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You are on page 1of 83

ECG353/ECG213 SOIL ENGINEERING : PART 5

WEEK 11 ~ CHAP. 4

INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

TEACHING LECTURER ;

PM. IR. BAHARDIN BAHAROM

HJH. FAUZILAH ISMAIL

HAIROL ANUAR HARON

DIANA CHE LAT

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Lecture ~ 83 slides

Tutorial

Independent learning activities

3

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Week 11 :Coverage ~ Total stress analysis for short term stability.

Learning outcomes:

At the end of this lecture/week the students would

be able to:

term stability)

4

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

OUTLINE of PRESENTATION

4.1 Introduction & Overview

4.2 Slope Failure Mechanisms

4.3 Slope Protection Works

4.4 Contd.... Total Stress Analysis

4.5 Effective Stress Analysis

5

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

HAVE DURING CLASS

Graph papers

Geometry set

(Protractor, Compass and etc)

6

6

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.4.1 Two (2) major classes/methods:

1. Mass procedure : In this case, the mass of the soil above

the surface of sliding is taken as a unit. This procedure is

useful when the soil that forms the slope is assumed to be

homogeneous, although this is not the case in most natural

slopes

surface of sliding is divided into a number of vertical

parallel slices. The stability of each slice is calculated

separately. This is a versatile technique in which the non-

homogeneity of the soil and pore water pressure can be

taken into consideration. It also accounts for the variation of

the normal stress along the potential failure surface. 7

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

COMMON FEATURES OF SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS METHODS

Safety Factor ~ FOS = f /m

where f = shear strength resistance and

m = mobilized disturbing.

FOS = 1 ~ failure, however FOS > 1 ~ safe

however safe FOS may ranging from 1.2-1.5

depends on the several factors.

Shape and location of failure is not known but

assumed (trial and error to find minimum F)

Static equilibrium (equilibrium of forces and

moments on a sliding mass)

8

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.4.2

Undrained Stability -

Homogeneous Slopes

9

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

A total stress analysis may

be applied to the case of a

newly cut or newly

constructed slope in a fully

saturated clay.

one along which a failure is

most likely to occur and for

Figure above shows slip circles at different radii and

which the factor of safety centres. A number of trial circles are chosen and the

is the lowest. analyses repeated for each until lowest FOS is

obtained..

10

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

below ;

soil body weight W of the portion above the slip circle;

resisted by the moment

of the mobilised shear

strength acting along the

circular arc AB

Consider as

Thus, a unit body

mass

Disturbing moment = Wd

11

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

where is measured in radian

2

Disturbing moment, MD = Wd

shear resistance moment, M R

Then factor of safety, FOS

disturbing moment, M D

cu R 2

Wd

12

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

TENSION CRACKS

In cohesive soils, a tension cracks tends to form near the

top of the slope as the condition of limiting equilibrium

develops.

Depth of tension crack

2cu

zo

as Ka = 1

(deduct crack area at the back)

13

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

TENSION CRACKS

Tension cracks .

No shear strength can be developed in the tension

crack, but, if it can fill with water, allowance must be

made for the hydrostatic force Pw which acts

horizontally adding to the disturbing moment.

1

Pw w zo2

2

The expression for the factor of

safety becomes :

cu R 2 c

FOS

Wd Pw yc

14

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

COHESIVE SOIL

In calculating the FOS for the slope, we are going to

look into two types of stability :

No tension crack

With tension crack

Layered soil

(ordinary method of slice)

No tension crack

With tension crack

Layered soil

15

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.4 Total Stress Analyses UNDRAINED STABILITY

analysis [MASS PROCEDURE]

Refer to the cross section of the slope given below. *The

relevant properties concerning the calculation and analysis

of the slope are given in the question. Calculate the FOS of

the slope in the following condition :

(a) Ignoring the presence of a tension crack.

(b) With the presence of a dry tension crack.

(c) With the presence of a wet tension crack.

16

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 1

Undrained stability - Total

stress analysis

[MASS PROCEDURE

METHOD]

17

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 1 :

Data provided :

Dimensions of slope to refer diagram given.

C = 40 kPa

u = 0O

Radius of slip circle, R = 17.43 m

Angle of slip circle, = 84.06O

Area of slip mass, A = 102.1 m2

Bulk unit weight of soil within the slope, = 18.5

kN/m3

Centroid distance from O, d = 6.54 m

18

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 1

6.7 m

10 m

19

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 1 :

Solution (a) :

Calculate the FOS with this equation :

FOS = c R2 REMEMBER !

Wd

= (c) (R)2 () Change to radian

(A x ) (d)

= (40) (17.43)2 (84.06 x /180)

(102.2 x 18.5) (6.54)

= 1.44

20

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 1 :

Solution (b) :With the presence of a dry tension crack

With the occurrence of a dry tension crack, the

length of the slip arc will be reduce.

This will effect the angle of slip circle.

It will also effect the area of the slip mass.

First, we need to calculate the depth of tension

crack.

zc = 2c = 2(40) = 80 = 4.32 m

18.5 18.5

21

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 1 :

Solution (b) :

dC

WC

22

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 1 :

Solution (b) :

The changes of the length of slip arc, the angle of slip

circle and the depth of tension crack have to be shown in

the diagram.

In this example, the value of changes in the parameters

have already being calculated.

In certain cases, the changes have to be shown in the

diagram that has to be drawn to scale.

New angle of slip circle, c = 67.44O

New area of slip mass, Ac = 71.64 m2

New centroid distance from O, dc = 5.86 m

In a dry tension crack, the Pw = 0

23

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 1 :

Solution (b) :

Calculate the FOS with this equation :

FOS = c R2 c REMEMBER !

Wc dc

Change to radian

= (c) (R)2 (c)

(Ac x ) (dc)

= (40) (17.43)2 (67.44 x /180)

(71.64 x 18.5) (5.86)

= 1.84

24

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 1 :

Solution (c) :With the presence of a wet tension

crack.

With the occurrence of a wet tension crack, the

dimensions and parameters will be similar with

(b) with an addition of a lever arm of Pw about

O and the hydrostatic pressure acting upon the

slope.

Lever arm of Pw is calculated at a vertical

distance from O, until it reaches 2/3 of the

depth in the tension crack (Refer to diagram).

25

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 1 :

Solution (c) : yC = X + 2/3 zc

X = 6.7 m

yc = 9.58 m

dC

10 m

WC

26

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 1 :

Solution (c) :

Follow the dimensions and changes obtain in

(b).

As in (b) New angle of slip circle, c = 67.44O

As in (b) New area of slip mass, Ac = 71.64 m2

As in (b) New centroid distance from O, dc =

5.86 m

In a wet tension crack situation, the Pw 0 ,

Where :

Pw = x w x zc2

= x 9.81 x 4.322

= 91.54 kN/m 27

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 1 :

Solution (c) :

Calculate the FOS with this equation :

FOS = c R2 c

Wc d c + P w y c

(Ac x ) (dc) + (Pw) (yc)

(71.64 x 18.5) (5.86) + (91.54) (9.58)

= 1.65

28

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.3.3.2 Multi-layer (cohesive soil, u = 0 )

4.3.3.3 Cohesion~frictional soils (c~ soils)

29

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 2

Undrained stability - Total

stress analysis

[METHOD OF SLICES FOR

SINGLE LAYER]

30

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

(Slices Method)

Example 2 : Undrained stability - Total stress

analysis (Slices Method)

Refer to the cross section of the slope given below.

*The relevant properties concerning the dimensions the slope are

given in the question.

Redraw the slope using an appropriate scale.

Divide the slope into 5 equal width of strips.

Calculate the FOS of the slope using the Total

Stress Analysis - Slices Method for the

following condition :

(a) Ignoring the presence of a tension crack.

(b) With the presence of a dry tension crack.

(c) With the presence of a wet tension crack.

31

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

(Slices Method)

Example 2 :

Data provided :

Dimensions of slope to refer diagram

given (Refer to given diagram).

C = 20 kPa

u = 0O

Radius of slip circle, R = 12 m

Bulk unit weight of soil within the slope,

= 18.5 kN/m3

32

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

(Slices Method)

Example 2 :

O

R = 12 m

2.0 6m

1.0

4m 16 m

33

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

(Slices Method)

Example 2 :

Solution :

Select an appropriate scale.

1 cm to 1 m

Follow the steps given in the

slides.

34

34

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

(Slices Method)

O

R = 12 m

4

2.0 3 6m

1.0

1 2

4m

35

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 2

Mark the important points

Solution

Draw the slope gradient

4

3

1 2

36

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS

(Slices Method)

Example 2 :

7 O

Solution R = 12 m

6

2.0 6m

1.0

5

4m

37

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 2

Solution

7

38

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

(Slices Method)

Example 2 :

O

Solution R = 12 m

10

9

2.0 6m

1.0

4m

8

Given diagram, Note to Scale (NTS)

39

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Use the compass to draw the slip arc

Example 2

Solution

O

10

40

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Divide the slope area within the slip arc into 5 equal

width

Example 2

Solution

O

20 m

41

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Divide the slope area within the slip arc into 5 equal width

Example 3

Solution

O

Strip 5

Strip 4

Strip 3

Strip 1 Strip 2

11

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

42

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Measure the height of each strip.

The height of each strip is taken from the middle section of the

strip. But for ended strip [strip 1 & 5], the height of strip is taken

1/3 section (from toe and top slope) of the strip

Strip 1 : h1 = 2.1 m O

h5

Strip 1 h4

h3

h2

Example 3

h1

Solution

13

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

43

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Measure the height of each strip.

The height of each strip is taken from the

middle section of the strip. Example 3

Strip 2 : h2 = 4.2 m Solution

O

h5

Strip 2

h4

h3

h2

h1

14

44

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Measure the height of each strip.

The height of each strip is taken from the

middle section of the strip. Example 3

Strip 3 : h3 = 6.4 m Solution

O

Strip 3

h5

h4

h3

h2

h1

15

45

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Measure the height of each strip.

The height of each strip is taken from the

middle section of the strip. Example 3

Strip 4 : h4 = 6.8 m Solution

O

Strip 4

h5

h4

h3

h2

h1

16

46

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Measure the height of each strip.

But for ended strip [strip 1 & 5], the height of strip

is taken 1/3 section of the strip Example 3

Strip 5 : h5 = 5.3 m Solution

O

Strip 5

h5

h4

h3

h2

16

h1

47

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 2

Solution

O

18 Strip 5

Strip 4

Strip 3

Strip 1 Strip 2

O

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

48

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Measure the distance of x1 from the middle

point of the strip till it meets the O-O line.

x1 = 1/3(b1) + O-O line

Example 2

O

Negative x value !!! Solution

19

x1 = - 5.73 m

Strip 1

O

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

49

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Measure the distance of x2 from the middle

point of the strip till it meets the O-O line.

Example 2

O Solution

Negative x value !!!

20

x2 = - 2.4 m

Strip 2

O

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

50

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Measure the distance of x3 from the middle

point of the strip till it meets the O-O line.

x3 = + 1.6 m

Example 2

21

Solution

Strip 3

O

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

51

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Measure the distance of x4 from the middle

point of the strip till it meets the O-O line.

x4 = + 5.6 m

Example 2

Strip 4 Solution

22

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

52

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Measure the distance of x5 from the middle

point of the strip till it meets the O-O line.

x5 = 1/3(b5) + O-O line

x5 = + 8.93 m

Strip 5

23

Example 2

Solution

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

53

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Solution

= 121O

24

Strip 5

Strip 4

Strip 3

Strip 1 Strip 2

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

54

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Calculate the length of slip arc, length of C-C.

CC =R

= 12 x (121 x /180) Example 2

= 25.32 m Solution

O

= 121O

C

Strip 5

Strip 4

Strip 3

C Strip 1 Strip 2

25

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

55

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

(Graphical Method)

Example 2 :

Solution (a) :Ignoring the

presence of a tension crack.

Create a table for all the

data that has been

calculated in the previous

slides.

56

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

(Slices Method)

Example 2 :

Solution (a) :

Strip Width, b Height of Weight X Moment

(m) strip, haverage (kN/m)

Distance (kN)

(m) W=Ax

=bxhx (m) MX = W x

Xn

1 4 2.1 *4*2.1*18.5 - 5.73 - 445.22

=77.7

2 4 4.2 310.8 - 2.4 - 745.92

=196.1

Total 4134.71

57

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS

(Slices Method)

Example 2 :

Solution (a) :

Calculate the FOS with this equation :

Total Mx

= (c) (R x CC)

Total Mx

= (20) (12 x 25.32)

4134.71

= 1.47

58

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

(Slices Method)

Example 2 : Undrained stability - Total stress

analysis (Slices Method)

Refer to the cross section of the slope given below.

*The relevant properties concerning the dimensions the slope are

given in the question.

Redraw the slope using an appropriate scale.

Divide the slope into 5 equal width of strips.

Calculate the FOS of the slope using the Total

Stress Analysis - Slices Method for the

following condition :

(a) Ignoring the presence of a tension crack.

(b) With the presence of a dry tension crack.

(c) With the presence of a wet tension crack.

59

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS

(Slices Method)

Example 2 :

Solution (b) :

With the occurrence of a dry tension crack, the

length of the slip arc will be reduce.

This will effect the angle of slip circle.

It will also effect the area of the slip mass in strip 5.

First, we need to calculate the depth of tension

crack.

zc = 2c = 2(20) = 40 = 2.16 m

18.5 18.5

60

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 2

Show the location of tension crack.

Solution

zc = 2.16 m

h4 26

h3

h2

h1

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

61

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 2

Recalculate the area for strip 5.

Solution

zc = 2.16 m

h4 26

h3

h2

h1

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

62

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Strip 5 @ Area 5 = Value from (a) Area Occupied by Tension Crack

By Tension Crack

0.8 m = x 0.8 x 2.16

= 0.86 m2

= 10.6 0.86

= 9.74 m2

Example 2

Solution

63

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Remeasure the distance of x5 from the middle

point of the new strip 5 till it meets the O-O

line.

zc = 2.16 m

Example 2 X5 = + 9.5 m

Solution

27

h4

h3

h2

h1 O

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

64

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Example 2

The reduction of the slip arc angle.

Solution

zc = 2.16 m

c = 110O

28

h4

h3

h2

h1

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

65

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

The reduction of the slip arc length. Example 2

CC = R c Solution

= 12 x (110O x /180O)

= 23.05 m

O

zc = 2.16 m

c = 110O

C

h4

h3

C h2

h1

29

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

66

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS

(Slices Method)

Strip Area Weight X Moment

Example 2 :(m2) (kN/m) Distance (kN)

Solution (b) : W=Ax (m) MX = W x Xn

1 4.20 77.7 - 5.73 - 445.22

(a)

4 27.20 503.2 + 5.6 2817.92

Total 4134.71

5 9.74 180.19 + 9.5 1711.81

(b)

Total 4095.35

67

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS

(Slices Method)

Example 2 :

Solution (b) :

Calculate the FOS with this equation :

Total Mx

= (c) (R x CC)

Total Mx

= (20) (12 x 23.05)

4095.35

= 1.35

68

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

(Slices Method)

Example 2 : Undrained stability - Total stress

analysis (Slices Method)

Refer to the cross section of the slope given below.

*The relevant properties concerning the dimensions the slope are

given in the question.

Redraw the slope using an appropriate scale.

Divide the slope into 5 equal width of strips.

Calculate the FOS of the slope using the Total

Stress Analysis - Slices Method for the

following condition :

(a) Ignoring the presence of a tension crack.

(b) With the presence of a dry tension crack.

(c) With the presence of a wet tension crack.

69

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

(Slices Method)

Example 2 :

Solution (c) :

With the occurrence of a wet tension crack, the

dimensions and parameters will be similar with (b)

with an addition of a lever arm of Pw about O and

the hydrostatic pressure acting upon the slope.

Lever arm of Pw is calculated at a vertical distance

from O, until it reaches 2/3 of the depth in the

tension crack (Refer to diagram).

yC = X + 2/3 zc

Pw = w zc2

70

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

Calculate the value of yc. Example 2

X = 2.6 m Solution

2/3 zc = 2/3 (2.16) Therefore,

= 1.44 m yc = 2.6 + 1.44 = 4.04 m

O

2.6 m zc = 2.16 m

c

2/3 zc

h4

h3

h2

h1

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 29

4m 4m 4m 4m 4m

71

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

(Slices Method)

Example 2 :

Solution (c) :

Follow the dimensions and changes obtain in (b).

As in (b) New angle of slip circle, c = 110O

As in (b) New slip arc length, CC = 23.05 m2

As in (b) New total moment, Mx = 2572.4 kNm

In a wet tension crack situation, the Pw 0 ,

Where :

Pw = x w x zc2

= x 9.81 x 2.162

= 22.88 kN/m

72

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

EXAMPLE SLOPE ANALYSIS

(Slices Method)

Example 2 :

Solution (c) :

Calculate the FOS with this equation :

Total Mx + Pw yc

= (c) (R x CC)

Total Wx + Pw yc

= (20) (12 x 23.05)

4095.35 + (22.88)(4.04)

= 1.32

73

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.4.3

Undrained Stability-

non-homogeneous slopes

74

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.4.2.1 Multi-layer problem

75

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.4.2 Undrained non-homogeneous slopes

4.4.2.2 Effect of a hard layer

When the underlying layer has a much greater strength,

the critical slip circle is constrained to develop only in

the weaker layer above :

76

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.4.2.1 Multi-layer problem

(MASS PROCEDURE)

mass of Soil A

of Soil B

GEOTECHNIQUES (ECG433) ARM - 200777

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

multi layer problem (Mass Procedure)

Factor of safety is given by :

FOS

(WA d A WB d B ....)

78

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

3A

3B

W1

79

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

4.4.2.1 Multi layers ~ Cohesive soil (u = 0)

Table 4.2 : Tabulation of data for cohesive soil ~ multi layers

Height, h (m) W = A = (AhA + BhB) b Lever

Slice Width, Disturbing moment,

arm, d

No b (m) hA hB (kN/m) MD = Wd (kNm/m)

(m)

1 - -ve -ve

2

3

6 -

MD

shear resistance moment, M R R 2 cuA A cuB B ....

FOS

disturbing moment, M D (WA d A WB d B ....)

** where determination of W is by slice and

calculated as tabulated in Table 4.2

80

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

END OF WEEK 11

W12

CHAPTER 4

(sub-topic 4.5)

Drained Stability Effective Stress Analysis

81

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

HAVE DURING CLASS [W12]

Graph papers

Geometry set

(Protractor, Compass and etc)

82

82

CHAP 4 : INTRODUCTION TO SLOPE STABILITY

REFERENCES

2. Craig, R.F. & Knappett J.A. ~ Craigs Soil Mechanics, 2012.

3. Das, B.M., ~ Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, 2010.

4. Lecturers notes** ~ Kamarudin, F., Hashim, K.A., Abdullah,

N.H.H., Che Lat, D., Mohd Noor, S.N.A., and Nabi Khan, I.

**Some extractions were made especially on the photos and schematic diagrams. Many

thanks for sharing the notes and references.

83

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