APR 2013
EEET2197 MECHANTRONICS AND CONTROL  Apr 2013
1 1. Draw the diagram of a closedloop feedback control system, where the plant transfer function
is Gp(s), the controller transfer function is C(s) and the transfer function for the sensor is H(s). On
the diagram, mark setpoint signal R(s), control signal U(s) and output signal Y (s), feedback
error E(s).
2. Find the following closedloop transfer functions:
Y (s)/R(s); E(s)/R(s); U(s)/R(s)
1S
C(s) Gp(s)
H(s)
The controller receives the error signal as its input and determines in real time the corrective
action to be applied to the plant/process as a function of the input error signal. The output
signal of the controller is the input signal to the plant/process being controlled. This signal is
called the manipulated variable. For example, in the context of speed control of an automobile,
the accelerator pedal position is the manipulated variable. Typical PI Controller function
t
K
u (t ) = K C (r (t ) y (t )) + C (r ( ) y ( ))d
Ti s 0
KC
U ( s ) = K C ( R( s ) Y ( s )) + ( R ( s ) Y ( s))
Ti s
1S Y ( s) C ( s )G p ( s ) E ( s) 1 U (s) C ( s)
= = =
R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G p ( s ) H ( s ) R( s) 1 + C ( s)G p ( s) H ( s) R( s) 1 + C ( s)G p ( s) H ( s)
2 s +1
Consider the transfer function G ( s ) =
( s + 10)(s 2 + 2 s + 2)
1. Find the poles and zero of the transfer function.
2. Mark the locations of the poles and zero on the complex plane.
3. Is the transfer function stable? Why?
4. Find the second order approximate transfer function for G(s). Why do you think it is a good
approximation?
2S Poles: ( s + 10)( s 2 + 2 s + 2) = 0
s=10 or s = 1j
Zeros: s+1=0 s=1 POLES X ZEROS
X O
2S Yes, the transfer function is stable because all poles are the left half splane
2S s +1 s +1 0.05(1 s )
G ( s) = =
( s + 10)( s 2 + 2 s + 2) 2 x10(0.1s + 1)(0.5s 2 + s + 1) (0.5s 2 + s + 1)
2S The time constant t=0.1 is 5 times less than the second order time constant, so we can neglect
it, we keep the steadystate gain the same and keep the unstable zero.
3 0.01
Suppose that the transfer function model of a water tank is given by G p ( s ) = and a
s + 0. 1
1
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
K c ( s + 0.1)
controller is chosen to have the structure C ( s ) =
s
1. What Kc value do we have to use in order to have a closedloop system with a closedloop
pole at 0.5? Explain your answer.
2. Supposing that the reference signal is a step signal with amplitude of 0.1, show that the
steadystate error Lim ( r (t ) y (t )) = 0 as long as Kc is positive.
t
3S The closedloop characteristics equation polynomial
0.01 K c ( s + 0.1) 0.01K c
1 + G p ( s )C ( s ) = 1 + = 0 1 + G p ( s )C ( s ) = 1 + =0
s + 0.1 s s
The closedloop pole is s + Kc 0.01=0 pole = 0.01 Kc
0.5= 0.01 Kc Kc=5
We need to put the closedloop pole at 0.5. We need to solve the polynomial equation:
s+0.01Kc=s+0.5
3S The transfer function of the error signal E(s) is :
R(s) R(s) sR ( s )
E ( s) = = =
1 + G ( s )C ( s ) 1 + 0.01K c / s s + 0.01K c
Kc > 0, then the closedloop pole is stable, we can apply the final value theorem
s 0. 1
Lim ( r (t ) y (t )) = Lim( s )=0
t s 0 s + 0.01K c s
4 Y (s) s+K
Assume that a closedloop control system has the transfer function = 3
R( s) s + 2s 2 + 4s + K
Determine the minimum and maximum values of K such that the closedloop system is stable
by using RouthHurwitz criterion.
4S s 3 + 2 s 2 + 4 s + K K > 0 and K > 8,
S 3
1 4 s=j j 3 2 2 + 4 j + K = 0
S2 2 K =2 and K = 8
S1 (K8)/2 0
S0 K
5 K
The characteristic equation of a feedback control system is 1 +
( s + 5)( s 2)
1. Find the parameter K when the damping factor of the closedloop system is 0.7.
2. Sketch the rootlocus of the closedloop system for K.
5S The closedloop characteristic equation is
( s + 5)( s 2) + K = 0
s 2 + 3s 10 + K = 0
s 2 + 2n s + n = 0
2
DEC 2012
EEET2197 DEC 2012 EXAM
1a Draw a general block diagram of a closedloop control system.
Above each arrow in the block diagram, write down the generic name of the signal that the
arrow represents.
Also write down the generic name of each block in the block diagram.
1b A position control system is governed by the following equations:
d 2 y (t ) dy (t )
2
+3 + 2 y (t ) = (t ) e(t ) = r (t ) y(t )
dt dt
2
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
d (t )
(t ) + 0.01 = 0.25v(t ) v(t ) = 8e(t )
dt
The variables involved are as follows:
r(t) = desired position (reference signal) y(t) = actual position (controlled signal)
e(t) = amplifier input voltage (error signal) v(t) = amplifier output voltage
(t) = motor shaft angular position
Draw a block diagram of the system, identifying the component parts and their
transmittances (or transfer functions), and determine the system transfer function Y(s)/R(s).
1aS Disturbance
Signal
Feedback Transducer
Feedback
Signal Appropriate Sensing Device for the particular controlled signal
+ Signal Processing Electronics
1bS
Y (s ) 200
T (s ) = = 3
R(s ) s + 103s + 302s + 400
2
2a A system is shown in Figure 2a. Determine the transfer functions Y(s)/R(s) and Y(s)/Td(s). If
both r(t) and td(t) remain constant over time and have values 1.25 and 0.5 respectively,
determine the steady state value yss of y(t).
Td(s)

R(s)+ + Y(s)
_
Figure 2a
2b The block diagram of a highperformance servo drive that incorporates inner feedback loops and
feed forward control is shown in Figure 2b. Determine the transfer function Y(s)/R(s) and Y(s)/Td(s).
3
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
Figure 2b
2aS 10 2
Y (s ) (s + 1) (s + 4) 20(50s + 1)
GR (s ) = = =
R (s ) 1 + 10
2
1 (s + 1)(s + 4)(50s + 1) + 20
(s + 1) (s + 4) (50s + 1)
2
Y (s ) (s + 4 ) 2(s + 1)(50s + 1)
GTd (s ) = = =
Td (s ) 1+
10
2
1 (s + 1)(s + 4)(50s + 1) + 20
(s + 1) (s + 4) (50s + 1)
yss = GR (0) rss + GTd (0 ) td ,ss =
(20 1) 1.25 (2 11) 0.5 = 1.0
(1 4 1 + 20) (1 4 1 + 20)
2bS 200 K i k
K p Kv t2
Y (s ) s Js 2 (s + 200 + 200Ki ) Js
GR (s ) = = 1+ +
R (s ) K p k t K p K v
200K i k s
1 + K p Kv t 2 1 +
(s + 200 + 200K i ) Js K p
=
( )
200 K i Js 2 + kt K v s + kt K p K v
(s + 200 + 200K )Js + 200k K K (s + K )
i
2
t v i p
1
Y (s ) Js 2
GTd (s ) = =
Td (s ) 200K i k s
1 + K p Kv t 2 1 +
(s + 200 + 200K i ) Js K p
=
(s + 200 + 200K i )
(s + 200 + 200K i )Js 2 + 200kt K v K i (s + K p )
3 A unity feedback system is shown in Figure 3.
R(s)+ Y(s)
.
3.a What is the type number of the system? What is the steady state error to (i) unit step input,
and (ii) unit ramp input?
3.b Determine the closedloop transfer function Y(s)/R(s). Hence determine the damping ratio,
natural frequency, and settling time (for 2% overshoot). Does the system zero, s = 52, have
any significant effect on the system dynamics?
3.c Write down the expression for the output Y(s) to a unit step input R(s) = 1/s. Express Y(s)
4
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
as a partial fraction, and by inverse Laplace transformation, determine the expression for
the time function y(t).
3.d How many approximate number of oscillations would be present in the transient response
y(t) before the system settles down to within 2% of the final value.
3.e Sketch the transient response y(t) and mark the key values.
3aS System is Type 1.
Steady state error to unit step input is zero.
Steady state error to a unit ramp input = 1/52
3bS 2(s + 52 )
Y (s ) s (s + 2 ) 2(s + 52) 2(s + 52 )
= = = 2
R (s ) 1 + 2 ( s + 52 ) s(s + 2 ) + 2(s + 52 ) s + 4 s + 104
s (s + 2 )
2(s + 52 ) 2(s + 52 )
= =
(s + 2) + 10 (s + 2 + j10)(s + 2 j10)
2 2
5
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
4a Briefly explain what root locus plot is, and its role in the design of control systems.
4b For the system shown in Figure 4, determine the characteristic equation. Arrange the
characteristic equation in the standard form for plotting root locus. Hence determine the
openloop poles, openloop zeros, and the gain K (in terms of a).
Figure 4
4c Sketch the root locus and comment on the effect of increasing the value of K (i.e., decreasing
the value of a) on the stability and transient response to a step input of the closedloop
system.
4d What values of a would result in complex closedloop poles?
4e What would you choose as the optimum value of a, and why?
4aS Root locus is the plot of all the poles of the closedloop transfer function in the complex
splane as one of the parameters appearing in the characteristic equation (say, K) is given
different positive values in the range zero to infinity.
Here we assume that numerical values of all the remaining parameters of the characteristic
equation are either known in advance or assigned a fixed set of values.
From the root locus plot it is very easy to see how changes in the value of the parameter
affect the closedloop system poles and hence the stability and transient response.
By inspecting the root locus plot, we may be able to select an optimum value for the
parameter K.
4bS
Characteristic equation is 1 +
1
(s + 9) = 0 .
11(s + 5) (as + 1)
11(s + 5)(as + 1) + (s + 9 ) = 0 11as 2 + 55as + 11s + 55 + s + 9 = 0
16 16
s + s +
12 s + 64 12 3
1+ K
3
1+ =0 1+ =0 =0
11as(s + 5) 11a s (s + 5) s (s + 5 )
12
Hence K = ; two openloop poles at 0 and 5; one openloop zero at 16/3.
11a
4cS Segments of the real axis that form part of the root locus are (i) between the two openloop
poles 0 and 5, and (ii) between the openloop zero 16/3 and .
Only one asymptote: At angle = 1800 to real axis (i.e., the negative real axis).
16
s + (2s + 5) s(s + 5)
s (s + 5 )
=
dK 3
K = Break points are given by = 0.
16 ds 16
2
s + s +
3 3
32 80 2 32 80
2 s 2 + s + 5s + s 5s = 0 s2 + s + =0
3 3 3 3
32 32 2 4 3 80 16 4 20
Roots are: s = s= or s= and s = 4
6 3 3 3
20
s= lies between the openloop zero 16/3 and  and is therefore a breakin point
3
s = 4 lies between the two openloop poles 0 and 5, and is therefore a breakaway point
6
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
20/3
16/3 5 0
4
4dS s (s + 5 )
K =
16
s +
3
Values of K at the two break points, s = 4 and s = 20/3, are:
20 20
+ 5
( 4)( 4 + 5) = 3 and
3 3 = 25
16 20 16 3
4 + +
3 3 3
12 12
Corresponding values of a are: and .
11 3 11
25
3
Complex closedloop poles occur when a lies between 4/11 and 36/275.
4eS It is desirable to have a damping ratio as close to 0.7 as possible. The closest value of
damping ratio we can achieve corresponds to the tangent line from the origin to the circle.
For this case,
2 2 2 2
16 4 4 1 4
s s+5
3 3
3 3
(16 1) 1 (16 1)
K= = = 3 3 =5
16 4 4
s+
3 3 3
12 12
Corresponding value of a = = .
11 5 55
4
15
15
Minimum possible damping ratio = 3 =
16 4
3
Using MATLAB
7
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
H(s)
Closed loop frequency response is the plot of y0/r0 and versus the frequency .
To obtain the open loop frequency response, the feedback signal is disconnected at the
summing junction as shown below:
8
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
r(t) = r0 cos(t) +
GC(s) GP(s)
z(t) = z0 cos(t+*)
H(s)
Open loop frequency response is the plot of z0/r0 and * versus the frequency .
Methods based on the open loop frequency response can be used to investigate the
stability of feedback control systems, and to design appropriate compensators.
5bS In industrial controllers the gain of the controller is described in terms of its proportional
band (PB) or its percentage proportional band (%PB).
Proportional band represents fractional deviation (or fractional change in measured value)
that will generate 100% change in control effort.
With a narrower proportional band, changes in measured value outside that proportional
band will have no effect in the controller output, i.e. it will be saturated at 0% or 100%.
5cS
5dS Mechatronics is the interdisciplinary field of engineering dealing with the design of products
whose function relies on the integration of mechanical and electronic components
coordinated by a control architecture.
In control engineering, the optimisation problem is formulated as: given a process to be
controlled, and given the cost function (performance index), find optimal controller
parameters such that the cost function is minimised.
Mechatronic design on the contrary requires that not only the controller, but also the process
itself, as well as the sensors and actuators are optimised simultaneously.
9
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
DEC 2011
EEET2197 DEC 2011 EXAM
Q1 Using the Laplace Transform Table, find the inverse transforms (i.e., g(t)) of the following Laplace 6%
a Transform functions:
2 2 2 (s + 1)
(i) G(s ) = (ii) G(s ) = (iii) G(s ) =
(s + 1) (s + 1) (s + 1)2 + 4 2
1b Comment on how their magnitudes change with the passage of time in each case. 4%
1c Draw rough sketches (graphs) to show how g(t) varies with time t in each case in the time interval 8%
0 t 2 seconds. What is significant about this time interval?
1d How would the graphs differ if the common factor (s + 1) in each of the above Laplace Transform 2%
functions is replaced with (s  2)?
1aS 2
(i) G(s ) = g (t ) = 2e t 2%
(s + 1)
2 1%
(ii) G(s ) = t
(s + 1) g (t ) = 2e 3%
2 (s + 1)
(iii) G(s ) = g (t ) = 2e t cos(2t )
(s + 1)2 + 4 2
1bS (i) Exponentially decaying waveform with an initial magnitude of 2. 1%
(ii) Mirror image about the time axis of the above. 1%
(iii) Exponentially decaying waveform with an initial magnitude of 2 modulated by a cosine 2%
function of period 1 second. 6%
1cS The interval, 0 t 2 , 6%
corresponds to the
first two complete
cycles of the
waveform 2%
1dS The magnitude, instead of decreasing exponentially, would increase, with the passage of time, 2%
exponentially at twice the rate from the initial value of 2
2a A system is shown in 10%
Figure 2a. Determine the
transfer function Y(s)/R(s).
Figure 2a
10
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
Figure 2b
2aS
4%
3%
1
Y (s ) s(s + 5)( s + 10) 1 1
= = 3 = 3
R( s ) ( s + 108s + 996) s + 15s + 50s + s + 108s + 996 s + 16s + 158s + 996
2 2 2 2 3%
1+
s(s + 5)( s + 10)
2bS d2y dy 3%
Applying Newtons Law to the mass, m 2
= f (t ) ky b
dt dt
Laplace transforming (assuming zero initial conditions) and rearranging,
1%
Ms2 Y(s)+bsY(s)+kY(s)=F(s) Substituting the given numerical values
Y ( s) 1 0.005
G ( s) = = 2 = 2 2%
F ( s) 2 s + bs + 200 s / 10 + b / 200 s + 1
2
11
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
How long will it take for (t) to reach 98% of the steady state value? 6%
3b What additional components would you require to implement closedloop speed control of the DC 12%
motor? Draw a block diagram of the closed loop system and mark each block and each signal in the
block diagram.
If a proportional controller (i.e., Gc(s) = K) is to be used, determine the gain K of the proportional
controller so that the settling time is reduced by a factor of 10. You may assume that the
tachogenerator constant is 1 V/(rad/s). What then is the steady state error for a unit step input?
3c What would be the benefit if an integral controller (i.e., Gc(s) = K/s) is implemented instead of the 2%
proportional controller?
3aS This is a firstorder transfer function with a static gain of 60 (rad/s)/V, and time constant 4%
0.25seconds. Unit step response is, (t) 60(1e4t) rad/s
The steady state value of(t) = 60 rad/s 1%
For (t) to reach 98% of the steady state, time = 5 x time constant = 5x0.15=1.25 1%
3bS Tachogenerator, Reference signal generator, comparator, and controller 2%
4%
Controller gain to reduce the settling time by a factor of 10 is found as follows: 4%
60 60
(s )
= 1 + 0.25s = = 1 + 60K
60K
Closedloop transfer function is,
R (s ) 60 x1 1 + 0.25s + 60K 0.25
1+ 1+ s
1 + 0.25s 1 + 60K
The new time constant is, 60K/[1+60K]
Hence, 1+60K = 10, or K = 0.15. The steady state error for a unit step input would be, 2%
1Static gain =160K/[1+60K]=1/[1+60K]=1/10=0.1 or 10% of the reference Input
3cS In this case, the system becomes a TYPE 1 system, and the steady state error for a step input will be 2%
zero.
Q4 A closedloop speed control system is shown in the Figure 4 below.
DC
Tachogenerator
vt(t)
Figure 4
The power amplifier has a gain of 2 volt/volt. That is, va (t ) = 2m(t ) volts
The tachogenerator constant is 0.02 volts/(rad/s). That is, vt (t ) = 0.02m (t ) volts
m (s ) 10
The transfer function of the PM DC motor, Gm (s ) =
Va (s ) 1 + 0.02 s
M (s ) 50
The transfer function of the integral controller, Gc (s ) = =
E (s ) s
4a If the motor is running at a steady speed of 200 rad/s, what are the corresponding (steady state) 5%
values of the following signals?
12
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
Figure 5
5b For each case of the transfer function, H (s ) , mark the pole of the transfer function in the splane. 2%
Qin (s )
5c Suppose that qout remains constant, and that the water level in the tank has been adjusted to be equal 6%
to the desired height, hD. qin is then made equal to qout by manual adjustment of the inlet valve and
the system is left unattended for a long time. What do you think will happen in the two cases?
Explain why the system would respond quite differently in the two cases, and relate the two
contrasting responses to the s plane location of the pole of the transfer function.
5ai Differential equation of flow: 6%
S dh
qin (t ) qout (t ) = a
dt
Qin ( s ) Qout ( s ) = AsH ( s )
Laplace Transform:
Transfer function :
H (s) 1
= , Poles is at s=0
Qin ( s ) Qout ( s ) As
13
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
5cS Case (i)  Pole is at s = 0 (on the imaginary axis) which indicates a marginally stable system. In this 3%
case, the outcome is not predictable. It will be practically impossible to exactly match Qin to Qout,
with the result that, given enough time, the tank will either overflow or run dry depending on
whether Qin is higher or lower than Qout, however small their difference is.
Case (ii)  Pole is at s = R/A (on the negative real axis) which indicates a stable system. In this case, 3%
any minor variation in Qin will result is a minor change in H(s), which in turn changes Qout to
exactly match Qin. Thus the height H(s) will remain practically constant as long as Qin remains very
nearly a constant.
Q6 Consider the feedback control system shown in Figure 6. The following lead controller is to
K ( s + 5)
be considered for the system. Gc (s ) =
( s + 40)
The design specifications are: Settling Time (Ts) < 0.2 seconds, and Percentage Overshoot
(PO) < 5% for a step input. It is also desirable to have as short a rise time as possible.
Figure 6.
6.a Sketch the root locus and comment of the effect of increasing the value of K on (i) the
stability and (ii) transient response to a step input of the closedloop system.
12%
6.b What value of K would you recommend and why?
2%
6.c What then is the closedloop transfer function, and what are its poles and zero?
5%
6.d Does the zero of the transfer function have any effect on the transient response? Explain your
1%
answer.
6aS K ( s + 5) 12%
Characterisitc Equation: 1 + Gc (s )G p (s ) = 1 + =0
s ( s + 5)( s + 40)
Rules for plotting the root locus diagram:
Locate openloop poles (p1,p2,.. pn) and zeros (z1, z2,.. zm) in the splane (using symbols
for poles, and o for zeros)
Openloop poles are 0, 5 and 40 (n=3)
Open loop zero is 5 (m=1)
Segment between 0 and 40 is part of the root loci
Determine the points at which the locus crosses the imaginary axis (if it does so), by substituting s =
j in the characteristic equation and by equating the real and imaginary parts separately to zero.
Not applicable in this problem (no feasible solution).
14
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
1aS A slide is a mechanical device that provides for accurate motion of a rigid body along a line while 2%
minimising friction and any lateral displacement.
15
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
1dS Disturbance input is the force exerted by the cutting tool and frictional forces. 2%
Q2. Using the Laplace Transform Table, find the inverse transforms (i.e., g(t)) of the following 8%
(a) Laplace Transform functions: (Hints: s24s+104=(s2)2+102)
s+2 10
(i) G ( s) = 2 (ii) G ( s) = 2
s + 4 s + 104 s 4 s + 104
(b) Draw rough sketches (graphs) to show how g(t) varies with time t in each case in the time 8%
interval 0 t 2 x 2 /10 seconds. What is significant about this time interval?
(c) Comment on how their magnitudes change with the passage of time. 4%
2aS s+2 ( s + 2) 4%
(i) G ( s) = s 2 + 4 s + 104 = ( s + 2) 2 + 10 2 g (t ) = e 2t cos(10t )
(ii) 10 10 4%
G ( s) = 2 = g (t ) = e 2t sin(10t )
s 4 s + 104 ( s 2) + 102 2
Q3 A system is shown in Figure 3(a). Determine G(s) and H(s) of the block diagram shown in 10%
(a) Figure 3(b) that is equivalent to the block diagram of Figure 3(a). Determine Y(s)/R(s).
Figure 3b
3aS An equivalent block diagram may be drawn as follows:
1 10%
Hence, the forward path transfer function, G ( s ) =
( s + 5)( s + 10)
, and the feedback transfer function, H(s)=(s+10s5)=5
1
( s + 5)( s + 10) 1 1
Hence, the transfer function is GCL ( s) = = = 2
1x5 ( s + 5)( s + 10) + 5 s + 15s + 55
1+
( s + 5)( s + 10)
17
EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
3bS
Y ( s) 1 1
Hence, G ( s) = = =
F ( s) ms + bs + k 2.5s + 16s + 200
2 2
Q4 Express the following transfer function in the standard form and hence determine its 6%
(a) characteristic parameters (static gain k, natural frequency n and damping ratio):
3000
T (s) =
0.75s + 42 s + 1200
2
Sketch the response of the system (i.e. the output of the system) for a unit step input, and mark the
key features of the response (such as the steady state value, settling time etc). 6%
(b) 0.3( s + 50)
A control system has the following transfer function: T ( s ) =
( s + 0.1)( s 2 + 6 s + 25)
Show that the above transfer function can be approximated by a first order transfer function of
k
the form, T ( s ) 6%
1 + s
Determine the two characteristic parameters of the approximated transfer function, namely, the 2%
static gain k and the time constant .
4aS
6%
6%
(Fig
Static gain, k=2.5; Natural frequency, n =40 rad/s; Damping ration, =0.7 .)
4bS 6%
Q5 The speed control of a highspeed train is represented by the block diagram of Figure 5.
Figure 5
Determine the following:
5.a the transfer functions Y(s) / R(s) and Y(s) / Td(s) 4%
5.b steadystate error for a unit step input 4%
5.c closedloop poles, their damping ratio and natural frequency 6%
5.d percentage overshoot and settling time (2% criterion) for a step input. 6%
5aS The closedloop transfer function, 2%
Y (s) 20 K 200
G R ( s) = = 2 = 2
R ( s ) s + 14s + 48 + 20 K s + 14s + 248
The closedloop transfer function, 2%
Y (s) 20 20
GTd ( s ) = = 2 = 2
Td ( s ) s + 14 s + 48 + 20 K s + 14 s + 248
5bS 20 K 4%
Forward path transfer function of the unity feedback system, G ( s) = 2
s + 14 s + 48
This is a TYPE 0 system, the position error constant Kp = G(0) = 20K / 48
1 1 1
Steadystate error for a unit step input, ess = = = = 0.19
1 + K p 1 + 20 K / 48 1 + 5 K / 12
5cS 14 196 4 x(48 + 20 K ) 2%
Closedloop poles are : s = = 7 1 20 K = 7 j14.1
2
Q6. A tape recorder has a speed control system with negative feedback and H(s) = 1. The forward path
K
transfer function is G ( s) =
s ( s + 2)( s + 4)( s + 6)
6.a Show that the breakaway points of the root locus are given by two of the three roots 5.24,
3.00 and 0.76 of the cubic equation 4s3+36s2+88s+48 Which of these are the two 4%
breakaway points?
6.b Sketch the root locus diagram on the given graph paper. 10%
6.c By applying the angle condition, show that 0.664 + j0.677 is a point on the root locus. By 6%
applying the magnitude condition to this point, determine the corresponding value of K.
6aS K
The characteristic equation is 1 + =0
s ( s + 2)( s + 4)( s + 6)
Number of Openloop zeros: None Number of Openloop poles: 4
Openloop poles: 0, 2, 4 and 6
Locus on the real axis: Segments between 0 and 2, and between 4 and 6 are part of the root loci.
There will be a breakaway point in each of these segments.
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EEET2197 Mechatronics & Control REVISION EXERCISE 1 (2012)
6cS 1 6%
If s = 0.664+j0.677, angle of =0 [134.44+26.87+11.47+7.23]= 180o. Thus
s( s + 2)( s + 4)( s + 6)
the angle condition is satisfied. Applying the magnitude condition to the 0.664+j0.677
K= 1 / s ( s + 2)( s + 4)( s + 6) s = 0.664+ j 0.667 = 26.00
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