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ABSTRACT

In this unit, students become familiar with a range of


ecosystems by studying their distinctive biotic and
abiotic characteristics. Students are introduced to the
concept of populations as a basic component of
ecosystem structure and complete the unit by
examining population change through the process of
natural selection

BIO 20 UNIT B - David Anokye


[Course title]

ECOSYSTEM AND
POPULATION
CHANGE
University of Lethbridge
Table of Contents
Focusing Questions 3
Unit Summary 3
Cross-curricular Links 3
Student Self-Assessment 3
Student Learning Outcomes 4
Learning Resources 8
Note on Learning Accommodations 8
Lesson Schedule 9
Unit Summative Assessment plan 10
Unit Formative Assessment Plan 12
Assessment tools overview 15

1
Focusing Questions: What are the major biotic and abiotic characteristics that distinguish
aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems? What data would one need to collect in a field study to
illustrate the major abiotic characteristics and diversity of organisms? What mechanisms are
involved in the change of populations over time? In what ways do humans apply their
knowledge of ecosystems to assess and limit the impact of human activities?
Unit Summary
In this unit, students become familiar with a range of ecosystems by studying their
distinctive biotic and abiotic characteristics. Students are introduced to the concept of
populations as a basic component of ecosystem structure and complete the unit by
examining population change through the process of natural selection.
Student Self-Assessment
Students will complete a skill testing question or at the beginning and the end of the each
class. Students will also complete a formative quiz each week.

Cross curricular Links

Data Collection and Analysis

Grade 9 Mathematics, Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis), Specific Outcome 3

Measurement and Unit Conversions

Mathematics 10-3, Measurement, Specific Outcome 1

Graph Analysis

Mathematics10C, Relations and Functions, Specific Outcomes 1 and 4; Mathematics 20-3,


Statistics, Specific Outcome 1

Learning Outcomes
General Outcome 1
Students will:
explain that the biosphere is composed of ecosystems, each with distinctive biotic and
abiotic characteristics.

Specific Outcomes for Knowledge


Students will:
20B1.1k define species, population, community and ecosystem and explain the
interrelationships among them
20B1.2k explain how terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems support a diversity of organisms
through a variety of habitats and niches; e.g.,
a) terrestrial: canopy, sub-canopy, forest floor, soil
b) aquatic: littoral, limnetic, profundal and benthic zones

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20B1.3k identify biotic and abiotic characteristics and explain their influence in an aquatic
and a terrestrial ecosystem in the local region; e.g., stream, lake, prairie, boreal forest,
vacant lot, sports field
20B1.4k explain how limiting factors influence organism distribution and range; e.g.,
a) abiotic factors: soil, relative humidity, moisture, ambient temperature, sunlight,
nutrients, oxygen
b) biotic factors: competitors, predators and parasites
20B1.5k explain the fundamental principles of taxonomy and binomial nomenclature, using
modes of nutrition at the kingdom level and morphological characteristics at the genus
species level.

Specific Outcomes for Science, Technology and Society (STS) (Social and Environmental
Contexts Emphasis)
Students will:
20B1.1sts explain how science and technology have both intended and unintended
consequences for humans and the environment (SEC3) [ICT F34.1]
evaluate the impact that human activity has had, or could have, on the biodiversity in an
ecosystem:
wetlands management
land use
interbasin water transfer
habitat fragmentation
urbanization
slash-and-burn and clearcutting practices
monoculturing of forests, lawns, field crops
assess the environmental consequences of the introduction of new species into
established ecosystems (such as tropical fish in Banff Hot Springs, starlings, quack grass,
scented chamomile, purple loosestrife) and discuss the responsibility of society to protect
the environment through science and technology
20B1.2sts explain how conventions of mathematics, nomenclature and notation
provide a basis for organizing and communicating scientific theory, relationships and
concepts (NS6b)
a) research the historical development of the modern classification system
b) research plant and animal systems of classification developed by Aboriginal peoples
in their cultural practices.
Specific Outcomes for Skills (Nature of Science Emphasis)
Initiating and Planning
Students will:
20B1.1s formulate questions about observed relationships; plan investigations of
questions, ideas, problems and issues; and define and delimit problems to facilitate
investigation
a) hypothesize the role of biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems; e.g., competition
and chinooks (IPNS3) [ICT C64.1]

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b) plan a field study to gather and evaluate biotic and abiotic characteristics
associated with an ecosystem, such as the effects that dominant plants have on
abiotic conditions such as soil and microclimate (IPNS1, IPNS2, IPNS3, IP
NS4).
Performing and Recording
Students will:
20B1.2s conduct investigations into relationships between and among observable
variables and use a broad range of tools and techniques to gather and record data and
information
a) perform a field study to measure, quantitatively, appropriate abiotic
characteristics of an ecosystem and to gather, both quantitatively and
qualitatively, evidence for analysis of the diversity of life in the ecosystem studied
(PRNS3, PRNS4, PRNS5) [ICT F24.1]
b) research and develop a land reclamation strategy for a disturbed area, as a
solution to environmental damage; e.g., open-pit mine, garbage dump, school
yard reclamation (PRSEC1, PRNS1, PRNS4) [ICT C14.1].
Analyzing and Interpreting
Students will:
20B1.3s analyze data and apply mathematical and conceptual models to develop and
assess possible solutions
a) apply classification and binomial nomenclature systems in a field study (AINS1)
b) analyze the interrelationship of biotic and abiotic characteristics that make up the
ecosystem studied (AINS2, AINS3, AINS6)
c) evaluate the accuracy and reliability of instruments used for measurement and
identify the degree of error in the field-study data (AINS4)
d) compile and organize evidence from a variety of sources, for or against human
activity being responsible for ecosystem change, and analyze the relationship
between human activity and changing ecosystems (AINS2, AINS6, AISEC2)
[ICT C24.1, C74.2].
Communication and Teamwork
Students will:
20B1.4s work collaboratively in addressing problems and apply the skills and
conventions of science in communicating information and ideas and in assessing results
a) work cooperatively to gather and share data on a field trip (CTNS1, CTNS2)
b) work cooperatively to make clear and logical arguments to defend a decision on a
given issue, such as human impact on ecosystems, land reclamation or wildlife
habitat preservation (CTSEC1, CTSEC2, CTSEC3) [ICT C14.4]
c) develop, present and defend a strategy to improve wildlife habitats (CTSEC3) [ICT
C14.4]

General Outcome 2
Students will explain the mechanisms involved in the change of populations over time.

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20B2.1k explain that variability in a species results from heritable mutations and that
some mutations may have a selective advantage
20B2.2k discuss the significance of sexual reproduction to individual variation in
populations and to the process of evolution
20B2.3k compare Lamarckian and Darwinian explanations of evolutionary change
20B2.4k summarize and describe lines of evidence to support the evolution of modern
species from ancestral forms; i.e., the fossil record, Earths history, biogeography,
homologous and analogous structures, embryology, biochemistry
20B2.5k explain speciation and the conditions required for this process
20B2.6k describe modern evolutionary theories; i.e., punctuated equilibrium,
gradualism.

Specific Outcomes for Science, Technology and Society (STS) (Nature of Science
Emphasis)

Students will:
20B2.1sts explain that scientific knowledge and theories develop through hypotheses,
the collection of evidence, investigation and the ability to provide explanations (NS2)
a) discuss the nature of science as a way of knowing (contributions of Buffon, Lyell,
Malthus and Wallace to evolution and contributions of Aristotle, Galileo and Popper
to the philosophy of science)
b) describe how paleontology and the role of evidence in the accumulation of
knowledge have provided invaluable data for theories explaining observable
variations in organisms over time (Burgess Shale)
c) discuss geologic evidence and probable causes for past mass extinctions and
contrast these to the forces driving the current decline in species.

Specific Outcomes for Skills (Nature of Science Emphasis)

Initiating and Planning


Students will:
20B2.1s formulate questions about observed relationships and plan investigations of
questions, ideas, problems and issues
a) design an investigation to measure or describe an inherited variation in a plant or an
animal population (IPNS1, IPNS2, IPNS3, IPNS4)
b) hypothesize the adaptive significance of the variations in a range of homologous
structures in extant and extinct organisms (IPNS3).

Performing and Recording


Students will:
20B2.2s conduct investigations into relationships between and among observable variables
and use a broad range of tools and techniques to gather and record data and information

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a) gather data, actual or simulated, on organisms to demonstrate how inherited
characteristics change over time, as illustrated by Darwins finches, peppered moths,
bacteria and domesticated plants and animals (PRNS1, PRNS4).

Analyzing and Interpreting


Students will:
20B2.3s analyze data and apply mathematical and conceptual models to develop and assess
possible solutions
a) analyze data, actual or simulated, on plants and animals to demonstrate how
morphology changes over time; e.g., Darwins finches, peppered moths, bacteria,
domesticated plants or animals (AINS2) [ICT C64.2, C74.2]
a) analyze DNA sequences from online or other sources to infer the relationship between
different organisms at various classification levels (AINS2) [ICT C14.1]
b) state a conclusion or generalization based on research data, suggesting how it supports
or refutes an explanation for biological change, and identify new questions or problems
that arise from what was learned (AINS5, AINS6) [ICT C74.2].

Communication and Teamwork


Students will:
20B2.4s work collaboratively in addressing problems and apply the skills and conventions
of science in communicating information and ideas and in assessing results
a) use appropriate numeric, symbolic, graphical and linguistic modes of representation to
communicate ideas, plans and results (CTNS2).
Interest in Science
Students will be encouraged to:
Show interest in science-related questions and issues, and pursue personal interests and
career possibilities within science-related fields (e.g research the answers to questions they
generate, explore and use a variety of methods and resources to increase their knowledge
and skills, be critical and constructive when considering new theories and techniques, use
scientific vocabulary and principles in everyday discussions, recognize the usefulness of
being skilled in mathematics and problem solving, be interested in science and technology
topics not directly related to their formal studies, recognize the importance of making
connections among various science disciplines, maintain interest in pursuing further studies
in science, explore where further science- and technology-related studies and careers can
be pursued, recognize that many careers require science- and technology-related
knowledge and skills)

Mutual Respect
Students will be encouraged to:
Appreciate that scientific understanding evolves from the interaction of ideas involving
people with different views and backgrounds (e.g., use a multiperspective approach,
recognize theories, trace theories, lead modern understandings of behaviour, traditional
knowledge, research the role of chemistry in the International Space Station project,

6
investigate how early people, recognize the research contributions of both men and
women and recognize the research contributions of Canadians)

Scientific Inquiry
Students will be encouraged to:
seek and apply evidence when evaluating alternative approaches to investigations,
problems and issues; e.g.( develop curiosity about the nature of chemistry, value the role
of precise observation and careful experimentation in learning about chemistry, tolerate
the uncertainty involved in providing explanations and theoretical definitions, appreciate
the limited nature of evidence when interpreting observed phenomena, appreciate that
scientific evidence is the foundation for generalizations and explanations about
chemistry

Collaboration
Students will be encouraged to:
Work collaboratively in carrying out investigations and in generating and evaluating
ideas (e.g., assume a variety of roles within a group, as required accept responsibility for
any task that helps the group complete an activity, evaluate the ideas of others objectively,
seek the points of view of others and consider a multitude of perspectives.

Stewardship
Students will be encouraged to:
Demonstrate sensitivity and responsibility in pursuing a balance between the needs of
humans and a sustainable environment (e.g., evaluate, willingly, the impact of their own
choices or the choices scientists make when they carry out an investigation, remain critical-
minded regarding the short- and long-term consequences of human actions, consider a
variety of perspectives when addressing issues, weighing scientific, technological,
economic, political and ecological factors, develop an awareness that the application of
technology has risks and benefits, evaluate the contributions of technological innovations
to quality of life and care of the environment

Safety
Students will be encouraged to:
Show concern for safety in planning, carrying out and reviewing activities, referring to
the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) and consumer
product labelling information; e.g., treat equipment with respect and manipulate
materials carefully, value the need for safe handling and storage of chemicals, recognize the
significant role that chemical researchers and the chemical industry play in identifying risks
and developing guidelines for safe exposure, use minimal quantities of chemicals when
performing experiments, keep the work station uncluttered, with only appropriate
laboratory materials present, assume responsibility for the safety of all those who share a
common working environment, clean up after an activity and dispose of materials in a safe
place according to safety guidelines.

7
Learning Resources
Classroom Materials
Paper
Whiteboard
Pens
Lab materials
Textbooks
Bio 20-30book
Computer Hardware/Software
Computer
SMART board
SMART response clicker
SMART technology Software
Internet explorer/firefox/chrome
Learning Modifications
Students will be accommodated as requested for in their IPP e.g. larger font
recorded exams etc.

8
Lesson Schedule
Natural Selection
Lesson Objective:20B2.3k
Antibiotics Lamarckian
Lesson Objective: 20B2.3k
Quiz ch 2 peppermoth?
Lesson objectives: 20B2.2s, 20B2.3s 20B2.1k
Black death(some interesting thing)
Lesson Objective:20B1.1s
EVIDENCE
Lesson Objective: General Outcome 2 B
EVIDENCE
Lesson Objective: General Outcome 2 B
Chapter 3 - Pg 78-111 individuals populations and communities in ecosystems
Lesson Objective:20B1.1k 20B1.4k 20B1.5k
Chapter 4 114-141 Quiz 2
Lesson Objective:s20B2.1k, 20B2.2k, 20B2.3k, 20B2.4k, 20B2.5k, 20B2.6k
Ecology test
Lesson Objective:ALL B

Summative Assessment Plan


Assessment Title Quiz EVIDENCE project Exit Slips Unit Exam/Ecology test

Weight in Unit/Learning Outcome

20B1.1k define species, population, X x x


community and ecosystem and
explain the interrelationships among
them
20B1.2k explain how terrestrial and X x x
aquatic ecosystems support a
diversity of organisms through a
variety of habitats and niches;
e.g., terrestrial: canopy, sub-
canopy, forest floor, soil aquatic:
littoral, limnetic, profundal and
benthic zones
20B1.3k identify biotic and abiotic X x x
characteristics and explain their
influence in an aquatic and a
terrestrial ecosystem in the local
region; e.g., stream, lake, prairie,
boreal forest, vacant lot, sports field
20B1.4k explain how limiting factors X x x
influence organism distribution and
range; e.g., abiotic factors: soil,
relative humidity, moisture, ambient
temperature, sunlight, nutrients,

9
oxygen biotic factors: competitors,
xpredators and parasite
20B1.5k explain the fundamental X x x
principles of taxonomy and binomial
nomenclature, using modes of
nutrition at the kingdom level and
morphological characteristics at the
genus species level.
20B1.1sts explain how science and X x x
technology have both intended and
unintended consequences for
humans and the environment
20B1.2sts explain how conventions X x x
of mathematics, nomenclature and
notation provide a basis for
organizing and communicating
scientific theory, relationships and
concept
20B1.2s conduct investigations into X x x
relationships between and among
observable variables and use a broad
range of tools and techniques to
gather and record data and
information
a) perform a field study to measure,
quantitatively, appropriate abiotic
characteristics of an ecosystem and
to gather, both quantitatively and
qualitatively, evidence for analysis of
the diversity of life in the ecosystem
studied
20B1.3s analyze data and apply X x x
mathematical and conceptual
models to develop and assess
possible solutions
a) apply classification and binomial
nomenclature systems in a field
study (AINS1)

b) analyze the interrelationship of X x x x


biotic and abiotic characteristics that
make up the ecosystem studied (AI
NS2, AINS3, AINS6)

c) evaluate the accuracy and X x x x


reliability of instruments used for
measurement and identify the
degree of error in the field-study
data
20B2.1k explain that variability in a X x x x
species results from heritable
mutations and that some mutations
may have a selective advantage
20B2.2k discuss the significance of X x x x
sexual reproduction to individual
variation in populations and to the
process of evolution
20B2.3k compare Lamarckian and X x x x
Darwinian explanations of
evolutionary change
20D2.2k describe the action of the X x x
heart, blood pressure and the
general circulation of blood through
coronary, pulmonary and systemic
pathways

10
20B2.4k summarize and describe X x x
lines of evidence to support the
evolution of modern species from
ancestral forms; i.e., the fossil
record, Earths history,
biogeography, homologous and
analogous structures, embryology,
biochemistry
20B2.5k explain speciation and the X x x x
conditions required for this process
20B2.6k describe modern X x x x
evolutionary theories; i.e.,
punctuated equilibrium, gradualism.
20B2.1sts explain that scientific x x x
knowledge and theories develop
through hypotheses, the collection
of evidence, investigation and the
ability to provide explanations
20B2.1s formulate questions about x x x
observed relationships and plan
investigations of questions, ideas,
problems and issues
a) design an investigation to measure
or describe an inherited variation in a
plant or an animal population
b)hypothesize the adaptive x x x
significance of the variations in a
range of homologous structures in
extant and extinct organism
20B2.2s conduct investigations into x x x
relationships between and among
observable variables and use a broad
range of tools and techniques to
gather and record data and
information
20B2.3s analyze data and apply x x x
mathematical and conceptual
models to develop and assess
possible solutions
a) analyze data, actual or simulated,
on plants and animals to
demonstrate how morphology
changes over time; e.g., Darwins
finches, peppered moths, bacteria,
domesticated plants or animals
20B2.4s work collaboratively in x x x
addressing problems and apply the
skills and conventions of science in
communicating information and
ideas and in assessing results
a) use appropriate numeric,
symbolic, graphical and linguistic
modes of representation to
communicate ideas, plans and results

11
Formative Assessments

Assessment Title Kahoot Class Self quizzes - Textbooks questions Review booklet
discussions schoology Schoology

Weight in Unit/Learning Outcome

20B1.1k define species, population, x x x x x


community and ecosystem and
explain the interrelationships among
them
20B1.2k explain how terrestrial and x x x x x
aquatic ecosystems support a
diversity of organisms through a
variety of habitats and niches;
e.g., terrestrial: canopy, sub-
canopy, forest floor, soil aquatic:
littoral, limnetic, profundal and
benthic zones
20B1.3k identify biotic and abiotic x x x x x
characteristics and explain their
influence in an aquatic and a
terrestrial ecosystem in the local
region; e.g., stream, lake, prairie,
boreal forest, vacant lot, sports field
20B1.4k explain how limiting factors x x x
influence organism distribution and
range; e.g., abiotic factors: soil,
relative humidity, moisture, ambient
temperature, sunlight, nutrients,
oxygen biotic factors: competitors,
predators and parasite
20B1.5k explain the fundamental x x x
principles of taxonomy and binomial
nomenclature, using modes of
nutrition at the kingdom level and
morphological characteristics at the
genus species level.
20B1.1sts explain how science and x x x x x
technology have both intended and
unintended consequences for
humans and the environment
20B1.2sts explain how conventions x x x x x
of mathematics, nomenclature and
notation provide a basis for
organizing and communicating
scientific theory, relationships and
concept
20B1.2s conduct investigations into x x x x
relationships between and among
observable variables and use a broad
range of tools and techniques to
gather and record data and
information
a) perform a field study to measure,
quantitatively, appropriate abiotic
characteristics of an ecosystem and
to gather, both quantitatively and
qualitatively, evidence for analysis of
the diversity of life in the ecosystem
studied

12
20B1.3s analyze data and apply x x x x x
mathematical and conceptual
models to develop and assess
possible solutions
a) apply classification and binomial
nomenclature systems in a field
study (AINS1)

b) analyze the interrelationship of x x x


biotic and abiotic characteristics that
make up the ecosystem studied (AI
NS2, AINS3, AINS6)

c) evaluate the accuracy and x x x x


reliability of instruments used for
measurement and identify the
degree of error in the field-study
data
20B2.1k explain that variability in a x x x x x
species results from heritable
mutations and that some mutations
may have a selective advantage
20B2.2k discuss the significance of x x x x x
sexual reproduction to individual
variation in populations and to the
process of evolution
20B2.3k compare Lamarckian and x x x x x
Darwinian explanations of
evolutionary change
20D2.2k describe the action of the x x x x x
heart, blood pressure and the
general circulation of blood through
coronary, pulmonary and systemic
pathways
20B2.4k summarize and describe X
lines of evidence to support the
evolution of modern species from
ancestral forms; i.e., the fossil
record, Earths history,
biogeography, homologous and
analogous structures, embryology,
biochemistry
20B2.5k explain speciation and the X X
conditions required for this process
20B2.6k describe modern X X
evolutionary theories; i.e.,
punctuated equilibrium, gradualism.
20B2.1sts explain that scientific X
knowledge and theories develop
through hypotheses, the collection
of evidence, investigation and the
ability to provide explanations
20B2.1s formulate questions about x X
observed relationships and plan
investigations of questions, ideas,
problems and issues
a) design an investigation to measure
or describe an inherited variation in a
plant or an animal population
b)hypothesize the adaptive x X
significance of the variations in a
range of homologous structures in
extant and extinct organism
20B2.2s conduct investigations into x X
relationships between and among

13
observable variables and use a broad
range of tools and techniques to
gather and record data and
information
20B2.3s analyze data and apply x x x X
mathematical and conceptual
models to develop and assess
possible solutions
a) analyze data, actual or simulated,
on plants and animals to
demonstrate how morphology
changes over time; e.g., Darwins
finches, peppered moths, bacteria,
domesticated plants or animals
20B2.4s work collaboratively in x x x X
addressing problems and apply the
skills and conventions of science in
communicating information and
ideas and in assessing results
a) use appropriate numeric,
symbolic, graphical and linguistic
modes of representation to
communicate ideas, plans and results

14
Assessment Tools Overview
Assessment Tools Brief Description Assessment FOR Assessment AS Learning Assessment OF Learning
Learning

Quizzes Quizzes will be given X


after topics are
completed to see how
much they have retained

Lab Students will complete X X X


both inquiry based and
traditional labs to
reinforce connections
from the classroom

Schoology Self Quiz Students will complete a X X


fact sheet with all of the
information required for
the Unit exam

Worksheets Students will work X X


through class problems
with guided questions

Unit test Assess the knowledge of X


the unit

Review booklet Review of all the x x


concepts in Unit B

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