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# ELECTRICAL

POWER
DISTRIBUTION
Week 1-2
Course Contents
These are the main and big headlines for
the topics we will study
Introduction to electrical distribution system
Distribution system elements & configurations
Electrical load characteristics
Voltage regulation in distribution systems
Protection and branching circuit design
Distribution transformers
Power factor correction in distribution systems
Operation and control of distribution systems
How will you be graded and assessed?
RULE 1: WORK AND READ A LOT!
EVERY WEEK YOU HAVE AN
ASSIGNMENT!

RULE 2: BE ON TIME IN
ASSIGNMENTS, NO EXCUSES FOR
LATE OR UN-HANDED ONES. IF YOU
MISS IT, YOU CANT MAKE IT UP!

## RULE 3: BE ON TIME! LATE ENTRIES

ARE NOT TOLERATED

## RULE 4: LEAVE THE REST FOR ME

System voltage classes according to
IEEE Std 141-1993
Low voltage:
A class of nominal system voltages less than 1000 V.
Medium voltage:
A class of nominal system voltages equal to or greater than 1000 V and
less than 100, 000 V.
High voltage:
A class of nominal system voltages equal from 100 000 V to 230,000V.

4
System voltage classes according to
IEC Standard no. 38 (International Electro technical
Committee)
Low voltage (LV)
For a phase-to-phase voltage between 100 V and 1000 V. The
standard ratings are: 400 V - 690 V - 1000 V (at 50 Hz)
Medium voltage (MV)
For a phase-to-phase voltage between 1000 V and 35 kV. The
standard ratings are: 3.3 kV - 6.6 kV - 11 kV - 22 kV - 33 kV
High voltage (HV)
For a phase-to-phase voltage between 35 kV and 230 kV. The
standard ratings are: 45 kV - 66 kV - 110 kV - 132 kV - 150 kV - 220
kV.
66 kV= High voltage in Egypt
11-22 kV= Medium voltage in Egypt
IEC
Substation and Distribution system
Sub transmission Other 66 kV sub
Station switch yard transmission lines
sub station
13.8 kV 220 kV rural feeder
Step up Step down
Power Plant
transformer transformer

## 13.8/220 kV 220/66 kV 66 kV sub

transmission line

66 kV su transmission line
Large
industrial
Primary distribution Secondary distribution customer
substation
11 kV rural feeder
substation
66 kV

## Step down 11 kV feeder Step down

transformer transformer 400 v
11 kV feeder
Radial distributor
66/11 kV 11 kV/ 400 V

Commercial /
industrial 11 kV feeder Step down
customer transformer

11 kV/ 400 V
Ring distributor
Sub-transmission lines carry large amounts of
power from the bulk power substations to the
main distribution substations within the
immediate area of use at intermediate voltages.
The medium voltage network carries electrical
power from the main distribution substations
either directly to large industrial and commercial
consumers or to distributor centers within
residential areas at medium voltages. The
primary feeders carry the electrical power from
distributer centers to step down distribution
transformers. The three-phase 380 V four-wire
secondary cable carries the electrical power
from the distribution transformer to building
main switchboard.
Generating Station:
The place where electric power produced by parallel connected three phase alternators/generators
is called Generating Station. The Ordinary generating voltage may be 11kV, 11.5 kV 12kV or 13kV.
But economically, it is good to step up the produced voltage to 132kV, 220kV or 500kV or greater by
Step up transformer (power Transformer).
Primary Transmission:
The electric supply (in 132kV, 220 kV, 500kV or greater) is transmit to load center by overhead
transmission system.
Secondary transmission:
Area far from city which have connected with receiving station by line is called Secondary
transmission. At receiving station, the level of voltage reduced by step-down transformers up to
132kV, 66 or 33 kV, and Electric power is transmit by three phase three wire overhead system to
different sub stations.
Primary Distribution:
At a sub station, the level of secondary transmission voltage (132kV, 66 or 33 kV) reduced to 11kV
by step down transforms. Generally, electric supply is given to those heavy consumer whose
demand is 11 kV, from these lines which caries 11 kV and a separate sub station exists to control
and utilize this power. For heavier consumer (at large scale) their demand is about 132 kV or 33
kV, they take electric supply from secondary transmission or primary distribution (in 132 kV, 66kV or
33kV) and then step down the level of voltage by step-down transformers in their own sub station for
utilization ( i.e. for electric traction etc).
Secondary Distribution:
Electric power is given by (from Primary distribution line i.e.11kV) to
distribution sub station. This sub station is located near by consumers areas
where the level of voltage reduced by step down transformers 440V by Step
down transformers. These transformers called Distribution transformers, three
phase four wire system). So there is 400 Volts (Three Phase Supply System)
between any two phases and 230 Volts (Single Phase Supply) between a
neutral and phase (live) wires. Residential load (i.e. Fans, Lights, and TV etc)
may be connected between any one phase and neutral wires, while three
phase load may be connected directly to the three phase lines.
Egyptian Network 220 kV

Any electrical network usually feeds a certain zone or location. In case any power failure in
the network, all services will be interrupted and leads to disconnection of loads. The unified
grid solves such problems since it connects a number or a group of networks together. In
case of any power failure in one network occurs, the rest of the network feeds the loads
and prevents their cut out. There Egyptian grid consists of the following:

Generation : 24- 30 kV

Transmission :
220 kV: - - - - (
)
500 kV: 950

500

500 440 220
Egyptian Grid
Interconnection

OH line Marine
cable
line

Since 1998 Since 1998
400 220 (.)

## 82 220 1277 100 ()

(..)
- 2 26 64 (..)
Egyptian Grid Useful Statistics
%
7.94
0.79
0.07
91.02
0.14
0.04
168069 ( ..)

2014-2013
)Alexandria Network (Distribution

Incoming feeder 66 kV
66 kV

+
(
+
() +
+
)

20 kV 11 kV 11 kV 11 kV 11 kV
Distribution Systems Elements: 66 kV Sub-
transmission First: 66 kV Sub-
General Overview
transmission line
Load-break Switch
Second: Main
Distribution
11-kV High-rupture Substation
Capacity Fuse
11-kV bus 11 kV Primary
Distribution feeder
Transformer
380-V Cable
380-V HV-Circuit Breaker
Third:
To the
LV Distribution MV Tap Point
substation
loads Room
themselves N.C Primary
380-V Feeder
Fourth:
HRCF 380-V Circuit Sectionalizing to step down
Breaker (optional) Switches distribution
N.C transformers
11kV/380V
Distribution Systems Configurations:
Primary Distribution System Arrangements
The structure of distribution system and components used
depends on two factors:
The initial cost.
Reliability.
Service continuity.
Voltage regulation.
Efficiency.
Operating and maintenance costs.

## More reliable systems mean higher installation costs which will be

translated into higher price for kWh consumption

The choice between reliability and cost depends on the infra structure
example: Milling factories
Furnaces and steel
residential area
commercial and industrial areas
MV Voltage Network: Primary Feeders

1. Radial configuration
Time is required for
BULK POWER LINE fixing faulted cable
Supply disconnects, 66 kV and thus power is
down stream loads Main CB interrupted
66 kV
disconnects Sub TL
20 kV
LV feeders
To Major
3 380/ Consumers
1 220V
LV Distribution
HRCF
Substation
DT
20 kV
HV MV Primary Disconnection is
HRCF Feeders done to the faulted
20 kV
part ONLY, however,
sometimes the main
Isolating
Switches Distribution switch (at
Transformer transformer) is
20 kV disconnected to
Simplest system with minimum disconnect multi
components , cables and cost consumers
Radial System: Rural areas
The system offers the following advantages:
System investment is the lowest of all circuit
arrangements.
Distribution is done at secondary voltage level
Operation and expansion are simple.
Simpler power flow calculations.
Current magnitude is high upsteam and lessen
as we go downstream, thus the size of the
conductor feeders are smaller downstream.
BUT sometimes this puts more limitations to
voltage drop allowance
One transformer is responsible for a group of Usually is very convenient up to
loads having only one primary feeder. The 1000 kVA (1 MW) capacity
system takes advantage of the total diversity
among the loads and requires less space. The reliability of simple radial systems has the
Each feeder is connected to the switchgear or following characteristics:
switchboard bus through a circuit breaker or Loss of a cable, primary supply, or transformer
other overcurrent protective device. A will cut off service.
relatively small number of circuits are used to Equipment must be shut down to perform
distribute power to the loads from the routine maintenance and servicing.
switchgear or switchboard assemblies and When high quality components and appropriate
ratings are used reliability is high.
panelboards. The system is satisfactory for small industrial
installations
Radial Systems: A new look
The modern simple-radial distribution system :
It distributes power at the primary voltage level so that
the length of the low-voltage feeders is kept to a
minimum, reducing cable cost and energy losses and
improving voltage regulation.
The voltage is stepped down to utilization level in the
several load areas within the building typically
through secondary unit substation transformers. The
transformers are usually connected to their associated
load bus through a circuit breaker
Each transformer must have sufficient capacity to
carry the peak load of the area it serves. The main
disadvantage of this system is that service to all
transformers will be interrupted in case of a fault in
the primary circuit or maintenance work on the main Modern simple-radial distribution
circuit breaker. system
Like the simple radial system continuity and Used with systems more than 1000
flexibility are poor. kVA (1 MW) capacity
Radial Systems: A new look
The modified modern simple-radial distribution system:
Reducing the number of transformers per primary
feeder by adding more primary feeder circuits will
improve the flexibility and service continuity of this
system provides all the advantages of the modern
simple-radial type, but includes important
improvements in reliability.
Each distribution transformer is fed from an
individual primary feeder so that under fault
conditions only the loads supplied by the faulted
feeder are disconnected.
Initial cost is higher mainly due to having a circuit Modified modern simple-radial
breaker in each primary feeder. The cost can be distribution system
reduced by replacing the circuit breakers with load-
break switches.
In this case a fault on a primary feeder will cause
power disconnection to all loads due to the
operation of the main circuit breaker. The faulted
feeder is identified by opening all load-break
switches and then reclosing them one by one. The
faulty feeder is isolated and service can be restored
to all the others.
Two-way HV sub-
transmission
2. Open-Loop BULK POWER LINE
66 kV power supply
Configuration
66
) (Ring Main Unit
(RMU)
Loop-connected 66-kV
Sub-TL
Very large
Means that NORMALLY the loop is industrial
substation
open and in EMERGENCY the loop
closes
Primary
Each is fed from TWO WAY Distribution
power supplies Substation
MV Primary
Feeders

## Radial Disconnecting Radial

system Switches (NO) system

Tie Lines

Open loop Configuration
66

## This is a normally open system, this means that normally the

downstream acts as a radial system.

## In case of any fault in the downstream circuit,

1- First the main section CB trips so that all the downstream cct is
isolated from the power source then determines which section is
faulted (through SCADA and monitoring station)
2- the disconnecting switches isolates the faulted section and closes
the tie line
3- then gets service back again through connecting the main CB
again

## During fault the system becomes a loop system through the

connection of the tie line while the faulted part is isolated from the
system.
High reliability system
3. Loop Configuration BULK POWER LINE

Sub-transmission Line

Sub-transmission
Two loops exist so any

Line
load has two supplies Major
Load

## The higher the

reliability, the more
complex the control Distribution
and decision making substation MV Primary
feeders
MV Primary
feeders
4. Combination of Loop Sub-
BULK POWER LINE
transmission & Radial Primary
Feeders Main
distribution
substation Loop configuration for sub
transmission system

Sub-transmission
Line

Distribution Distribution
substation substation
Radial
configuration for
MV primary
MV primary
MV primary feeders feeders
feeders
Loop
configuration Tie line between two
for MV adjacent primary feeders
Primary Disconnecting (open loop_ MV primary
Switches (NO) feeders configuration
feeders
Sub transmission and MV Advantages Disadvantages Applications
network Layout
Radial Simple layout Low reliability Not used in sub
Economical to install transmission systems
compared to other
layouts
Open loop Simple layout Failure of one of the two Residential type consumers
Economical to install primary feeders leaves a in urban areas and less
compared to other number of consumers out density population areas
layouts of service until the tie line
Provision for switching switches are manually
the load to the good line closed
in the event of supply
outage
Loop layout Reliable with two way Expensive and requires Residential type consumers
supply more equipment in urban areas and less
Malfunction section can density population areas
be repaired without
removing much of the
sections from service

Combination (loop and Reliable and suitable for The radial part is Combination of residential,
radial) critical loads (such as arranged so that only industrial and commercial
business and industrial residential customers are customers with a degree of
loads) out of service in case of reliability which is load
Reasonably econimical supply failure dependent
Low-voltage Distribution Network
Mesh system STANDARDIZED
MV BULK POWER Cable
LV primary distribution
meshed feeder cabinet
feeder Distribution
transformer
One feeder

Each
transformer
receives a two Disconnecting or
way supply isolating switch
from two
Multi-line Single-line
primary
Fed meshed Fed meshed
feeders
In multi-line fed meshed systems, the In single-fed meshed system, all
substations of several medium-voltage lines can substations connected via the low-
be connected in parallel through the low- voltage network are supplied from a
voltage system. single medium-voltage primary feeder
Under ground low-voltage
Distribution
radial distribution system 3 to
Box
6 MVA/km2 load density Residential area
(3 to 6 MVA/km2
load density)
D
Typical residential area (Street
width 7 meters), 5 floors C

B
Distribution
transformer

A
Main cable 240 mm2 4/C Aluminium conductor 1 kV
185 mm2 4/C Aluminium conductor 1 kV
Out of distribution box
cable 50 mm2 4/C Aluminium conductor 1 kV

## To inside SMALL (5 FLOOR)building cable

Or copper equivalent
cable
Another dry type transformer for voltage drop
Low voltage system of (expensive a bit, 11kv rating)
high rise buildings

Automatic source-
changeover systems

Lifts
with mechanical
) 14 ( interlocking
Sub-panel board
Sub-panel boards for for Floor Emergency
distributed loads in the floor

## Bus-way type shaft Bus-way type shaft riser

for emergency supply
8 riser for main supply

ATS

LV emergency

bus
11 or 20 kV

G
MV Feeder
Dotted line means
Entrance Cables
emergency, solid LV Main supply bus
means main
Types of Installation of LV Distribution Systems in Buildings

## 1. Distribution by insulated conductors and cables:

Local general
distribution board Sub-distribution
board

## There could be 1 riser

or more than one
depending on the
building size

Main general
distribution board Heating,
etc.

General utilities
distribution board
Types of Installation of LV Distribution Systems in Buildings
Also known as
2. Distribution by prefabricated bus-trunking & cables channels
bus way
Bus-duct Main dist. Main bus-bar Prefabricated bus-
transformer to board trunking
Main dist. board trunking

Transformer

Local dist.
board

Prefabricated pre-
Prefabricated power and wired cable channels
light current column
CHALLENGE QUESTION OF THE WEEK! TO BE HANDED
IN BY NEXT WEEK IN THE SECTION.

systems layouts?

## YOUR REPORT MUST:

1- hand written in clear (or computer typed), neat handwriting
2- includes references
3- Clear diagrams, labels .. Look first in your text book then you can look in the internet
4- cover page with your name and registration number
5- Be Subjective dont talk too much
6- DO NOT COPY AND PASTE
7- Marks will be rewarded according to subjectivity, organization, clarity and creativity