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Katie Williams

INTR 612

Infinitives & Gerunds

Context: Low-intermediate Adult ESL
Objectives: 1) Students will be able to use gerunds and infinitives after the
appropriate verbs, 2) Students will be able to use gerunds and infinitives in a dialog
about hobbies
Materials: Chart, Bingo game

To warm up, I would activate students background knowledge by having them
review a structure they already knowinfinitive forms of verbs used as an object
(complement). I would show pictures of activities and prompt them to complete the
the sentence I like with the appropriate infinitive form (Ex. I like to play soccer.)

Show students, using PowerPoint or marker board, that to play soccer is a verb
that is being used as a noun. (Ex. What do you like? To play soccer.)

Repeat this with a few more pictures

Introduce a new way to turn a verb into a noun (gerunds)

Using the same examples from the warm-up, replace the infinitive form with the
gerund form (Ex. I like to play soccer becomes I like playing soccer.)

Show students that this form is often used to make a verb into a subject (at the front
of the sentence)

Give students a chart with the few most common verbs that 1) require a gerund, 2)
require an infinitive, and 3) can take either form. Teacher will explain the three
dierent categories. Teacher will also explain Bolingers principle.

Students will take a few minutes to read/study the chart

Students will engage in a whole-class, teacher-led, oral drill to practice using the
correct verb form. Teacher will have an activity on the screen such as speak
English and the drill will go like this:

- T: I want

- Ss: to speak English.

- T: I need

- Ss: to speak English.

- T: I enjoy

- Ss: speaking English.

- T: I practice

- Ss: speaking English.

For verbs that can take either an infinitive or a gerund (like, love, etc.) the teacher will
prompt the students to practice BOTH forms orally during the drill, for example:

Katie Williams

INTR 612
- T: I like

- Ss: to speak English.

- T: OR I like..

- Ss: speaking English.

Teacher will lead the class in a game of bingo for more practice (see materials)

Students will work in pairs to construct a dialog using at least 2 verbs that require a
gerund, two that require an infinitive, and 2 that could take either.

Students will perform their dialogs as a pair

Teacher will ask some pairs to volunteer to perform their dialog for the class

Teacher will review the rules for using infinitives and gerunds, checking for students

Materials: Chart
Should I use an infinitive or a gerund?
Verbs Examples Bolingers
Infinitive want I want to play. Unfulfilled,
would like

promise I promise to stay.


learn I learn to cook.


Gerund enjoy I enjoy singing. Fulfilled, real


go (+activity) I go shopping.

practice I practice dancing.



Either like
I like to read.
I like reading.

I prefer to walk.

continue I prefer walking.

Katie Williams

INTR 612

Materials: Bingo game

cook swim read travel
She will start We have to I need to
I promise I love
____________ practice finish
___________. ___________.
___________. ___________. ___________.

I want
She plans He learned She plans We hope
___________. ___________. ___________. ___________.

He enjoys He
He prefers They enjoy
____________ suggested
___________. ___________.
___________. ___________.

I would like I need to We should

They dislike She plans
____________ finish go
___________. ___________.
___________. ___________. ___________.

They practice I never

I hate I hate I prefer
____________ considered
___________. ___________. ___________.
___________. ___________.