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Lab Experiment

Carbon dioxide from Baking soda

Apisara Yooyuen 5861004

Lalida Suriyanonrin 5861309
Napassorn Pisittivitayanon 5861064
Thamonphan Nontapatamadul 5861165
Kimmy Pathanasap 5861052

Advance Chemistry
The chemical reaction between baking soda and acetic acid depends on the amount of moles
presented in the reactants. With the use of 0.75M of baking soda solution, more carbon dioxide
is produced than using 0.5M and 0.25M. However, there are some errors in the experiment that
can cause incorrect result. We collected the results by connecting the suction flask with the
cylinder under water and measuring the volume of the carbon dioxide presented in the cylinder.

To observed the relationship between the concentration of baking soda solution and the amount
of gas produced from the chemical reaction of baking soda and acetic acid.


Carbon Dioxide, CO2 , consists of one carbon atom covalently doubled bond to two
atoms of oxygen. They can be produced from natural sources such as respiration,
decomposition, etc., including acid-base reaction. Baking soda or known as Sodium
Bicarbonate, NaHCO3, has sodium atom, hydrogen atom, and a carbon dioxide molecule. It
reacts with acetic acid, CH3COOH, or vinegar. Sodium Bicarbonate acts as base which
exchanges proton with acetic acid by losing H atom to acetic acid. One of the products of
the reaction is carbon dioxide based on reaction equation (Spakowitz Lab at Stanford
Palo Alto Unified School District, and Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital, n.d.),

N aHCO3 (s) + CH 3 COOH(l) CO2 (g) + H 2 O(l) + N a+ (aq) + CH 3 COO (aq)

In the experiment, N aHCO3 , baking soda, was mixed with CH 3 COOH , vinegar or
acetic acid, in a closed suction flask in order to producing carbon dioxide gas. The purpose
is to show how much gas the reaction between these two reactants produced after using
different mass of one reactant each trials. This lab points out the concepts of Stoichiometry
based on how the amount of baking soda can effect to the amount of the products, which is
carbon dioxide that will be considered.

1. Baking soda
2. Acetic acid
3. Volume metric flask
4. Tubing, bucket
5. Funnel
6. Water
7. Clock or watch
8. Plastic cylinder
9. Suction flask


1. Firstly, baking soda with different number of moles, 0.2158M, 0.4315M and 0.6474M are
measured and transferred to 3 different containers using spatula with the amount of 1.81
grams, 3.63 grams and 5.44 grams respectively.
2. Secondly, each container is filled with a little amount of tap water and swirl continuously
until baking soda and water mixed, which could be observed through the presence of
clear liquid solution. After that, more tap water is added to the container until reached the
line marked on the container.
3. Thirdly, as the acetic acid(10% concentration) is already prepared, about 40 mL of the
acetic acid is poured into a beaker, then 20 mL of acetic acid in the beaker is transferred
to a graduated 100mL cylinder.
4. Set an apparatus by
-filled a sink with of water.
-Filled a plastic cylinder (which is connected with a plastic rubber pipe to the beaker that
will be used to mix acetic acid and baking soda solution, covered the joining part with a piece of
clay) with water, no air should be allow in the cylinder.
-After the cylinder is filled, quickly flipped the bottom part of the cylinder up and remain
the opening part in the sink filled water.
5. 20 mL of acetic acid is added to the first baking soda solution and quickly close the cap.
6. Measure the volume of gas for each sample.
7. After the volume is measured, repeat step 2-4 for sample 2 and 3.

Molar Amount of Mass of Mass of Volume of Pressure -

Concentratio substances baking soda baking soda gas produced calculation
n of solution (mole) by calculation by measuring - measuring (atm)
(Molar) (gram) (gram) (ml)

0.2158 0.02158 1.813 1.81 0 -

0.4315 0.04315 3.625 3.63 75 2.812

0.6474 0.06474 5.438 5.44 150 2.1096

Graph: Volume of gas produced by different number of mole

According to the graph, it can be conclude that 0.02158 mole of baking soda produced 0
ml of gas, 0.04315 mole of baking soda produced 75 ml of gas and 0.06474 mole of baking
soda produced 150 ml of gas. As more amount of baking soda is presented in the chemical
reaction, more volume of gas is produced as a product.

Chemical equation (adding baking soda and acetic acid)

N aHCO3 (s) + CH 3 COOH(l) CO2 (g) + H 2 O(l) + N a+ (aq) + CH 3 COO (aq)

Mass (baking soda) calculation:

We did some calculation to find mass in gram unit of baking soda needed for making baking
soda solution.

Molar concentration = Amount of solute (mol) / Volume of solution (L)

Mass(g.) = Mole * Molar mass
Molar mass of baking soda = 84

0.2158M = x mol / 0.1L

x = 0.02158 mol 0.02158*84 = 1.813 g.

0.4315M = x mol / 0.1L

x = 0.04315 mol 0.04315*84 = 3.625 g.

0.6474M = x mol / 0.1L

x = 0.06474 mol 0.06474*84 = 5.438 g.

Gas produced (CO2) calculation:

Ideal gas law: PV = nRT

P = Pressure (atm)
V = Volume (L)
n = Amount of substances (mol)
R = Gas constant (atmL/molK) = 0.082
T= Temperature (K)

As we used 20 mL of baking soda solution, so we need to calculate amount of

substance (mol) that we used again. Then, we calculated pressure at room temperature which
is 25 degrees Celsius.

0.2158M of baking soda solution:

0.2158M = n / 0.020L
n = 0.00432 mol
P * 0L = 0.00432mol * 0.082atmL/molK * 298K
P = undefined

0.4315M of baking soda solution:

0.4315M = n / 0.020L
n = 0.00863 mol

P * 0.075L = 0.00863mol * 0.082atmL/molK * 298K

P = 2.812 atm

0.6474M of baking soda solution:

0.6474M = n / 0.020L
n = 0.01295 mol

P * 0.150L = 0.01295mol * 0.082atmL/molK * 298K

P = 2.1096 atm

We calculated the pressure of gas that should be produced from different amount of
substates (baking soda) by using ideal gas law (PV = nRT). In the experiment, we made baking
soda solutions in different molar concentration by volume of 100mL. However, we used 20 mL
of the solution, so we needed to use molar concentration and volume of the solution to calculate
amount of baking soda in mole before calculating pressure. Then, we used amount of baking
soda (mol) and volume of gas to calculate pressure produced.
According to our result, increasing amount of baking soda which is substrate lead to
increasing value of gas produced. We found that high molar concentration solution which means
more amount of substrate can produced more amount of gas.We can explain by using ideal gas
law(PV = nRT). The pressure also can be calculated by using amount of limiting reagent which
is baking soda. From the formula that N aHCO3 (s) + CH 3 COOH(l) CO2 (g) + H 2 O(l) +
N a+ (aq) + CH 3 COO (aq) , we will be able to know that amount of gas produced in mole
unit will be equal to amount of baking soda used. After we know n we can use ideal gas law
for the calculation. We can concluded from the ideal gas law that if we set temperature being
constant, then the volume(V) will be directly proportional to amount of substance(n) while the
pressure is inversely proportional to volume.
This lab results in 150 ml of gas when uses 0.6474 molar concentration of baking soda
solution, 75 ml of gas when uses 0.4315 M, and 0 ml of gas when uses 0.2158 M. No volume of
gas presented could be the results of a very low concentration of baking soda solution. There
may be gas produced but the volume is so little that it cannot be measured or if measured,
might came from the error of the experiment. At the end, the objective of this lab experiment is
met and the relationship between the concentration of baking soda solution and the amount of
gas produced from the chemical reaction of baking soda and acetic acid can be found. When
baking soda, or sodium bicarbonate, ( NaHCO3) react with acetic acid (C H3COOH), it
produces an aqueous sodium acetate (CH3COONa) and carbonic acid (H2CO3).

NaHCO3(aq) + CH3COOH(aq) CH3COONa(aq) + H2CO3(aq)

However, carbonic acid (H2CO3) will break down itself to produce water and carbon
dioxide. Then, the carbon dioxide (CO2) will actually bubble out of solution.

H2CO3(aq) H2O(l) + CO2(g)

Therefore, as you can see that the reaction between baking soda (N
aHCO3) and acetic
acid (CH3COOH) will produce an aqueous sodium acetate (CH3COONa), water (H
2O), and
carbon dioxide ( CO2).

NaHCO3(aq) + CH3COOH(aq) CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l)+CO2(g)

We started with the smallest molar mass of baking soda, 0.2158 M. The pressure is
undefined because gas did not come out enough to be considered. For the 0.4315 M of baking
soda, the pressure is resulted 2.812 atm. For the largest molar mass, which is 0.6474M of
baking soda, the pressure is 2.1096 atm.
Moles of gas produced are equal to moles of baking soda used since baking soda is a
limiting reagent. Limiting reagent is the reactant that are limited, so it is the reactant that control
amount of product produced in the reaction. According to the formula equation, we can know
that the amount of gas is equal to moles of baking soda because the coefficient numbers of
them in the equation are the same. Since we calculated moles of baking soda, we can conclude
that the amount of gas are 0.02158 moles for 0.2158M of baking soda solution, 0.04315 moles
for 0.4315M of baking soda solution, and 0.06474 moles for 0.6474M of baking soda solution.

During our experiment we experienced many errors. Firstly, we poured the water over the
line of the volume metric flask a little bit, so the concentration of 0.6474 molar concentration of
baking soda might changed a bit which mean that the result will changed as well. Secondly, we
repeat the experiment many times because we werent able to close the tap of the suction flask
completely so the gas went out of the suction flask. Another error is that, the amount of 0.2158
molar of baking soda produced a very little amount of gas, the result was, no volume of gas
appeared in the plastic cylinder. If in the future, we have a chance to construct this experiment
again, we will be more careful about the measurement when we added the solution, plus, we
will more attentive and quicker, to make sure that the gas will not leaked out before come into
the rubber pipe.
However, we had just noticed our last error recently, we calculated the mass of baking
soda in gram wrongly because we used incorrect number of molar mass of baking soda.
Because of that, we constructed the experiment with the wrong mass calculation. The
concentration of baking soda solution is not what we expected or planned it to be at the first
time. After that noticed, we calculated again and got the correct molar concentration of baking
soda that we used in the experiment. This is the reason why the numbers of concentration
contains many decimal points.


In conclusion, the more concentration of baking soda solution, the more carbon dioxide
will be produced since the chemical reaction between baking soda and acetic acid depends on
the amount of moles presented. As shown in the lab results, in 150 ml of gas when uses 0.6474
molar concentration of baking soda solution, 75 ml of gas when uses 0.4315 M, and 0 ml of gas
when uses 0.2158 M.

Stoichiometry: Baking Soda & Vinegar Reactions. (n.d.). Retrieved November 16, 2017, from

Sodium Bicarbonate reacts with Acetic Acid and causes a chemical reaction. The end products of
this reaction are water and what compound? | Socratic. (n.d.). Retrieved November 16, 2017,