yes, in which season do you transplant seedlings ? EARLY WET SEASON ; WET SEASON ; DRY SEASON
6.1.3. System of transplanted rice cropping: SRI , Traditional ,
6.1.4. Do you direct seed by broadcasting ? Y/N
6.1.5. If yes, in which season do you broadcast seeds ? EARLY WET SEASON ; WET SEASON ; DRY SEASON
6.1.6 How much seed rate per ha ? EARLY WET SEASON: …………………………… ; DRY SEASON: …………….………………
6.1.7 Do you know of see possible ways of reducing seed rate (specify)? …………………………………………… (eg. better seed vigour, better seed coverage, better water control etc.)
6.1.8. Where do you get seeds for growing rice? Use own seed Buy from other farmer Buy from private companies
6.1.9. How do you determine quality of seeds? Company Certified purity of variety , Germination rate Presence of impurities/ weed seeds Trust the trader

6.2 LAND PREPARATION DETAILS (What land preparation operations do you conduct for each season, as applicable)
6.2.1. Detail the operations below:
Machinery operations Labour input/ha
st nd
Operation (e.g. 1 and 2 Date (month) Type of power Owned / Operation Family (Person) Exchange (Person) Hired (Person)
ploughing, harrowing, leveling source1 hired2 cost/ha Male Female Male Female Male Female
etc) days days days days days Days
EARLY WET SEASON

WET SEASON

DRY SEASON

1 2
power source: animal 1; power-tiller 2 ; 4 wheel tractor 3. ; Own/hire: 1=Own, 2=hired

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NURSERY DETAILS:
6.2.2. Do you prepare the land for nursery the same way ? Y/N
6.2.3. If no, specify what is different: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6.3 TRANSPLANTING (How do you conduct the transplanting operation in each season, as applicable ?)
6.3.1. Details of transplanting operation Labour input/ha
Operation Date (month) Total area Family (Person) Exchange (Person) Hired (Person)
transplanted (ha) Male Female Male Female Male Female
days days days days days days
EARLY WET SEASON
Pulling, transport,
Transplanting
Thinning and gap filling
WET SEASON
Pulling, transport,
Transplanting
Thinning and gap filling
DRY SEASON
Pulling, transport,
Transplanting
Thinning and gap filling

6.3.2. What is the age of seedlings at transplanting ? ……………


6.3.3. Do you transplant in rows ? Y/N
6.3.4. If yes, what is the row spacing ? …………….
6.3.5. How many seedlings per hill ? ……………..

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6.4 DIRECT SEEDING BY BROADCASTING (How do you conduct the broadcasting operation in each season, as applicable ?)
6.4.1. Details of broadcasting operation Labour input/ha
Operation Date Seed rate WET or Total area Family (Person) Exchange (Person) Hired (Person)
(month) kg/ha DRY direct direct seeded Male Female Male Female Male Female
seeded ? by broadcasting days days days days days days
(ha)
EARLY WET SEASON
Seed broadcasting
WET SEASON
Seed broadcasting
DRY SEASON
Seed broadcasting
Note: WET direct seeded using pre-germinated seeds ; DRY direct seeded using normal seeds

6.4.2. Do you cover seeds with a harrowing operation ? Y/N


6.4.3. How many year/seasons have you practiced seed broadcasting technique for ?
6.4.4. What limitations do you see in direct seeding by broadcasting ? …………………………………………………………………………..
6.4.5. Do you use any other crop establishment technique ? Y/N
6.4.6. If yes, specify method: water seeding into falling water level , If yes: Seed rate per ha ? ……………….., if NO, do you know of this method ? Y/N
parachute seeding , If yes:Seedling number per ha ? ……………….. if NO, do you know of this method ? Y/N
seedling broadcasting , If yes:Seedling number per ha ? ……………….. if NO, do you know of this method ? Y/N
drum seeder , If yes:Seed rate per ha ? ……………….. if NO, do you know of this method ? Y/N
machine drill seeding , If yes:Seed rate per ha ? ……………….. if NO, do you know of this method ? Y/N
other: (specify) …….………………

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6.5 NUTRITION (ORGANIC MANURE)
6.5.1. Do you apply organic manure in your nursery ? Yes/No
6.5.2. Do you apply organic manure in the field for growing rice crop? Yes/No
6.5.3. Overall, on how much area do you apply organic manure per season ? ……………..ha - per year ? ………..…………….ha
6.5.4. What are the limitations to applying more per area - or over a larger area ? (cost, availability, labour etc..) ……….…………………..
6.5.5. Please provide information in the following table
Organic manure Labour input/ha
Field name or Month Source and Qty Cost/kg Family (Person) Exchange (Person) Hired (Person)
no (refer type of
map). manure1 (kg/ha) Male Female Male Female Male Female
days days days days days days
hrs
EARLY WET SEASON

WET SEASON

DRY SEASON

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6.6 NUTRITION (CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS)
6.6.1. Please provide information in the following table
Fertiliser inputs into rice crops Labour input/ha
Field At which Qty Fertiliser Fertiliser Cost Family (Person) Exchange (Person) Hired (Person)
number/ crop stage1 applied Type 2 Name / Riel/kg Male Female Male Female Male Female
name kg/ha Brand3 days days days days days days
EARLY WET SEASON

WET SEASON

DRY SEASON

1
. Stages:1= pre planting, 2=at planting ,3= post planting, 4= pre-emergence, 5=seedling growth stages etc…(Cambodian staff to adapt)
2
Type: Urea or detail compound fertiliser (e.g. DAP, NPK) ; 3 Brand: (pl. Insert here a few brand names after discussing with a local dealer or a PDA staff in the selected area)

6.6.2. Do you also apply fertilizer to the nursery ? Y/N


6.6.3. If so, which fertilizer ? …………………at what rate ? ……………………..kg/ha
6.6.3: Do you receive advice on selecting fertilizer type? Y/N; on application rate per ha? Y/N
6.6.4. If yes: from whom? ……………………………………………
6.6.5. How much extra yield do you think can be attributed to the fertiliser ? ………………. t/ha

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6.7. INSECT CONTROL
6.7.1 Do you have problem of insects in your rice fields Y/N
6.7.2. If yes, provide information in the table given below
Insecticide product inputs Labour input /ha
Date Insect local Part of plant Insecticide Product Cost/ha Family (Person) Exchange (Person) Hired (Person)
(month) name damaged Product name and Male Female Male Female Male Fem
qty / ha brand ale
days days days days days days
EARLY WET SEASON

WET SEASON

DRY SEASON

1 product name and brand: ((pl. Insert here a few brand names after discussing with a local dealer or a PDA staff in the selected area)

6.5.3 Do you receive advice on selecting insecticide type? Y/N; on application rate per ha ? Y/N
6.5.4. If yes: from whom? ………………………. (Cambodian staff please specify a few options, if possible)

6.5.5. Were the insecticides used effective to control insect damage? Y/N

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6.8 OTHER PEST CONTROL
6.8.1. Do you have problems with other pests (rodents, birds, crabs, snails) in your rice fields ? Y/N
6.8.2. If yes, provide information in the table given below
Pesticide product inputs Labour input /ha
Date (month) Pest local Part of Pesticide Product Cost/ha Family (Person) Exchange (Person) Hired (Person)
name plant Product qty name and Male Female Male Female Male Female
damaged / ha brand days days days days days days
EARLY WET SEASON

WET SEASON

DRY SEASON

1 product name and brand: ((pl. Insert here a few brand names after discussing witha local dealer or a PDA staff in the selected area)

6.8.3: Do you receive advice on selecting pesticide type? Y/N ; on application rate per ha ? Y/N
6.8.4. If yes: from whom? ……………………….
6.8.5. Were the pesticides used effective to control the targeted pest damage ? Y/N

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6.9 CROP DISEASE CONTROL
6.9.1. Do you have problem of disease in your rice fields Yes/No (use local name for damage or other descriptors)
6.9.2. If yes, provide information in the table given below
Fungicide product inputs Labour input /ha
Date (month) Crop Part of Fungicide Product Cost/ha Family (Person) Exchange (Person) Hired (Person)
disease plant Product qty name and Male Female Male Female Male Female
local name damaged / ha brand days days days days days days
EARLY WET SEASON

WET SEASON

DRY SEASON

1 product name and brand: (Cambodian staff to specify different product names and brands used in the selected area)

6.9.3 Do you receive advice on selecting fungicide type ? Y/N ; on application rate per ha ? Y/N
6.9.3 If yes: from whom ? ……………………….
6.89.4. Were the fungicides used effective to control plant diseases ? Y/N

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6.10 WEED CONTROL: CHEMICAL
6.10.1 Do you use chemicals to control weeds? Y/N
6.10.2 When did you start chemical usage? (year) ………………….
6.10.3. Why do you use chemicals? ………………………………….
6.10.4 Weed trends: are your weeds on the farm… under control , weeds getting worse , weeds out of control ?
6.10.5. Which growing season are your weeds worse ? ……………………..
6.10.6 Please provide information in the table given below
Herbicide product inputs Labour input for herbicide application/ha
Date (month) Weed type Crop Herbicide Product Cost/ha Family (Person) Exchange (Person) Hired (Person)
and local growth Product qty name and Male Female Male Female Male Female
name stage / ha brand days days days days days days
EARLY WET SEASON

WET SEASON

DRY SEASON

6.10.7. Were the herbicides used effective to control weeds ? Y/N

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6.11 WEED CONTROL: Non chemical
6.11.1 Do you use a non chemical method for weed control ? manual weeding ? Y/N ; Mechanical weeding ? Y/N by control of water level? Y/N
6.11.2 If yes, please complete below
Manual Weeding input details Labour input for manual weeding/ha
Date (month) Weed type and Crop growth Weeding Cost/ha Family (Person) Exchange (Person) Hired (Person)
local name stage method1 (If mechanical) Male Female Male Female Male Female
days days days days days days
EARLY WET SEASON

WET SEASON

DRY SEASON

1
. Type: 1=manual, 2=mechanical

6.11.3. How effective was the non chemical approach / treatment you used to control weeds ? poor ; Average ; good ; very good

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7. RICE HARVESTING AND THRESHING
7.1 How do you harvest the grain? Manual , Use Mechanical harvester , Use Combine harvester , Others (specify) --------.
7.2 Do you use a grain drier/ flat bed drier? Y/N

Harvesting / post harvesting operations


Labour input days/season ?
Operations Date Manual or Crop yield kg/ha Family (Person) Exchange (Person) Hired (Person)
(Month) mechanical ? Grain By-product Male Female Male Female Male Female
days days days days days days
HARVESTING
EARLY WET SEASON
WET SEASON
DRY SEASON
THRESHING
EARLY WET SEASON
WET SEASON
DRY SEASON
DRYING
EARLY WET SEASON
WET SEASON
DRY SEASON
CLEANING
EARLY WET SEASON
WET SEASON
DRY SEASON

7.3. If machinery is used for any of the above mentioned operations, please provide information on cost Riel/ha:
Harvesting…………………….……, Threshing…………………….….., Cleaning …………….………………..

8. MARKETING OF GRAINS
8.1; Timing and process of sale

8.1.1 When do you sell? Immediately after threshing , After some time from harvest when price is right , Part immediately and part after some time
8.1.2 If sell immediately after harvest, why? Need cash , To pay debts , Due to lack of storage facility , others (specify)………………………..

8.1.3 If sell, where do you sell your product? Local buyer , Collector , nearby market , fellow farmers
8.1.4 Do you mostly sell grain to: one regular buyer ; 2 potential buyers 3 or more potential buyers…
8.1.5 Who sets the price? Buyer , Seller , Both buyer and seller , Market , Government

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8.1.6 Does price depend on quality? Y/N If Yes, what is the fluctuation between poor and good quality ? (Riel/kg)
8.1.7 What existing facilities do you have on-farm for storage of grains? Metal storage bin , Gunny bags , Other (Specify)
8.1.8 Where do you get information on commodity prices?
8.1.9. Does it help in getting good price?
8.1.10. How can the market information be improved?

8.1.11 Quantities of grain sold and stored (Farm Level)


Date Crop Amount of grain sold Amount of grain stored (kg Quantity of Unit Qty of crop Remarks,
type / or % proportion per season) crop residue price residue if any
variety sold stored
Quantity Unit price Total Family Seed Quantity, kg Riel/kg Quantity Use as
Kg or % Riel/kg value consumption per season mulch ?
proportion
EARLY WET SEASON

WET SEASON

DRY SEASON

8.1.12 Do you produce enough grains to meet your annual food and seed requirements Y/N
If no, please specify reasons: …………………………………………………………….. (eg. drought, small farm size, poor soils, poor affordability of input etc.)

8.1.13 Do you exchange rice to buy other food or non food items? Yes / No
If yes specify Other food items , Non food items

8.1.14 Do you use any chemicals to protect your grains from insects / pests during storage Y/N
If yes, Specify which product: …………………………………………..

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9. EXTENSION SUPPORT
9.1 Are there any extension services available in your area? Yes/No

9.2. if yes, please provide information on the extension agencies (approx. no of visits per season)
9.2.1. Agriculture Department topics discussed …………………………………………………..…
9.2.2. NGO topics discussed ……………………………………………………..
9.2.3. Machinery specialists: topics discussed (operation, maintenance, repair) …………………..
9.2.4 Input suppliers (seeds, fertilizer, chemicals) topics discussed ………………………………………………………
9.2.5. Any other (please specify) topics discussed ……………………………………………………...

9.3. Have you undertaken any vocational training during the last 5 years Yes / No
9.4 If yes, please specify the nature of training(s) …………………………………………………………………….…………………………..

9.5 Have you received any training on :

9.5.1 Pesticide application Y/ N


9.5.2 If so, what type of training (selection of product, application of insecticide/ herbicide, safety) ………………………..
9.5.3 who provided it? …………………………

9.5.4. Machinery operation Y/ N


9.5.6. Machinery maintenance / repair Y/ N
9.5.7. If so, for what type of equipment: ………………………………..
9.5.8. and who provided it? ……………………………………….…

8.1.5. Do you believe your present skills and knowledge are sufficient for improving crop productivity on your farm ? Y/N
8.1.6. If not, specify the type of training or information you need? …………………………………………………………

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10. FARMER’S PERCEPTIONS
10.1. What are the major issues affecting your rice crop productivity [IDENTIFY top 5 major issues with tick]
Dry season Early wet season Wet season Ranking of issues
1. Low quality seed (poor germination/ low vigor/ mixed)
2. Availability of water for supplementary irrigation
3. Lack of machinery
5. Soil health/ productivity
6. Scarcity of funds
7. Weeds
8 Disease
9. Insect damage
10. Drought
11. Floods
12. Lack of extension support
13. Labor unavailability
14. High cost of labor
15. Others (Specify)…………….………..
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Interviewer to expand on comments made by farmer


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10.2. Describe the possible measures that may help improve crop productivity on farm?
Dry season Early wet season Wet season Ranking of issues
1. Good quality seeds
2. Mechanised direct seeding
3. Access to tractor power source
4. Availability of water
5. Provision of crop loans
6. Better extension advice
7 Better insect pest control
8 Better weed control
9 Better disease control
10 Better other pest control (specify)
11. Better variety
12. Fertilizer supply / application
13. Others (Specify) ………………………………..
Interviewer to expand on comments made by farmer
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10.3. Describe the possible measures that would help you intensify cropping on your farm? (eg. growing more crops over more seasons each year)
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