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TE2006 Applied Electronics

Simulation Project 2
(Teamwork)
Due date: Monday August 30th, 2010, during class.

Elaboration:
 You need to analyze a circuit based on the differential amplifier. In fact, the circuit
represents an Operational Amplifier of three stages. Carry out some research in books
or other sources information that you might consider useful to complete your
assignment.
 Elaborate a report where you answer each and everyone of the parts you are asked
for. You will present as necessary some of the following:
o Equations with a discussion of the method to obtain them
o Circuit diagrams with all the elements identified by variables
o Your calculations
o Plots or values of voltages or currents that are obtained through the
simulation of the circuit
o Comparison of the values obtained in the simulation to the values obtained
by using the equations of the design
o Conclusions
o References

 For the entire document, if needed, you must provide the bibliographic citations using
the IEEE format. Download the document for this, and check page 4, Section IV.D
http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs_iportals/iportals/publications/authors/transjnl/auinfo07.pdf The
list of references must be included at the end of your document.
 You will also include a list of resources where for each reference that you cite, you
will write the library resource that you use. For example:
o In the list of references you can have:
 [3] Martínez, W., and Martínez, A., Computational Statistics
Handbook with Matlab, CRC Press LLC, 2000.
o In the list of resources you will have:
 [3] STATSNetBase

Operational Amplifier Design:


1. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 1. You are going to design the circuit, i.e., provide the
value of RC. Assume the values VCC=15 V, VEE=-15V, VA3=75 V, I1=100 A , I2=500 A ,
I3=5 mA, RL=2 k  , R1=750 k  (resistance in the position of current source I1), and   100
for all transistors. Assume first the DC analysis, i.e., where V1 and V2 are set to zero volts.
a. Recall that the emitter current in each of the transistors of the differential
amplifier is half of I1. Calculate the values g m1 , g m 2 , g m3 , and g m 4 . Recall that
each one is related to the collector current and the thermal voltage. Also, provide
the values for r1 , r 2 , r 3 , and r 4
b. Provide the equation for the collector current of transistor Q3 in terms of the
emitter current of transistor Q4 and the source I2. In this case you need to
consider that there is a current in the load in order to obtain an expression. Then,
make such load current zero since the inputs are set to zero producing no output.
Now, your expression must be only in terms of I2, I3 and  . Give the value
obtained.
c. Calculate the output resistance of Q3. You need the emitter-collector voltage.
Hint: Recall that if the circuit is well balanced, and the inputs are zero, then the
output will be zero, hence, V0 = 0. Also the output resistance is given by the ratio
of (VA3+VEC3) to IC3.
d. Since no output is produced, then the emitter current of Q3 is equal to I3,
calculate the value of the collector current of Q3.
e. Provide an expression for RC. This expression is in terms of the emitter-base
voltage of Q3, the collector current of Q2, and the base current of Q3. Give its
value.
f. In the following, you have a set of equations given by the small signal analysis.
For each equation, you need to explain or derive it. You can use diagrams if you
want.
v g
 Av1  c 2   m  RC  r 3 .
vid 2
v
 Av 2  c 3  g m  r03  r 4    1 RL  .
vc 2
v  1 RL
 Av3  0  .
vc 3 r 4    1 RL
 Ad  Av1 Av 2 Av 3 .
 Rid  2r 2 .
 CMRR=g m 2 R1.
g. Obtain the values for each of the equations in part f.
h. Generate the circuit to be used in a simulation. Once the circuit is ready, set
V1=0, and connect the terminal marked with V0 directly to the input V2. You are
generating a feedback to the circuit in order to stabilize it. Provide the output
voltage V0, call it V0S. This voltage is called the offset voltage, since it is
produced even if there is no input.
i. Now, with the same circuit, disconnect terminal V0 from input V2. Set input
V2=0, and connect a DC voltage source to input V1 with the value –V0S obtained
in part h. In this part, you are compensating your amplifier with an offset voltage.
Measure the voltages necessary to obtain Ad as indicated in the equations in part f,
and compare the measurements to your results obtained in part g.
j. Now, consider the circuit already compensated with the offset voltage. Connect
terminal V0 to input V2. Add a DC voltage source to input V1, i.e., you will have
the V0S source and the new DC source, call this new source Vin. Give several
values in a range to Vin, and register for each input value the output voltage.
Obtain the voltage transfer ratio, i.e., V0/Vin and report it.
k. Repeat part j, but considering a sinusoidal signal. Provide some plots of your
circuit’s inputs and outputs.

VCC

Rc Rc
Q3

Q4

V1 V2
Q1 Q2 V0

RL

I1 I2 I3

VEE

Figure 1. Basic Operational Amplifier