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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background One of the
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background One of the

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background One of the processing units that are owned PT.PERTAMINA is RU V Balikpapan, where the crude oil processing refinery with a capacity of 60 design MBSD in Balikpapan processing unit I and 200 MBSD in Balikpapan II processing units. Distillation and Wax (DisWax) is a processing unit at the refinery in Balikpapan I which have a main unit that is Crude Distilation Unit (CDU) V and High Vacuum Unit (HVU) III. Unit (HVU) III is a unit that is used to separate components components of the long residue from the bottom of the product on the CDU vacuum pressure of V on 12.75 mmHg or equal to 0.016314 kg/cm2 (design). Decoy long residue CDU V flow goes into a vacuum feed surge drum (C-202-01) before flowing to preheat (heat exchanger) to get the initial warming, after that lures streamed to vacuum heater to raise the temperature until it reaches the bait range 391-394 ° c (design), then streamed to the vacuum column C-202-01 for rengkah into specific products. Furnace design can use fuel fuel gas and fuel oil. Furnace is the highest cost heater, where about 60-80% of the total cost of production of the refinery used to fuel consumption of the furnace. So it needs to be kept operating with furnace performance evaluation based on calculation efficiency furnace F-202-

01.

I.2. Scope of the Problem Presented the scope of the implementation of specific tasks are:

the scope of the implementation of specific tasks are: Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
the scope of the implementation of specific tasks are: Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
the scope of the implementation of specific tasks are: Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 1. Writing the report specifically focused to calculate
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 1. Writing the report specifically focused to calculate

1. Writing the report specifically focused to calculate the efficiency of a furnace

F-202-01.

2. Data Base using data of operational conditions of the period September 2016

I.3. Objectives The purpose of the implementation of this particular task, among others, are:

1. As a condition for the fulfillment of the Field work practice courses.

2. Knowing the principles and process of work on the furnace F-202-01 unit HVU III.

3. Know the performance of the furnace F-202-01 unit HVU III by evaluating and calculating the efficiency of the furnace.

I.4. Method of Approach The method of approach were used to complete this special report through approaches:

1.

Studi literature.

2.

Datasheet of furnace F-202-01.

3.

Data analisys of laboratory.

3.

Data of Pi.

4.

Other Supporting Data (PFD dan P&ID).

of Pi. 4. Other Supporting Data (PFD dan P&ID). Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
of Pi. 4. Other Supporting Data (PFD dan P&ID). Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
of Pi. 4. Other Supporting Data (PFD dan P&ID). Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 High Vacuum Unit
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 High Vacuum Unit

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 High Vacuum Unit III (HVU III) High Vacuum Unit (HVU III) is a unit that is designed to process Crude from Reduced Crude Distillation Unit (CDU V) or Reduced Crude Export Fuel Oil tanks of the existing vacuum pressure made of 12.75 mmHg or equal to 0.016314 kg/cm2 (design). Products resulting from this form of unit off gas, Light Vacuum Gas Oil (LVGO), Paraffinic Oil Distillate (POD), High Vacuum Gas Oil (HVGO), slop wax (no longer produced) and Short residue. The process unit HVU III system is divided into the feed charge and sexy preheat. On the system feed charge, a process that happens to be seen based on the operation of hot charge (normal operating) and operating cold charge. The process that occurs in the operation of hot charge i.e. reduced crude from CDU V fed into a vacuum feed surge drum C-202-02, with the condition of feed in the form of Mixed Crude which has a capacity of design (100% capacity) and the temperature MBSD 25 160 ᵒ C, as well as feed in the form of Minas Crude which has a capacity of 25 MBSD and tenperatur of 170 ᵒ C. The process that occurs during operation cold charge i.e. long residue from the tank to the existing Fuel Oil Exports (01 and 02) located in offsite area, fed into a vacuum feed surge drum C-202-02, at the time the CDU V shutdown. To maintain the operating condition of vacuum feed surge drum it takes pressure of 1.7 kg/cm2G guarded by using pressure controller, which works on the basis of the split range. In addition to high liquid in vacuum feed surge drum is maintained by using the level controller, which will drain the reduced crude

the level controller, which will drain the reduced crude Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
the level controller, which will drain the reduced crude Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
the level controller, which will drain the reduced crude Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 export fuel oil tank from the existing (O1
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 export fuel oil tank from the existing (O1

export fuel oil tank from the existing (O1 and O2) into the vacuum feed surge drum. As well as the temperature is maintained by way of a siphon into the steam coil LLP in the drum bottom, operated manually. On the system reduced crude preheat section of vacuum feed surge drum C- 202-02, pumped by using reduced crude pumps G-202-01 A/B to the vacuum column C-202-01. Before entering the vacuum column C-202-01, reduced crude is heated up to the temperature required for separation in vacuum heater F-202- 01, after the first in a series of heated in heat exchanger in section preheat.

First Ejector First Condensor Second Ejector Third Ejector Non Condensate Gas Second Condensor Third Condensor
First Ejector
First Condensor
Second Ejector
Third Ejector
Non Condensate Gas
Second Condensor
Third Condensor
Vacuum Column
Light Vacuum Slop
Eo-202-01
G-202-02A/B
Water
Vacuum
Column
Overhead Accumulation
G-202-06A/B
G-202-08A/B
Eo-202-05
LVGO
Furnace
G-202-07A/B
POD
G-202-03A/B
Eo-202-06
HVGO
Eo202-02
Eo-202-03
G-202-04A/B
Vacuum Residue
E-202-08
Eo-202-04
E-202-11
C-202-05
E-202-10
G-202-05A/B
C-202-04
E-202-07
E-20209
Vacuum Feed Surge
Reduced
Crude
E-202-03
Drum
from
G-202-01A/B
E-202-01
E-202-02
CDU V
E-202-12

Figure 1.3 Process Flowchart HVU III

2.2 Furnace

In the industry of petroleum and other chemical industry often require the process with high temperature conditions, so need equipment that can drain the heat. The tool is the furnace. In the petroleum industry, furnace used for heating a

In the petroleum industry, furnace used for heating a Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
In the petroleum industry, furnace used for heating a Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
In the petroleum industry, furnace used for heating a Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 fluid flow before entering the reactor, before entering
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 fluid flow before entering the reactor, before entering

fluid flow before entering the reactor, before entering the fluid flow heaters fraksinator heaters for craking black oil and other functions that require warming. Furnace has a function to move the heat generated from the combustion of fuel in combustion chamber of liquid that will be heated (Hanifa, 2012). The fluid flows through the pipe around the vessel that was in the combustion chamber.

pipe around the vessel that was in the combustion chamber. Figure 2.2 Charts Furnace Convection section

Figure 2.2 Charts Furnace

Convection section is an area where entry of liquids will be separated. In this section, the liquids are heated by convection flow with combustion exhaust. The liquid is then channelled to the radiation where the liquid will be heated by the fuel burned. Radiant section is also called the combustion box, because the process of burning fuel there is in this section. Heat of combustion of the fuel is transferred to the liquid in the process of radiation.

is transferred to the liquid in the process of radiation. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi
is transferred to the liquid in the process of radiation. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi
is transferred to the liquid in the process of radiation. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 For combustion, fuels furnace fuel oil is usually
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 For combustion, fuels furnace fuel oil is usually

For combustion, fuels furnace fuel oil is usually used, fuel gas, or both are used together, the fuel selection depending on a lot of calories in the form of heat produced or keekonomisannya. The amount of heat that will be given to the liquid that will be heated will depend from the amount of feed and inlet and outlet temperature difference to be achieved.

2.3 Classification of Furnace

Furnace can be classified from the incoming air and its classification as follows:

a. Natural Draught On natural draught, the air goes into the furnace is naturally due to the pressure difference between the furnace with air in the atmosphere. Tekanna in

lower furnace so that air can enter into the furnace. Natural draught has several characteristics :

Requires no Warming Water

Resistance to small exhaust gas flow

Have a high enough stack

b.

Forced Draught

The air goes into the furnace due to the pressure difference created by the blower. Forced draught has several characteristics:

Have a low stack

Resistance to small exhaust gas flow

c. Induced Draught The incoming air to the furnace with the help of a blower that is on the end of the stack. This is because the withdrawal of the blower in the furnace pressure lower than atmospheric pressure, so the air outside the entrance furnace.

pressure, so the air outside the entrance furnace. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
pressure, so the air outside the entrance furnace. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
pressure, so the air outside the entrance furnace. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Based on the mechanical design, there are several
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Based on the mechanical design, there are several

Based on the mechanical design, there are several types of furnace based on the mechanical design, namely:

1. Cylindrical Vertical Furnace This is commonly used in furnace heat hot oil and process laian which are usually small in size. This heater is probably the most commonly used to heat up to about 150 MBtu/HR. On the type of cylinder, upright tube in section of

radiation are installed in vertical in a round circle of stove. Burner located under dilantai, so that it is aligned with the flame tube. This type was applied:

Fluid heaters are commonly used as bait reactor

A heat Load ranges between 10-200 Gj/h

Used for heating a fluid which has the distinction of sushu between inlet and outlet are not too big or about 200OF (90OC)

inlet and outlet are not too big or about 200OF (90OC) Figure 2.3 Cylindrical Vertical Furnace

Figure 2.3 Cylindrical Vertical Furnace

about 200OF (90OC) Figure 2.3 Cylindrical Vertical Furnace Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
about 200OF (90OC) Figure 2.3 Cylindrical Vertical Furnace Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
about 200OF (90OC) Figure 2.3 Cylindrical Vertical Furnace Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 The advantage of using vertical cylindrical furnace: 
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 The advantage of using vertical cylindrical furnace: 

The advantage of using vertical cylindrical furnace:

The simple Construction, so the price is relatively cheap

The surface area of the pipe can be arranged so that the thermal efficiency is greater height

Area required is relatively small

Economically to fuel about 60-80 MMBTU/hour

The loss of usage of vertical cylindrical furnace:

The relatively small feed Capacity

Pilot area is minimal and the operation needs to be more carefully

2. Box Furnace This type of shaped box with heat transfer convection and radiation are separated by one or more of the wall called the bridge wall. This type has a large capacity and usually wear fire box double radiation section. This type was applied:

Process used for large capacity

Commonly used fuel is fuel oil

Used the old installation, sometimes used in new installations which have a supply of fuel with high levels of grey

A heat Load ranges between 60-80 MMBTU/hour or more

 A heat Load ranges between 60-80 MMBTU/hour or more Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi
 A heat Load ranges between 60-80 MMBTU/hour or more Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi
 A heat Load ranges between 60-80 MMBTU/hour or more Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Figure 2.4 Box Furnace The advantage of using
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Figure 2.4 Box Furnace The advantage of using
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Figure 2.4 Box Furnace The advantage of using

Figure 2.4 Box Furnace

The advantage of using box furnace :

A heat flux Distribution evenly around the pipe

Economically to wear on the load a heat above 60-80 MBTU/h

Loss of use box furnace :

Relatively expensive Price

Require a wider area

When one of the fluid flow is stopped, then the whole opersi kitchen also must be stopped to prevent rupture of the pipe

Can not be used for fluid cooled for high temperature fluid flow and short

3. Cabin furnace This type does not have a bridge wall. Berad convection section at the top of daput. Vessel in the area of radiation generally are mounted horizontally, but there are also mounted in vertical. The burner is mounted in the bottom of the

in vertical. The burner is mounted in the bottom of the Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
in vertical. The burner is mounted in the bottom of the Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
in vertical. The burner is mounted in the bottom of the Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 fire that has perpendicular to the vessel, so
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 fire that has perpendicular to the vessel, so

fire that has perpendicular to the vessel, so that the direction of the fire glow mupun exhaust gas perpendicular to the arrangement of the pipeline.

gas perpendicular to the arrangement of the pipeline. Figure 2.5 Horizontal Tube Cabin Heater The advantage

Figure 2.5 Horizontal Tube Cabin Heater

The advantage of wearing carbin furnace :

Form a compact construction and have a high thermal efficiency.

Heat Load approximately 20-300 MMBTU/hour.

efficiency.  Heat Load approximately 20-300 MMBTU/hour. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
efficiency.  Heat Load approximately 20-300 MMBTU/hour. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
efficiency.  Heat Load approximately 20-300 MMBTU/hour. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 2.4 Furnace Parts Figure 2.6 Furnace Parts In
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 2.4 Furnace Parts Figure 2.6 Furnace Parts In

2.4 Furnace Parts

Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 2.4 Furnace Parts Figure 2.6 Furnace Parts In general the furnace

Figure 2.6 Furnace Parts

In general the furnace has several sections as follows :

a. Wall of Furnace Serves as an insulator to keep the combustion heat is not lost to the outside of the circle.

b. Stack

Function to remove the exhaust gases of combustion result from the kitchen out to the outside environment.

result from the kitchen out to the outside environment. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
result from the kitchen out to the outside environment. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
result from the kitchen out to the outside environment. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 c. Stack damper Function to set the smoke
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 c. Stack damper Function to set the smoke

c. Stack damper Function to set the smoke is lost in the stack. If the opening of the pereedam

decreases, the amount of heat lost in the stack will be reduced, but if the opening is too small, the pressure will increase.

d. Window Watcher Function to see the fire in the kitchen walls.

e. Air Registers The air handler is used to regulate the amount of air that goes into the kitchen. Air registers are composed of two parts: primary and secondary.

f. Tubes

Made of material resistant to corrosion and have a pretty strong force (usually made of chromium). The pipeline serves to remove heat from liquid fuel combustion yng terkndung in the tubes.

g. Burner

Serves to keep the airflow settings in hetaer used by fuel gas to get the fuel mixing with the air either.

h. Soot blower Function to remove the soot that sticks to pipe the vessels in this part of

the convection by spraying fluids such as air, water, or steam.

2.5 Triangle Fire Triangle Fire or better known as the Fire Triangle is three basic elements that are interlinked between one element with other elements. The fire was the result of rapid oxidation at high temperatures is accompanied by the appearance of the product gas heat and radiation emissions are visible as well as invisible. The fire is visible or invisible. Oxidation generally occurs in the form

visible or invisible. Oxidation generally occurs in the form Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
visible or invisible. Oxidation generally occurs in the form Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
visible or invisible. Oxidation generally occurs in the form Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 of rust on metal, but in arson fire,
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 of rust on metal, but in arson fire,

of rust on metal, but in arson fire, which creates the oxidation takes place very

quickly.

fire, which creates the oxidation takes place very quickly. Figure 2.7 Triangle Fire The elements of

Figure 2.7 Triangle Fire

The elements of the triangle fire is :

a. Fuel: solid, liquid, or a gas when heated issue the flammable vapor. E.g. paper, wood. Cardboard, oil, paint, acetylene, etc.

b. Heat: critical Temperature should be reached in order for the ignition occurred, but after the fire have formed the fire usually will retain the heat themselves. Heat can arise intentionally, or may not be intentional. For example, the heater placed too close to furniture, overloaded electrical circuits on a spot, and the personal computer are covered with Office paper.

c. Oxygen: Gas chemical elements that are colorless, odorless, tasteless and not that filling 20% of the air we breathe.

tasteless and not that filling 20% of the air we breathe. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
tasteless and not that filling 20% of the air we breathe. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
tasteless and not that filling 20% of the air we breathe. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 The fire will not be created when one
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 The fire will not be created when one

The fire will not be created when one of the components of the fire triangle is missing. The fire will not be able to continue to blaze in one of the components of the tetrahedron is lost. In addition to the creation of fire also in influence by the flash point and the composition of the concentration. When the temperature on the flash point exceeding the minimum then the less chance for the formation of the fire. Also in the composition of the concentration on one of the components of the fire triangle is not enough then there will be formed a fire.

2.6 Combustion Process

The combustion process is a process of bereaksinya of fuel, air, and heat until the occurrence of fire. Following things are associated with the combustion process:

a. Air The number of air dipetlukan on burning depending on the type and amount of fuel gas, tools as well as steam reformer tube operating conditions. At pembkaran, too much air will produce excessive heat, so the gas much heat that is perfect which later can lead to the formation of carbon on the tube. Comparison of the air with fuel gas is important so that the efisiennya maintained a determined optimal.

b. Mixing Fuel Gas with Air The entire air should be mixed with the fuel gas, since each particle that can terbakarharus can really contact with oxygen in the air before combustion occurs. If the mixing distribution and uneven, it will happen to the excess air, and then going on a torrent of burning. So in the combustion process must take place mixing the fuel and air is perfect.

process must take place mixing the fuel and air is perfect. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
process must take place mixing the fuel and air is perfect. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
process must take place mixing the fuel and air is perfect. Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 c. Combustion Time The mixing of air and
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 c. Combustion Time The mixing of air and

c. Combustion Time The mixing of air and fuel gas as well as temperature largely determined by the speed of oxidation reactions in combustion. It takes time for the perfection of the process. When the equipment is operating at high speed so that the time to perfect combustion is not enough, then the fuel gas does not burn completely. The theory of combustion or chemical reaction between a fuel with air or oxygen produces energy heat and gas-gas combustion results can be grouped into:

Perfect Combustion Perfect combustion the combustion is where all the carbon reacts with oxygen to form karbonbdioksida (CO2) and hydrogen reacts with oxygen to form water (H2O), used no Oxygen left. Examples of reactions :

C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O + Energi Combustion reaction is actually only exists on the theoretical combustion, while in a State of actual inside never happened.

Not Perfect Combustion Imperfect combustion is a combustion in which oxygen is used for combustion reactions are insufficient in number, so on combustion produces carbon monoxide. Examples of reactions :

combustion produces carbon monoxide. Examples of reactions : C 2 H6 + 3O 2 CO 2

C 2 H6 + 3O 2 CO 2 + CO + 3H 2 O + Energi

: C 2 H6 + 3O 2 CO 2 + CO + 3H 2 O +

Other Combustion On the burning of fuel gas or fuel oil, not only consists of hydrocarbons, then some other combustion reactions that may occur are :

2H 2 S + 3O 2 2SO 2 + 2H 2 O

may occur are : 2H 2 S + 3O 2 2SO 2 + 2H 2 O

2CO

+

O 2

: 2H 2 S + 3O 2 2SO 2 + 2H 2 O 2CO + O

2CO 2

2 S + 3O 2 2SO 2 + 2H 2 O 2CO + O 2 2CO
2 S + 3O 2 2SO 2 + 2H 2 O 2CO + O 2 2CO
2 S + 3O 2 2SO 2 + 2H 2 O 2CO + O 2 2CO

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 The formation of oxides of sulfur is not
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 The formation of oxides of sulfur is not

The formation of oxides of sulfur is not desired inside the volcano, because of the presence of water vapour in the exhaust gas will be possible vitriol. While the rest of the carbon is not burned will produce a blackish red colour on the flame.

2.7 Gas Burner The principle of mixing air with gas fuel for the combustion process is done in two stages. The first stage, mixing with primary air namely mixing prior to combustion. Mixing occurs along the burner, from the orifice until spinder. The second stage, i.e. secondary air mixing with mixing fuel gas with air during the combustion process that goes to mnyempurnakan the course of combustion process in a fired heater. Mixing occurs in the radiant section. If the air in the mix is less, then the flame redness and sometimes fuming. It's best if the air in the mixture too much, then the flame is blue, not smoky, some distance from the flame limits spinder, and at any time can be extinguished. When the air for the combustion process less or more, then the kitchen is not working effectively. When the lack of air, the combustion process less than

perfect so that the fuel gas which does not burn out as the black smoke. When excessive hot air, partly a result stack. Visually, the lack of air can be known when :

a. The flame Red

b. The base of fire inherent in spinder

c. Sometimes happened back fire

of fire inherent in spinder c. Sometimes happened back fire Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi
of fire inherent in spinder c. Sometimes happened back fire Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi
of fire inherent in spinder c. Sometimes happened back fire Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

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Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3.1 Implementation of Specific Tasks
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3.1 Implementation of Specific Tasks

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Implementation of Specific Tasks As a whole the methodology undertaken for carrying out specific tasks are as follows :

1. Studi literature and field

2. Data collection

3. Data processing

3.2 Studi Literature and Field The study of the literature and field aims to study the things pertaining to the specific job. The study of the literature was conducted to find out the process which deals in plant of High Vacuum Unit (HVU) and furnace by studying the processes that occur in plant HVU, usefulness of the furnace for the plant, the principle ketja HVU furnace and energy balance calculations in the furnace. The literature used is textbooks, slides, process diagram, flowsheet and internet website. Field studies conducted include a performance monitoring tool directly at the refinery and a discussion with officers of the Court, the clerk, and the control room supervisor.

3.3 Data Collection The data used in the calculation to complete specific tasks were obtained from a number of sources i.e. primary data as well as secondary data. Primary data obtained from actual data that occurs in the process or operating conditions. The data is taken in the calculations this time are data on September 29, 2016, both from the data control panel as well as the data field. Data capture on

control panel as well as the data field. Data capture on Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
control panel as well as the data field. Data capture on Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
control panel as well as the data field. Data capture on Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 September 29, 2016 due on that date furnace
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 September 29, 2016 due on that date furnace

September 29, 2016 due on that date furnace F-202-01 has been dicleaning. So it can be known how the overall performance of the preheat furnace especially F-202-01. As for the secondary data, obtained from the data sheet or the design that are already specified in the initial design.

3.4 Data Processing Calculation of the heat used in the furnace can be reviewed from the use of fuel gas coming out of the chimney. Methods that can be used is with the method of heat release. On a method of heat release, heat the fluid absorbed is calculated based on the difference between the incoming heat with the heat lost through the fuel gas out of the chimney.

3.5 Heat Calculation Measures Used Heat calculation measures used can be known through two stages, namely by calculating the heat enters the furnace and the second step by calculating the heat out furnace :

3.5.1 Calculation Of Incoming Heat Furnace

I. Heat Sensibel Fuel oil ( Q 1 )

- Determine slope correction and middle fuel oil boiling point of attachment, then determine the price of middle boiling point of slope.

- Calculate the value of KUOP from fuel oil with following formula

- (Nelson, 1968)

Calculate heat type (Cp) of the fuel oil with the help of graphs on the

attachment and on the basis of a price correction factors can be determined KUOP Cp based on the graph at Appendix 3.

- Fuel oil Consumption can be calculated with the formula :

M = V

oil Consumption can be calculated with the formula : M = V Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)
oil Consumption can be calculated with the formula : M = V Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)
oil Consumption can be calculated with the formula : M = V Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Where : M = Mass of fuel oil,
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Where : M = Mass of fuel oil,

Where :

M = Mass of fuel oil, lb/hr

V = Volume of fuel oil, ft 3 /hr

ρ = Density of fuel oil, ft 3 /lb

- Heat-sensible fuel oil can be calculated with the formula :

Q 1 = M Cp (T in T out )

Where :

M = Mass of fuel oil, lb/hr

Cp = Heat type of fuel oil, Btu/lb o F

T in = Temperature of fuel oil masuk furnace, o F

T out = Temperature calculation base, o F

II.

Heat Combustion of Fuel Oil ( Q 2 )

Q 2 = M

NHV

Where :

M

= Mass of fuel oil, lb/hr

 

NHV= Net Heating Value, Btu/lb

III.

Heat of Steam Atomizing ( Q 3 ) Pressure and temperature of steam atomizing steam enthalpy obtained with the aid of tables in Appendix 9 page 8. The amount of atomizing steam consumption can be known with the help of graphs on the attachment 4 page 4 where necessary for fuel oil pressure data to determine the amount of discharging steam atomizing. Hot steam atomizing can be calculated with the formula:

Hot steam atomizing can be calculated with the formula: Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
Hot steam atomizing can be calculated with the formula: Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
Hot steam atomizing can be calculated with the formula: Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Q 3 = M ΔH Where : M
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Q 3 = M ΔH Where : M

Q 3 = M

ΔH

Where : M = Mass of steam, lb/jam

H = Comparison of enthalphy steam, Btu/lb

IV.

Sensible Heat Fuel Gas ( Q 4 )

a. Fuel gas is assumed as the ideal gas

b. Determine the heat type (Cp) of each component of the fuel gas.

c. Calculate SG fuel gas in the following way (Burcik, 1979):

d. The sensible heat of the fuel gas can be calculated with the formula:

Q 4 = M

Cp

(T in - T out )

Where :

M = Mass of fuel gas, lb/jam

 

Cp = Heat type of fuel gas, Btu/lb o F

T in = Temperature of fuel gas furnace, o F

T out = Calculate Temperature base, o F

V.

Heat Combustion of Fuel Gas ( Q 5 )

Q 5 = M

NHV

 

Where :

M

= Mass of fuel gas, lb/jam

 

NHV = Net Heating Value, Btu/lb

VI.

Sensible Heat of Combustion Air ( Q 6 ) Discharging the air = flow rate of air

Air ( Q 6 ) Discharging the air = flow rate of air Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah
Air ( Q 6 ) Discharging the air = flow rate of air Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah
Air ( Q 6 ) Discharging the air = flow rate of air Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 a. Determine the hot type (Cp) from the
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 a. Determine the hot type (Cp) from the

a. Determine the hot type (Cp) from the air upon the temperature

b. Heat combustion air Sensible (Q6) can be calculated with the formula:

Q 6 = M

Cp

(T in T out )

Where :

M = Mass of Combustion Air, lb/hr

Cp = Heat capacity of air combustion, Btu/lb o F

T in = Temperature of incoming air in furnace, o F

T out = Temperature of calculation base, o F

3.5.2 Calculation Of Heat Out Furnace

I. The Heat Brought of Flue Gas ( Q 7 )

a. Calculation of% heavy H and C contained in fuel oil by using equation (Perry's, 1997):

% H = 26 ( 15 S )

% C= 100 % - (% H + % S + % H 2 O + % Abu)

Where :

S

= SG fuel oil

%H

=%Hydrogen in

fuel oil

%S

= %Sulphure Weight in fuel oil

%H 2 O = %Water Wight in fuel oil

%Ash =% Ash Weight in fuel oil

b. Calculate the weight of each component contained in fuel oil and fuel gas.

c. Calculate the theoretical air needs (Wa) with a base of 1 kg/h fuel, the formula used

air needs (Wa) with a base of 1 kg/h fuel, the formula used Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah
air needs (Wa) with a base of 1 kg/h fuel, the formula used Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah
air needs (Wa) with a base of 1 kg/h fuel, the formula used Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 ( ) Where : Wa = The theoretical
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 ( ) Where : Wa = The theoretical

(

)

Where : Wa = The theoretical air needs, kg air/hr

C

= The weight of the carbon in the fuel, kg/hr

H

= The weight of the hydrogen in the fuel, kg/hr

O

= Weight of oxygen in the fuel, kg/hr

S

= The weight of the sulphur in the fuel, kg/jam

d. Calculate the actual air used for combustion with 1 kg of fuel. The theoretical air needs can be deduced from the following chemical equation :

- Reaction for carbon :

C +

O 2

CO 2

1 mole + 1 mole

1 mole

12g

+ 32 kg

= 44 kg

1kg

+

8/3 kg

= 11/3 kg

- Reaction for hydrogen:

2H 2 +

O 2 → 2H 2 O

1mole + 1 mole 2 mole

1kg

+

8 kg = 9 kg

- Reaction for sulphure :

S + O 2 → SO2

1 mol e +

1 mole → 1 mole

sulphure : S + O 2 → SO2 1 mol e + 1 mole → 1
sulphure : S + O 2 → SO2 1 mol e + 1 mole → 1
sulphure : S + O 2 → SO2 1 mol e + 1 mole → 1

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Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 32 kg + 32 kg = 64 kg
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 32 kg + 32 kg = 64 kg

32 kg +

32 kg = 64 kg

1 kg

+

1 kg = 2 kg

Of these reactions can be said that for the reaction of burning 1 kg of fuel containing the elements carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur in order to burn perfectly requires oxygen rate :

For technical calculations, data-the data needed are :

- Volumetric Composition:

N

O

2

2

=

=

79% Vol

21% Vol

- Weight Composition :

N2

=

77% Weight

O2

=

23% Weight

- Molecular Weight of Air

- Comparison of Mole = 79/21 Thus the theoretical air needs (Wa) can be calculated using the following equation :

=

29

Or can be expressed :

(

)

the following equation : = 29 Or can be expressed : ( ) Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah
the following equation : = 29 Or can be expressed : ( ) Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah
the following equation : = 29 Or can be expressed : ( ) Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 ( ) Calculate the actual air requirements, which
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 ( ) Calculate the actual air requirements, which

(

)

Calculate the actual air requirements, which should be known i.e. the weight of the air is actually unions needed heavy fuel known as "Air Fuel Ratio" (AFR). In reality the actual air requirements (WA) is greater than the theoretical air needs (Wa), because the theoretical air only combustion will not last. Selisish between the needs of the actual air with theoretical air usually referred to with the excess water. Excess water is expressed in the form of the following equation :

 

(

)

Where :

x

= Excess air, %

W A = The amount of air required is actually, kg udara/hr

Wa= The theoretical amount of air needed, kg udara/hr

If the magnitude of the excess water is known, then the actual amount of air that is required can be calculated using the following equation :

(

)

Calculate the content of water vapour contained in the combustion air with the equation :

Where : P vapour

P standart

= Water vapor pressure, psia = The pressure is 1 atmosphere, psia

RH

= Relatif Humidity, %

The pressure is 1 atmosphere, psia RH = Relatif Humidity, % Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
The pressure is 1 atmosphere, psia RH = Relatif Humidity, % Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
The pressure is 1 atmosphere, psia RH = Relatif Humidity, % Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 BM w a t e r BM a
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 BM w a t e r BM a

BM water

BM air

= The weight of the water molecule, lb/lbmol

= The weight of the air molecules, lb/lbmol

The weight of the flue gas (Gas Combustion) is influenced by several factors, including the magnitude of the fuel components and excess water used. Fuel contains the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and water (water), whereas the air contains oxygen and nitrogen and water vapor (Ma). While flue gas produced consists of SO2, CO2, H2O, O2, and N2. Based on combustion reactions already mentioned before, then the magnitude of flue gas produced can be written in the form of the equation as follows :

W FG = 11/3 C + 2S + 9H 2 + 0.77Wa + 0.0023 X Wa

Where :

W FG = weight of flue gas, kg/kg fuel

Wa = the theoretical air, kg air/hr

W

= water content, kg vapour/hr

Ma

= water vapor in air, kg vapour/kg air

W A = the actual air, kg air/hr

The heat brought on flue gas (Q7) can be calculated by :

Q 7 = M

Cp

(T in T out )

Where :

M = Mass of flue gas, lb/hr

Cp = Heat Capacity of flue gas, Btu/lb o F

T in = Temperature of flue gas, o F

T out = Temperature of calculation base, o F

F T o u t = Temperature of calculation base, o F Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)
F T o u t = Temperature of calculation base, o F Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)
F T o u t = Temperature of calculation base, o F Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 II. The Heat Lost Through Walls and The
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 II. The Heat Lost Through Walls and The

II. The Heat Lost Through Walls and The Base of The Furnace (Q8)

a. Calculate the area of the wall and the base of the furnace on the section of radiation and convection

b. Determine the heat transfer coefficient of convection and radiation, as well as wall and slope correction factor the basic furnace.

c. The heat lost through walls and the base of the furnace (Q8) can be calculated with the formula :

Q 8 = A

hi

(T d T u )

Where :

A

= Area of the wall and the base of the furnace, ft 2

Hi

T

T

d

u

= The coefficient of heat transfer, Btu/ft 2 o F hr

= Wall surface temperature/basic furnace, o F

= The temperature of the outside air, o F

o F = The temperature of the outside air, o F Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
o F = The temperature of the outside air, o F Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
o F = The temperature of the outside air, o F Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program

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Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Result and
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Result and

CHAPTER IV

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Result and Discussion of Furnace F-202-01

4.1.1 Composition of Fuel Oil and Fuel Gas

Using data analysis and operating conditions dated 29 September 2016 where CDU unit V operating at a capacity of 62 MBSD and unit capacity of 25 MBSD HVU III, obtained results calculation and discussion of the following:

Tabel 4.1 Composition of fuel oil

Contents

Unit

Value

Spec.Garavity at 60/60F

-

0.95

Density 15ᵒC

kg/L

0.95

API Gravity at 60ᵒF

API

18.10

Pour Point

F

100

Flash Point Visc.

F

318

Kinematic at 140ᵒF

Cst

598.30

Ash Content

% wt

0.04

CCR

% wt

8.90

Sulphur Content

% wt

0.39

Water Content

% Volume

0.10

*Analisys Data of Fuel Oil Lab. RU V - 29 September 2016

*Analisys Data of Fuel Oil Lab. RU V - 29 September 2016 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)
*Analisys Data of Fuel Oil Lab. RU V - 29 September 2016 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)
*Analisys Data of Fuel Oil Lab. RU V - 29 September 2016 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)

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Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Tabel 4.2 Composition of fuel gas Fuel Composition
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Tabel 4.2 Composition of fuel gas Fuel Composition

Tabel 4.2 Composition of fuel gas

Fuel Composition

BM

% Mol

CH 4

16.04

82.69

C

2 H 6

30.08

4,.9

C

3 H 8

44.1

3.05

i-C 4 H 10

58.12

0.68

n-C 4 H 10

58.12

0.81

i-C 5 H 12

72.15

0.31

n- C 5 H 12

72.15

0.24

C

6 H 14

86.18

0.60

N

2

28.01

0.05

CO 2

44.01

6.97

TOTAL

 

100.00

*Analisys Data from datasheet F-202-01

Calculation of the o API using formulas (Nelson, 1968).

So the value of o API are obtained in the following ways :

Deg. API = 18.1

Data from the API Technical Data Book It 14-2

o

API

C/H ratio

25.0

7.17

30.0

6.79

Then, with the oAPI 18.1 obtained C/H of 6.27

30.0 6.79 Then, with the oAPI 18.1 obtained C/H of 6.27 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
30.0 6.79 Then, with the oAPI 18.1 obtained C/H of 6.27 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
30.0 6.79 Then, with the oAPI 18.1 obtained C/H of 6.27 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program

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Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 C/H ratio = 6.27 C = 6.27 H
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 C/H ratio = 6.27 C = 6.27 H

C/H

ratio = 6.27

C

= 6.27 H

C + H

= 100 (% S + % Ash + % Water)

(6.27 H) + H

= 100 (0.39 + 0.04 + 0.1)

H

= 13.69 %

C

= 85.78 %

Net

Heating Value Fuel Oil

NHV

= 11,088 2,100 d 2 + (757 d x (1 - % Air - % Ash - % S)) + 2,450 %S

585

%Water

NHV

= 10,445 kcal/kg

4.2 Calculation of Heat Furnace

4.2.1 Calculation of Incoming Heat Furnace

The steps for the calculation of the efficiency of the furnace is by calculating

the balance of heat include heat system and heat out of the system. Heat system

consists of :

I. Heat Sensibel Fuel Oil (Q 1 )

Based on the data sheet, data is obtained as follows :

Table 4.3 Fuel Consumption Data and The Operating Condition of Furnace F-202-01

P (kg/cm 2 )

FO

Flow In

Flow Out

P Steam

T Steam

T FO

(m

3 /hr)

(m

3 /hr)

(kg/cm 2 )

(ᵒC)

(ᵒC)

4.88

 

0.34

 

0.32

14.30

357.26

123.97

  0.34   0.32 14.30 357.26 123.97 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
  0.34   0.32 14.30 357.26 123.97 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
  0.34   0.32 14.30 357.26 123.97 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Flow Fuel oil used = Flow in –
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Flow Fuel oil used = Flow in –

Flow Fuel oil used

= Flow in Flow out

= (0.34 0.32) m 3 /hr

 

= 0.02 m 3 /hr

T

Fuel Oil

= 255.146 o F

T

base

= 60 o F

o API Fuel Oil

= 18.1

From Grafik, Obtained the data :

Cp T basis

= 0.43 Btu/lb o F

Cp T Fuel Oil

= 0.54 Btu/lb o F

Cp Average

= 0.485 Btu/lb o F

Material

ASTM slope

ASTM mid boiling point (F)

Correction

(general)

deg/percent

(F)

Gas Oil and Reduced Crude

5.00

300-800

53-72

* W L Nelson Petroleum Refinery Engineering” 4 th Edition, Page 172

As in the table above, the price obtained middle boiling point fuel oil

amounting to 800-72 = 728 oF. By using these data to calculate the price of the

UNINHABITED KUOP as follows :

KUOP = 10.82

After obtained the price of the UNINHABITED KUOP, from Appendix 3

page 3 obtainable correction factors of Cp = 0.95, then rectified Cp = 0.95 x

0.485 Btu/lb oF = 0.4607 Btu/lb oF. Fuel oil consumption is calculated by the

0.4607 Btu/lb oF. Fuel oil consumption is calculated by the Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi
0.4607 Btu/lb oF. Fuel oil consumption is calculated by the Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi
0.4607 Btu/lb oF. Fuel oil consumption is calculated by the Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi

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Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 equation : M = = 18.92 kg/hr x
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 equation : M = = 18.92 kg/hr x

equation

:

M

=

=

18.92 kg/hr x 2.2046 lb/kg

=

41.7070 lb/hr

Hot sensibel fuel oil can be calculated with the equation :

Q 1

= M

Cp

(T in T out )

= 41.7070 lb/hr x 0.485 Btu/lb o F x ( 255.14660) o F

= 3,927.05 Btu/hr x 0.25216 kcal/Btu

= 990.26 kcal/hr

So, heat sensibel fuel oil obtained of 990.26 kcal/hr.

II. Heat Combustion of Fuel Oil (Q 2 ) Heat of combustion of fuel oil is calculated by the equation below.

NHV values of fuel oil derived from previous calculations.

Q 2

= M

NHV

= 18.92 kg/hr x 10,445 kcal/kg = 197,594.44 kcal/hr So, the heat of burning fuel oil obtained amounted to 197, 594.44 kcal/hr.

III. Heat of Steam Atomizing (Q 3 )

To be able to calculate the heat of steam atomizing, first need to know the amount of discharging steam used for atomizing. The amount of steam consumption can be known from the graph at Appendix 4 where the fuel oil

can be known from the graph at Appendix 4 where the fuel oil Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah
can be known from the graph at Appendix 4 where the fuel oil Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah
can be known from the graph at Appendix 4 where the fuel oil Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 pressure data is used to determine the amount
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 pressure data is used to determine the amount

pressure data is used to determine the amount of steam consumption for atomizing. Fuel oil consumption = 18.92 kg/hr

Pressure of steam atomizing

Temperature steam atomizing = 357.26 o C = 675.068 o F From the steam tables steam enthalpy obtained are:

= 14.3 kg/cm 2 = 203.393 psia

H

at T base

= 28.06 Btu/lb = 746.68 Btu/lb

T

h on steam

Pressure fuel oil

=

= 4.7824 bar g From the graph at Appendix 4 obtained atomizing steam consumption was 0.29 kg steam/kg of fuel oil.

Steam consumption

= 18.92 kg/hr x 0.29 kg steam/kg fuel oil

= 5.49 kg steam/hr x 2.20462 lb/kg

= 12.10 lb steam/hr

Hot steam atomizing can be calculated with the formula:

Q 3

= M

ΔH

= 12.10 lb steam/hr x (746.6828.06) Btu/lb

= 8,691.68 Btu/hr x 0.25216 kcal/Btu

= 2,191.73 kcal/hr So, the hot steam atomizing obtained amounted to 2, 191.73 kcal/hr.

IV. Sensible Heat of Fuel Gas (Q 4 ) Based on the data sheet gas fuel data is obtained as follows :

on the data sheet gas fuel data is obtained as follows : Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)
on the data sheet gas fuel data is obtained as follows : Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)
on the data sheet gas fuel data is obtained as follows : Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Table. 4.4 Gas fuel consumption data Fuel Gas
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Table. 4.4 Gas fuel consumption data Fuel Gas

Table. 4.4 Gas fuel consumption data

Fuel Gas

Flow (NM 3 /hr)

P (kg/cm 2 )

Tin ( o C)

1,215.50

1.20

33.38

T

fuel gas

= 92.084 o F

T

basis

= 60 o F

From the above data obtained the Cp value following :

Table 4.5 CP's average composition fuel gas

         

Cp

Cp

 

Fuel

Composition

BM

% mol

Mass

(lb/lbmol)

%

Berat

pada

T

basis

(Btu/lb

pada

T fuel

gas

(Btu/lb

Cp

rata-

rata

(Btu/lb

F)

F)

F)

CH

16.04

82.6936

13.2665

63.6052

0.53

0.5362

0.5315

CH

30.08

4.5922

1.3809

6.6205

0.41

0.4271

0.4180

CH

44.10

3.0486

1.3443

6.4453

0.39

0.4078

0.3978

i-CH₁₀

58.12

0.6750

0.3923

1.8810

0.39

0.4075

0.3972

n-CH₁₀

58.12

0.8128

0.4724

2.2650

0.39

0.4092

0.4016

i-CH₁₂

72.15

0.3142

0.2267

1.0869

0.38

0.4020

0.3922

n-CH₁₂

72.15

0.2378

0.1716

0.8226

0.39

0.4073

0.3970

CH₁₄

86.18

0.6040

0.5205

2.4955

0.39

0.4062

0.3963

N

28.01

0.0496

0.0139

0.0666

0.25

0.2485

0.2483

0.0496 0.0139 0.0666 0.25 0.2485 0.2483 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
0.0496 0.0139 0.0666 0.25 0.2485 0.2483 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
0.0496 0.0139 0.0666 0.25 0.2485 0.2483 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 CO ₂ 44.01   6.9722 3.0685 14.7115 0.2
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 CO ₂ 44.01   6.9722 3.0685 14.7115 0.2

CO

44.01

 

6.9722

3.0685

14.7115

0.2

01989

0.1990

TOTAL

   

100

20.8576

100

3.71

3.8506

3.7789

Calculating the SG by using equation (Burcik, 1979) :

 

=

= 0.72 Fuel gas usage

= Fuel gas usage x SG gas x ρ air

 

= 1,215.50 NM 3 /hr x

0.72

x

(1 kg/m 3

x

0.94

m 3 /NM 3 )

= 821.7695 kg/hr x 2.2046 lb/kg = 1,811.69 lb/hr

Weight (m) CH 4

= 1,152.33 lb/hr Sensible heat fuel gas using the following equation:

Q

Q

=

4

CH4

= M Cp (T in - T out ) =1,152.33 lb/hr x 0.5315 Btu/lb o F x (92.084 60) o F =19,648.67 Btu/hr

By using the same method above, then sensible heat gas components can be calculated as follows :

sensible heat gas components can be calculated as follows : Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi
sensible heat gas components can be calculated as follows : Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi
sensible heat gas components can be calculated as follows : Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Table 4.6 Hot sensibel each component Fuel Berat
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Table 4.6 Hot sensibel each component Fuel Berat

Table 4.6

Hot sensibel each component

Fuel

Berat

Cp rata-rata

   

Composition

(lb/hr)

(Btu/lb F)

ΔT (ᵒF)

Panas Sensibel (Btu/hr)

CH

1152,33

0,5315

32,084

19648,67

CH

119,94

0,4180

32,084

1608,68

CH

116,77

0,3978

32,084

1490,35

i-CH₁₀

34,08

0,3973

32,084

434,37

n-CH₁₀

41,03

0,4016

32,084

528,72

i-CH₁₂

19,69

0,3922

32,084

247,81

n-CH₁₂

14,9

0,3970

32,084

189,81

CH₁₄

45,21

0,3963

32,084

574,85

N

1,21

1,2483

32,084

9,61

CO

266,53

0,1990

32,084

1701,32

TOTAL

1811,69

3,7789

 

26434,19

Q 4

= 26,434.19 Btu/hr x 0.25216 kcal/Btu

= 6,665.75 kcal/hr

So, sensible heat fuel gas obtained amounted to 6, 665.75 kcal/hr.

V. Heat Combustion of Fuel Gas (Q 5 )

In Appendix 10, page 9 will be obtained the value of Net Heating Value

(NHV) of each component of the fuel gas is as follows :

(NHV) of each component of the fuel gas is as follows : Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)
(NHV) of each component of the fuel gas is as follows : Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)
(NHV) of each component of the fuel gas is as follows : Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037)

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Table 4.7 NHV each component of fuel gas
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Table 4.7 NHV each component of fuel gas

Table 4.7 NHV each component of fuel gas

     

Mass

 

NHV

 

Fuel

%

%

NHV

Composition

BM

mol

Proporsional

berat

Component

(Btu/lb)

(lb/lbmol)

(Btu/lb)

   

82.693

 

63.60

   

CH

16.04

6

13.2665

52

21,520.00

13687.83

       

6.620

   

CH

30.08

4.5922

1,3809

5

20,432.00

1352.70

       

6.445

   

CH

44.10

3.0486

1.3443

3

19,944.00

1285.45

       

1.881

   

i-CH₁₀

58.12

0.6750

0.3923

0

19,629.00

369.22

       

2.265

   

n-CH₁₀

58.12

0.8128

0.4724

0

19,680.00

445.75

       

1.086

   

i-CH₁₂

72.15

0.3142

0.2267

9

19,478.00

211.70

       

0.822

   

n-CH₁₂

72.15

0.2378

0.1716

6

19,517.00

160.54

       

2.495

   

CH₁₄

86.18

0.6040

0.5205

5

19,403.00

484.21

       

0.066

   

N

28.01

0.0496

0.0139

6

- -

       

14.71

   

CO

44.01

6.9722

3.0685

15

- -

TOTAL

508.9

100

20.8576

100.0

159,603.00

17,997.4

508.9 100 20.8576 100.0 159,603.00 17,997.4 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
508.9 100 20.8576 100.0 159,603.00 17,997.4 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
508.9 100 20.8576 100.0 159,603.00 17,997.4 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 7 0 0 Calculate the heat of combustion
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 7 0 0 Calculate the heat of combustion
7 0 0

7

7 0 0
7 0 0

0

7 0 0

0

Calculate the heat of combustion of fuel gas using the following formula :

Q 5

= M

NHV

= 1,811.69 lb/hr x 17,997.40 Btu/lb

= 32,605,701.05Btu/hr

= 8,221,984.00 kcal/hr

So, the heat of combustion of fuel gas is obtained of 8,221, 984.00 kcal/hr.

VI. Sensible Heat of Air Combustion (Q 6 ) From page 1 of annex 1, the obtained data operating conditions as follows:Dari lampiran 1 halaman 1, didapatkan data-data kondisi operasi sebagai berikut:

Table 4.8 Operating conditions and the wearing of the combustion air

 

Combustion Air

Tin (ºC)

P (kg/cm²)

Flow (NM³/hr)

147.3664

79.9014

21001.3863

Air consumption (W A ) = Air consumption x ρ air

= 21001.3862 NM 3 /hr x 0.94 kg/NM 3 = 19,741.30 kg/hr

21001.3862 NM 3 /hr x 0.94 kg/NM 3 = 19,741.30 kg/hr Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
21001.3862 NM 3 /hr x 0.94 kg/NM 3 = 19,741.30 kg/hr Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
21001.3862 NM 3 /hr x 0.94 kg/NM 3 = 19,741.30 kg/hr Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 T basis = 288.56 K T Air =
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 T basis = 288.56 K T Air =

T

basis = 288.56 K

T

Air

= 420.37 K

Based on data obtained by T on top:

Cp T basis

= 1.00561 kJ/kg o C

Cp T udara

= 1.01672 kJ/kg o C

Cp Average

= 1.01117 kJ/kg o C

Sensible heat of combustion air (Q6) can be calculated with the equation

Q 6

= M

Cp

(T in T out )

= 19,741.30 kg/hr x 1.01117 kJ/kg o C x (147.3664 15.56) o C

= 2,631,081.77 kJ/hr

= 629,144.37 kcal/hr

So, sensible Heat combustion air obtained amounted to 629, 144.37 kcal/hr.

4.2.2 Calculation of Heat Out of Furnace

In the heat balance calculation method with reference to the method of lost

heat (heat loss method), then the heat is missing, which is the hot flue gases and

brought the heat is lost through the walls of the furnace.

I. Missing Heat Brought of flue gas (Q 7 )

The methods used in the calculation of the heat carried by the flue gases is by

calculating the balance of burning fuel oil and fuel gas with combustion air are

used. As for the measures undertaken are as follows :

-Calculation of the rat H and C contained in fuel oil out of the equation (Perry's,

1997):

% H

= 26 - (15 SG)

= 26 (15 x 0.9459)

1997): % H = 26 - (15 SG) = 26 – (15 x 0.9459) Muthi’ah Nur
1997): % H = 26 - (15 SG) = 26 – (15 x 0.9459) Muthi’ah Nur
1997): % H = 26 - (15 SG) = 26 – (15 x 0.9459) Muthi’ah Nur

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 = 11.81% From Equation : % C =
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 = 11.81% From Equation : % C =

= 11.81%

From Equation :

% C

= 100 % - ( % H + % S + % H 2 O + % Abu )

= 100% - (11.81% + 0.39% + 0.1% + 0.04%)

= 87.66%

Calculate the weight of H, C, N and O in the fuel gas with base 1 kgmol

Table 4.9 Percentage content of C, H, N and O in the fuel gas

     

Mass

     

Berat

Fuel

Composi

tion

BM

% mol

Proporsio

nal

(lb/lbmol)

Berat C

(kg/kg

Fuel)

Berat H

(kg/kg

Fuel)

Berat N

(kg/kg

Fuel)

O

(kg/kg

Fuel)

   

82.693

         

CH

16.04

6

13.2665

0.47576

0.15859

- -

CH

30.08

4.5922

1.3809

0.05284

0.01321

- -

 

CH

44.10

3.0486

1.3443

0.05262

0.01169

- -

 

i-CH₁₀

58.12

0.6750

0.3923

0.01553

0.00324

- -

 

n

             

-CH₁₀

58.12

0.8128

0.4724

0.01871

0.00390

- -

i-CH₁₂

72.15

0.3142

0.2267

0.00904

0.00060

- -

 

n-CH₁₂

72.15

0.2378

0.1716

0.00684

0.00137

- -

 

CH₁₄

86.18

0.6040

0.5205

0.02085

0.00347

- -

 

N

28.01

0.0496

0.0139

-

-

0.00067

-

CO

44.01

6.9722

3.0685

0.04011

-

-

0.10697

TOTAL

508.97

100.00

20.8576

0.69230

0.19607

0.00067

0.10697

20.8576 0.69230 0.19607 0.00067 0.10697 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
20.8576 0.69230 0.19607 0.00067 0.10697 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik
20.8576 0.69230 0.19607 0.00067 0.10697 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Total fuel = The amount of fuel oil
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 Total fuel = The amount of fuel oil

Total fuel

= The amount of fuel oil + the amount of fuel gas

=18.92 kg/hr + 821.7695 kg/hr

= 840.69 kg/hr

Weight of Carbon

kg/hr)

= (87.66% x 18.92 kg/hr) + (0.69230/100 x 821.7695

= 22.2723 kg/hr

Weight of Hydrogen

kg/hr)

= (11.81% x 18.92 kg/hr) + (0.19607/100 x 821.7695

Weight of Sulphure

Weight of Nitrogen

= 3.8457 kg/hr

= 0.39% x 18.92 kg/hr

= 0.0738 kg/hr

= 0.0019% x 821.7695 kg/hr

= 0.0055 kg/hr

Weight of H 2 O = 0.1% x 18.92 kg/hr

Weight of O 2

= 0.01892 kg/hr

= 0.10697/100 x 821.7695 kg/hr

= 0.87903 kg/hr

Weight of Ash = 0.04% x 18.92 kg/hr

= 0.0076 kg/hr

Table 4.10 % Weight of C, H, N and O

Fuel

Composition

Amount (kg/hr)

% Weight

C

22.2723

82.1771

H

3.8457

14.1894

S

0.0738

0.2722

% Weight C 22.2723 82.1771 H 3.8457 14.1894 S 0.0738 0.2722 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
% Weight C 22.2723 82.1771 H 3.8457 14.1894 S 0.0738 0.2722 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program
% Weight C 22.2723 82.1771 H 3.8457 14.1894 S 0.0738 0.2722 Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 N 0.0055 0.0202 H2O 0.0189 0.0698 O
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 N 0.0055 0.0202 H2O 0.0189 0.0698 O

N

0.0055

0.0202

H2O

0.0189

0.0698

O

0.8790

3.2433

Ash

0.0076

0.0279

Total

27.1028

100

- The theoretical air needs (Wa) is calculated with equation (Allen, 1914)

=

(

)

(

)

= 15.50 kg air/kg fuel x 2,515.15 kg/hr = 13,032.82 kg air/hr From Equation :

(

)

=

= 0.51%

- Actual air requirements for 1 kg of fuel (WA) from the equation

(

= (

)

)

= 15.58 kg udara/hr

fuel (WA) from the equation ( = ( ) ) = 15.58 kg udara/hr Muthi’ah Nur
fuel (WA) from the equation ( = ( ) ) = 15.58 kg udara/hr Muthi’ah Nur
fuel (WA) from the equation ( = ( ) ) = 15.58 kg udara/hr Muthi’ah Nur

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 - Content of moisture in the combustion air
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 - Content of moisture in the combustion air

- Content of moisture in the combustion air (Ma)

Air Temperature Water vapor pressure Relatif Humidity With Equation (3.21)

= 86.18 o F = 0.6251 psia = 0.0439 kg/cm 2 = 73% (www.balikpapan.climatemps.com/humidity)

=

= 0.02 kg vapour/kg air The weight of the flue gas (WFG) with base 1 kg/hr fuel with the equation W FG = 11/3 C + 2S + 9H 2 + 0.77W A + 0.0023 X W a = (11/3 x 82.1771%) + (2 x 0.2722%) + (9 x 14.1894%) + (0.77 x15.58 ) + (0.0023 x 15.50 ) = 16.33 kg/kg fuel W FG TOTAL =16.33 kg/kg fuel x 840.69 kg/hr = 13,728.79 kg/hr -Weight of the flue gas of each component

CO 2

H 2 O

=

=

(

)

(

)

= 2533.13 kg/hr

= 5,584.58 lb/hr

= * (

(

))

+

= * (

(

)

= 1,349.65 kg/hr

= 2,975.46 lb/hr

+

( ( ) ) + = * ( ( ) = 1,349.65 kg/hr = 2,975.46 lb/hr
( ( ) ) + = * ( ( ) = 1,349.65 kg/hr = 2,975.46 lb/hr
( ( ) ) + = * ( ( ) = 1,349.65 kg/hr = 2,975.46 lb/hr

Muthi’ah Nur Fadlilah (D500130037) Program Studi Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Laporan Tugas Khusus Kerja Praktek PT. PERTAMINA (Persero) Refinery Unit V Balikpapan September Oktober 2016

Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 SO 2 = = = 4.58 kg/hr =
Unit V – Balikpapan September – Oktober 2016 SO 2 = = = 4.58 kg/hr =

SO 2

=

=

=

4.58 kg/hr

=

10.09 lb/hr

N

2

= (

 

=

(

=

10,086.93 kg/hr

=

22,237.85 lb/hr

O

2

=

 

=

=

15.43 kg/hr

=

34.02 lb/hr

)

)

Table 4.11 The Heat from the Flue Gas

flue gas

     

Cp pd T flue gas*

Cp pd

Cp rata-

 

Berat

T flue

T basis

T basis

rata

Q

compos

ition

(lb/hr)

gas (F)

(F)

(Btu/lb

F)

(Btu/lb

F)

(Btu/lb

F)

(Btu/hr)

CO 2

5,584.58

716.32

60.00

0.26300

0.19905

0.23102

846767.15

H

2 O

2,975.46

716.32

60.00

0.49050

0.44500

0.46775