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Tunku Abdul Rahman University College

Faculty of Built Environment


Division of Building
Academic Year 2016/2017

ATGB 2363 BUILDING SCIENCE & SERVICES II


Experiment 1: Fire Alarm Demonstrator
Lecturer(s) In-Charged : Mr . Anselm
Date of experiment : 5/6/2017
Date of Submission : 19/6/2017
Programme (Group No.) : DQS2 Group 3

Student Name (Student ID No.) Total Marks


1. Kwan Zhi Hou 16WVD03063 /10
2. Lam Shuet Mun 16WVD04750 /10
3. Lai Pin Chern 16WVD02645 /10
4. Lau Kar Mun 16WVD00517 /10
5. Lee JiaHui 16WVD00496 /10

Assessed by:

(Lecturer in-charged & Date)


Table contents
1.0 Introduction 1
2.0 Individual Background
2.1 Kwan Zhi Hou 16WVD03063 2
2.2 Lam Shuet Mun 16WVD04750 4
2.3 Lai Pin Chern 16WVD02645 6
2.4 Lau Kar Mun 16WVD00517 8
2.5 Lee JiaHui 16WVD00496 10
Part 1: Fire detectors
3.0 Equipment 11
4.0 Procedure 12
5.0 Result 13
Part 2 Examination of control zoning in Tar University College 14
6.0 Discussion 15
7.0 Conclusion 18
8.0 References 19
1.0 Introduction

A key aspect of fire protection is to identify a developing fire emergency in a timely manner,
and to alert the building's occupants and fire emergency organizations. This is the role of fire
detection and alarm systems. Depending on the anticipated fire scenario, building and use type,
number and type of occupants, and criticality of contents and mission, these systems can
provide several main functions. (Northeast Document Conservation Center, 2017) and these
will develop the related experiment.

First they provide a means to identify a developing fire through either manual or automatic
methods and second, they alert building occupants to a fire condition and the need to evacuate.
Another common function is the transmission of an alarm notification signal to the fire
department or other emergency response organization. They may also shut down electrical, air
suppression systems (Northeast Document Conservation Center, 2017).

The fire alarm system experiment become necessary due to the uncertain scenario of
various element which might harm people and property if failed to install properly. Therefore
the related experiment was carried out to determine how the fire detectors and communication
device operate in a building to show its suitability towards a building. Besides, the fire
appliances is also essential in fire protection as it function well after the fire alarm system work.
It aids to allow people escape or able to extinguish the fire before the fire department personnel
arrive. Hence, research on fire appliances is needed to carry out.

Fire alarm system also commonly called smoke alarm and a smoke detector providing
a means to detect and identify a fire or a potential fire outbreak in a building, warn the
occupants of the building about the fire via audible alarm and potentially notify emergency
response professionals. (Ebu, 2016).

A perfect fire alarm system normally will required three components which are the fire
alarm control panel (FACP), the input device such as a pull station, a smoke detector, or a water
flow switch on a sprinkler system and a notification device, such as a horn, speaker, bell, or
siren. These components are essential elements in any building type as a life safe system which
having their duty and function towards the fire situation. Each components will be observe and
analyse during the experiment.

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Part 1: Fire Detectors
3.0 Equipment

Figure 3.0.1: Fire alarm demonstration set

Figure 3.0.1 Manual electric Figure 3.0.2: Audible and Figure 3.0.3: Control Panel
alarm visual alarm

Figure 3.0.4 heat detector and rate of Figure 3.0.5 Ionization smoke detector
temperature rise detector and optical smoke detector

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4.0 Procedures
Steps
1. The fire alarm demonstration set was
operated as Figure 4.0.1.
2. The function of each detector was
identified.
3. The performance of both ionization and
visible smoke detectors were investigated
4. The performance of both fixed temperature
and rate of temperature rise fire detectors
were investigated.

Figure 4.0.1: Fire alarm demonstration set

Procedure (for Smoke Detectors)


1. The paper was burnt and inserted into the smoke pump to get the smoke as Figure
4.0.2.
2. The smoke was pumped towards the smoke detector to sound the alarm as Figure
4.0.3.
3. The time taken for the alarm to sound was recorded.
4. The password was keyed in to deactivate the alarm as Figure 4.0.4.

Figure 4.0.2:The paper was Figure 4.0.3 Smoke pumped Figure 4.0.4: The password
burnt in the smoke pump towards smoke detector to was entered to deactivate
sound the alarm. the alarm

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Procedure (for Heat Detectors)
1. The button was pressed.
2. The bulb was lighted up and stopwatch was started.
3. Thermometer was used to show the temperature as Figure 4.0.6. When the
predetermined temperature was reached, the alarm was sounded.
4. The password was keyed in to deactivate the alarm as Figure 4.0.5.
5. Initial and final temperature, change in temperature and time taken for alarm to sound
was recorded

Figure 4.0.5: The experiment was Figure 4.0.6: Thermometer is


started and having a required required for determine the
password to deactivate alarm temperature

5.0 Result

Zone I: Heat Detector


Thermometer reading (C) Time (s)
Before After
heat detector 30 69 5:23:79
rate of temperature rise detector 30 70 5:54:83

Zone II: Smoke Detector


Time
(s)
Ionization smoke detector 19:22
optical smoke detector 10:25

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Part 2: Examination of Control Zoning in TAR University College
Tasks:
1. Find out the control panel within University College.

Figure task 1.1 Control panel in library, Tarc College


2. Plot the control zoning.

Figure task 2.1 Information from control panel

Figure task 2.2 Control panel in library, Tarc College

3. Identify and examine the types of fire extinguishers and detectors in the specified zone
within University College.
Fire extinguishers and smoke detectors in library, Tarc College

Figure task 3.1 dry chemical fire Figure 3.2 Smoke detector
extinguisher

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6.0 Discussion
1. Trace the history in the development of a fire alarm system in a building.

In the old days, fire alarm were very low-tech. Earlier community people would be responsible
for monitoring fire in the area and warning people by blowing a whistle or ringing a church
bell when they discover a fire as manual fire detector. However, this system become
unworkable along with the development of the times and popularity which their alarm system
is useless for further area.

In 1852, the very first fire alarm system was invented by Dr. William F. Channing and Moses
Farmer and it was two fire alarm boxes design, each contain a telegraphic key. It will send the
fire details to central alarm station when fire is detected and handle will cranked by people. As
soon the telegrapher will received the message and notify the related fire department team.

In 1890, a modern fire alarm was patented by Francis Robbins Upton and soon be developed
in the 21st century and it became widely used as the fire department can respond quickly and
able to not to rely on community to be vigilant and that modern fire alarm is known as the first
electric fire alarm and detector.

In 21st century, the fire alarm system was developed without wires and various type of modern
technologies for extensive use such as cellular transmitters, private radio systems and digital
communicator systems. (DPL Fire & Security, 2017)

Nowadays, the field of the fire alarm system has advanced to where the smoke detectors and
alarm devices have combine to become a life-safety systems due to the result of fire disaster
which have caused heavy material losses.

2. What are the types of fire detectors available? Describe briefly on each.

Heat detector- It is the oldest type of automatic detection device operating the detect heat which
above a certain temperature in common units.
Rate-of-rise detector- It can identifies an abnormally fast temperature climb over a short
time period.
Linear heat detectors It required the same function as common heat detector and it detect
heat condition anywhere along the length of the cable.

Smoke detector- It is a much newer technology which providing early warning for a fire having
sound alerts detecting smoke.
Ionization smoke detectors It reacts to both visible and invisible products of combustion
which having little radiation source producing ions element that detects smoke respond
better to a flaming fire.
Optical smoke detectors It known as photoelectric smoke alarms and able to fast response
to visibly smouldering fires. It usually located near the kitchen area.
Intelligent multi-criteria detectors Having multiple sensors to detect multiple condition
and able to sense a wider range of fires with greater accuracy.

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Aspirating detector- it install as a series row absorbing air into a patented, high-sensitivity
smoke-sensing chamber through a pipe network and it is sensitive often detect before
visible smoke and normally telephone companies will apply this type of detectors.

Flame detector It is a flame detector optically senses radiation given off by flames or glowing
embers that operate on either an infrared, ultraviolet or combination principle.

Infrared (IR) flame detectors It senses light at the extreme, high end of the light
spectrum able to sense the typical flicker of a flame.
Ultraviolet (UV) Light Detectors It offer quick response and sensitive at short range area
as they are easily influence by the arc welding, halogen lamps, and electrical discharges
like lightning, they tend to be used indoors.
Combination Flame Detectors - It is a combination UV/IR flame detectors to the parts of
the spectrums and use the resulting composite signal to initiate an alarm and more accurate
Spark Detectors- It is not a true flame detector, identifying radiant energy produced by
sparks and embers in closed environments, such as air ducts.

3. What are the differences between the smoke and the heat detector?

Smoke detector Heat detector


It only detects smoke It only detects heat.
It show the fire warning when the It show the fire warning when it
temperature around the smoke detector encounters the atmosphere of soot burning
reaches a certain level. products.
It will send an alarm when even detect Slightest amounts of temperature changes
small amount of smoke cant detect by the heat detector.
It use ionization and photoelectric It uses thermocouple and electro-
technologies pneumatic technologies.
It designed to protect the people and It intended to minimize property damage
property by early warning fire which can by reacting to the change in temperature
provide a quicker response time. caused by a fire.
It is less reliable fire detector as it is very
It is more reliable fire detector and do not
sensitive and may give off false alarms. give false alarms even in a dusty
environment unless the temperature level
is really high.
The installation of smoke detectors in The installation of heat detectors in place
place where there is smoking is banned or where there is likelihood for intense heat
smoky fires are likely to occur. and high flames
Ex. Residential building, commercial Ex. Storage room (chemicals or fuels)
building

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4. From the Malaysian Uniform Building by Laws 1984 Part 8 (as at Feb 2011), list some of
the means of fire detection, extinguishment and alarm systems.

According to the section 225 subsection 1 of UBBL 1984 part 8 after the amendment -
fire alarm, fire detection, fire extinguishment and fire fighting access, the means of fire
detection is every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguishing fire
and with fire alarm together with illuminated exit signs is accordance with the requirement as
specified in the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws.

For the means of fire extinguishment, section 225(2) of UBBL 1984 stated every
building shall be served by at least one fire hydrant located not more than 91.5 meter from the
nearest building point of fire bridge access. In the following subsection 3, additional fire
hydrant shall be provided as maybe required by the Fire Authority depending on the size and
location of the building and the provision of access for fire appliances. Section 227 state the
portable extinguisher shall be provided according to the relevant codes by practice and shall be
located in prominent position on exit routes to be visible from all directions and similar
extinguishers in a building shall be of the same method of operation.

The means of the fire alarms system is refer to the section 237. Section 237 (1) fire
alarms shall be provided according to the tenth schedule. Section 237(2) has stated all premises
and building with gross floor area excluding car park and storage area exceeding 9290 2 or
exceeding 30.5m in height shall be provided with a two-stage alarm system with evacuation
(continue signal) to be given immediately in the affected section of the premises while an alert
(intermittent signal) be given in adjoining system. According to the section 237(3), the
provision shall be made for the general evacuation of the premises by action f a master control.
(Uniform Building By-laws 1984 (G.N. 5178/85), 2003)

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7.0 Conclusion

According to the result, heat detector gains the fast response toward heat then the rate
of temperature rise detector in zone 1 as the heat detector detect heat at 69C in 5.23 minutes
and the rate of temperature rise detector detect heat at 70C in 5.54 minutes. It shows that the
rate of temperature rise detector can operate on a rapid rise in temperature but may not respond
to low energy release rates of slowly developing fires.
For the time taken to detect smoke by smoke detector, optical smoke detector detects
smoke react rapidly and faster sounded than the optical smoke detector in zone 2 as ionisation
smoke detector detect smoke at 19.22 minutes while optical smoke detector detects smoke at
10.25 minutes. According to the research, Ionization smoke alarms can quickly detect the small
amounts of smoke produced by fast flaming fires, such as cooking fires or fires fuelled by paper
or flammable liquid whereas optical smoke detectors typically respond faster to a fire in its
early, smouldering stage before the source of the fire bursts into flames. (Best Smoke
Detector Reviews: Ionization and Alt, 2017)
Based on the result of these two type of fire detectors, the smoke detector need to take
more times than the heat detector to detect smoke while in fire. It required a combination fire
detector to become a perfect fire detector. As a conclusion, It has been come out a result of fire
alarm system has various in type and might not suit or suit to others specified zone area of
building due to the research stated.

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8.0 References
Northeast Document Conservation Center. (2017). 3.2 An Introduction to Fire Detection,
Alarm, and Automatic Fire Sprinklers. [online] Available at: https://www.nedcc.org/free-
resources/preservation-leaflets/3.-emergency-management/3.2-an-introduction-to-fire-
detection,-alarm,-and-automatic-fire-sprinklers [Accessed 17 Jun. 2017].

Ebu, U. (2016). An Introduction to Fire Alarm Systems. [online] linkedin. Available at:
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/introduction-fire-alarm-systems-ugochukwu-ebu
[Accessed 16 Jun. 2017].

Advfireonline.com. (2017). What Are The Benefits Of Installing Fire Alarms?. [online]
Available at: http://www.advfireonline.com/fire-alarm-contractor-in-broward-info-center-
what-are-the-benefits-of-installing-fire-alarms.html [Accessed 16 Jun. 2017].

Fireline. (2013). The Benefits of Hi-Tech Fire Alarm Systems - Fireline. [online] Available
at: http://www.fireline.com/blog/the-benefits-of-hi-tech-fire-alarm-systems/ [Accessed 16
Jun. 2017].

Metalfloss.com.(2017).How Do Smoke Alarms Work ?[online] Available at:


http://mentalfloss.com/article/32142/how do-smoke-alarms-work [accessed 18 Jun 2017]

Nelson, Z. (2017). Top Causes of Fire Detection System Failure. [online]


Orrprotection.com. Available at: https://www.orrprotection.com/blog/top-causes-of-fire-
detection-system-failure [Accessed 16 Jun. 2017].

Best Smoke Detector Reviews: Ionization, P. and Alt, K. (2017). Find the Best Smoke
Detector Type for Your Family. [online] ASecureLife.com. Available at:
http://www.asecurelife.com/best-smoke-detector/ [Accessed 16 Jun. 2017].

Aloha Alarm Hawaii-Burglary, Camera & Security Systems Honolulu Oahu Hawaii.
(2017). Types of Heat Detectors used in Fire Alarms. [online] Available at:
http://www.alohaalarm.com/heat-detectors-fire-alarms/ [Accessed 16 Jun. 2017].

Thoughtce. (2017). How Does Your Smoke Detector Work? [online] Available at:
http://www.thoughtco.com/how-the-smoke-detectors-work-602181[Accessed 16 Jun.
2017].

DPL Fire & Security. (2017). The History of Fire Alarms and Smoke Detectors - DPL Fire
& Security. [online] Available at: http://www.dplfire.co.uk/news/history-fire-alarms-smoke-
detectors/ [Accessed 11 Jun. 2017].

Artim, N. (n.d.). 3.2 An Introduction to Fire Detection, Alarm, and Automatic Fire Sprinklers.
[online] Northeast Document Conservation Center. Available at:
https://www.nedcc.org/free-resources/preservation-leaflets/3.-emergency-management/3.2-

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an-introduction-to-fire-detection,-alarm,-and-automatic-fire-sprinklers [Accessed 9 Jun.
2017].

plcb-fire-detectors. (2017). Fire detectors. [online] Available at:


http://www.aig.com/content/dam/aig/america-canada/us/documents/brochure/plcb-fire-
detectors.pdf [Accessed 15 Jun. 2017].

Differencebetween.net. (2010). Difference Between Heat Detector and Smoke Detector |


Difference Between. [online] Available at:
http://www.differencebetween.net/object/difference-between-heat-detector-and-smoke-
detector/ [Accessed 9 Jun. 2017].

Uniform Building By-laws 1984 (G.N. 5178/85). (2003). Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul
Ehsan: International Law Book Services, p.185.

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