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# NCERT Chemistry : States of Matter

Q.1 What will be the minimum pressure required compressing 500 dm3 of air at 1
bar to 200 dm3 at 30C?

P1 = 1 bar P2 = ?

## According to Boyles law

P1V1 = P2V2

1 500 = P2 200

or

Q.2 A vessel of 120 ml capacity contains a certain amount at 35C and 1.2 bar
pressure. The gas is transferred to another vessel of volume 180 mL at 35C. What
would be its pressure?

P1 = 1.2 bar P2 = ?

V1 = 120 ml V2 = 180 mL

P1V1 = P2V2

## 1.2 120 = P2 180

or
Q.3 Using the equation of state pV = nRT, show that at a given temperature density
of a gas is proportional to gas pressure P. Call us: 8287971571,0261-4890016

## Or, Fill out the form & get a call back.

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Contact Number

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Q.4 At 0 C, the density of a gaseous oxide at 2 bar is the same as that of nitrogen
at 5 bar. What is the molecular mass of the oxide?

Send

## Q.5 Pressure of 1 g of an ideal gas A at 27C is found to be 2 bar. When 2g of

another ideal gas B is introduced in the same flask at the same temperature the
pressure becomes 3 bar. Find a relationship between their molecular masses.
Pressure of 1 gm of an ideal gas A at 27C (300 K) = 2 bar
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## Pressure on introducing 2 gm of another

Or, Fillideal gas
out the B& in
form getthe
a callsame
bar

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Q.6 The drain cleaner, Drainex contains small bits of aluminium which react with
caustic soda to produce dihydrogen gas. What volume of dihydrogen at 20C and
1bar will be released when 0.15 g of aluminium reacts?

The reaction is

## 54 g of Al gives 3 22.4 L of H2 at STP

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Q.7 What will be pressure exerted by a mixture of 3.2 g of methane and 4.4 g of
carbon dioxide contained in a 9 dm3 flask at 27C?

## Molar mass of methane (CH4) = 12 + 4 1 = 16 g mol1

16 = 44 g mol1
Mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) = 12 + 2 Send

Q.8 What will be the pressure of the gas mixture when 0.5 L of H2 at 0.8 bar and
2.0 L of oxygen at 0.7 bar are introduced in a IL vessel at 27C?

## To calculate the partial pressure of H2, i.e., pH2

V1 = 0.5 L V2 = 1 L
P1 = 0.8 bar P2=?
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## Temperature remaining constant, applying Boyles

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P1V1 = P2V2

## To calculate the partial pressure of O2, i.e., pO2

V1 = 2.0 L V2 = 1 L

P1 = 0.7 bar P2 = ?

0.7 2.0 = 1 P2
Send

or P2 = 1.4 bar

partial pressure

## P = pH2 + pO2 = (0.40 + 1.40) bar = 1.80 bar

Q.9 Density of a gas is found to be 5.46 g/dm3 at 27C and at 2 bar pressure. What
will be its density at STP?

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## Or, Fill out the form & get a call back.

Q.10 34.05 mL of phosphorus vapour weighs 0.0625 g at 546C and 0.1 bar
pressure. What is the molar mass of phosphorus?
Send
P = 0.1 bar

V = 34.05 mL = 0.03405 L

## T = 546 + 273 = 819 K

Now PV = nRT

or

Q.11 A student forgot to add the reaction mixture to the round bottomed flask at
27C, but he/she placed the flask on the flame. After a lapse of time, he realized his
mistake, using a pyrometer, he found the temperature of the flask was 477C. What
fraction of the air would have been expelled out?

T1 = 27 + 273 = 300 K
T2 = 477 + 273 = 750 K
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Q.12 Calculate the temperature of 4.0 moles of a gas occupying 5dm3 at 3.32 bar [R
= 0.083 bar dm3 K1 mol1]

P = 3.32 bar

## V = 5 dm3, R = 0.084 bar dm3 K1 mol1

Send
n = 4 moles

Since PV = nRT

Q.13 Calculate the total number of electrons present in 1.4 g of nitrogen gas.

28 g of N2 gas = 1 mole

1.4 g of N2 gas =

## [ 1 Molecule of N2 gas contains 14 electrons = 4.214 1023 electrons]

Q.14 How much time would it take to distribute one Avogadro number of wheat
grains if 1010 grain are distributed each second?
1010 grains are distributed in 1 second
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## Q.15 Calculate the total pressure in a mixture of 8g of dioxygen and 4g of

dihydrogen confined in a vessel of 1dm3 at 27C. R = 0.083 bar dm3 K1 mol1.

Send

Q.16 Pay load is defined as the difference between the mass of displaced air and
the mass of the balloon. Calculate the pay load when a balloon of radius 10m, mass
100 kg is filled with helium at 1.66 bar at 27C [Density of air = 1.2 kg m3, R =
0.083 bar dm3 K1 mol1]

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Send

## = 5024.4 1216.4 = 3808 kg

Q.17 Calculate the volume occupied by 8.8 gm of CO2 at 31.1C and 1 bar pressure,
R = 0.083 bar L K1 mol1.

## P = 1 bar, T = 31.1 + 273 = 304.1 K

Wco2 = 88 g , Mco2 = 44

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Q.18 2.9 g of a gas at 95C occupied the same volume as 0.184 g of hydrogen at
17C, at the same pressure. What is the molar mass of the gas?

## Mass of gas = 2.9 g

Send

Q.19 A mixture of dihydrogen and dioxygen at one bar pressure contains 20% by
weight of dihydrogen. Calculate the partial pressure of dihydrogen.

Since P = PM Mole fraction
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## Q.20 What would be the unit for the quantity pV2T2/n?

Q.21 In terms of Charles law explain why 273C is the lowest possible
temperature.

## According to charles Law

Send

Thus 273C is the lowest temperature because below this temperature, the
volume will become negative. This is meaningless.

Q.22 Critical temperature for carbon dioxide and methane are 31.1 C and 81.9C
respectively. Which of these has stronger intermolecular forces and why?

Inter molecular forces in CO2 molecules are more than in CH4 molecules because of
greater polarity.

## Significance of constant b. The constant b is called co-volume or excluded

volume per mol of gas. Its units are litre mol1. The volume of b is four times the
actual volume of the molecules.

Significance of constant a. The value of constant a give the idea of the magnitude
of attractive forces between the molecules of the gas. Its units are atm L2 mol2.
Larger the value of APP
a larger will be the intermolecular attraction among the gas
molecules.
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## Q.1 What is pressure of a gas? What is its S.I. unit?

The force exerted by the gas molecules per unit area on the walls of the container is
equal to its pressure. S.I.unit of pressure is pascal (Pa).

1Pa = 1 Nm2 = 1 kg m1 s2

## Q.2 What does the temperature of a gas represent?

The temperature of the gas represents the average kinetic energy of the gas
molecules as we know K.E.

## Q.3 Why is it not possible to cool a gas to 0 K?

Send

This is because all gases condense to liquids or solids before this temperature is
reached.

Q.4 What property of molecules of real gases is indicated by van der Waals
constant a?

## where P = gas pressure ; V = volume , R = gas constant

T = TemperatureAPP
(Kelvin scale) ; n = no of moles of gas.
Q.8 Define aqueous tension.
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## Pressure due to water vapours in a gas sample

Or,isFill
called
out theaqueous
form & gettension.
a call back.

Equal volumes of all gases under the similar conditions of temperature and
pressure contain equal number of molecules.

## Q.11 What is the compressibility factor?

Send
Q.12 What is the equation of state for real gases?

Q.13 How is the pressure of a gas related to its density at a particular temperature?

Q.14 How is the partial pressure of a gas in a mixture related to the total pressure
of the gaseous mixture?

## Partial pressure of a gas = Mole fraction of that gas total pressure.

Q.15 What is the relationship between average kinetic energy and the
temperature of a gas?

where k is Boltzmann constant Call us: 8287971571,0261-4890016

## Or, Fill out the form & get a call back.

Q.16 What is the significance of the van der Waals constant a and b?

## a is a measure of the magnitude of the inter molecular forces of attraction while

b is a measure of the effective size of the gas molecules.

Q.17 Arrange the solid, liquid and gas in order of energy giving reasons.

Solid < liquid < gas. This is because a solid absorbs energy to change into a liquid
which further absorbs energy to change into a gas.

## Boiling point increases as the prevailing pressure increases.

Send
Q.19 Why are vegetables cooked with difficulty at a hill station?

## The atmospheric pressure decreases as we go up. Therefore at hills due to lowering

of atmospheric pressure, boiling point is lowered.

Q.20 The size of weather balloon keeps on becoming larger as it rises to high
altitude. Explain why?

At higher altitudes, the external pressure on ballon decreases and therefore, its size
increases.

## Q.21 How is the pressure of a given sample of a gas related to temperature at

constant volume?

P T

Q.22 How is the pressure of a gas related to the number of molecules of a gas at
constant volume and temperature?

## P N : N = No. of molecules of a gas.

Q.23 What type of graph we get when we plot a graph PV against P? What is
shown by this graph?
It is a straight line parallel to the x-axis. It shows that PV is constant at different
pressures. It shows Boyles law. Call us: 8287971571,0261-4890016

## Or, Fill out the form & get a call back.

Q.24 At what temperature will oxygen molecules have the same kinetic energy as
ozone molecules at 30C?

At 30 C. Kinetic energy depends only on the absolute temperature and not on the
identity of gas.

Q.25 At a particular temperature why vapour pressure of acetone is less than that
of ether?

This is because inter molecular forces in acetone are more than those present in
ether.

Q.26 Out of NH3 and N2 which will have (i) larger value of a and (ii) larger value
of b?

Send
(i) NH3 will have large value of a because of hydrogen bonding.

## (ii) N2 should have large value of b because of larger molecular size.

Q.27 Why are the gases helium and hydrogen not liquefied at room temperature
by applying very high pressure?

Because their ciritical temperatures are lower than room temperature. Gases cannot
be liquefied above the critical temperature by applying even very high pressure.

Q.28 Water will boil at higher temperature at sea level or at the top of mountains?

## Water will boil at higher temperature at sea level.

Q.29 Under what conditions do real gases tend to show ideal gas behaviour?

When the pressure of the gas is very low and the temperature is high.

Q.30 Both propane (C3H8) and carbon dioxide (CO2) diffuse at the same rate under
identical conditions of temperature and pressure. Why?

Both propane (C3H8) and carbon dioxide (CO2) have the same molar mass (44 gm).

Q.31 If the number of moles of a gas are doubled by keeping the temperature and
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pressure constant, what will happen to the volume?
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Volume will also double as V n according to Avogadros Law.

## Q.32 What is a triple point?

The temperature at which solid ice, liquid water and water vapour, i.e., all the
three states of the substance exist together is called the triple point.

Q.33 Is Daltons law of partial pressure valid for a mixture of SO2 and O2?

No, the law holds good only for those gases which do not react with each other.

Q.34 Under what conditions a gas deviates from ideal gas behaviour?

## It deviates at low temperature and high pressure.

Send
Q.35 Molecule A is twice as heavy as the molecule B. Which of these has higher
kinetic energy at any temperature?

## K.E. of a molecule is directly proportional to temperature and is independent of its

mass. So both the molecules A and B at any temperature will have equal kinetic
energy.

Q.1 Ammonia and sulphur dioxide gases are prepared in two corners of a
laboratory. Which gas will be detected first by a student working in the middle of
the laboratory and why?

## Therefore NH3 gas will be detected first

Rate of diffusion
Q.2 Calculate the pressure of 1 1022 molecules of oxygen gas when enclosed in a
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vessel of 5 litres capacity at a temperature of 27C.
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Q.3 When a ship is sailing in pacific ocean where temperature is 23.4 C, a balloon
is filled with 2 L air. What will be the volume of the balloon when the ship reaches
Indian Ocean, where temperature is 26.1C.

Send

## 17.0 g of NH3 contains 1 Mole of NH3 or 6.02 1023 molecules

Q.5 From ideal gas equation PV = nRT, derive a relation between molar mass and
density of a gas at a given temperature and pressure.
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## Or, Fill out the form & get a call back.

Q.6 1 mole of SO2 occupies 1.5 L at 25C. Calculate the pressure exerted by gas
assuming that gas does not obey ideal gas equation. (Given a = 3.6 atm L2 mol2, b
= 0.04 L mol1) where a, b are van der Waals constant.

Send

## Q.7 Define surface tension

Surface tension is defined as force per unit length acting perpendicular to the
tangential line on the surface. It is due to unbalanced attractive forces acting
downwards and tends to reduce the surface area of a liquid to minimum.

## Q.8 Define viscosity of a liquid.

The internal resistance to the flow of the liquids which one layer offers to another
layer trying to pass over is called its visocosity. It depends upon the nature of the
liquid and temperature.

Q.9 What is meant by the term : Non- ideal gas or real gas?

The gas which does not obey Gas laws, Boyles law, Charles law, Avogardos law
Call ideal
at all temperature and pressures is called non- us: 8287971571,0261-4890016
or real gas. Most of the real
gases show ideal behaviour at low pressure and high
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Q.10 What is the effect of temperature on (i) Surface tension (ii) viscosity.

## Q.11 Write an expression for kinetic gas equation.

Where m, N, are mass, number of molecules, and root mean square velocity of
the gas molecules. P and V stand for the pressure and volume of the gas.
Send
Q.12 Both N2O and CO2 have similar reates of diffusion under similar conditions
of temperature and pressure. Explain.

Gram molar mass of both these gases is the same (44 g). According to Grahams
law of diffusion , the rates of diffusion of the gases are inversely proportional to
the square root of their molar masses under similar conditions of temperature and
pressure. Therefore both these gases diffuse at the same rate.

Q.13 Deduce the relation PV = nRT, where R is a constant called universal gas
constant.

## According to Boyles law

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## The temperature at which a gas behaves ideally over an appreciable pressure

range, i.e., the compressibility factor is 1 over a wide range of pressure is called
Boyles temperature (TB)

Q.15 An LPG cylinder when full contains 14.2 kg gas and exerts a pressure of 2.5
atm. If half of its gas is consumed what will be the pressure of the gas inside the
cylinder?

In a LPG cylinder, the gas is held as a liquid. There is an equilibrium between the
LPG (liquid) and its vapour. The equilibrium vapour pressure does not depend
upon the quantity of liquid present there as long as liquid vapour
equilibrium is maintained. Therefore, even when half the gas has been used, the
pressure excited by the vapour of the gas remains equal to 2.5 atmosphere.

Q.16 Why hydrogen and helium show positive deviations only with increase in
the value of P?

Since H2 and He have very small masses, the inter molecular forces of attraction
are extremely small even at low pressures. In other words, the factor a/V2 is
negligible at all pressures. Hence the van der Waals equation is reduced to
P (u b) RT or PV = RT + Pb
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## This explains why H2 and He show positiveOr,

deviations only& get
Fill out the form with increase
a call back. in the
value of P.

Q.17 Why at extremely low pressures, the real gases obey the ideal gas equation?

At low pressures, volume V is very large and hence the correction term b (a
constant of small value) can be neglected in comparison to very large value of V.
Thus the van der Waals equation for 1 mole of a real gas.

Send

Q.18 Using the kinetic gas equation show that the average kinetic energy per mole
of gas is given by 3/2 RT.

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Q.19 What is the effect of hydrogen bonding on the viscosity of a liquid?

Hydrogen bonding leads to an increase in the effective size of the moving unit in
the liquid. Due to an increase in the size and mass of the molecule there is greater
internal resistance to the flow of the liquid. As a result viscosity of the liquid
increases.

## Q.20 Why falling liquid drops are spherical?

This is due to the properties of surface tension possessed by the liquids. This
makes the surface area minimum. For a given volume, sphere has the minimum
surface area.

## Q.1 Derive the ideal gas equation, PV = nRT.

Let a certain mass of gas at pressure P1 and temperature T1 occupies a volume V1.
On changing the pressure and temperature respectively to P2 and T2. Let the
volume of gas changes to V2.

(i) Let us first change the pressure P1 to P2 at constant temperature T1. Then,
according to Boyles law, volume V is given by
or Call
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(i)
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(ii) Now keeping the pressure constant at P2, heat the gas from temperature T1 to
T2, the volume changes from V to V2.

## By Charles law we must have

Send

The numerical value of k depends upon the amount of gas and the units in which P
and V are expressed. By avogadros law for one mole of any gas, the value of PV/T
will be same and is represented by R and is

## Q.2 Explain the concept of Maxwell Boltzmann distribution of molecular speeds

in a gas simple at a given temperature.

A gas consists of tiny particles (atoms or molecules) separated from one another by
large spaces. These particles are constantly moving in all directions. During their
motion, they collide with one another and also with the walls of the container. As a
result of collisions , the speed and the direction of the molecules go on changing.
Thus, all the molecules present in given sample of a gas do not possess the same
speed. The speeds of individual molecules are different and are distributed over a
wide range. The speeds of different molecules go on changing. However, the
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remains the same at a particular
temperature although the individual speeds of
Or,the molecules
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## The distribution of molecules between different possible speeds was given by

Maxwell and Boltzmann. He plotted the fraction of molecules, i.e., (along y-
axis) having different speeds against the speeds of the molecules (along x-axis).
The curve so obtained is shown in figure below and is known as Maxwells
distribution curve.

## The important features of Maxwells distribution curve can be summarized as

follows :

(i) The fraction of molecules with very low or very high speeds is very small.

(ii) The fraction of molecules possessing higher and higher speeds goes on
increasing till it reaches the peak and then it starts decreasing.
Send
(iii) The maximum fraction of molecules possesses a speed, corresponding to the
peak in the curve. The speed corresponding to the peak in the curve is referred to
as most probable speed.

Figure

OR

OR

## To explain the general properties of gases to provide some theoretical explanation

for various gas laws (stated on basis of experimental studies), various scientist
Bernoulli, Clasusius, Maxwells, Boltzmann and others, gave Kinetic Theory of
Gases which explains qualitatively as well as quantitatively the various aspects of
gas behaviour.

## The important postulates of the theory are :

(i) All gases are made up of a very large number of minute particles called
molecules. Call us: 8287971571,0261-4890016

## Or, Fill out the form & get a call back.

(ii) The molecules are separated from one another by large distances. The emply
spaces among the molecules are so large that the actual volume of the molecules is
negligible as compared to the total volume of the gas.

(iii) The molecules are in a state of constant rapid motion in all the directions,
During their motion, they keep on colliding with one another and also with the
walls of the container and thus, change their directions.

(iv) Molecular collisions are perfectly elastic, i..e, no loss of energy occurs when the
molecules collide with one another or with the walls of the container. However,
there may be redistribution of energy during the collisions.

## (v) There are no forces of interaction (attractive or repulsive) between molecules.

They move completely independent of one another.

## Sendbombardment of its molecules on

(vi) The pressure exerted by the gas is due to the
the walls of the container per unit area.

(vii) The average kinetic energy of the gas molecules is directly proportional to the
absolute temperature.

## Q.4 Explain the following observations.

(a) Aerated water bottles are kept under water during summer.

## (c) The type of an automobile is inflated at lesser pressure in summer than in

winter.

(d) The size of the weather balloon becomes larger and larger as it ascends up into
higher altitudes.

(a) Aerated water contains CO2 gas dissolved in aqueous solution under pressure
and the bottles are well stopperred. As in summer temperature increases and we
known that the solubility of the gases decreases with increase of temperature and
as a result more of gas is expected to be generated in the bottle thereby pressure
exerted by the gas in the bottle will increase. If the bottles are not kept under water,

the gas generated may be large in quantity and hence pressure exerted by the gas
may be very high and the bottle may explode.Call
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decrease the temperature and
hence to avoid explosion of the bottles. Or, Fill out the form & get a call back.

(b) Liquid ammonia bottle contains the gas under very high pressure. If the bottle
is opened as such, then the sudden decreases in pressure will lead to a large
increase in the volume of the gas. As a result the gas will come out of the bottle
with force. This will lead to the breakage of the bottle. Cooling under tap water
will result in the decrease of volume. It reduces the chances of accident.

(c) The pressure of the air is directly proportional to the temperature. During
summer due to high temperature the pressure in the tyre will be high as compared
to that in water. The tube may burst under high pressure in summer. Therefore, it
is advisable to inflate the tyres to lesser pressure in summer than in winter.

## Q.5 State Avogadros law. Is the converse of Avogadros Law true?

Send
Avogadros law, Equal volumes of all gases under similar conditions of
temperature and pressure contains the same number of molecules.

## [Temperature and pressure held constant]

The converse of avogadros Law is also true. Equal number of molecules of all
gases occupy the same volumes under similar conditions of temperature and
pressure.

It follows that one gram molecular mass of any gas (containing 6.023 1023
molecules) will occupy the same volume under the same conditions. The volume
occupied by one gram molecular mass of any gas at 0C and 760 mm pressure of
mercury is 22.4 dm3 (litres) is called the gram molecular volume or simply molar
volume.

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Q.7 State the law depicting the volume temperature relationship ; (ii) Name the
temperature at which the volume of the gas becomes equal to zero.
Send
(i) The law is known as Charles law.

Charles Law : Pressure remaining constant, the volume of a given mass of a gas
increases or decreases by 1/273 of its volume at 0C for every one degree
centigrade rise of fall in temperature .

Mathematically

## where Vt = volume of the gas at 1C and V0 is its volume at 0C

(ii) The temperature at which the volume of a gas becomes equal to zero is called
absolute zero.

If

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## Absolute zero or 0 K = 273C

Before the attainment of this temperature molecular motion of the gas molecules
freezes. Gas is no longer a gas. Its volume becomes 0 at absolute zero

273C, 0.5 atm

## (d) Inversely proportional to the square root of its molar

Q.3 A gas diffuses 1/5 times as fast as hydrogen. Its molar mass is

## (a) 25 (b) 50 (c) (d)

Q.4 The density of a gas is 4 times that of Y. If the molar mass of X is M, that of Y is

## (a) 2 M (b) M/2 (c) 4 M (d) M/4

Q.5 The pressure of 2 moles of an ideal gas at 273C occupying a volume of 44.8L
is

## (a) 2 atm (b) 1 atm (c) 3 atm (d) 4 atm

Q.6 What is the molar mass of C gas whose density is 1.5 g L1 at 27C and 1 atm
pressure [R = 0.08 L atm K1 mol1] Call us: 8287971571,0261-4890016

## Or, Fill out the form & get a call back.

(a) 360 (b) 720 (c) 36 (d) 18

## (a) 3.0 g L1 (b) 30 g L1 (c) 1.34 g L1 (d) 2.68 L 1

Q.8 0.5 mole of each of H2, SO2 and CH4 are kept in a container. A hole was made
in the container. After 3 hours, the order of partial pressure in the container will be

## Q.9 If r.m.s. speed of gaseous molecules is x cm sec1 at a pressure of p atm, then

Send
r.m.s. speed at a pressure of 2p atm and constant pressure will be :

## (a) x (b) 2x (c) 4x (d) x/4

Q.10 For an ideal gas, number of moles per litre in terms of its pressure P, gas
constant R and temperature T is

## (c) remains constant (d) Shows irregular behaviour

Q.12 Density ratio of O2 and H2 is 16 : 1. The ratio of their r.m.s velocities will be

## Q.13 Pressure of mixture of 4 g of O2 and 2g of H2 confined in a bulb of 1 litre at

0C is

(a) 25.215 atm (b) 31.205 atm (c) 45.215 atm (d) 15.20 atm.
Q.14 Which of the following exhibits the weakest molecular forces?
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## (a) NH3 (b) HCl (c)out

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back.

volume will be

## (a) 135 ml (b) 540 ml (c) 350 ml (d) 280 ml

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CLASS 8
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