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ECG353/ECG213 SOIL ENGINEERING : PART 5

WEEK 11 ~ CHAP. 4
INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

TEACHING LECTURER ;
PM. IR. BAHARDIN BAHAROM
HJH. FAUZILAH ISMAIL
HAIROL ANUAR HARON
DIANA CHE LAT

HAH, FKA Level 5-49, 07-3818345


CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

ACTIVITY : Week 11 ~ CHAP. 4


Lecture ~ 83 slides
Tutorial
Independent learning activities

3
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

LEARNING OUTCOMES
Week 11 :Coverage ~ Total stress analysis for short term stability.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of this lecture/week the students would
be able to:

i. Analyse slope stability based on total stress (for short


term stability)

4
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

OUTLINE of PRESENTATION
4.1 Introduction & Overview
4.2 Slope Failure Mechanisms
4.3 Slope Protection Works
4.4 Contd.... Total Stress Analysis
4.5 Effective Stress Analysis

5
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

TOOLS THAT YOU MUST


HAVE DURING CLASS

Graph papers
Geometry set
(Protractor, Compass and etc)
6
6
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

TYPES OF STABILITY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

4.4 Total Stress Analyses UNDRAINED STABILITY


4.4.1 Two (2) major classes/methods:
1. Mass procedure : In this case, the mass of the soil above
the surface of sliding is taken as a unit. This procedure is
useful when the soil that forms the slope is assumed to be
homogeneous, although this is not the case in most natural
slopes

2. Method of slices : in this procedure, the soil above the


surface of sliding is divided into a number of vertical
parallel slices. The stability of each slice is calculated
separately. This is a versatile technique in which the non-
homogeneity of the soil and pore water pressure can be
taken into consideration. It also accounts for the variation of
the normal stress along the potential failure surface. 7
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
COMMON FEATURES OF SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS METHODS

Common Features Of Slope Stability Analysis Methods;


Safety Factor ~ FOS = f /m
where f = shear strength resistance and
m = mobilized disturbing.
FOS = 1 ~ failure, however FOS > 1 ~ safe
however safe FOS may ranging from 1.2-1.5
depends on the several factors.
Shape and location of failure is not known but
assumed (trial and error to find minimum F)
Static equilibrium (equilibrium of forces and
moments on a sliding mass)

8
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.4.2
Undrained Stability -
Homogeneous Slopes

9
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

UNDRAINED STABILITY ~ TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS

4.4 Total Stress Analyses UNDRAINED STABILITY

4.4.2 Homogeneous slopes

4.4.2.1 Critical slip circle


A total stress analysis may
be applied to the case of a
newly cut or newly
constructed slope in a fully
saturated clay.

The critical circle is the


one along which a failure is
most likely to occur and for
Figure above shows slip circles at different radii and
which the factor of safety centres. A number of trial circles are chosen and the
is the lowest. analyses repeated for each until lowest FOS is
obtained..
10
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

UNDRAINED STABILITY ~ TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS

Consider a trial slip circle of radius R and centre O


below ;

Instability tends to be caused due to the moment of the


soil body weight W of the portion above the slip circle;

The tendency to move is


resisted by the moment
of the mobilised shear
strength acting along the
circular arc AB
Consider as
Thus, a unit body
mass
Disturbing moment = Wd

11
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

UNDRAINED STABILITY ~ TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS

Length of arc, L =AB R


where is measured in radian

Shear resistance along, f = AB cu R

Thus shear resistance moment, MR (cu R ) * R cu R


2

Disturbing moment, MD = Wd
shear resistance moment, M R
Then factor of safety, FOS
disturbing moment, M D

cu R 2

Wd
12
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

TENSION CRACKS

4.4.2.2 Tension cracks


In cohesive soils, a tension cracks tends to form near the
top of the slope as the condition of limiting equilibrium
develops.
Depth of tension crack
2cu
zo

as Ka = 1

Consider as a unit body mass


(deduct crack area at the back)

13
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

TENSION CRACKS

Tension cracks .
No shear strength can be developed in the tension
crack, but, if it can fill with water, allowance must be
made for the hydrostatic force Pw which acts
horizontally adding to the disturbing moment.
1
Pw w zo2
2
The expression for the factor of
safety becomes :
cu R 2 c
FOS
Wd Pw yc

14
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

SLIP FAILURE MECHANISM IN


COHESIVE SOIL
In calculating the FOS for the slope, we are going to
look into two types of stability :

Undrained stability - Total stress analysis (Cu, u=0, Ka=1)


No tension crack
With tension crack
Layered soil

Drained stability - Effective stress analysis (Cd, d, Ka)


(ordinary method of slice)
No tension crack
With tension crack
Layered soil
15
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


4.4 Total Stress Analyses UNDRAINED STABILITY

Example 1 : Undrained stability - Total stress


analysis [MASS PROCEDURE]
Refer to the cross section of the slope given below. *The
relevant properties concerning the calculation and analysis
of the slope are given in the question. Calculate the FOS of
the slope in the following condition :
(a) Ignoring the presence of a tension crack.
(b) With the presence of a dry tension crack.
(c) With the presence of a wet tension crack.

16
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.4 Total Stress Analyses UNDRAINED STABILITY

Example 1
Undrained stability - Total
stress analysis
[MASS PROCEDURE
METHOD]

17
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


Example 1 :
Data provided :
Dimensions of slope to refer diagram given.
C = 40 kPa
u = 0O
Radius of slip circle, R = 17.43 m
Angle of slip circle, = 84.06O
Area of slip mass, A = 102.1 m2
Bulk unit weight of soil within the slope, = 18.5
kN/m3
Centroid distance from O, d = 6.54 m

18
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


Example 1

6.7 m

10 m

19
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


Example 1 :
Solution (a) :
Calculate the FOS with this equation :

FOS = c R2 REMEMBER !
Wd
= (c) (R)2 () Change to radian

(A x ) (d)
= (40) (17.43)2 (84.06 x /180)
(102.2 x 18.5) (6.54)
= 1.44

20
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


Example 1 :
Solution (b) :With the presence of a dry tension crack
With the occurrence of a dry tension crack, the
length of the slip arc will be reduce.
This will effect the angle of slip circle.
It will also effect the area of the slip mass.
First, we need to calculate the depth of tension
crack.

zc = 2c = 2(40) = 80 = 4.32 m
18.5 18.5

21
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


Example 1 :
Solution (b) :

dC

WC

22
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


Example 1 :
Solution (b) :
The changes of the length of slip arc, the angle of slip
circle and the depth of tension crack have to be shown in
the diagram.
In this example, the value of changes in the parameters
have already being calculated.
In certain cases, the changes have to be shown in the
diagram that has to be drawn to scale.
New angle of slip circle, c = 67.44O
New area of slip mass, Ac = 71.64 m2
New centroid distance from O, dc = 5.86 m
In a dry tension crack, the Pw = 0

23
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


Example 1 :
Solution (b) :
Calculate the FOS with this equation :

FOS = c R2 c REMEMBER !
Wc dc
Change to radian
= (c) (R)2 (c)
(Ac x ) (dc)
= (40) (17.43)2 (67.44 x /180)
(71.64 x 18.5) (5.86)
= 1.84

24
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


Example 1 :
Solution (c) :With the presence of a wet tension
crack.
With the occurrence of a wet tension crack, the
dimensions and parameters will be similar with
(b) with an addition of a lever arm of Pw about
O and the hydrostatic pressure acting upon the
slope.
Lever arm of Pw is calculated at a vertical
distance from O, until it reaches 2/3 of the
depth in the tension crack (Refer to diagram).

25
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


Example 1 :
Solution (c) : yC = X + 2/3 zc

X = 6.7 m
yc = 9.58 m

dC
10 m

WC

26
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


Example 1 :
Solution (c) :
Follow the dimensions and changes obtain in
(b).
As in (b) New angle of slip circle, c = 67.44O
As in (b) New area of slip mass, Ac = 71.64 m2
As in (b) New centroid distance from O, dc =
5.86 m
In a wet tension crack situation, the Pw 0 ,
Where :
Pw = x w x zc2
= x 9.81 x 4.322
= 91.54 kN/m 27
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


Example 1 :
Solution (c) :
Calculate the FOS with this equation :

FOS = c R2 c
Wc d c + P w y c

= (c) (R)2 (c)


(Ac x ) (dc) + (Pw) (yc)

= (40) (17.43)2 (67.44 x /180)


(71.64 x 18.5) (5.86) + (91.54) (9.58)

= 1.65

28
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

UNDRAINED STABILITY ~ TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS

4.4.3 TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS METHOD OF SLICES

4.3.3.1 Single Layer (cohesive soil, u = 0 )


4.3.3.2 Multi-layer (cohesive soil, u = 0 )
4.3.3.3 Cohesion~frictional soils (c~ soils)

29
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.4 Total Stress Analyses UNDRAINED STABILITY

Example 2
Undrained stability - Total
stress analysis
[METHOD OF SLICES FOR
SINGLE LAYER]

30
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


(Slices Method)
Example 2 : Undrained stability - Total stress
analysis (Slices Method)
Refer to the cross section of the slope given below.
*The relevant properties concerning the dimensions the slope are
given in the question.
Redraw the slope using an appropriate scale.
Divide the slope into 5 equal width of strips.
Calculate the FOS of the slope using the Total
Stress Analysis - Slices Method for the
following condition :
(a) Ignoring the presence of a tension crack.
(b) With the presence of a dry tension crack.
(c) With the presence of a wet tension crack.

31
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


(Slices Method)
Example 2 :
Data provided :
Dimensions of slope to refer diagram
given (Refer to given diagram).
C = 20 kPa
u = 0O
Radius of slip circle, R = 12 m
Bulk unit weight of soil within the slope,
= 18.5 kN/m3

32
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


(Slices Method)
Example 2 :
O
R = 12 m

2.0 6m
1.0

4m 16 m

Given diagram, Note to Scale (NTS)


33
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


(Slices Method)

Example 2 :
Solution :
Select an appropriate scale.
1 cm to 1 m
Follow the steps given in the
slides.
34
34
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


(Slices Method)

O
R = 12 m

4
2.0 3 6m
1.0
1 2

4m

Given diagram, Note to Scale (NTS)


35
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 2
Mark the important points
Solution
Draw the slope gradient

4
3

1 2

36
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS
(Slices Method)

Example 2 :
7 O
Solution R = 12 m

6
2.0 6m
1.0
5

4m

Given diagram, Note to Scale (NTS)


37
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 2
Solution
7

Use the compass to obtain the centroid, O

38
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


(Slices Method)
Example 2 :
O
Solution R = 12 m
10

9
2.0 6m
1.0

4m
8
Given diagram, Note to Scale (NTS)
39
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Use the compass to draw the slip arc
Example 2
Solution

O
10

40
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Divide the slope area within the slip arc into 5 equal
width

Example 2
Solution
O

20 m

41
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Divide the slope area within the slip arc into 5 equal width

20 m 5 = 4 m width for each slice


Example 3
Solution
O

Strip 5

Strip 4

Strip 3
Strip 1 Strip 2

11

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
42
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Measure the height of each strip.
The height of each strip is taken from the middle section of the
strip. But for ended strip [strip 1 & 5], the height of strip is taken
1/3 section (from toe and top slope) of the strip
Strip 1 : h1 = 2.1 m O

h5

Strip 1 h4
h3
h2
Example 3
h1
Solution
13
b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
43
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Measure the height of each strip.
The height of each strip is taken from the
middle section of the strip. Example 3
Strip 2 : h2 = 4.2 m Solution
O

h5
Strip 2
h4
h3
h2
h1

14

44
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Measure the height of each strip.
The height of each strip is taken from the
middle section of the strip. Example 3
Strip 3 : h3 = 6.4 m Solution
O

Strip 3

h5
h4
h3
h2
h1

15

45
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Measure the height of each strip.
The height of each strip is taken from the
middle section of the strip. Example 3
Strip 4 : h4 = 6.8 m Solution
O

Strip 4

h5
h4
h3
h2
h1

16

46
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Measure the height of each strip.
But for ended strip [strip 1 & 5], the height of strip
is taken 1/3 section of the strip Example 3
Strip 5 : h5 = 5.3 m Solution
O
Strip 5

h5

h4
h3
h2
16
h1

47
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Draw a vertical line through point O.

Example 2
Solution
O

18 Strip 5

Strip 4

Strip 3
Strip 1 Strip 2
O

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
48
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Measure the distance of x1 from the middle
point of the strip till it meets the O-O line.
x1 = 1/3(b1) + O-O line

Example 2
O
Negative x value !!! Solution

19

x1 = - 5.73 m

Strip 1
O

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
49
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Measure the distance of x2 from the middle
point of the strip till it meets the O-O line.

Example 2
O Solution
Negative x value !!!

20
x2 = - 2.4 m

Strip 2
O

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
50
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Measure the distance of x3 from the middle
point of the strip till it meets the O-O line.

O Positive x value !!!

x3 = + 1.6 m

Example 2
21
Solution
Strip 3
O

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
51
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Measure the distance of x4 from the middle
point of the strip till it meets the O-O line.

O Positive x value !!!

x4 = + 5.6 m

Example 2
Strip 4 Solution
22

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
52
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Measure the distance of x5 from the middle
point of the strip till it meets the O-O line.
x5 = 1/3(b5) + O-O line

O Positive x value !!!

x5 = + 8.93 m

Strip 5
23

Example 2
Solution

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
53
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Measure the sector angle. Example 2


Solution

= 121O
24
Strip 5

Strip 4

Strip 3
Strip 1 Strip 2

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
54
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Calculate the length of slip arc, length of C-C.

CC =R
= 12 x (121 x /180) Example 2
= 25.32 m Solution
O

= 121O

C
Strip 5

Strip 4

Strip 3
C Strip 1 Strip 2
25

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
55
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


(Graphical Method)

Example 2 :
Solution (a) :Ignoring the
presence of a tension crack.
Create a table for all the
data that has been
calculated in the previous
slides.
56
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


(Slices Method)
Example 2 :
Solution (a) :
Strip Width, b Height of Weight X Moment
(m) strip, haverage (kN/m)
Distance (kN)
(m) W=Ax
=bxhx (m) MX = W x
Xn
1 4 2.1 *4*2.1*18.5 - 5.73 - 445.22
=77.7
2 4 4.2 310.8 - 2.4 - 745.92

3 4 6.4 473.6 + 1.6 757.76

4 4 6.8 503.2 + 5.6 2817.92

5 4 5.3 *4*5.3*18.5 + 8.93 1751.17


=196.1
Total 4134.71
57
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS
(Slices Method)
Example 2 :
Solution (a) :
Calculate the FOS with this equation :

FOS = c (R x Length of arc CC)


Total Mx
= (c) (R x CC)
Total Mx
= (20) (12 x 25.32)
4134.71
= 1.47

58
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


(Slices Method)
Example 2 : Undrained stability - Total stress
analysis (Slices Method)
Refer to the cross section of the slope given below.
*The relevant properties concerning the dimensions the slope are
given in the question.
Redraw the slope using an appropriate scale.
Divide the slope into 5 equal width of strips.
Calculate the FOS of the slope using the Total
Stress Analysis - Slices Method for the
following condition :
(a) Ignoring the presence of a tension crack.
(b) With the presence of a dry tension crack.
(c) With the presence of a wet tension crack.

59
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS
(Slices Method)
Example 2 :
Solution (b) :
With the occurrence of a dry tension crack, the
length of the slip arc will be reduce.
This will effect the angle of slip circle.
It will also effect the area of the slip mass in strip 5.
First, we need to calculate the depth of tension
crack.

zc = 2c = 2(20) = 40 = 2.16 m
18.5 18.5

60
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Example 2
Show the location of tension crack.
Solution

zc = 2.16 m

h4 26

h3
h2
h1

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
61
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Example 2
Recalculate the area for strip 5.
Solution

zc = 2.16 m

h4 26

h3
h2
h1

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
62
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Realculate the area for strip 5


Strip 5 @ Area 5 = Value from (a) Area Occupied by Tension Crack

Area of Triangle Occupied


By Tension Crack
0.8 m = x 0.8 x 2.16
= 0.86 m2

Area of Strip 5 @ Area 5


= 10.6 0.86
= 9.74 m2

Example 2
Solution
63
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Remeasure the distance of x5 from the middle
point of the new strip 5 till it meets the O-O
line.

O Positive x value !!!

zc = 2.16 m
Example 2 X5 = + 9.5 m
Solution
27

h4

h3
h2
h1 O

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
64
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Example 2
The reduction of the slip arc angle.
Solution

zc = 2.16 m
c = 110O

28

h4

h3
h2
h1

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
65
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
The reduction of the slip arc length. Example 2
CC = R c Solution
= 12 x (110O x /180O)
= 23.05 m
O

zc = 2.16 m
c = 110O

C
h4

h3
C h2
h1
29

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
66
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS
(Slices Method)
Strip Area Weight X Moment
Example 2 :(m2) (kN/m) Distance (kN)
Solution (b) : W=Ax (m) MX = W x Xn
1 4.20 77.7 - 5.73 - 445.22

2 16.80 310.8 - 2.4 - 745.92

3 25.60 473.6 + 1.6 757.76


(a)
4 27.20 503.2 + 5.6 2817.92

5 10.6 196.1 + 8.93 1751.17

Total 4134.71
5 9.74 180.19 + 9.5 1711.81
(b)
Total 4095.35

67
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS
(Slices Method)
Example 2 :
Solution (b) :
Calculate the FOS with this equation :

FOS = c (R x Length of arc CC)


Total Mx
= (c) (R x CC)
Total Mx
= (20) (12 x 23.05)
4095.35
= 1.35

68
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


(Slices Method)
Example 2 : Undrained stability - Total stress
analysis (Slices Method)
Refer to the cross section of the slope given below.
*The relevant properties concerning the dimensions the slope are
given in the question.
Redraw the slope using an appropriate scale.
Divide the slope into 5 equal width of strips.
Calculate the FOS of the slope using the Total
Stress Analysis - Slices Method for the
following condition :
(a) Ignoring the presence of a tension crack.
(b) With the presence of a dry tension crack.
(c) With the presence of a wet tension crack.

69
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


(Slices Method)
Example 2 :
Solution (c) :
With the occurrence of a wet tension crack, the
dimensions and parameters will be similar with (b)
with an addition of a lever arm of Pw about O and
the hydrostatic pressure acting upon the slope.
Lever arm of Pw is calculated at a vertical distance
from O, until it reaches 2/3 of the depth in the
tension crack (Refer to diagram).
yC = X + 2/3 zc

Pw = w zc2

70
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
Calculate the value of yc. Example 2
X = 2.6 m Solution
2/3 zc = 2/3 (2.16) Therefore,
= 1.44 m yc = 2.6 + 1.44 = 4.04 m
O

2.6 m zc = 2.16 m
c

2/3 zc

h4

h3
h2
h1

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 29
4m 4m 4m 4m 4m
71
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS


(Slices Method)
Example 2 :
Solution (c) :
Follow the dimensions and changes obtain in (b).
As in (b) New angle of slip circle, c = 110O
As in (b) New slip arc length, CC = 23.05 m2
As in (b) New total moment, Mx = 2572.4 kNm
In a wet tension crack situation, the Pw 0 ,
Where :
Pw = x w x zc2
= x 9.81 x 2.162
= 22.88 kN/m

72
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS
(Slices Method)
Example 2 :
Solution (c) :
Calculate the FOS with this equation :

FOS = c (R x Length of arc CC)


Total Mx + Pw yc
= (c) (R x CC)
Total Wx + Pw yc
= (20) (12 x 23.05)
4095.35 + (22.88)(4.04)
= 1.32

73
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.4.3
Undrained Stability-
non-homogeneous slopes

74
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

UNDRAINED STABILITY ~ TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS

4.4.2 Undrained non-homogeneous slopes


4.4.2.1 Multi-layer problem

Embankment of tip Cutting in stratified deposits

Ref : BSW, Fig. 9.11, Pg 366

75
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

UNDRAINED STABILITY ~ TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS


4.4.2 Undrained non-homogeneous slopes
4.4.2.2 Effect of a hard layer
When the underlying layer has a much greater strength,
the critical slip circle is constrained to develop only in
the weaker layer above :

Effect of an underlying hard layer


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CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY
4.4.2.1 Multi-layer problem
(MASS PROCEDURE)

Consider as a unit body


mass of Soil A

Consider as a unit body mass


of Soil B

Ref : BSW, Fig. 9.12, Pg 366


GEOTECHNIQUES (ECG433) ARM - 200777
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

UNDRAINED STABILITY ~ TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS

For undrained non-homogeneous slopes ~


multi layer problem (Mass Procedure)
Factor of safety is given by :

R 2 (cuA A cuB B .....)


FOS
(WA d A WB d B ....)

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CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

UNDRAINED STABILITY ~ TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS

4.4.2.1 TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS METHOD OF SLICES FOR MULTI LAYERS

3A

3B

W1
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CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS ~ Method of Slices


4.4.2.1 Multi layers ~ Cohesive soil (u = 0)
Table 4.2 : Tabulation of data for cohesive soil ~ multi layers
Height, h (m) W = A = (AhA + BhB) b Lever
Slice Width, Disturbing moment,
arm, d
No b (m) hA hB (kN/m) MD = Wd (kNm/m)
(m)
1 - -ve -ve
2
3
6 -
MD

Factor of safety for cohesive soil is given by :


shear resistance moment, M R R 2 cuA A cuB B ....
FOS
disturbing moment, M D (WA d A WB d B ....)
** where determination of W is by slice and
calculated as tabulated in Table 4.2
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CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

END OF WEEK 11

W12
CHAPTER 4

(sub-topic 4.5)
Drained Stability Effective Stress Analysis
81
CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

TOOLS THAT YOU MUST


HAVE DURING CLASS [W12]

Graph papers
Geometry set
(Protractor, Compass and etc)
82
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CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

REFERENCES

1. Whitlow, R ~ Basic Soil Mechanics, 2001.


2. Craig, R.F. & Knappett J.A. ~ Craigs Soil Mechanics, 2012.
3. Das, B.M., ~ Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, 2010.
4. Lecturers notes** ~ Kamarudin, F., Hashim, K.A., Abdullah,
N.H.H., Che Lat, D., Mohd Noor, S.N.A., and Nabi Khan, I.
**Some extractions were made especially on the photos and schematic diagrams. Many
thanks for sharing the notes and references.

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