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Katie Williams

INTR 612

Infinitives & Gerunds


Context: Low-intermediate Adult ESL
Objectives: 1) Students will be able to use gerunds and infinitives after the
appropriate verbs, 2) Students will be able to use gerunds and infinitives in a dialog
about hobbies
Materials: Chart, Bingo game

Warm-up
To warm up, I would activate students background knowledge by having them
review a structure they already knowinfinitive forms of verbs used as an object
(complement). I would show pictures of activities and prompt them to complete the
the sentence I like with the appropriate infinitive form (Ex. I like to play soccer.)

Show students, using PowerPoint or marker board, that to play soccer is a verb
that is being used as a noun. (Ex. What do you like? To play soccer.)

Repeat this with a few more pictures

Presentation
Introduce a new way to turn a verb into a noun (gerunds)

Using the same examples from the warm-up, replace the infinitive form with the
gerund form (Ex. I like to play soccer becomes I like playing soccer.)

Show students that this form is often used to make a verb into a subject (at the front
of the sentence)

Give students a chart with the few most common verbs that 1) require a gerund, 2)
require an infinitive, and 3) can take either form. Teacher will explain the three
dierent categories. Teacher will also explain Bolingers principle.

Practice
Students will take a few minutes to read/study the chart

Students will engage in a whole-class, teacher-led, oral drill to practice using the
correct verb form. Teacher will have an activity on the screen such as speak
English and the drill will go like this:

- T: I want

- Ss: to speak English.

- T: I need

- Ss: to speak English.

- T: I enjoy

- Ss: speaking English.

- T: I practice

- Ss: speaking English.

For verbs that can take either an infinitive or a gerund (like, love, etc.) the teacher will
prompt the students to practice BOTH forms orally during the drill, for example:

Katie Williams

INTR 612
- T: I like

- Ss: to speak English.

- T: OR I like..

- Ss: speaking English.

Teacher will lead the class in a game of bingo for more practice (see materials)

Production
Students will work in pairs to construct a dialog using at least 2 verbs that require a
gerund, two that require an infinitive, and 2 that could take either.

Students will perform their dialogs as a pair

Closure
Teacher will ask some pairs to volunteer to perform their dialog for the class

Teacher will review the rules for using infinitives and gerunds, checking for students
understanding

Materials: Chart
Should I use an infinitive or a gerund?
Verbs Examples Bolingers
Principle
Infinitive want I want to play. Unfulfilled,
need
hypothetical
would like

promise I promise to stay.


plan

learn I learn to cook.


hope

Gerund enjoy I enjoy singing. Fulfilled, real


finish

go (+activity) I go shopping.
suggest

practice I practice dancing.


consider

dislike

Either like
I like to read.
love
I like reading.
hate

prefer
I prefer to walk.
start

continue I prefer walking.


Katie Williams

INTR 612

Materials: Bingo game

play
cook swim read travel
tennis
She will start We have to I need to
I promise I love
____________ practice finish
___________. ___________.
___________. ___________. ___________.

I want
She plans He learned She plans We hope
____________
___________. ___________. ___________. ___________.
___________.


He enjoys He
He prefers They enjoy
____________ suggested
___________. ___________.
___________. ___________.

I would like I need to We should


They dislike She plans
____________ finish go
___________. ___________.
___________. ___________. ___________.

They practice I never


I hate I hate I prefer
____________ considered
___________. ___________. ___________.
___________. ___________.