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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS S-LSA Glider TST – 14 BONUS M SERIAL NUMBER: 14010906 REGISTRATION: DATE

AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

S-LSA Glider

TST – 14 BONUS M

SERIAL NUMBER:

14010906

REGISTRATION:

DATE OF ISSUE:

2006-11-29

MANUFACTURER:

TeST, spol. s r. o.

SIGNATURE:

REGISTERED COPY NR.:

To ensure a safe flight, this aircraft must be operated according to the information and limits published in this document !

PLEASE READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY BEFORE OPERATING THE AIRCRAFT !

ALL INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY BEFORE OPERATING THE AIRCRAFT ! TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 1 of 64

LIST OF REVISIONS

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TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 3 of 64

CONTENTS

1

GENERAL INFORMATION

8

1.1 INTRODUCTION

8

1.2 CERTIFICATION

8

1.3 WARNINGS AND MISCELANEOUS

8

1.4 MANUFACTURER

9

2

AIRCRAFT AND SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION

10

2.1

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

10

2.1.1 Wing

10

2.1.2 Fuselage

10

2.1.3 Tail

10

2.1.4 Controls

10

2.1.5 Undercarriage

10

2.1.6 Propulsion group

11

2.2 OPERATING WEIGHTS AND LOADING

11

2.3 ENGINE

12

2.4 PROPELLER

12

2.5 FUEL AND FUEL CAPACITY

13

 

2.6 OIL

13

 

2.7 MINIMUM EQUIPMENT

13

2.8 DIMENSIONS

13

2.8.1 Wing:

13

2.8.2 Horizontal Tail:

14

2.8.3 Vertical Tail:

14

2.8.4 Fuselage:

14

2.9

THREE VIEW DIAGRAM

15

2.10

INSTRUMENT PANEL

16

3

OPERATING LIMITATIONS

16

3.1 GENERAL

16

3.2 SPEED LIMITATIONS

16

3.2.1 V SO Stall Speed 70 km/h [37.8 kt]

16

3.2.2 V A Maximum Maneuvering Speed 150 km/h [81,0 kt]

17

3.2.3 V NE Never Exceed Speed 205 km/h [110.7 kt]

17

3.2.4 V T

Maximum Aerotow Speed 150 km/h [81.0 kt]

17

3.2.5 Crosswind and Wind Limitations for Takeoff and Landing

17

3.2.6 V B Maximum Speed in Turbulent Air 150 km/h [81.0 kt]

17

3.2.7 V C Maximum Speed with Running Engine 140 km/h [75.6 kt]

17

3.3 LOAD FACTORS

17

3.4 PROHIBITED MANEUVERS

18

3.5 ENGINE LIMITATIONS

18

PROHIBITED MANEUVERS 18 3.5 ENGINE LIMITATIONS 18 TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 4 of 64

4

WEIGHT AND BALANCE INFORMATION

19

4.1

CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG) RANGE AND DETERMINATION

19

5 PERFORMANCE

22

5.1

GLIDER

22

5.1.1 Maximum Lift to Drag Ratio

22

5.1.2 Minimum Sink Speed

22

5.1.3 Crosswind and Wind Limitations for Takeoff and Landing

22

5.2

POWERED GLIDER

22

5.2.1 Takeoff Distances

22

5.2.2 Rate of Climb

22

5.2.3 Climbing Speeds

22

5.2.4 Maximum RPM

23

5.2.5 Time Limit for the Use of Takeoff Power

23

5.2.6 Fuel Consumption and Total Usable Fuel Volume

23

5.2.7 Crosswind and Wind Limitations for Takeoff and Landing

23

5.2.8 Speeds for Extracting and Retracting Powerplant

23

6 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

23

6.1 GENERAL

23

6.2 STALL CHARACTERISTICS

24

6.3 SPIRAL DIVE RECOVERY

24

6.4 SPIN RECOVERY

24

6.5 ENGINE FAILURE

25

6.5.1 Engine failure during acceleration on the runway

25

6.5.2 Engine failure after take-off

25

6.6

ENGINE FIRE

25

6.6.1 Fire with engine extended

25

6.6.2 Fire with engine retracted

26

6.7 BAILING OUT OF THE AIRCRAFT

26

6.8 USE OF A ROCKET RESCUE SYSTEM (BRS)

26

7 NORMAL PROCEDURES

27

7.1 GENERAL

27

7.2 PRE FLIGHT CHECK

28

7.3 UNPOWERED FLIGHT

29

7.3.1 Prior to Take Off

29

7.3.2 Aerotow Take Off

29

7.3.3 Flight Without Power Unit

30

7.4

POWERED FLIGHT

30

7.4.1 Ground Engine Starting

30

7.4.2 Taxiing

31

7.4.3 Prior to Take Off

31

7.4.4 Normal Take Off

32

7.4.5 Engine Extraction and Retraction

32

7.4.6 Best Rate of Climb Speed (V Y )

34

7.4.7 In-flight Starting of Engine

34

Y ) 34 7.4.7 In-flight Starting of Engine 34 TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 5 of 64

7.4.8

Ground Shutdown of Engine

36

7.5

CRUISE

36

7.5.1 Glider

36

7.5.2 Powered

36

7.6 APPROACH

37

7.7 NORMAL LANDING

38

7.8 INFORMATION ON STALLS SPINS AND ANY OTHER USEFUL

INFORMATION

38

8 AIRCRAFT GROUND HANDLING AND SERVICING

38

8.1

SERVICING FUEL, OIL AND COOLANT

38

8.1.1 Fueling:

38

8.1.2 Oil

39

8.1.3 Cooling

39

8.2

TOWING AND TIE-DOWN INSTRUCTIONS

39

8.2.1 Towing

39

8.2.2 Tie-down

39

8.3

RIGGING AND DERIGGING OF THE AIRCRAFT

40

8.3.1 Rigging of the wings

40

8.3.2 Rigging of the horizontal tail

48

8.4

ADDITIONAL INSPECTIONS

51

8.4.1 Post Flight Inspection

51

8.4.2 Regular End of Day Inspection

51

9 REQUIRED PLACARDS AND MARKINGS

52

9.1 AIRSPEED INDICATOR MARKINGS

52

9.2 OPERATING LIMITATIONS ON INSTRUMENT PANEL

52

9.3 PASSENGER WARNING

52

9.4 NO INTENTIONAL SPINS

52

9.5 EMPTY WEIGHT

52

9.6 SPEED AND ENGINE VALUES

52

9.7 MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM WEIGHT OF CREW

53

9.8 ALLOWABLE WEIGHT OF BAGGAGE

53

9.9 SEAT FOR SOLO OPERATIONS

53

9.10 MISCELLANEOUS PLACARDS AND MARKINGS

53

9.10.1 Outside Signs

53

9.10.2 Inside Placards

53

9.10.3 Symbols Used

54

10

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

56

10.1 FAMILIARIZATION FLIGHT PROCEDURES

56

10.2 PILOT OPERATING ADVISORIES

56

10.3 TRANSPORT IN THE TRAILER

56

10.4 CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS INSTRUCTIONS

57

 

10.4.1 Reporting maintenance, service and safety difficulties

57

10.4.2 Reporting aircraft owner/operator contact information

57

10.4.3 Obtaining the latest safety of flight information

57

10.4.4 Bulletin requisites

58

information 57 10.4.4 Bulletin requisites 58 TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 6 of 64

10.4.5

Report of non-standard event

58

11

FLIGHT TRAINING SUPPLEMENT

61

11.1 FAMILIARIZATION FLIGHTS

61

11.2 SPINS AND SPIRAL DIVES

61

FLIGHTS 61 11.2 SPINS AND SPIRAL DIVES 61 TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 7 of 64

1

GENERAL INFORMATION

1.1

INTRODUCTION

This manual contains the minimum required procedures that have to be followed in order for the aircraft to be operated safely. The owner of the aircraft must comply with all regulations that apply to this type of aircraft and flight rules generally valid for operation of aircraft in this category.

In accordance with ASTM F2564-06 each aircraft includes Aircraft Operating Instructions (AOI) whose content and format are defined by F2564-06. Additional items to this standard are included where considered necessary. All flight speeds are given in terms of calibrated airspeeds (CAS). All specifications and limitations conform to ASTM F2564-06.

This aircraft is designed for VFR flight only. The entry into bad weather or IFR conditions by VFR pilots and aircraft is extremely dangerous. As the owner or operator of an aircraft you are responsible for the safety of your passenger and yourself. Do not attempt to operate this aircraft in any manner that would endanger the aircraft, the occupants or persons on the ground.

1.2

CERTIFICATION

The glider has been designed and certified in accordance with the standard of the Aeroclub of the Czech Republic “Airworthiness Requirements ULK – Ultralight Gliders and Motorized Gliders”, registered by the Czech Air Office UCL under nr. TI-676/98 from 18 th February 1998. The airplane with installed engine Rotax 503 UL-I D.C.D.I. complies with the standard UL-2 part I. for powered airplanes.

This aircraft conforms to the following ASTM standards:

ASTM F2564-06 Design and Performance of a Light Sport Glider ASTM F2295-06 Continued Operational Safety Monitoring of a Light Sport Aircraft ASTM F2279-06 Quality Assurance in the Manufacture of Fixed Wing Light Sport Aircraft ASTM F2316-06 Airframe Emergency Parachutes for Light Sport Aircraft

1.3 WARNINGS AND MISCELANEOUS

Expressions such as WARNING, ATTENTION and NOTE, which appear in this document, are defined as follows:

WARNING: Ignoring recommended procedures could create dangerous or hazardous conditions in flight, which could cause serious injury or death.

in flight, which could cause serious injury or death. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 8 of 64

ATTENTION: Ignoring recommended procedures could create dangerous or hazardous conditions in flight and could compromise the safety of the flight

NOTE: Explains an item, which does not affect safety directly, but is important or unusual.

1.4

MANUFACTURER

TeST spol. s.r.o. K Libusi 4/24 148 00 Praha 4 – Kunratice Czech Republic

Telephone: +420 241 004 499 Email: info@testandfly.com www.testandfly.com

241 004 499 Email: info@testandfly.com www.testandfly.com TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 9 of 64

2

AIRCRAFT AND SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION

2.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The aircraft is a two-seat, high-winged monoplane with a cantilever wing, T-shaped tail and a tandem two-wheel undercarriage. Its composite structure is made in negative molds.

2.1.1 Wing

The wing consists of a sandwich structure equipped with ailerons and an air brake on the upper surface. There are no ribs in the wing. The strength of the wing system is formed by the main spar, the aileron spar and the root rib. The spar has a C-D shape including flanges made of carbon composite. The complete wing profile of the sandwich structure forms a torsion box. The wings are interconnected by fittings and two horizontal pins while the wing-fuselage connection is made by means of pins and fittings placed in the fuselage and the wing root rib. The composite ailerons are attached via four hinges with the axis of rotation on the upper side. Air brakes on the upper side of the wing are made of aluminum and are retracted into pits.

2.1.2 Fuselage

The fuselage is a composite shell structure made in a negative mould including the fin.

2.1.3 Tail

The tail is a T-shaped composite sandwich structure.

2.1.4 Controls

Pitch, roll, air brake and trim are controlled via a lever design, with a push-pull rod system. The control backstops are placed on the control stick. Yaw control includes adjustable pedals and is transmitted by cables. The aircraft can be trimmed by a torsional member in the elevator drive that is controlled by a lever in the left of the front cockpit.

2.1.5 Undercarriage

The main landing gear with main wheel (350 x 100 mm) is housed in a swinging spring-mounted fork. The front wheel is fixed. A lever located on the left hand side of

wheel is fixed. A lever located on the left hand side of TST-14 M – Aircraft

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 10 of 64

the cockpit floor controls the brake. The tail landing gear is provided with a castering tail wheel (80 x 30 mm).

2.1.6 Propulsion group

The aircraft is driven by an auxiliary engine ROTAX 503UL-D.C.D.I cooled by the air

stream with a 1:2 type B reducer. The fixed wooden propeller has a diameter of 1200

mm and a pitch of 850 mm. The engine bed is made of thin-wall steel profiles

(material L-CM 3), mounted using four rubber springs with a diameter of 60 mm. The engine bed rotates on a 15 mm diameter pin and includes swivel bearings placed in brackets on the wing root spar fittings. The power plant is extended by a 12 V DC servo with an epicyclical gear and trapezoidal self-locking screw with a nut. A gas

strut balances the weight of the engine. Both the servo and the struts act on the bed

via a common pin, with their reaction with the fuselage baffle being distributed through the common pin and a support. The position of the main turning point, the angle of the extension and small distance between the engine CG and the aircraft CG results in an

insignificant displacement of the CG between the extended and retracted power plant.

The power plant is locked in both end positions by backstops. Doors controlled by an

independent servo cover the engine area.

The pilot controls extension and retracting of the power unit by two push buttons on

the instrument panel, one for extension, the other one for retracting. The movement is controlled by an electronic unit controlled by a microprocessor, which takes care of an automatic opening of the engine doors, end position voltage-out switches, signals informing the pilot and connecting of the starter only in fully extended position. Also retraction of the engine while the engine is running is not possible. The propeller is stopped in its vertical position for retraction by an automatic backstop.

The fuel tank is from welded aluminum sheet placed in a sealed composite

compartment in front of baffle Nr.5. Venting and drainage is through landing gear pit.

Fuel is supplied to the engine by a flexible hose through an interchangeable fuel filter,

fuel cock and membrane fuel pump into two floatless membrane carburetors. There is a fuel capacity sensor in the tank. Refueling is done by means of a funnel through a 25 mm hose with a filler cap on the right side of the fuselage. Drainage is possible through the landing gear pit. A manually operated fuel priming pump is located on the instrument panel.

2.2 OPERATING WEIGHTS AND LOADING

Maximum take off weight (MTOW) (with BRS):

Empty weight (with BRS):

Maximum weight of occupants (including parachute):

Maximum weight of pilot in the front seat (including parachute):

Minimum weight of pilot in the front seat (including parachute):

520 kg [1146 lbs] 310 kg [683 lbs] 200 kg [441 lbs] 100 kg [220 lbs] 75 kg [165 lbs]

[683 lbs] 200 kg [441 lbs] 100 kg [220 lbs] 75 kg [165 lbs] TST-14 M

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 11 of 64

Additional ballast must be added for a lighter pilot in the front cockpit in order to satisfy the minimum weight requirements

Pilot 75 kg and more:

no weight

Pilot 70-75 kg:

1 weight

( 3 kg )

Pilot 65-70 kg:

2 weights ( 6 kg )

Pilot 60-65 kg:

3 weights ( 9 kg )

WARNING: Care must be exercised to ensure that the correct amount of additional ballast is used. Install and secure the weights properly.

ATTENTION: Do not overload the aircraft.

WARNING: If there is only one occupant, the aircraft must be flown from the front seat. Ensure that the minimum weight of the pilot including parachute is not below 75 kg. If the pilot is lighter, add appropriate ballast under the pilot’s seat, or to the fixed ballast position if provided.

2.3 ENGINE

Type:

Rotax 503 UL SCDI

Cooling:

Two cylinders, two stroke, with type B reducer 1:2 Air cooled

Cylinder capacity:

496.7 ccm (30.0 cu.in.)

Stroke:

61 mm (2.40 in.)

Bore:

72 mm (2.82 in.)

Performance:

37 kW / 6500 rpm

Lubrication:

Fuel mixed with oil, 50 : 1

Starter:

electric

Weight:

45.7 kg (101 lbs)

Carburetors:

2x membrane (floatless) type

Battery:

12V / 14 Ah

Lubricant:

Castrol TTS or equivalent

Note: For actual and complete information read the ROTAX operation manual supplied with the aircraft

2.4 PROPELLER

Type:

Wooden with fixed pitch

Diameter:

1200 mm

Pitch:

850 mm

fixed pitch Diameter: 1200 mm Pitch: 850 mm TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 12 of 64

Note: For actual and complete information read the propeller operation manual supplied with the aircraft

2.5 FUEL AND FUEL CAPACITY

Fuel:

automotive gasoline, minimum 95 octane

Note: For complete fuel specifications see the ROTAX operation manual supplied with the aircraft

Fuel tank volume:

20 liters [5.3 US gal]

Usable fuel:

19 liters [5.0 US gal]

2.6 OIL

Lubricant:

Castrol TTS or equivalent mixed with fuel 1:50

Note: For complete oil specifications see the ROTAX operation manual supplied with the aircraft

2.7 MINIMUM EQUIPMENT

The aircraft is required to have the following minimum equipment

Flight instruments for the front cockpit including one of the following:

o

1 AlphaMFD multifunction instrument panel

o

classical instruments including

1 airspeed indicator with markings

1 altimeter

1 engine RPM monitor

1 CHT temperature gauge with two probes

1 fuel quantity indicator

2 symmetrical safety belts

1 magnetic compass

1 engine ignition switch

1 rear view mirror

2.8 DIMENSIONS

2.8.1

Span

Area

Aspect ratio

Root chord

Wing:

17.00 m (55.8 ft)

12.084 m

23.92

1.00 m (3.3 ft)

2

(130.2 ft 2 )

(55.8 ft) 12.084 m 23.92 1.00 m (3.3 ft) 2 (130.2 ft 2 ) TST-14 M

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 13 of 64

Tip chord Angle of Attack Dihedral Geometrical Torsion Airfoil Aileron deflection Dive brakes on the upper side

2.8.2 Horizontal Tail:

Span Area Root chord Tip chord Elevator area Arm of the horizontal tail Deflection Up Deflection Down Airfoil Angle of attack

2.8.3 Vertical Tail:

Height

Root chord

Tip chord

Area

Rudder Area

Deflection

Airfoil

2.8.4 Fuselage:

Length Width Height Max. Cross Section

0.36 m (1.1 ft)

+4

o

+3

o

0

Wortmann mod. +12 o –24 o 0.16 m 2 (1.77 ft 2 )

2.4 m (7.9 ft) 1.07 m

0.55 m (1.8 ft) 0.35 m (1.1 ft)

0.355 m 2 (3.82 ft 2 )

4.18 m (13.7 ft)

-20 o

+16 o

NACA 0011

0 o

2

1.19 m (3.9 ft) 0.99 m (3.2 ft) 0.65 m (2.1 ft)

0.949 m

0.294 m 2 (3.15 ft 2 )

(10.2 ft 2 )

2

+/- 35 o E 474

8.24 m (27.1 ft) 0.64 m (2.1 ft) 1.1 m (3.6 ft)

(4.9 ft 2 )

0.48 m

2

ft) 0.64 m (2.1 ft) 1.1 m (3.6 ft) (4.9 ft 2 ) 0.48 m 2

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 14 of 64

2.9

THREE VIEW DIAGRAM

5
5
2.9 THREE VIEW DIAGRAM 5 TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 15 of 64

2.10

INSTRUMENT PANEL

Legend:

1. Instrument panel AlphaMFD

2. Power indication lamp - green

3. Ignition switch

4. Main switch – starter

5. Radio (optional)

6. Fuel PRIMER

7. Tow rope release

8. Engine retraction push button

9. Not used

10. Engine extending push button

11. Bank indicator

12. Compass

extending push button 11. Bank indicator 12. Compass NOTE: The instrument panel can vary depending on

NOTE: The instrument panel can vary depending on the individual requirements of the customer. In such a case, see the attached photograph.

3

OPERATING LIMITATIONS

3.1

GENERAL

This section provides limits for speed, mass, CG and other specifications that are necessary for the safe operation of the aircraft.

WARNING: Ignoring any of the limits published below could result in damage to the aircraft and / or personal injury or loss of life.

3.2 SPEED LIMITATIONS

3.2.1

V SO

Stall Speed

70 km/h [37.8 kt]

Stall speed in landing configuration as shown on the airspeed indicator to be corrected for the instrument installation error.

to be corrected for the instrument installation error. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 16 of 64

WARNING: In flight, do not fly the aircraft less than 10 km/h (4 kt) above the stall speed.

3.2.2

V A

Maximum Maneuvering Speed

150

km/h [81,0 kt]

WARNING: Full deflections of controls are not permitted at speeds above V A .

3.2.3 V NE

Never Exceed Speed

205 km/h [110.7 kt]

WARNING: Do not exceed the above speed limit in flight. When operating near this speed limit do not use more than 30% deflection of control surfaces.

3.2.4 V T

Maximum Aerotow Speed

150 km/h [81.0 kt]

WARNING: Do not exceed the above speed limit while aerotowing. Verify (before beginning aerotow), that the towing aircraft is able to tow safely at a speed lower than this maximum speed.

3.2.5 Crosswind and Wind Limitations for Takeoff and Landing

Maximum wind speed parallel to the line of take off or landing: 8 m/s

[15.5 kt]

Maximum wind speed for 90 o crosswind:

4 m/s

[7.8 kt]

ATTENTION: Do not operate the aircraft if wind velocity exceeds the maximum permissible speed.

3.2.6 V B

Maximum Speed in Turbulent Air

150 km/h [81.0 kt]

WARNING: Do not fly the aircraft over this speed in gusty or turbulent conditions.

3.2.7

V C

Maximum Speed with Running Engine

140

km/h [75.6 kt]

WARNING: Do not fly the aircraft over this speed while the engine is running.

3.3 LOAD FACTORS

When maneuvering, the following load factors cannot be exceeded:

up to v A = 150 km/h [81,0 kt] at v NE = 205 km/h [110,7 kt]

n 1 = +4 and n 2 = -2 n 4 = +3 and n 3 = -1.5

1 = +4 and n 2 = -2 n 4 = +3 and n 3 =

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 17 of 64

TST-14 Speed Envelope M=520 Kg 5 n 1 4 n 2 3 2 1 speed
TST-14 Speed Envelope M=520 Kg
5
n
1
4
n
2
3
2
1
speed (km/h)
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
-1
n
3
-2
n
4
-3

3.4 PROHIBITED MANEUVERS

This aircraft is not certified for aerobatics. Steep turns with a maximum 45 o bank angle are permitted.

WARNING: Aerobatics, intentional stalls and spins are prohibited!

3.5 ENGINE LIMITATIONS

Engine:

max. take-off performance max. take-off rpm max. cylinder head temperature fuel fuel tank volume usable fuel

Rotax 503 UL SCDI 37 kW / 6 500 rpm 6 500 280 o C gasoline 95 octane, synthetic oil 1:50 20 liters [5.3US gal] 19 liters [5.0 US gal]

oil 1:50 20 liters [5.3US gal] 19 liters [5.0 US gal] TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 18 of 64

4

WEIGHT AND BALANCE INFORMATION

4.1 CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG) RANGE AND DETERMINATION

MAXIMUM FRONT

2770

mm from the datum line

MAXIMUM AFT

2920

mm from the datum line

EMPTY CG RANGE

3300 +/- 20

mm from the datum line

The datum line is a vertical level perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, touching the nose in the flight position.

A weight and balance sheet is supplied with each aircraft filled out with the values for that particular aircraft as it left the factory. An example of the form is shown on the next page:

Note: Whenever any modifications are made to the aircraft, a new weight and balance form must be generated. These modifications include, but are not limited to:

repairs, painting, adding or removing instruments or upholstering.

painting, adding or removing instruments or upholstering. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 19 of 64

Weight and Balance Type TST-14 M ser. Nr. 14010906 reg. Nr. XNB (Neutral point) ZC
Weight and Balance
Type
TST-14 M
ser. Nr.
14010906
reg. Nr.
XNB (Neutral point)
ZC (rear CF limit)
PC (front CG limit)
Xs
SAT
central aerodynamical chord
Xo
Xf
Xp2
Xp1
Xh
Xb
Ballast
Main wheel
Pilot
Pilot
Fuel
Rear wheel
VR
Reference Plane VR is a plane perpendicular to the fuselage axis touching the nose.
Basic and measured values:
XNB
mm
2940
ZC
mm
2920
PC
mm
2770
Xs
mm
2586
Xh
mm
2860
Xo
mm
7690
Xf
mm
2610
Xp1
mm
1370
Xp2
mm
2595
Xb
mm
250
Weights:
btto
tara
ntto
Main wheel (Wmw)
Kg
287.5
0.0
287.5
=Wbtto-Wtara
Rear wheel (Wrw)
Kg
27.5
0.0
27.5
=Wbtto-Wtara
Pilot 1 min. (Wp1min)
Kg
75.0
Pilot 1 max. (Wp1max)
Kg
100.0
Pilot 2 min (Wp2min)
Kg
0.0
Pilot 2 max (Wp2max)
Kg
100.0
Fuel (Wfmax)
Kg
14.7
Ballast (Wb)
Kg
0.0
Calculated
Empty weight (EW)
kg
315.0
=Wmw+Wrw+Wb
values:
Max. weight w/crew (MWwC)
kg
515.0
=EW+Wp2max+Wp1max+Wfmax
Min. weight w/crew (MinWwC)
kg
390.0
=EW+Wp1min+Wp2min
CG of the empty aircraft
mm
3281.7
=[Wmw*Xh+Wrwn*Xo]/EW
CG flight front
mm
2777.1
=[Wmw*Xh+Wrw*Xo+Wp1max*Xp1+Wp2min*Xp2+Wb*Xb+Wfmax*Xf]/MWwC
CG flight rear
mm
2914.0
=[Wmw*Xh+Wrw*Xo+Wp1min*Xp1+Wp2min*Xp2+Wb*Xb]/MinWwC
Evaluation: The addmissible centre of gravity position of the empty aircraft is 3300 +-20 mm. The value
determined by weighing is within this range and thus allows achievement of the required flight CG position.
Conclusion: conformity to all conditions
Datum:
Signature:

WARNING: If the front pilot weight is below the minimum allowable, additional ballast must be added at the appropriate position. Required ballast amounts are given in section 2.2

position. Required ballast amounts are given in section 2.2 TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 20 of 64

The CG of the empty aircraft is determined by the following procedure:

1)

With the aircraft on a level surface with wings level, no ballast weights, engine retracted and fuel tank empty, determine the net weight on the main

2)

(Wmw) and rear wheels (Wrw). The empty weight and empty CG are calculated with the equations given in the ‘Calculated values’ table of the Weight and Balance Form

Note: The maximum weight with crew (MWwC) must be less than the MTOW given in section 2.2. The difference between the MWwC and the MTOW is the weight of fuel allowed on board with a front and rear pilot of maximum weight on board.

The actual weight and CG of the aircraft with pilot(s) and ballast and fuel can be determined from the following procedure:

1. With the aircraft on a level surface with wings level, ballast weights to be used installed, engine retracted and fuel tank filled with an appropriate amount of fuel, determine the net weight on the main (Wmw) and rear

wheels (Wrw).

and rear pilot (Wp2) is given by.

The actual the weight of the aircraft with a front pilot (Wp1)

W

actual =

Wmw Wrw Wp1 Wp2

+

+

+

2. The actual CG is given by:

CG

actual

=

Wmw Xh Wrw Xo Wp Xp Wp

*

+

*

+

1*

1+

2*

Xp

2

W actual

Note: The actual weight (W actual ) must be less than the MTOW given in section 2.2. The difference between these weights is the weight of fuel allowed on board.

Note: Using this procedure, the amount of fuel and ballast is automatically taken into account

Note: Extension of the engine results is less than a 10 mm shift in the CG towards the nose.

Note: If the pilot weight(s) are in the allowable ranges and the CG of the empty aircraft is in the admissible range, the actual CG will be within the allowable range.

WARNING: The actual CG, CG flight front and CG flight rear must be within allowable CG range

WARNING: Any modifications done on the aircraft, which can change the CG position must be consulted with the manufacturer.

the CG position must be consulted with the manufacturer. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 21 of 64

5

PERFORMANCE

The performance figures stated below are given at sea level for standard atmospheric conditions. Operation at higher density altitudes will reduce performance.

5.1 GLIDER

5.1.1 Maximum Lift to Drag Ratio

The L/D ratio is 40.2 at a speed of 105 km/hr [56.8 kt]

5.1.2 Minimum Sink Speed

The minimum sink is 0.65 m/s at 85 km/hr [46 kt]

5.1.3 Crosswind and Wind Limitations for Takeoff and Landing

Maximum wind speed parallel to the line of take off or landing: 8 m/s

[15.5 kt]

Maximum wind speed for 90 o crosswind:

4 m/s

[7.8 kt]

ATTENTION: Do not operate the aircraft if wind velocity exceeds the maximum permissible speed.

5.2 POWERED GLIDER

5.2.1 Takeoff Distances

The takeoff distance (to 50 ft AGL) is 500 m [1640 ft] on a level hard surface runway with no wind.

The takeoff distance can be considerable longer for soft or sloping fields, grass and changes in density altitude or wind conditions.

5.2.2 Rate of Climb

The rate of climb at full throttle:

2.5 m/sec

5.2.3 Climbing Speeds

After takeoff, climb at 90-100 km/h (48-59 kt). If the air is turbulent, climb at 100-110 km/h (59-65 kt). Trim the aircraft for this flight speed.

km/h (59-65 kt). Trim the aircraft for this flight speed. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 22 of 64

5.2.4

Maximum RPM

Maximum takeoff RPM:

6500 RPM

5.2.5 Time Limit for the Use of Takeoff Power

At an altitude of about 50 m (150 ft) decrease the engine rpm to 6000 in order to climb about 1.5 m/s (3 kt). Do not operate at full throttle for more than 5 minutes.

5.2.6 Fuel Consumption and Total Usable Fuel Volume

Fuel consumption at full throttle:

Fuel consumption at cruising power:

Usable fuel:

16 liters / hour 12 liters / hour 19 liters [5.0 US gal]

For more engine data, refer to the ROTAX Operators Manual supplied with the aircraft

5.2.7 Crosswind and Wind Limitations for Takeoff and Landing

Maximum wind speed parallel to the line of take off or landing: 8 m/s

[15.5 kt]

Maximum wind speed for 90 o crosswind:

4 m/s

[7.8 kt]

ATTENTION: Do not operate the aircraft if wind velocity exceeds the maximum permissible speed.

5.2.8 Speeds for Extracting and Retracting Powerplant

Minimum speed for engine extraction and retraction:

Maximum speed for engine extraction and retraction:

90 km/h (49 kt) 130km/h (70 kt)

6

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

6.1

GENERAL

This section outlines recommended procedures for emergency situations that could occur in flight. Before each flight, be aware of the possibility of an emergency situation, and mentally prepare a plan to resolve the situation. If possible practice the emergency procedures during training.

possible practice the emergency procedures during training. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 23 of 64

6.2

STALL CHARACTERISTICS

At low speed, close to the stall speed (about 70 km/h – 37.8 kt) in straight flight, the aircraft will begin gently shaking just prior to the separation of airflow. In this situation, a forward movement of the stick will return the aircraft to normal flight. During slow flight, controls are fully in force and effective during speed reduction towards stall. With further speed reduction, the aircraft comes to a stall – the nose goes down below the horizon and left or right wingtip drops. The stall recovery is to be carried out as follows:

briskly move the stick forward, maintain the straight direction with rudder pedals

after flying speed is regained, smoothly raise the nose to maintain horizontal flight at the desired airspeed

WARNING: When recovering from a stall, never use ailerons. The steep flight must be recovered smoothly only after sufficient speed is reached. A violent steep flight recovery at insufficient speed can lead to a secondary stall that ends in a spin. Do not fly or try flying at the stall speed intentionally.

6.3 SPIRAL DIVE RECOVERY

Recovery from a spiral dive is as follows:

apply opposite rudder (against the direction of rotation)

apply opposite aileron (against the direction of rotation)

apply up elevator, ensuring that the maximum pull-out load factor is not exceeded

WARNING: During powered flight the engine must be throttled to idle. This prevents over speeding of the engine during spin recovery. Always fly in such a way in order to prevent spiral dives.

WARNING: The pilot must be sure that the aircraft is in a spiral dive and not a spin to use this recovery. Using this procedure to attempt a spin recovery is very dangerous.

6.4 SPIN RECOVERY

WARNING: The spin is a dangerous flight regime and therefore it is not allowed in this aircraft. The response of the aircraft due to incorrect piloting cannot be anticipated. Always fly in such a way in order to prevent spins.

Performing spins intentionally is prohibited. However, if it occurs by error or by an extraordinary circumstance, execution of the following steps will lead to its recovery:

1. Apply full opposite rudder and at the same time push the control stick to the forward position. Ailerons must be in neutral position.

2. When rotation stops, return the rudder to normal (neutral) position and pull out of the dive in shallow climb. Move the controls gently to prevent stress and

climb. Move the controls gently to prevent stress and TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 24 of 64

excessive speed build-up.

WARNING: During powered flight the engine must be throttled to idle. This prevents over speeding of the engine during spin recovery.

6.5 ENGINE FAILURE

WARNING: The engines installed in this aircraft are not certificated as aircraft engines and potential failures can occur more frequently. Take this into account and maintain sufficient height over hostile terrain such that a safe emergency landing at another location is possible at any time.

6.5.1 Engine failure during acceleration on the runway

1. Rpm to idle , apply wheel brake .

2. Ignition switch OFF, fuel valve OFF.

3. Roll out straight ahead or avoid obstacles, if necessary.

6.5.2 Engine failure after take-off

1. Set the aircraft into gliding regime. Push the nose down if in a climb. Switch off the ignition. Switch off the fuel valve.

2. At altitudes less than 50 m AGL [160 ft AGL] land straight ahead making shallow turns to avoid obstacles only.

3. At higher altitudes, land into the wind or if the elevation is sufficient provide a normal shortened pattern landing. The glide ratio of the aircraft enables one to select a suitable area for an emergency landing in most cases.

4. At a sufficient altitude, one may try to restart the engine. The following procedure is to be followed:

find a suitable area for emergency landing

ignition switch ON, fuel valve ON

increase the speed to 130-140 km/h (70-76 kt)

start the engine

WARNING: Complete all attempts to restart at an altitude above 150 m (450 ft AGL) so that sufficient altitude remains for a landing in a selected area.

6.6 ENGINE FIRE

6.6.1 Fire with engine extended

If there is a fire during the flight, it is caused by failure either of the engine, electrical system or of the fuel system. Proceed as follows:

1. Switch off the main and ignition switches and close the fuel valve, set up a normal glide.

switches and close the fuel valve, set up a normal glide. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 25 of 64

2.

Increase the speed to 130-140 km/h (70-76 kt), extend the dive brakes and with the rudder set the aircraft into slip. Maintain direction with the ailerons.

3. Complete emergency landing immediately on the nearest area that a suitable landing can be made. When on the ground, release the safety belts and when stopped, immediately exit the aircraft.

6.6.2 Fire with engine retracted

If there is a fire during the flight, it is caused by failure either of the engine or of the fuel system. Proceed as follows:

1. Extend the engine with ignition and fuel valve off, set up a normal glide. Turn off main electrical switch.

2. Increase the speed to 130-140 km/h (70-76 kt), extend the dive brakes and with the rudder set the aircraft into slip. Maintain direction with the ailerons.

4. Complete emergency landing immediately on the nearest area that a suitable landing can be made. When on the ground, release the safety belts and when stopped, immediately exit the aircraft.

NOTE: If the pilot is wearing a parachute, the altitude is sufficient, and the fire is weakening the structure or threatening the pilot, a bail out may be preferable to a landing attempt.

6.7 BAILING OUT OF THE AIRCRAFT

If you must bail out, proceed as follows:

1. Switch the engine off (both ignition and fuel valve)

2. Release the canopy front hinge by a firm pull on the canopy ejection lever

3. Unlock the canopy side locks using both hands, open it and lift it up. Then, again using both hands, move the canopy up and back and throw it off. In the rear seat, the same procedure applies.

4. Release the lock of the safety belts. Place your legs close to the pilot seat.

5. Bail out of the aircraft over the right or left cockpit side.

6. When sufficiently clear of the aircraft, open your personal parachute.

WARNING: Practice this procedure before your initial flights.

6.8 USE OF A ROCKET RESCUE SYSTEM (BRS)

If the aircraft is equipped with a rocket rescue system, study and adhere to the manufacturer’s instructions. When it becomes necessary to use the system, perform the following steps:

1. Tighten the safety belts

2. Main switch off

3. Engine ignition off

the safety belts 2. Main switch off 3. Engine ignition off TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 26 of 64

4.

Fuel valve off

5. Lower the speed to minimum

6. Pull the rocket handle and launch the parachute.

In case of a sudden failure or collision with another aircraft, if further flight is impossible even while using emergency procedures, shut off the engine (both ignition and fuel valve) and activate the BRS. In case of a fire, the fire could ignite the BRS as well, especially if it is deployed, therefore do not activate the BRS at a high altitude. Wait till one has descended to the lowest altitude possible that still allows safe deployment of the BRS to deploy it. Before impact with the ground gather up your legs and protect your face and head.

ATTENTION: Before commencing flight, practice emergency and rescue procedures. On the first flight that is possible to attain a safe altitude, practice flying the aircraft as if one or more of the controls were blocked or disabled to get a feel for how the aircraft would react if a control had not been properly connected during rigging. On an early flight, also practice the engine restart procedures as outlined in section 6.5.2 above. On any flight, assume that an emergency could become necessary. That is why one must avoid flying over woods, lakes, cities and mountains at altitudes that would not permit an escape to suitable terrain should an emergency landing become imminent. Look for the weather development and in case of dangerous weather deterioration accomplish an emergency landing on suitable terrain if escape from the weather condition is not possible.

7 NORMAL PROCEDURES

7.1

GENERAL

ATTENTION: The recommended procedures described in this section are important. Be sure to follow recommended speeds and all prescribed procedures and inspections.

EXTRACTING ENGINE ON THE GROUND FOR PREFLIGHT INSPECTION

The inspection mode of the engine controls is used when manipulating the engine and the engine doors during refueling, inspections or repairs. The procedure is as follows:

1. Simultaneously push both buttons for engine retraction and erection.

2. Keep these buttons pushed and turn the main switch to position 1

3. Release both push buttons. Both pilot lamps flash.

In this mode the opening of the engine doors and the movement of the engine can be controlled by activating and keeping the buttons pushed.

Turning the main switch to the position 0 reactivates basic automatic mode.

switch to the position 0 reactivates basic automatic mode. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 27 of 64

NOTE: Manipulation with the engine is possible only when the main switch (key) is in position 1. Switching-off this main switch (key) immediately after any manipulation of the engine (up or down) has been finished is highly recommended (it provides an additional protection for the actuator motor).

NOTE: If ignition switches are also installed in the rear instrument panel, they must be in position ON. If they are in position OFF, starting of the engine from the front seat is not possible. An instructor seated in the rear seat can switch-off the ignition during flight.

7.2 PRE FLIGHT CHECK

Before each flight inspect the aircraft for general condition, damage, incorrect fitting of parts and equipment, dirt, ruptures, clearances and leaks.

WARNING: If any damage is found or if the condition of any part of the aircraft has been found unsatisfactory do not operate the aircraft.

Recommended pre flight inspection procedure: open the canopy and extend the dive brakes. Inspect the following:

1. Right side of the cockpit

2. Fuselage under the cockpit

3. Landing wheel from the right side

4. Leading edge and the bottom of the right wing

5. Inspection cup of the right wing-aileron control drive

6. Outer part of the right wing

7. Right aileron

8. Upper surface of the right wing and spoiler

9. Power-plant from the right side

10. Right side of the fuselage

11. Tail

12. Fairings of the tail section

13. Right side of the tail

14. Fin and rudder

15. Tail wheel

16. Left side of the stabilizer and elevator

17. Left side of the fuselage

18. Upper surface of the left wing and spoiler

19. Power plant from the left side

20. Aileron of the left wing

21. Outer part of the left wing

22. Leading edge and the bottom of the left wing

23. Landing wheel from the left side

24. Fuselage under the canopy on the left side

25. Both cockpits and their equipment

26. Instruments

side 25. Both cockpits and their equipment 26. Instruments TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 28 of 64

27.

Canopy

28. If the engine is installed, inspect all parts of the power unit

WARNING: Do not operate the aircraft if any damage has occurred!

7.3 UNPOWERED FLIGHT

7.3.1 Prior to Take Off

Prior to each take off execute the following steps:

1. Adjust the seat back support

2. Confirm ballast requirements

3. Fit ballast if required

4. Enter the aircraft

5. Adjust the rudder pedals

6. Check the control stick and rudder pedals for full range of motion

7. Adjust and tighten the seat belts

8. Check the zero values of instruments, adjust the altimeter

9. Check the trim for the full range and set to the take off position

10. Close the cockpit canopy

11. Check that the dive brakes are closed and in the locked position

12. For aerotow, connect the tow rope

13. For self-launch, extend engine and verify proper engine operation

14. Verify that canopy is properly closed

WARNING: When flying over 300 m (984 ft) AGL, the use of the personal parachute is recommended if BRS is not installed.

7.3.2 Aerotow Take Off

For take off by towing adhere to the following instructions:

1. The length of the towing rope must be at least 40 m (131 feet)

2. The tow rope or the towrope weak link must have a minimal tensile strength of 3 000 N. The minimum diameter of the pull rope end eye is 30 mm (1 3/16”).

3. The maximum allowed towing speed V T = 150 km/h (81.1 kt). The pilot of the towing aircraft must be informed not to exceed this speed.

4. Prior to the take off move the trim lever approximately 15 mm (5/8”) ahead of its neutral position, hold the control stick in the neutral position. An assistant is required to keep the wings level. It is forbidden make an aerotow take off with the wing touching the ground. While stretching the towrope lightly activate the wheel brake to prevent looping of the rope. After leaving the ground at a speed 65-70 Km/h (depending on the weight of the pilots) trim the aircraft for the given flight regime and speed. When releasing the towrope pull the handle several times to its backstop. Verify that the towrope has been released before maneuvering.

that the towrope has been released before maneuvering. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 29 of 64

5.

In case of crosswind, take off the aircraft at higher speed while controlling the direction by rudder.

WARNING: During take off, use ailerons to keep the wings level. Use rudder only to eliminate crosswind. If a wing contacts the ground, abort the take off immediately. Release the towrope and simultaneously smoothly and fully push down the nose with the elevator and wait until the aircraft stops. Before the next take off, inspect the aircraft (refer to section 7.2 above).

7.3.3 Flight Without Power Unit

1. After releasing the towrope or retracting the engine, trim the aircraft for level flight at the speed desired.

2. The aircraft is fully trimable in the whole range of allowed speeds. All of the control surfaces are effective throughout the whole speed range; the dive brakes have essentially no influence on the trim. The view from the cockpit to the front and upper hemisphere is good. The view to the left and right rear is partially obscured by the wings, therefore use caution when maneuvering into these directions

3. The recommended thermalling speed is 85-95 km/h (46-51 kt), depending on the flight weight of the aircraft. The aircraft keeps the required attitude and speed with minimal control intervention. The roll rate is approximately 3 seconds for a 45 degree to 45 degree roll.

4. When flying close to the upper speed limit (yellow arc on the airspeed indicator), i. e. 150 - 205 km/h (81.1-110.7 kt), use only a maximum of 1/3 deflection of the control elements. Deflect smoothly and carefully to avoid excessive loading of the airframe and control surfaces. Dive brakes must be extended slowly and smoothly; speed should be reduced to 150 km/h (81.1 kt) before retracting them.

7.4 POWERED FLIGHT

7.4.1 Ground Engine Starting

1. Extract the engine

insert the key into the switch box, turn right to position 1. Green pilot lamp must be illuminated

push the engine extension push button for approx 1 second. The relevant pilot lamp must flash. The engine is being extended

full extension is signaled by extinguishing of the pilot lamp

open the fuel valve

ignition switch ON. Turn the starter key further right and start the engine. In case the engine has not been run for an extended period of time or is cool, use the fuel primer

turn the key back to position 0

2. Verify that sufficient fuel is in the fuel tank

0 2. Verify that sufficient fuel is in the fuel tank TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 30 of 64

3.

Ignition switches and fuel valve ON

4. Activate the priming pump three times

5. Throttle 1/3, start the engine.

6. Let the engine warm up at higher rpm, approximately 3500 RPM

7. Full throttle, performance test – duration 30 seconds with minimum RPM of

6000

8. Test both ignition circuits

9. Test the idle of the engine

10. Test the engine shut off by a short switch OFF

WARNING: Do not take-off if any of the above tests show failure of any of the engine controls, rough running engine at any power level or failure of the engine to develop fully rated power. Read the instructions from the engine manufacturer and follow them.

WARNING: While carrying out the engine test, sit in the cockpit with both canopies closed. The aircraft must be secured with chocks. Pay attention – absolutely no one is allowed to be in the plane of propeller rotation nor to be close enough to the fuselage to touch the propeller in any way.

7.4.2

Taxiing

Where a power unit is installed, taxing under own power is possible. The pilot in the cockpit controls the engine with an assistant holding the wing tip. On a smooth surface, taxing without an assistant is also possible (wing tip wheels aid in keeping the desired heading).

WARNING: Always taxi at walking speed or slower.

7.4.3 Prior to Take Off

Prior to each take off execute the following steps:

1. Adjust the seat back support

2. Confirm ballast requirements

3. Fit ballast if required

4. Enter the aircraft

5. Adjust the rudder pedals

6. Check the control stick and rudder pedals for full range of motion

7. Adjust and tighten the seat belts

8. Check the zero values of instruments, adjust the altimeter

9. Check the trim for the full range and set to the take off position

10. Close the cockpit canopy

11. Check that the dive brakes are closed and in the locked position

12. For areotow, connect the tow rope

13. For self-launch, extend engine and verify proper engine operation

14. Verify that canopy is properly closed

engine operation 14. Verify that canopy is properly closed TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 31 of 64

WARNING: When flying over 300 m (984 ft) AGL, the use of the personal parachute is recommended if BRS is not installed.

7.4.4 Normal Take Off

For take off using the installed engine adhere to the following instructions:

1. Trim in the middle position, elevator in the full back position. The assistant keeps the wing in the horizontal position. Alternatively, the pilot can take-off independently (initially with one of wingtips on the ground if ground conditions permit).

2. Smoothly increase the engine rpm to set the aircraft into motion. As the aircraft gathers momentum, smoothly position it on to the main wheel. Keep this position and smoothly increase the rpm to maximum.

3. Wait until the speed reaches 65-75 km/h (35-41 kt). Then by gentle backward pull of the control stick raise the aircraft into the air, up to 1 m (3 ft) above ground. Maintain this altitude until the speed reaches 85-90 km/h (47-49 kt) after which a transition to climb is made by a gentle pull on the control stick.

4. At an altitude of about 50 m (150 ft) decrease the engine rpm to 6000 in order to climb about 1.5 m/s (3 kt) at 90-100 km/h (48-59 kt), if the air is turbulent, climb at 100-110 km/h (59-65 kt). Trim the aircraft for this flight mode.

WARNING: When taking-off, keep the wings level with ailerons. Check any cross wind drift with rudder only. If a wing tip touches the ground, interrupt the take-off. Drop the rpm to idle and simultaneously push the stick forward. Wait until the aircraft stops and then switch-off the engine. Before the next take-off check the aircraft as per section 7.2 above

NOTE: remember, that the engine is defined as an auxiliary one. Self launching is possible only from a good quality and sufficiently long runway. From a soft surface, from high grass or against a slope, the take-off could be unsuccessful.

7.4.5 Engine Extraction and Retraction

WARNING: Prior to extending and retracting the engine during the flight, fully familiarize yourself with the procedure while on the ground. Only after all the above- mentioned steps are mastered, should one attempt them during flight. Take into account that the time necessary for the extension of the engine and its starting takes approximately one minute.

7.4.5.1 EXTRACTING THE ENGINE

Bring the aircraft into level flight mode, reduce flight speed to 90-100 km/h (49-54 kt) and carry out the following steps:

1. insert the key into the switch box, turn right to position 1. Green pilot lamp must be illuminated

right to position 1. Green pilot lamp must be illuminated TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 32 of 64

2.

push the engine extension push button for approx 1 second. The relevant pilot lamp must flash. The engine is being extended

3. full extension is signaled by extinguishing of the pilot lamp

4. open the fuel valve

5. ignition switch on. Turn the starter key further right and start the engine. In case the engine has not been run for an extended period of time or is cool, use the fuel primer

6. turn the key back to position 0

WARNING: Take into account that the time necessary for the extension of the engine and its starting takes approximately one minute. Recognize also, that while extending the engine, the sink rate of the aircraft will increase geometrically with the degree of the erection until the engine is running.

To fully understand the effect of the engine extension process while in flight, one should practice as follows:

on the first attempt, one should climb to 4000 ft AGL or above and then shut down the engine. With a watch, measure the time required to descend 500 ft. This will demonstrate the sink rate when a “dead” engine is sitting back there fully erected

retract the engine so that thermal climbing is possible. Climb back up to over 4000 ft AGL and mark altitude loss while fully extending the engine (as per section 7.4.5.1 above) and getting it started

this training should be carried out in non-turbulent and non-thermic conditions first Only then can one have a relatively reliable understanding of how much altitude will be lost in the erecting process and how much more will be lost if the engine fails to start the first time. That knowledge then will help you determine at what altitude the engine can be safely extended and started. If an occasion arises later to attempt a restart and the altitude above the ground is below that predetermined figure, one must abandon a restart and complete an emergency landing.

WARNING: Extending of the engine and its starting to be always done only in stable straight flight. Remember, that the engine with a stopped propeller causes a significant increase in drag and deterioration of the flight characteristics

WARNING: Remember, that your engine and accessories is only an auxiliary power unit. Always fly in such a way as to be able to land on a suitable area in the terrain in case engine extension or starting should fail.

NOTE: When extending or retracting the engine, the ignition switches must be in OFF position. The controlling electronics do not allow the extending or retracting if these switches are ON.

NOTE: The controlling unit does not allow running the starter, if the engine is in any other position than extended.

WARNING: If engine starting is unsuccessful and the ground height has decreased below 150 m (450 ft) AGL, land on the selected emergency strip.

150 m (450 ft) AGL, land on the selected emergency strip. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 33 of 64

Take into consideration that the extended engine with stopped propeller creates a significant drag and its mass is high over the centerline of the aircraft. This decreases the flight characteristics of the aircraft, its glide ratio and stall speed, particularly in a turn. That is why when flying in this configuration keep higher speed and do not exceed a bank angle of 30 degrees in turns.

7.4.5.2 RETRACTING THE ENGINE

1. bring the aircraft into level flight mode; reduce airspeed to 90-100 km/h [49-54 kt]. Reduce the engine rpm down to its idle rpm

2. ignition switch off, fuel valve off

3. after the engine has stopped, wait about 90 seconds for cooling of the engine and its exhaust manifold

4. during this cooling put the main switch (key) into the position 1

5. open the engine doors by activating the engine retraction push button

6. wait until the windmill effect has moved the propeller into the vertical position, check in the mirror to ascertain that the propeller is indeed in the vertical position (stopped by the plastic flap)

7. activate for the second time the engine retracting push button. The relevant pilot lamp flashes. The engine is being retracted

8. the engine is fully retracted when the pilot light goes off.

9. turn the main switch (key) back to the position 0.

NOTE: Extension or retraction of the engine can be reversed at any time by activating the relevant push button. Switching-off the main switch after any manipulation of the engine (up or down), is highly recommended. This provides additional protection for the actuator motor. Any appliances like radio, GPS etc. must be connected to the battery directly, by-passing the main switch (key).

WARNING: Switching-off of the engine or its retraction should always be done only in

a stable straight flight. Remember, that the engine with the stopped propeller causes

a significant increase in drag and deterioration of the flight characteristics

7.4.6 Best Rate of Climb Speed (V Y )

The best rate of climb speed occurs at 90 km/h (48 kt),

Normally climb at 90-100 km/h (48-59 kt), if the air is turbulent, climb at 100-110 km/h (59-65 kt).

7.4.7 In-flight Starting of Engine

Bring the aircraft into level flight mode, reduce flight speed to 90-100 km/h (49-54 kt) and carry out the following steps:

1. insert the key into the switch box, turn right to position 1. Green pilot lamp must be illuminated

2. push the engine extension push button for approx 1 second. The relevant pilot lamp must flash. The engine is being extended

3. full extension is signaled by extinguishing of the pilot lamp

extension is signaled by extinguishing of the pilot lamp TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 34 of 64

4.

open the fuel valve

5. ignition switch on. Turn the starter key further right and start the engine. In case the engine has not been run for an extended period of time or is cool, use the fuel primer

6. turn the key back to position 0

WARNING: Take into account that the time necessary for the extension of the engine and its starting takes approximately one minute. Recognize also, that while extending the engine, the sink rate of the aircraft will increase geometrically with the degree of the erection until the engine is running.

To fully understand the effect of the engine extension process while in flight, one should practice as follows:

on the first attempt, one should climb to 4000 ft AGL or above and then shut down the engine. With a watch, measure the time required to descend 500 ft. This will demonstrate the sink rate when a “dead” engine is in the extended position.

retract the engine so that thermal climbing is possible. Climb back up to over 4000 ft AGL and mark altitude loss while fully extending the engine (as per section 7.4.5.1 above) and getting it started.

this training should be carried out in non-turbulent and non-thermic conditions first Only then can one have a relatively reliable understanding of how much altitude will be lost in the erecting process and how much more will be lost if the engine fails to start the first time. That knowledge then will help you determine at what altitude the engine can be safely extended and started. If an occasion arises later to attempt a restart and the altitude above the ground is below that predetermined figure, one must abandon a restart and complete an emergency landing.

WARNING: Extending and starting of the engine should always be done only in stable straight flight. Remember, that the engine with a stopped propeller causes a significant increase in drag and deterioration of the flight characteristics

WARNING: Remember, that your engine and accessories is only an auxiliary power unit. Always fly in such a way as to be able to land on a suitable area in the terrain in case engine extension or starting should fail.

NOTE: When extending or retracting the engine, the ignition switches must be in OFF position. The controlling electronics do not allow the extending or retracting if these switches are ON.

NOTE: The controlling unit does not allow running the starter, if the engine is in any other position than extended.

WARNING: If engine starting is unsuccessful and the ground height has decreased below 150 m (450 ft) AGL, land on the selected emergency strip.

Take into consideration that the extended engine with stopped propeller creates a significant drag and its mass is high over the centerline of the aircraft. This decreases the flight characteristics of the aircraft, its glide ratio and stall speed, particularly in a

aircraft, its glide ratio and stall speed, particularly in a TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 35 of 64

turn. That is why when flying in this configuration keep higher speed and do not exceed a bank angle of 30 degrees in turns.

7.4.8 Ground Shutdown of Engine

1. ignition switch off, fuel valve off

2. after the engine has stopped, wait about 90 seconds for cooling of the engine and its exhaust manifold

3. during this cooling put the main switch (key) into the position 1

4. open the engine doors by activating the engine retraction push button

5. manually move the propeller against its stop in the vertical position

6. activate for the second time the engine retracting push button. The relevant pilot lamp flashes. The engine is being retracted

7. the engine is fully retracted when the pilot light goes off.

8. turn the main switch (key) back to the position 0.

7.5

CRUISE

7.5.1 Glider

1. After releasing from the towrope, trim the aircraft for level flight at the speed desired.

2. The aircraft is fully trimable in the whole range of allowed speeds. All of the control surfaces are effective throughout the whole speed range; the dive brakes have essentially no influence on the trim. The view from the cockpit to the front and upper hemisphere is good. The view to the left and right rear is partially obscured by the wings; therefore use caution when maneuvering into these directions.

3. The recommended thermalling speed is 85-95 km/h (46-51 kt), depending on the flight weight of the aircraft. The aircraft keeps the required attitude and speed with minimal control intervention. The roll rate is approximately 3 seconds for a 45 degree to 45 degree roll.

4. When flying close to the upper speed limit (yellow arc on the airspeed indicator), i. e. 150 - 205 km/h (81.0-110.7 kt), use only a maximum of 1/3 deflection of the control elements. Deflect smoothly and carefully to avoid excessive loading of the airframe and control surfaces. Dive brakes must be extended slowly and smoothly; speed should be reduced to 150 km/h (81.1 kt) before retracting them.

7.5.2 Powered

1. When the desired altitude is reached, level out the aircraft. Set the rpm in order to fly at desired speed. Trim the aircraft for this speed.

2. The aircraft is fully trimable in its full speed range. All of the control surfaces are

in its full speed range. All of the control surfaces are TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 36 of 64

effective throughout the whole speed range. The view from the cockpit to the front and upper hemisphere is good. The view to the left and right rear is partially obscured by the wings; therefore use caution when maneuvering into these directions.

3.

The recommended economy cruising speed is 90-110 km/h (49-59 kt).

4.

Recommended circling speed is 90-100 km/h (49-56 kt) according to flight weight of the aircraft. The aircraft keeps the required attitude and speed with minimal control intervention. The roll rate is approximately 3 seconds for a 45 degree to 45 degree roll. With extended engine, do not turn with a bank over 30 o .

5.

When flying close to the upper speed limit (yellow arc on the airspeed indicator), i. e. 150 - 205 km/h (81.1-110.7 kt), use only a maximum 1/3 deflection of the control elements. Deflect smoothly and carefully to avoid excessive loading of the airframe and control surfaces. Dive brakes to be extended slowly and smoothly, speed should be reduced to 150 km/h (81.1 kt).

5.

To continue in flight as a pure sailplane, switch off the engine and drop the air speed to 90 - 100 km/h (49-56 kt). Retract the engine after the propeller has stopped in the vertical position.

6.

When one has descended to an altitude unsafe for flying as a pure sailplane, adhere to the following procedure:

- select a suitable strip for an emergency landing

– perform an approach and landing as described below or

– extend engine and restart as described above

– if the engine fails to start, land at the preselected emergency landing strip

WARNING: When flying over 300 m (900 ft) AGL, the pilot should be equipped with a personal parachute. This is not needed if the aircraft is equipped with integrated rescue system (BRS).

7.6

APPROACH

1. Before turning to the base leg check the dive brakes.

2. Set speed to 90-100 km/h [49-54 kt]. In case of turbulence or rain increase it to 100-110 km/h [54-60 kt]. Maintain these speeds during the whole approach.

3. On final, use the dive brakes to control the descent of the aircraft (fully extended, the glide ratio drops to less than 1:7). Operate the dive brakes gently to prevent dropping or floating of the aircraft.

WARNING: You may control the descent of the aircraft when flying the landing pattern. However, before entering any turn, close the dive brakes. Flying with the dive brakes extended when the aircraft is in a turn is not recommended.

extended when the aircraft is in a turn is not recommended. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 37 of 64

7.7

NORMAL LANDING

1. At the height of 5 m (15 ft), smoothly raise the nose to horizontal flight to flare at 0.3-0.5m [1–1.5 ft] above the ground. In order to prevent a rough contact with the ground, reduce the dive brakes. Allow the speed to reduce by holding the constant height such that the aircraft lands at the speed of 60-65 km/h [32-35 kt] on the wheel. Maintain this "wheel" position until the front wheel settles to the runway by itself.

2. The landing can be shortened by full extension of the dive brakes and by using the wheel brake immediately after the landing.

3. Switching off the engine in the approach final position will help to shorten the landing run if one is landing with the engine extended.

7.8 INFORMATION

ON

STALLS

USEFUL INFORMATION

SPINS

AND

ANY

OTHER

Spins are not allowed in this aircraft. For more information on stalls and spins see the emergency procedures.

8

AIRCRAFT

GROUND

HANDLING

AND

SERVICING

8.1 SERVICING FUEL, OIL AND COOLANT

8.1.1

Fueling:

1. Mix fuel with oil at the prescribed ratio.

2. The ignition switch must be OFF.

3. Left wing tip on the ground.

4. The fueling is done using a funnel with a fine screen installed to catch impurities.

5. Open the fuel filler cap and pour in the desired amount of fuel.

6. Close the filler cap.

The maximum tank volume is 20 liters (5.2 US gallons); unusable amount is 1 liter (about 0.25 US gallons). While fueling, observe standard precautions for handling flammable liquids.

WARNING: Fueling must be done outside in the open air. Be aware of handling precautions for combustibles and obey them. A functional fire extinguisher must be

and obey them. A functional fire extinguisher must be TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 38 of 64

available. Pay attention to the possibility of static electricity discharge originated from clothing made from synthetic fabric, or other sources. Pay attention in the last phase of the refueling in order to prevent spilling.

WARNING: Only use fresh fuel in this aircraft. Do not store either fuel or fuel/oil mixtures for extended periods of time before fueling the aircraft.

8.1.2 Oil

Castrol TTS or equivalent mixed with fuel 1:50

See the ROTAX operation manual supplied with this aircraft for additional information.

8.1.3 Cooling

There is no engine coolant in this aircraft.

8.2 TOWING AND TIE-DOWN INSTRUCTIONS

8.2.1 Towing

The aircraft is equipped with a castering tail wheel that enables easy manipulation of the aircraft on the ground. The aircraft can be pushed backwards as well as turned on the spot without lifting the tail. Towing behind a car is possible using a 5 m long cable (connected to the aerotow hook). Tow speed should not exceed a fast walking speed. An assistant is required to keep the wing tip off the ground. The canopies must be closed. Where an engine is installed, taxing under own power is possible. The pilot in the cockpit controls the engine with an assistant holding the wing tip. On a smooth surface, taxing without an assistant is also possible (wingtip wheels aid in keeping the desired heading).

NOTE: The undercarriage and most of all, the tail wheel are designed for usual operation on a good surface. If the surface is not smooth, an assistant should lift the tail wheel or a suitable jig should be used.

8.2.2 Tie-down

Parking this aircraft in the open air for extended periods should be avoided. It should

only be stored or parked in well-ventilated buildings.

the canopies. When parking this aircraft for short periods of time, use ropes attached to the wingtip

When parking, close and cover

wheels and the tail wheel to secure the aircraft. aircraft with the ropes.

Do not apply excessive force to the

aircraft with the ropes. Do not apply excessive force to the TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 39 of 64

WARNING: Parking this aircraft in the open air without protection against weather and sunlight affects the life of the airframe, canopy and interior.

8.3 RIGGING AND DERIGGING OF THE AIRCRAFT

8.3.1 Rigging of the wings

1. Using the inspection mode (turn the key to position 1 while simultaneously holding both the green and yellow buttons) open the engine door and extract the engine. Stop the extraction before the engine door closes. Switch the key back to position 0.

the engine door closes. Switch the key back to position 0. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
the engine door closes. Switch the key back to position 0. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
the engine door closes. Switch the key back to position 0. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
the engine door closes. Switch the key back to position 0. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
the engine door closes. Switch the key back to position 0. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 40 of 64

2.

Remove the cover behind the passenger head.

2. Remove the cover behind the passenger head. 3. Lubricate all moving parts and abrasive surfaces.
2. Remove the cover behind the passenger head. 3. Lubricate all moving parts and abrasive surfaces.

3. Lubricate all moving parts and abrasive surfaces.

head. 3. Lubricate all moving parts and abrasive surfaces. 4. Insert both wings onto the fuselage,
head. 3. Lubricate all moving parts and abrasive surfaces. 4. Insert both wings onto the fuselage,

4. Insert both wings onto the fuselage, position them properly so that the fuselage pins match their counterparts in the wings, level the holes for the main wing pins.

in the wings, level the holes for the main wing pins. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
in the wings, level the holes for the main wing pins. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
in the wings, level the holes for the main wing pins. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 41 of 64

5.

Push the main wing pins to their holes. Use the special tool supplied with the aircraft.

holes. Use the special tool supplied with the aircraft. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0
holes. Use the special tool supplied with the aircraft. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0
holes. Use the special tool supplied with the aircraft. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0
holes. Use the special tool supplied with the aircraft. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0
holes. Use the special tool supplied with the aircraft. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 42 of 64

6.

Insert the pin bolts into the main wing pins.

6. Insert the pin bolts into the main wing pins. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions
6. Insert the pin bolts into the main wing pins. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions
6. Insert the pin bolts into the main wing pins. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions
6. Insert the pin bolts into the main wing pins. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 43 of 64

7.

Screw the large round aluminum nuts on both pin bolts. Use the small nuts to secure the winding. Tighten the bolts and nuts in order to minimize the clearance between spars.

and nuts in order to minimize the clearance between spars. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions
and nuts in order to minimize the clearance between spars. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions
and nuts in order to minimize the clearance between spars. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions
and nuts in order to minimize the clearance between spars. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 44 of 64

8.

If butterfly nuts are used to secure the winding, tighten them and secure with the wire.

secure the winding, tighten them and secure with the wire. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions
secure the winding, tighten them and secure with the wire. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions
secure the winding, tighten them and secure with the wire. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions
secure the winding, tighten them and secure with the wire. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions
secure the winding, tighten them and secure with the wire. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 45 of 64

9.

Connect the pushrods of the ailerons and air brakes with pins on both sides. Do not forget to secure the nuts with safety pins or split pins.

forget to secure the nuts with safety pins or split pins. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
forget to secure the nuts with safety pins or split pins. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
forget to secure the nuts with safety pins or split pins. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
forget to secure the nuts with safety pins or split pins. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
forget to secure the nuts with safety pins or split pins. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 46 of 64

10.

Put the winglets on the wings and fix them with the screw.

Put the winglets on the wings and fix them with the screw. 11. Remove the part
Put the winglets on the wings and fix them with the screw. 11. Remove the part
Put the winglets on the wings and fix them with the screw. 11. Remove the part
Put the winglets on the wings and fix them with the screw. 11. Remove the part

11. Remove the part blocking the ailerons during the transport, remove the adhesive tapes blocking the air brakes and inspect deflections of ailerons and air brakes.

brakes and inspect deflections of ailerons and air brakes. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0
brakes and inspect deflections of ailerons and air brakes. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0
brakes and inspect deflections of ailerons and air brakes. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 47 of 64

12.

Remount the cover behind the passenger head and adjust the seat belts.

cover behind the passenger head and adjust the seat belts. 13. Switch over to automatic regime
cover behind the passenger head and adjust the seat belts. 13. Switch over to automatic regime

13. Switch over to automatic regime (turn key to position 1 without holding any extraction/retraction button), and extract or retract the engine if needed.

button), and extract or retract the engine if needed. 8.3.2 Rigging of the horizontal tail 14.

8.3.2 Rigging of the horizontal tail

14. Lubricate the surfaces of the horizontal tail that come into metal-to-metal contact.

the horizontal tail that come into metal-to-metal contact. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued
the horizontal tail that come into metal-to-metal contact. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued
the horizontal tail that come into metal-to-metal contact. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 48 of 64

15.

Insert the horizontal tail strut into the hole in the fin and push it back – it will insert the horizontal tail pins into the sleeves in the fin.

insert the horizontal tail pins into the sleeves in the fin. 16. Screw down the vertical
insert the horizontal tail pins into the sleeves in the fin. 16. Screw down the vertical

16. Screw down the vertical bolt connecting the elevator to the rudder and secure it by screwing down the securing red plate. Fix the small white cover using a bolt.

securing red plate. Fix the small white cover using a bolt. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
securing red plate. Fix the small white cover using a bolt. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
securing red plate. Fix the small white cover using a bolt. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating
securing red plate. Fix the small white cover using a bolt. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 49 of 64

17.

Interconnect the control rod with the elevator push rod and secure it with the split pin.

with the elevator push rod and secure it with the split pin. 18. Inspect the deflection

18. Inspect the deflection of the elevator for proper movement.

Inspect the deflection of the elevator for proper movement. 19. Use adhesive tape to seal the

19. Use adhesive tape to seal the gap between the wings and fuselage.

tape to seal the gap between the wings and fuselage. WARNING: After each rigging of the
tape to seal the gap between the wings and fuselage. WARNING: After each rigging of the

WARNING: After each rigging of the airplane check again the correct connection and securing of all pins and connections. It is strongly recommended this duplicate inspection should be carried out by an independent and experienced person.

be carried out by an independent and experienced person. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 50 of 64

8.4

ADDITIONAL INSPECTIONS

8.4.1 Post Flight Inspection

Wear and tear of single parts and groups to be inspected as in the pre-flight inspection. Any defects and wear must be repaired.

WARNING: Do not operate the aircraft if any damage has occurred!

8.4.2 Regular End of Day Inspection

Carry out the following checks after every flight day:

1. Surface of the aircraft: clean the entire surface.

2. Electric system: check the battery and its charge state.

3. Internal fixtures and emergency devices: check the first-aid kit. Check the canopy release mechanism.

4. Controls and Levers: check all control devices, their function and condition, also check the engine controls

5. Instrument Panel: check the fittings of the instrument panel and the instruments for potential damage

6. Undercarriage: check the condition of the landing wheels, check the brake, and check the tire pressures

7. Flight Instruments: check adjustment and zero values of the instruments

8. Fuselage: check the condition of the surface, the wing to fuselage pins connection.

9. Tail: check the skin surface, the deflections of the rudder and the elevator. Check the connecting pins to the fuselage.

10. Canopy: check the canopy, the locks and hinges. Clean the canopy.

11. Wing: check the skin surface, the ailerons and their hinges. Check the pins connecting the wings together.

12. Power Plant: check the condition of the engine fittings. Check the fuel tank, and the fuel line for leakage. Check all joints of the retracting mechanism. Check the engine itself in accordance with its manufacturer’s instructions.

13. Propeller: inspect the propeller for damage and check the condition of the bolts in the hub.

14. Engine: check all the pins and bolts connecting the engine to the airframe. Check the fixing of the engine cover.

to the airframe. Check the fixing of the engine cover. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 51 of 64

9

REQUIRED PLACARDS AND MARKINGS

9.1 AIRSPEED INDICATOR MARKINGS

WHITE BAND

65-80 km/h

Speed from V SO up to min. cruising speed

GREEN BAND

80-150 km/h

NORMAL cruising speed up to V B speed

YELLOW BAND

150-205 km/h

Flight can be executed in calm air only

RED LINE

205 km/h

up to V NE NEVER EXCEED SPEED V NE

65 km/h

65 km/hSTALL SPEED V SO

YELLOW TRIANGLE

100 km/h

Landing approach speed with max. gross weight

WARNING:

Keep the marking visible and keep to the recommended speed limits

9.2 OPERATING LIMITATIONS ON INSTRUMENT PANEL

Max RPM: 6500, Max CHT: 280 C [536 F]

9.3 PASSENGER WARNING

“This aircraft was manufactured in accordance with Light Sport Aircraft airworthiness standards and does not conform to standard category airworthiness requirements.”

The placard is placed on the left side of the instrument panel.

9.4 NO INTENTIONAL SPINS

The placard “NO INTENTIONAL SPINS” is placed on the instrument panel

9.5 EMPTY WEIGHT

The placard showing empty weight, MTOW, max. weight of crew, min. weight of pilot in the front seat and allowable weight of baggage is placed on the left side panel.

9.6 SPEED AND ENGINE VALUES

The placard showing stall speed, max. allowed speed, max. gust speed, max. rpm and max. CHT is placed on the left side of the instrument panel.

max. CHT is placed on the left side of the instrument panel. TST-14 M – Aircraft

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 52 of 64

9.7

MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM WEIGHT OF CREW

Placard is on instrument panel.

9.8 ALLOWABLE WEIGHT OF BAGGAGE

None

9.9 SEAT FOR SOLO OPERATIONS

Front seat only. Placard is placed on both sides of the front seat.

9.10 MISCELLANEOUS PLACARDS AND MARKINGS

9.10.1 Outside Signs

Left side of the fuselage near the landing gear:

Trailing edges of the wings, ailerons and elevator:

Trailing edge of the rudder on both sides:

Pitot pressure tube:

9.10.2 Inside Placards

On the instrument panel at the push-buttons:

On the instrument panel at the ignition switch:

Cockpit – right side at the BRS handle:

At single fuses:

Front side of the front instrument panel:

TIRE 250 kPa [38 psi]” DO NOT PUSH” DO NOT PUSH” red color

”ENGINE UP” and “ENGINE DOWN” ”IGNITION” ”BALLISTIC RESCUE SYSTEM” “FUSE BRAUNIGER”, “FUSE ELECTRONICS”, FUSE RECHARGE” name plate

“FUSE ELECTRONICS”, FUSE RECHARGE” name plate TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 53 of 64

9.10.3

Symbols Used

Trim: heavy on tail – heavy on nose
Trim: heavy on tail – heavy on nose

Trim: heavy on tail – heavy on nose

Air brakes: extended – retracted
Air brakes: extended – retracted

Air brakes: extended – retracted

Fuel valve: open – closed
Fuel valve: open – closed

Fuel valve: open – closed

Air ventilation: open – closed
Air ventilation: open – closed

Air ventilation: open – closed

  Canopy: open
 

Canopy: open

A photograph of all placards is shown below:

Canopy: open A photograph of all placards is shown below: TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 54 of 64

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 55 of 64
TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 55 of 64

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 55 of 64

10 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

10.1 FAMILIARIZATION FLIGHT PROCEDURES

For familiarization flight procedures, refer to the Flight Training Supplement

10.2 PILOT OPERATING ADVISORIES

None

10.3 TRANSPORT IN THE TRAILER

When loading the aircraft into the RHC trailer, perform the following steps:

1. Remove the wingtips from the wings and place in the rear seat of the fuselage.

2. Remove the loading ramp from the trailer and place in mounting holes at back of trailer. Place the fuselage buggy at the end of the loading ramp. Roll the fuselage onto the buggy.

3. Disconnect the wing controls and attach pins. Remove the left wing from the fuselage first, followed by the right wing.

4. Secure the left wing spar to the right wing buggy with the mounting bolt. Roll the left wing into the right side of the trailer with the wing buggy wheel in the track

until fully in the trailer. Make sure that the wing alignment pin is in the hole of the wing root. Place the leading edge of the wing in its cradle secured to the floor of

the trailer.

trailing edge of the wing to the trailer with the mounting bracket and cotter pin.

Secure the wing buggy to its bracket with the attach bolt. Secure the

5. Insert the right wing into the left side of the trailer the same way as the left wing.

6. Disconnect the elevator controls; remove the horizontal stabilizer from the vertical stabilizer and place in its cradle.

7. Attach the bracing of the fuselage buggy to the wing roots. The fuselage is rolled into the trailer such that the nose is inserted into the alignment ring and the front fuselage buggy wheels are in their respective hold down clamps. The winch in the front of the trailer can be used to pull the fuselage into the trailer. Bolt the tongue of the fuselage buggy to the floor of the trailer to fix it in place.

8. The vertical stabilizer is fixed in place with its mounting bracket affixed to either side of the trailer.

9. Affix the horizontal stabilizer cradle to the trailer floor by insertion into its hold down bracket and tightening the bolt.

10. Reinstall the loading ramp into the trailer.

WARNING: The trailer tongue must always push down onto the towing car ball. With the aircraft loaded in the trailer, this condition is fulfilled. However, when towing the empty trailer, a weight (ballast) must be fixed in the forward part of the trailer to provide sufficient weight on the tongue.

of the trailer to provide sufficient weight on the tongue. TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 56 of 64

10.4

CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS INSTRUCTIONS

10.4.1 Reporting maintenance, service and safety difficulties

The owner/operator of the aircraft is responsible for notifying the manufacturer of any safety of flight issue or significant maintenance or service difficulty upon discovery. The notification can be accomplished via any communication channel to the manufacturer at the address given in section 1.4. The preferred method is via email to the address info@testandfly.com. The notification should be in English and should comprise following information:

Name, email address, postal address and telephone number of the aircraft’s owner/operator

Name and contact information of the reporting person

Serial number of the affected aircraft

Make and model of the affected aircraft

Exact date and time of the reported event

Location of the reported event

Weather conditions (if relevant)

Detail description of the event

Severity of the reported event

The owner/operator can photocopy, fill-out and fax the form in section 10.4.5, or use the report form downloaded from manufacturer’s web pages (www.testandfly.com),

section “Download”.

10.4.2 Reporting aircraft owner/operator contact information

The owner/operator of the aircraft is responsible for providing the aircraft manufacturer with current contact information where the manufacturer may send the owner/operator supplemental notification bulletins. This contact information should contain (if applicable):

name

email address

telephone number

postal address

10.4.3 Obtaining the latest safety of flight information

Reports with safety of flight and service difficulty issues received by the manufacturer from the aircraft owners/operators are immediately recorded and evaluated. When corrective action is determined to be warranted, a notice is issued to all known owners/operators of the effected aircraft.

The notice takes the form of notification bulletins. The bulletin is sent to current owners/operators via their preferred communication channels. All bulletins are also

preferred communication channels. All bulletins are also TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 57 of 64

published on the manufacturer’s web pages (www.testandfly.com) in section „Bulletins“.

10.4.4 Bulletin requisites

1. The bulletin is issued in a form of PDF document.

2. The page header of the bulletin contains the following information:

a. The name, postal address, email address, and telephone number of the company,

b. The date the notice is released,

c. The date the notice takes effect,

d. The make and model of the affected aircraft,

e. The serial number of the affected aircraft,

f. The number that uniquely identifies the bulletin,

g. The page number and number of total pages.

3. The first page of the bulletin denotes the type of notification. This can be one of the following:

a. SAFETY ALERT for notifications that require immediate action

b. SERVICE BULLETIN for notifications that do not require immediate action but do recommend future action

c. NOTIFICATION for notifications that do not necessarily recommend future action but are primarily for promulgation of continued airworthiness information

Note: The owner/operator of the aircraft is responsible for complying with all manufacturer issued bulletins (notices of corrective action) and for complying with all applicable aviation authority regulations.

Note: The owner of the aircraft should ensure that any needed corrective action be completed as specified by notice, or by the next Schedule annual inspection.

10.4.5 Report of non-standard event

annual inspection. 10.4.5 Report of non-standard event TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 58 of 64

TeST, spol. s r.o. K Libusi 4/24 148 00 Prague Czech Republic REPORT OF NON-
TeST, spol. s r.o. K Libusi 4/24 148 00 Prague Czech Republic REPORT OF NON-
TeST, spol. s r.o. K Libusi 4/24 148 00 Prague Czech Republic REPORT OF NON-

TeST, spol. s r.o. K Libusi 4/24 148 00 Prague Czech Republic

spol. s r.o. K Libusi 4/24 148 00 Prague Czech Republic REPORT OF NON- STANDARD EVENT
spol. s r.o. K Libusi 4/24 148 00 Prague Czech Republic REPORT OF NON- STANDARD EVENT
spol. s r.o. K Libusi 4/24 148 00 Prague Czech Republic REPORT OF NON- STANDARD EVENT
spol. s r.o. K Libusi 4/24 148 00 Prague Czech Republic REPORT OF NON- STANDARD EVENT

REPORT OF NON- STANDARD EVENT

148 00 Prague Czech Republic REPORT OF NON- STANDARD EVENT Report number Tel: +420 241 00
148 00 Prague Czech Republic REPORT OF NON- STANDARD EVENT Report number Tel: +420 241 00

Report number

Tel: +420 241 00 44 99 eMail: info@testandfly.com Web : www.testandfly.com

44 99 eMail: info@testandfly.com Web : www.testandfly.com Aircraft make and model Aircraft serial number Pilot name
44 99 eMail: info@testandfly.com Web : www.testandfly.com Aircraft make and model Aircraft serial number Pilot name
44 99 eMail: info@testandfly.com Web : www.testandfly.com Aircraft make and model Aircraft serial number Pilot name
44 99 eMail: info@testandfly.com Web : www.testandfly.com Aircraft make and model Aircraft serial number Pilot name
44 99 eMail: info@testandfly.com Web : www.testandfly.com Aircraft make and model Aircraft serial number Pilot name
Aircraft make and model Aircraft serial number Pilot name Pilot postal address Pilot email Pilot
Aircraft make and model
Aircraft serial number
Pilot name
Pilot postal address
Pilot email
Pilot telephone
Date and time of the
event
Location / place of event
Pilot name Pilot postal address Pilot email Pilot telephone Date and time of the event Location
Pilot name Pilot postal address Pilot email Pilot telephone Date and time of the event Location
Pilot name Pilot postal address Pilot email Pilot telephone Date and time of the event Location
Pilot name Pilot postal address Pilot email Pilot telephone Date and time of the event Location

1/2

and time of the event Location / place of event 1/2 TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 59 of 64

REPORT OF NON- STANDARD EVENT

REPORT OF NON- STANDARD EVENT TeST, spol. s r.o. K Libusi 4/24 148 00 Prague Czech

TeST, spol. s r.o. K Libusi 4/24 148 00 Prague Czech Republic

Tel: +420 241 00 44 99 eMail: info@testandfly.com Web : www.testandfly.com

Report number

Detailed Event Description

Reported by: ………………………………

Signature: …………………………………

Signature: ………………………………… TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 60 of 64

11 FLIGHT TRAINING SUPPLEMENT

This supplement contains important information regarding flight training requirements specific to this aircraft type. Read all documents supplied with this aircraft carefully before flight. In particular, the Aircraft Operating Instructions contain important procedures that must be followed for safe operation of this aircraft.

The flight characteristics of this aircraft are similar to other high performance gliders. However, this aircraft has a retractable engine with specific procedures required for its safe use. Be certain to follow the procedures contained in the AOI for engine extraction/retraction and operation.

11.1 FAMILIARIZATION FLIGHTS

During the initial phase of becoming familiar with this aircraft, favourable weather should be utilized. Visibility should exceed 10 km (7 miles), cloud bases should be at least 1000 m (3000 ft) AGL with winds not exceeding 5 m/s (10 kts) with a maximum cross wind component of 2 m/s (4 kts) and minimal turbulence. In the initial flights, limit bank angles to 30 degrees.

If equipped with a tow hook, the initial familiarization flights should be done with aerotow so not as to incur the added complexity of engine operation.

Once familiar with the basic flight characteristics of the aircraft, or if the aircraft is not equipped with a tow hook, the engine can be utilized for takeoff. On the first takeoff under engine power, one should climb to 4000 ft AGL or above and then shut down and retract the engine and land the aircraft. In-flight engine extraction and starting should not be attempted until familiar with the basic flight characteristics of the aircraft under powered flight and with the engine retracted. Initial in-flight engine extraction and starting should not be attempted below 4000 ft AGL. It is important to take into account that the time necessary for the extension of the engine and its starting takes approximately one minute. Recognize also, that while extending the engine, the sink rate of the aircraft will increase geometrically with the degree of the erection until the engine is running.

11.2 SPINS AND SPIRAL DIVES

Performing spins, even for training purposes, is prohibited. When training for recovery from spiral dives, great care must be taken to ensure that one is not inadvertently in a spin.

be taken to ensure that one is not inadvertently in a spin. TST-14 M – Aircraft

TST-14 M – Aircraft Operating Instructions rev.0 issued 2006-11-29 – page 61 of 64

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