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cmAA

CRANE MANUFACTURERS
ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, INC.

Prepared by
The Crane Manufacturers Service Committee
1
( )- of CMAA

. Released April 2003

) CmSC
n
CRANE MANUFACTURERS
CMSC is a Standing Committee of the
Crane Manufacturers Association of America
SERVICE COMMITTEE OF CMAA
TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION AND DISCLAIMER 2

CRANE OPERATORS 7

CRANE MOTIONS 11
HOIST MOTION 12
TROLLEY MOTION 13
BRIDGE MOTION 14
MOVING THE LOAD 15

INSPECTIONS 19

OPERATION 21

APPENDIX A: DEFINITIONS OF VARIOUS TERMS USED TO


IDENTIFY CRANE TYPES 27

APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS OF VARIOUS TERMS USED TO


IDENTIFY CRANE-BRAKE TYPES 29

2001 by Crane Manufacturers Association of America, Inc. All rights reserved.


INTRODUCTION AND DISCLAIMER

The Crane Manufacturers Association of America, Inc. (CMAA) is an independent incorporated trade
association affiliated with the Material Handling Industry of America Division of Material Handling
Industry (MHI).

MHI provides CMAA with certain services and, in connection with this Crane Operators Manual,
arranges for its production and distribution. Neither MHI, its officers, directors or employees have any
other participation in the development and preparation of the information contained in this booklet.

All inquiries concerning this Crane Operators Manual should be directed in writing to the Chairman of
the CMAA Engineering Committee, c/o Crane Manufacturer's Association of America, Inc., 8720 Red
Oak Boulevard, Suite 20 I, Charlotte, North Carolina 282 I 7-3992.

This booklet has been prepared to provide information and suggestions for Crane Operators in their
operation of cranes. Overhead cranes generally handle materials in proximity to working areas where
there are personnel. Therefore, it is important for the Crane Operator to be instructed in the use of the
crane and to understand the severe consequences from careless operation.

It is not intended that the recommendations in this booklet take precedence over existing plant safety
rules and regulations, OSHA regulations, or instructions issued by the Crane Manufacturer. However, a
thorough study of the following information should provide a better understanding of safe operation
and afford a greater margin of safety for people and machinery on the plant ffoor.

It must be recognized that this is a booklet of recommendations for the Crane Operator and its use is
permissive not mandatory. It is the responsibility of the owner of the Crane to make personnel aware of
all federal, state and local rules, codes and plant safety rules and regulations and instructions, and to
make certain operators are properly trained.

2
INTRODUCTION AND DISCLAIMER

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: CMAAAND MHI MAKE NO WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER


IN CONNECTION WITH THIS CRANE OPERATORS MANUAL ("MANUAL"). THEY
SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR OF
FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTIES (EXPRESSED, IMPLIED, OR
STATUTORY) ARE MADE IN CONNECTION WITH THIS MANUAL.

DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY: USER SPECIFICALLY UNDERSTANDS AND AGREES THAT


CMAA, MHI, THEIR OFFICERS, AGENTS AND EMPLOYEES SHALL NOT BE LIABLE IN
TORT AND IN CONTRACT -WHETHER BASED ON WARRANTY, NEGLIGENCE, STRICT
LIABILITY, OR ANY OTHER THEORY OF LIABILITY- FOR ANY ACTION OR FAILURE TO
ACT IN RESPECT TO THE RECOMMENDED OPERATION OR INSPECTION OR OTHER
CHARACTERISTICS OF ANYTHING COVERED IN THIS MANUAL. BY USING OR
OTHERWISE EMPLOYING THIS MANUAL, IT IS THE USER'S INTENT AND
UNDERSTANDING TO ABSOLVE AND PROTECT CMAA, MHI, THEIR SUCCESSORS,
ASSIGNS, OFFICERS, AGENTS AND EMPLOYEES FROM ANY AND ALL TORT, CONTRACT
OR OTHER LIABILITY.

INDEMNITY: BY REFERRING TO, OR OTHERWISE EMPLOYING THIS MANUAL, THE USER


AGREES TO DEFEND, PROTECT, INDEMNIFY, AND HOLD CMAA, MHI, THEIR
SUCCESSORS, ASSIGNS, OFFICERS, AGENTS AND EMPLOYEES HARMLESS OF, FROM
AND AGAINST ALL CLAIMS, LOSSES, EXPENSES, DAMAGES AND LIABILITIES,
DIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL, ARISING FROM USE OF THIS MANUAL
INCLUDING LOSS OR PROFITS AND REASONABLE COUNSEL FEES, WHICH MAY ARISE
OUT OF THE USE OR ALLEGED USE OF SUCH MANUAL, IT BEING THE INTENT OF THIS
PROVISION AND OF THE USER TO ABSOLVE AND PROTECT CMAA, MI-II, THEIR
SUCCESSORS, ASSIGNS, OFFICERS, AGENTS AND EMPLOYEES FROM
ANY AND ALL LOSS RELATING IN ANY WAY TO THIS MANUAL INCLUDING THOSE
RESULTING FROM THEIR OWN NEGLIGENCE.

3
INTRODUCTION AND DISCLAIMER

This crane operator's manual has been prepared by the Engineering Committee of the Crane Manufac-
turers Association of America, Inc. as a supplement to the original Crane Manufacturer's Operation and
Maintenance Manual with the intent to provide additional information for the operation of overhead
and gantry cranes. Operation of an overhead or gantry crane involves more than operating the controls
of the crane. The operator must consider and anticipate the motions and actions that will occur as a
result of operating the controls.

The words shall and should are used throughout this manual in accordance with the definitions in the
ASME B30 standards as follows:

shall: this word indicates that a rule is mandatory and must be followed.

should: this word indicates that a rule is a recommendation, the advisability


of which depends on the facts in each situation.

It is a responsibility of the crane owner/user to establish programs to train and designate qualified crane
operators.

Crane operator and crane maintenance personnel training programs should be based on requirements in
accordance with the latest edition, as applicable, of the following:

ANSl/ASME B30.2 Safety Standard for Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running
Bridge, Single or Multiple Girder, Top Running Trolley Hoist.

ANSl/ASME B30. ! I Safety Standard for Monorails and Underhung Cranes.

ANSI/ASME B30. l 7 Safety Standard for Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running
Bridge, Single Girder, Underhung Hoist.

Such training programs should also provide information for compliance with any Federal, State, or
Local Code requirements, existing plant safety rules and regulations and the instructions of the crane
manufacturer.

Overhung and gantry cranes are often referred to by the basic type of construction of the crane. Some
definitions of the various terms used to identify crane types can be found in Appendix A.

4
INTRODUCTION AND DISCLAIMER

NOTICE

It is a responsibility of the owner/user to install, inspect, test, maintain, and operate a crane in
accordance with the applicable volume of the ANSl/ ASME B30 Safety Standard, OSHA Regula-
tions, and ANSl/NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. If the crane is installed as part of a total lifting
system, it is also a responsibility of the owner/user to comply with the applicable ANSl/ASME B30
volumes that address other types of equipment used in the system.

Further, it is a responsibility of the owner/user to require all personnel that will install, inspect, test,
maintain, and operate a crane, read the contents of the instruction manuals furnished by the manu-
facturer of the crane, and applicable portions of the volume of the ANSI/ ASME B30 Safety Stan-
dard, OSHA Regulations, and ANSl/NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. If the crane is installed as
part of a total lifting system, the applicable ANSI/AS ME B30 volume that addresses other types of
equipment used in the system must also be read by all personnel.

A WARNING

Before installing, removing, inspecting, or performing any maintenance on a crane, the main switch
shall be de-energized. Lock and tag the main switch in the de-energized position in accordance with
ANSI Z244. l. Follow other maintenance procedures outlined in the manual furnished by the manu-
facturer of the crane and applicable ANSI/ASME B30 volumes.

The Safety Alert Symbol is used in this manual to indicate hazards and to alert the reader to
information which should be known, understood, and followed in order to avoid DEATH OR
SERIOUS INJURY.

Read and understand this manual before using the crane.

Important issues to remember during operation are provided at the crane control stations, at various
locations on the crane, and in the manuals by DANGER, WARNING, or CAUTION instructions or
placards, which alert personnel to potential hazards, proper operation, load limitations, and more.

DANGER: Indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not


avoided, will result in death or serious injury.

WARNING: Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not


avoided, could result in death or serious injury.

5
INTRODUCTION AND DISCLAIMER

CAUTION: Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which, if not


avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. It may also
be used to alert against unsafe practices.

Jl WARNING
Failure to read and comply with any one of the limitations noted in this manual and the manual
furnished by the manufacturer of the crane can result in serious bodily injury or death, and/or prop-
erty damage.

6
CRANE OPERATORS

Overhead and gantry cranes are used for various purposes, handle different types of loads, and are
operated in different ways by many operators. Probably the most notable difference in crane operations
involves those cranes that are operated by a dedicated operator (usually cab-operated and pulpit-oper-
ated cranes) and cranes that are operated by non-dedicated operators (usually floor-operated and re-
mote-operated cranes). Many workers as part of their regular.job responsibilities normally operate Cranes
as non-dedicated operators.

Because the manufacturer of the crane has no direct involvement or control over the crane's operation
and application, conforming to good safety practices is the responsibility of the owner, the user and its
operating personnel. Only those Authorized and Qualified Personnel who have shown that they have
read and have understood this manual and the manufacturer's manual and that they understand the
proper operation and maintenance of the crane should be permitted to operate the crane.

READ and OBEY all Danger, Warning, Caution, and Operating Instructions on the crane and in all
manufacturers' manuals and this manual. Make sure that all placards are in place and legible. Failure to
comply with safety precautions in this manual, in the manufacturer's manual, and on the crane is a
safety violation, which may result in serious injury, death, or property damage.

Requirements for qualification as an operator of a crane apply to both dedicated and non-dedicated
operators.

Crane operators should be familiar with the parts of a crane and have a thorough knowledge of crane
control functions and movements. The principal parts of a crane are identified and shown in Figure 1,
page 8.

Crane operators, crane-rigging personnel, crane signal persons, and crane maintenance personnel should
be required to know the location, function, and proper operation of the main runway conductor discon-
nect switch for all cranes in the area.

A WARNING
lt is important that warning, control marking and other safety labels and signs are present on the
crane and that the information on the labels or signs is legible to any operator.

7
HOIST SPEED REDUCER

HOIST DRUM

MAINLINE DISCONNECT

DIRECTIONAL MOVEMENT

:::!!
(Q
c:
@
.....
OJ
I
00
::::!.

:l
0..
(Q
(!)
CAB ASSEMBLY /',-_,
0.....
Ill CONTROL ENCLOSURES
:l
(!)
BRIDGE LIGHT / ~

D REDUCER
BRIDGE SPEE RESISTORS

PUSHBUTTO N ASSEMBLY

BOTTOM BLOCK ----S

HOOK LATCH
/I HOIST

RUNWAY RAIL RAIL SWEEP


CRANE OPERATORS

Daily inspections shall he performed by the operator or other designated person at the start of each shift,
or at the time the crane is first used during each shift. Refer to the INSPECTIONS section of this manual
for additional information on inspections. The crane operator should not perform frequent or periodic
inspections unless designated to perform such inspections by the employer or snpervisor.

Crane operations which involve an operator and a signal person (normally the rigging or hookup
person) requires hand signals between the signal person and the crane operator, unless voice communi-
cation such as telephone, radio, or an equivalent method is used. Where hand signals are used, the
operator must be familiar with, and understand, hand signals and must be able to respond to the signals
from the signal person who is directing the lift. The operator should only respond to hand signals from
the designated signal person except to obey a stop signal, regardless of who gives it. When electronic
voice communication between the signal person and the operator is used, a dedicated channel is
required in order to eliminate any commands from other personnel in the area that could be confusing
to the operator.

Standard hand signals for use in overhead and gantry crane operations are shown in Figure 2, page 10.
A copy of the standard hand signals shall be posted in the cab or operator's station and at all operating
levels.

Special crane operations may require the use of additional hand signals or modifications of the standard
hand signals. When special signals are required, they shall be documented by the crane owner/user and
agreed upon, and understood by, the signal person and crane operator. Special signals shall not conflict
with standard signals.

Crane operators of cab-operated and pulpit-operated cranes should enter and exit cranes only at autho-
rized locations and designated boarding entrances. These locations and boarding entrances should be
kept clean and clear of other material to maintain a full passageway. Before leaving the cab or pulpit, the
crane operator shall open the crane main line disconnect switch.

9
CRANE OPERATORS

Standard Hand Signals


Operator Shonld Wear Proper Safety Clothing

ASME 830.2
Hand signals shall be posted conspicuously and should be as follows:

MOVE
SLOWLY
LOWER

(-~
EMERGENCY
STOP

BRIDGE

~
111
TRAVEL
'
, , ~~
\\ '
MULTIPLE TROLLEY
TRAVEL '
MAGNET IS
DISCONNECTED

Figure 2.

I0
CRANE MOTIONS

Overhead and gantry cranes basically have three axis of directional travel. These include:

THE HOISTING OR VERTICAL TRAVEL DIRECTION OF THE LOAD HOOK

THE TRAVERSE TRAVEL DIRECTION OF THE TROLLEY


(INCLUDING THE HOIST UNIT)

THE TRAVERSE TRAVEL DIRECTION OF THE BRIDGE


(INCLUDING THE TROLLEY AND HOIST UNIT)

Some cranes with power-operated rotating hooks, power-operated below-the-hook lifting devices, or
other power-operated accessories may have more than three axes of directional travel; however, the
basic crane will only have the basic three axes of directional travel.

The crane operator should be familiar with the crane controls and understand what type of motion will
occur when any one of the control devices is activated. The controls shall be marked, and all markings
shall be clearly legible. The daily inspection which is required to be performed by the operator or other
designated person at the start of each shift, or at the time the crane is first used during each shift, should
include the check that all travel motions agree with control device markings.

If the crane has more than one trolley hoist unit, each trolley hoist shall have identification marking on
it or its load block, and these markings shall also appear on the controllers used by the operator. For
example, if the crane has two trolley hoist units, one trolley hoist unit shall be marked "l" (or some
other designation) on the trolley hoist or load block, and one trolley hoist unit shall be marked "2" (or
some other designation) on the trolley hoist or load block. The markings on the trolley hoist or load
block must be visible to the operator and any signal person used in rigging the load. The controllers for
trolley hoist I must be marked "l" (or other designation used on the trolley hoist), and the controllers
for trolley hoist 2 must be marked "2" (or other designation used on the trolley hoist).

All motions should be started in the slowest speed available for the motion, and then the speed should
be gradually increased until the desired speed is obtained. On hoisting motion, the load should be raised
only a few inches and stopped to check the holding brake before continuing with the lift.

The bridge and trolley hoist should be brought directly over the load before rigging the load to the hoist
hook. Failure to center the bridge and trolley hoist over the load could cause the load to swing when it
is lifted or could cause side pulls or other forces to be transferred into the crane. Slack should be taken
out of the hoisting ropes and slings, if used, before attempting to lift the load.

11
CRANE MOTIONS

Hoist motion is the vertical travel motion direction of the hoist load hook. Control device markings for
this motion could be: "UP" and "DOWN"; "RAISE" and "LOWER"; or some other designation as
requested by the hoist owner/user. Regardless of the marking designation used, the operator should be
fully aware of the direction of hook motion that will occur when the control device is activated.

TO RAISE A LOAD:

Bring the bridge and trolley hoist directly over the load.

Lower the load hook so it can be attached to the load or the slings or other device used to rig the
load. The load, slings, or other device should be fully seated in the saddle or bowl of the hook. If the
load hook is equipped with a hook latch, verify that the hook latch is operational and closes the
throat opening of the hook. Make sure that the hook latch is not supporting any part of the load or
the slings or device used to attach the load to the hook.

Slack should be taken out of the hoisting ropes and slings, if used, before attempting to raise
the load.

The load should be raised only a few inches and stopped to check that the load is properly balanced,
that the slings, if used, are properly placed, and that the hoist holding brake stops and holds the load
before continuing with the lift.

If the hoist has multiple travel speeds, always start motion with the slowest speed and then increase
speed until the desired speed is obtained. Some multiple-speed hoists may have other features that
affect the lifting motion and the operator should become familiar with the operation of such features
and refer to the manual furnished by the manufacturer of the crane.

TO LOWER A LOAD:

When lowering the load, if the hoist has multiple travel speeds, the lowering speed should be decreased
to the slowest travel speed before stopping or landing the load. The operator must verify that all person-
nel are clear of the load and the path of the load and that the load will clear all obstacles before lowering
or landing.

12
CRANE MOTIONS

A WARNING
Adequate blocking or supports should be provided for the load before landing the load to insure
safe removal of the lifting slings. Extreme caution must be exercised if the hoist is used to remove
the lifting slings.

A WARNING
A load should never be left suspended and unattended unless specific precautions to prevent the
load from inadvertent lowering have been instituted and are in place and guards or barriers are
utilized on the floor to prevent people from entering the area affected by the suspended load.

When the crane is not in use, the empty load hook should be raised and positioned above head level for
storage. (Seven feet or greater above floor level is recommended.)

Trolley motion is the traverse travel motion direction of the trolley hoist unit. Control device markings
for this motion could be: "RIGHT" and "LEFT'; "EAST' and "WEST"; "NORTH" and "SOUTH", or
some other designation as requested by the hoist owner/user. Regardless of the marking designation
used, the operator should be fully aware of the direction of trolley hoist motion that will occur when the
control device is activated.

If a load is to be raised with the hoist hook before moving the trolley, refer to the HOIST MOTION
section, if the trolley has multiple travel speeds, always start motion with the slowest speed and then
increase speed until the desired speed is obtained. Both single-speed trolleys and multiple-speed trol-
leys may have electronic devices that provide controlled acceleration of the motor that offers a soft
controlled start. Methods to minimize swinging of the load should be taught during operator training.

When bringing the trolley to a stop, if the trolley has multiple travel speeds, it is recommended that the
travel speed be decreased to the slowest travel speed before stopping the trolley.

13
CRANE MOTIONS

A WARNING
Never put the hand where it could get caught between the sling and the load, or between the
load and the ground or other obstructions.

Bridge motion is the traverse motion direction of the bridge (or entire crane). Control device markings
for this motion could be: "RIGHT" and "LEFT"; "EAST" and "WEST"; "NORTH" and "SOUTH"; or
some other designation as requested by the hoist owner/user. Regardless of the marking designation
used, the operator should be fully aware of the direction of bridge (entire crane) motion that will occur
when the coutrol device is activated.

If a load is to be raised with the hoist hook before moving the bridge, refer to tbe HOIST MOTION
section. If the bridge has multiple travel speeds, always start motion with the slowest speed and then
increase speed until the desired speed is obtained. Both single-speed bridges and multiple-speed bridges
may have electronic devices that provide controlled acceleration of the motor offering a soft controlled
start. Methods to minimize swinging of the load should be taught during operator training.

CRANE BRAKE OPERATION

Crane operators must learn to judge the drift or stopping distance of each travel motion of the crane
when stopping. If the trolley or bridge has multiple travel speeds, the travel speed should be decreased
to the slowest travel speed before stopping the trolley or bridge to minimize swinging.

14
CRANE MOTIONS

STARTING

One of the cardinal rules for safe crane operation is to never make fast or sudden moves. All moves
should be smooth, without any sudden acceleration or deceleration.

Start the hoist very slowly, and be sure all the slack is out of the sling and hoisting rope or chain before
you lift the load off the ground.

Although it is necessary to start slowly, the crane should not be run at slower speeds more than a few
seconds. Move the controller handle or push button step by step until the fastest safe speed is reached.

STOPPING

When power is removed from the crane, it will continue to move for a short distance. As experience is
gained with a particular crane, the operator will learn to judge the amount of "drift" the crane has in
each direction. This drift can be used to bring the load into position more accurately and to minimize
wear on brakes and other parts of the crane.

Always stop the hoist before it reaches the upper or lower limit. Limit switches are for emergency stops
only. A hoist limit should never be used as an operating control.

With a bridge crane, the same caution applies to the rail stops. Be extremely careful if the crane is
operated near the stops and never use the stops or another crane for a bridge brake.

CONTROLLING THE LOAD

Always keep the load under control. lf the load has a tendency to swing or rotate, have a qualified
person walk along and guide it with a tag line.

Extreme caution must be exercised when using the hand to guide or to steady the load. Before using a
hand (to steady the load) know your company's policy concerning hands on a load while it is off the
ground. Many companies do not permit touching a suspended load.

15
CRANE MOTIONS

When bringing tbe bridge to a stop, if the bridge has multiple travel speeds, it is recommended that the
travel speed be decreased to the slowest speed before stopping the bridge.

Ji. WARNING
Never put the hand where it could get caught between the sling and the load, or between the
load and the ground or other obstructions,

BRAKES

Brakes on cranes include hoist holding brakes, hoist control braking means, trolley brakes and braking
means, and bridge brakes and braking means. Brakes are often referred to by other names that indicate
what type of actions they perform. Some definitions of the various terms used to identify crane brake
types can be found in Appendix B. Refer to the original crane manufacturer's operation and mainte-
nance manual for the specific crane brake types used for the application.

CRANE BRAKE OPERATION

Crane operators shall learn to judge the drift or stopping distance of each travel motion of the crane
when stopping. If the trolley or bridge has multiple travel speeds, the travel speed should be decreased
to the slowest travel speed before stopping the trolley or bridge to minimize swinging of the load. On
some cranes a trolley brake is not provided.

Types of brakes furnished on the crane will differ with the type of crane being used.

Floor-operated (usually pendant control) and remote-operated cranes (usually radio control) normally
have brakes that are applied automatically when the operator de-energizes the control device.

Cab-operated and pulpit-operated cranes may have foot-operated brakes, especially for travel motions
that retard the stop motion based upon the manner in which the operator applies the brake. This type of
operation is similar to the manner in which a driver applies the brakes in an automobile.

The practice of "plugging" may be used to aid in stopping or positioning the trolley or bridge. "Plug-
ging" is accomplished by momentarily operating the control in the first speed point of the reverse
direction. Excessive "plugging" is not recommended.

Refer to the original crane manufacturer's operation and maintenance manual for the availability and
limitations of "plugging".

16
CRANE MOTIONS

HOIST LIMIT DEVICES

Power driven hoists must be equipped with an upper limit device that will prevent the hoist load block
from exceeding the upper limit of travel. The upper limit device is normally activated by the load block
contacting some pmtion of the upper limit device. Depending on the shape or size of the load being
raised, it may be possible for some part of the load to come into contact with some part of the bridge or
trolley structure before the load block reaches the upper limit of travel. The operator shall consider this
possibility when it is required to raise the load to a level of close proximity to the crane.

The hoist may have additional travel limit devices depending on the specific purchase specifications of
the crane. However, in such cases, the upper limit device that is first contacted by the load block before
contacting some part of the bridge or trolley structure is considered the primary upper limit device.

Operation of the primary upper limit device is one of the items the crane operator shall check during the
daily inspection to be performed at the start of each shift, or at the time the crane is first used during
each shift, unless the employer or supervisor has assigned this responsibility to anotber designated
person.

A WARNING
The primary upper limit device that controls the upper limit of travel is an emergency device only.
It shall not be used as an operational means to stop travel during normal operations unless addi-
tional means are provided to prevent overtravel or damage from overtravel.

END STOPS AND BUMPERS

Stops are provided on the bridge of the crane to limit travel of the trolley. The stops are normally located
to allow the trolley to travel as close to the end of the bridge as possible and should engage bumpers or
bumper pads mounted on a power-operated trolley. Multiple power-operated trolleys operating on the
same bridge shall have bumpers that make contact between the trolleys.

Stops shall be provided on the crane runway girders to limit travel of the crane. The stops are normally
located to allow the crane to travel as close to the end of the crane runway girders as possible, and
should engage bumpers or bumper pads mounted on the bridge. Multiple cranes operating on the same
runway shall have bumpers that make contact between the cranes.

17
CRANE MOTIONS

A WARNING
Stops and bumpers are emergency devices only. They are not to be used as an operational means to
stop travel during normal operations. Operations that require stops and/or bumpers on a regular
basis require additional equipment to prevent damage to the stop, trolley, or bridge.

Colliding with stops at high speed can result in serious bodily injury or death, and/or
property damage.

WARNING DEVICES

Cab-operated, pulpit-operated, and remote-operated cranes are required to have a warning device that
will alert and warn people that may be positioned in the travel path of the load. Floor-operated cranes
are not required to have a warning device except for installations where the ability of the crane operator
to alert and warn people that may be positioned in the travel path of the load is impaired. In such
installations, a warning device is recommended for floor-operated cranes.
Typical warning devices are: GONG
BELL
SIREN
HORN
ROTATING
BEACON
STROBE LIGHT
When a manual warning device is provided on a crane, the crane operator shall activate the warning
device before starting the bridge or trolley travel motion of the crane, and intermittently during travel of
the crane when approaching people that may be positioned in the travel path of the load.

OUTDOOR CRANES

Cranes used in outdoor applications have many special considerations. Outdoor cranes may require
wind-indication devices that give a visible and audible alarm at a predetermined wind velocity, anchor-
age locations and methods, and rail clamps. An indoor crane that may operate outdoors on an occasional
basis is not classified as an outdoor crane.

When the wind speed exceeds the safe working wind velocity:

1. The operator shall discontinue operation of the crane.


2. The crane should be moved to an anchorage position and secured in the method being
used at the installation.
3. Rail clamps, if provided, should be activated when the crane is not traveling.
4. The operator should exit the cab and crane, if the crane is cab-operated.

These precautions should also be followed when the crane is shut down at the end of the workweek.
18
INSPECTIONS

The crane operator should perform daily inspections at the start of each shift, or at the time the crane is
first used during each shift, unless the employer or supervisor has assigned this responsibility to another
designated person. Daily inspection items to be performed by the operator or other designated person at
the start of each shift, or at the time the crane is first used during each shift, shall include the following:

INSPECTION ITEM DESCRIPTION OF INSPECTION CHECK POINTS

Tagged Crane or Hoist Check that crane or hoist is not tagged with an out-of-order sign.

Control Devices Check that all motions agree with control device markings.

Brakes Check that all motions do not have excessive drift and that stopping
distances are normal.

Hook Check for damage, cracks, nicks, gouges, deformations of the throat
opening, wear on saddle or load bearing point, and twist. Refer to the
manual furnished by the original manufacturer of the crane.

Hook Latch Check that hook latch, if provided, is not missing and that it operates
properly.

Wire Rope Check for broken wires, broken strands, kinks, and any deformation
or damage to the rope structure.

Reeving Check that the wire rope is properly reeved and that rope parts are not
twisted about each other.

Limit Switches Check that the upper limit device stops lifting motion of the hoist load
block before striking any part of the hoist or crane.

Oil Leakage Check for any sign of oil leakage on the crane and on the floor area
beneath the crane.

Unusual Sounds Check for any unusual sounds from the crane or hoist mechanism while
operating the crane and hoist.

Warning and Safety Labels Check that warning and other safety labels are not missing and that
they are legible.

19
INSPECTIONS

A WARNING
IF ANY DAMAGE OR MALFUNCTIONS ARE NOTED ON THE DAILY INSPECTIONS
ITEMS, THE OPERATOR SHOULD NOT OPERATE THE CRANE, AND SHALL IMME-
DIATELY ADVISE THE SUPERVISOR SO CORRECTIVE ACTION CAN BE TAKEN. IF
THE CRANE IS TAGGED WITH AN OUT-OF-ORDER SIGN, THE OPERATOR SHALL
NOT OPERATE THE CRANE.

CRANE OPERATORS SHOULD BE AWARE OF MALFUNCTIONS OF THE EQUIPMENT


THAT COULD OCCUR DURING OPERATION, AND IMMEDIATELY STOP OPERA-
TION IF SUCH MALFUNCTIONS OCCUR, AND IMMEDIATELY ADVISE THE SUPER-
VISOR SO CORRECTIVE ACTION CAN BE TAKEN.

IF CORRECTIVE ACTION HAS NOT BEEN COMPLETED BY THE END OF THE SHIFT,
THE OPERATOR SHALL ADVISE THE OPERATOR OR OPERATORS ON THE NEXT
SHIFT THAT CORRECTIVE ACTION IS REQUIRED ON THE CRANE AND VERIFY
THAT THE CRANE IS TAGGED WITH AN OUT-OF-ORDER SIGN.

Frequent and periodic inspections and maintenance of the crane in accordance with the requirements of
the applicable volume of the ANSI/ASME B30 standard and as outlined in the manual furnished by the
original crane manufacturer are required.

Crane operators should be aware of the inspection status of the crane they regularly operate.

NOTICE

THE CRANE OPERATOR SHOULD NOT PERFORM FREQUENT OR PERIODIC INSPEC-


TIONS ON A CRANE, UNLESS THE OPERATOR HAS BEEN TRAINED TO PERFORM
CRANE INSPECTIONS, AND IS DESIGNATED BY THE CRANE OWNER/USER TO
PERFORM CRANE INSPECTIONS.

THE CRANE OPERATOR SHOULD HAVE THE RIGHT TO ASK FOR AN INSPECTION AT
ANYTIME.

20
OPERATION

Operation of an overhead or gantry crane involves more than operating the controls of the crane. The
operator shall consider and anticipate the motions and actions that will occur as a result of operating the
controls.

A WARNING
CRANE OPERATORS SHALL READ THE OPERATION SECTION OF THE MANUAL FUR-
NISHED BY THE MANUFACTURER OF THE CRANE AND THE WARNINGS CONTAINED
IN THAT MANUAL; INSTRUCTION AND WARNING LABELS ON THE CRANE AND HOIST;
AND THE OPERATION SECTIONS OF THE APPLICABLE ANSI/ASME B30 VOLUME.
CRANE OPERATORS SHALL BE FAMILIAR WITH THE CRANE AND HOIST, AND CRANE
AND HOIST CONTROLS BEFORE BEING AUTHORIZED TO OPERATE THE CRANE AND
HOIST OR LIFTING SYSTEMS.

CRANE OPERATORS SHALL BE FAMILIAR WITH PROPER RIGGING PROCEDURES TO


BE FOLLOWED JN THE ATTACHMENT OF LOADS TO THE HOIST HOOK.

CRANEOPERATORSSHALLBEAWAREOFPOTENTIALMALFUNCTJONSOFTHEEQUIP-
MENT THAT REQUIRE ADJUSTMENT OR REPAIR, AND STOP THE OPERATION IF SUCH
MALFUNCTIONS OCCUR, AND IMMEDIATELY ADVISE THEIR SUPERVISOR SO COR-
RECTIVE ACTION CAN BE TAKEN.

CRANE OPERATORS SHALL NOT OPERATE A CRANE WHEN UNDER THE INFLUENCE
OF ALCOHOL OR DRUGS OR WHEN TAKING MEDICATION WHICH MAY CAUSE A HAZ-
ARD TO THE OPERATOR OR OTHERS.

CRANES ARE INTENDED ONLY FOR VERTICAL LIFTING SERVICE OR FREELY SUS-
PENDED UNGUIDED LOADS AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR LOADS THAT ARE NOT
LlfTED VERTICALLY, LOADS THAT ARE NOT FREELY-SUSPENDED, OR LOADS THAT
ARE GUIDED. IF SUCH CONDITIONS EXIST, CONTACT THE ORIGINAL MANUFAC-
TURER OF THE CRANE.

21
OPERATION

THE OPERATOR:

SHALL visually inspect wire rope for broken wires, broken strands, kinks, and any type of defor-
mation or damage of the rope structnre.

SHALL visually inspect hook for nicks, gouges, deformation of the throat opening, wear on saddle
or load bearing point, and twisting.

SHALL visually inspect hook latches, if supplied, for proper operation or damage that does not
allow proper operation.

SHALL test operation of the primary limit switch of the hoisting motion.

SHALL report warning label or labels if missing or illegible.

SHALL report any damage or malfunctions to the supervisor.

SHALL verify that the trolley braking system and/or crane braking system is functioning properly
before continuing with travel.

SHOULD NOT operate crane if any damage or malfunction exist.

SHALL NOT operate crane if it is tagged with an out-of-order sign.

22
OPERATION

THE OPERATOR:

SHALL be familiar with the operation of the crane.

SHALL be familiar with the OPERATION Section of the manual furnished by the original
manufacturer of the crane.

SHALL be familiar with the operations to be performed.

SHOULD NOT operate crane if any damage or malfunctions exist; and

SHALL report any damage or malfunctions to the supervisor.

SHALL center crane and hoist over load.

SHALL NOT use the hoist wire rope as a sling to wrap around the load.

SHALL attach the load to the hoist hook by suitable means such as slings or lifting devices.

SHALL only attach loads to the hoist hook that do not exceed the rated load capacity of the
crane or hoist.

SHALL verify that the attachment part of the sling or other lifting device is properly seated in
the base, bowl, or saddle of the hoist hook.

SHALL verify that the latch, if provided, of the hook will not support any part of the load.

SHALL verify that the load or any part of the load will not be applied to and/or not supported by
the tip or point of the hook.

SHALL verify that load will be properly balanced when it is lifted.

SHALL verify that side loads will not be applied to the crane or hoist when the load is lifted.

SHALL verify that hoist wire rope is not kinked or twisted, and that wire rope parts are not
twisted about each other.

23
OPERATION

THE OPERATOR:

SHALL verify that hoist wire rope is properly seated in the drum grooves and sheaves.

SHALL notify personnel in the area that a load will be lifted and verify that all personnel
are clear of the load.

SHALL verify that when the load is lifted, it will clear all material, machinery, or other
obstructions in the area.

THE OPERATOR:

SHALL NOT engage in any activity that will divert the attention of the operator.

SHALL NOT lift, lower, or transport a load with the crane or hoist until the operator and all
other personnel are clear of the load and the path of the load.

SHALL verify that the load, crane, and hoist will clear all obstacles before moving or rotating
the load.

SHALL NOT move loads over personnel.

SHALL NOT lift, lower, or transport personnel by means of the crane, hoist, trolley, hoist hook,
or load.

SHALL slowly inch the hook into engagement with the load to eliminate wire rope slack and
reduce impact loading of the crane and hoist.

SHALL avoid unnecessary inching and quick reversals of direction.

SHALL only lift the load a few inches to verify that the hoist braking system is functioning
properly before continuing with the lift.

SHALL avoid swinging of the load or hoist hook when the bridge trolley or hoist is traveling.

24
OPERATION

THE OPERATOR:

SHALL avoid sharp contact between trolleys or between trolleys and stops.

SHALL avoid sharp contact between cranes or between cranes and stops.

SHALL NOT use the primary upper limit device as an operating limit. This is not intended to
preclude the use of additional operational limits.

SHALL NOT lower the load beyond the point where less than two wraps of wire rope remain at
each anchorage on the drum, unless a lower limit device is provided, in which case no less than
one wrap of wire rope shall remain at each anchorage on the drum.

SHALL activate the manual warning device (if provided) before starting the bridge or trolley
travel motion of the crane, and intermittently during travel of the crane when approaching people
that may be positioned in the travel path of the load.

SHALL verbally warn people before starting the bridge or trolley travel motion of a floor-
operated crane that is not provided with a warning device that may be positioned in the travel
path of the load; and during travel of the crane when approaching people that may be positioned
in the travel path of the load.

THE OPERATOR:

SHALL NOT lower a load with the hoist until the operator and all other personnel are clear of
the load and the path of the load.

SHALL verify that the load will clear all obstacles before lowering the load.

SHALL block loads before landing if slings or other lifting devices must be removed from under
the landed load.

SHALL exercise care when removing a sling from under a landed and blocked load.

SHALL NOT leave a suspended load unattended unless specific precautions to prevent the load
from inadvertent lowering have been instituted and are in place.

SHALL position the hoist load block and hook above head level for storage when the hoist is not
in use.

25
OPERATION

THE OPERATOR:

SHALL know hand signals used for hoist and crane operations if a signal person is used in the
operation, and accept signals of only persons authorized to give hand signals

EXCEPT

SHALL obey a stop signal regardless who gives it.

SHALL NOT adjust or repair a crane or hoist unless qualified and authorized to perform mainte-
nance.

SHALL NOT use a hoist load limiting device as a means to measure the load.

SHALL exercise common sense procedures which are derived from experience, knowledge and
training.

DO NOT operate a cra1ie and hoist that is damaged or has any actual or suspected mechanical or
electrical malfunction.

DO NOT attempt to lengthen wire rope or repair damaged wire rope.

DO NOT use the wire rope, any part of the crane, hoist, or the load block and hook as a ground for
welding.

DO NOT allow a welding electrode to be touched to the wire rope.

DO NOT remove or obscure any warnings or warning labels on the crane or hoist.

DO NOT walk under a suspended load or allow any other personnel to walk under a suspended
load.

DO NOT perform or allow any other person to perform ANY work on a suspended load that re-
quires a worker to be positioned under the suspended load.

Note: Strict execution and observation of ALL procedures in this manual will better qualify per-
sonnel to operate the crane in a safer manner, but do not release operators and users from the
responsibility of obtaining, reading, and fully understanding the specific manufacturer's manual.

26
APPENDIX A

I. Automatic Crane - An automatic crane is a crane that, when activated, operates through a preset
cycle or cycles.

2. Cab-operated Crane - A cab-operated crane is a crane whose movements are controlled by an


operator through the use of controllers located in a cab that is attached to the crane.

3. Cantilever Gantry Crane -A cantilever gantry crane is a gantry or semi-gantry crane in which the
bridge girders or trusses extend transversely beyond the crane runway on one or both sides.

4. Crane - A crane is a machine for lifting and lowering a load and moving or traversing the load
horizontally (usually in two directions), with the hoisting unit or mechanism an integral part of the
machine. A crane can be driven manually, by power, or by a combination of both.

5. Floor-operated Crane - A floor-operated crane is a crane whose movements are controlled by an


operator through the use of controllers contained in a pendant station suspended from the crane.

6. Gantry Crane - A gantry crane is a crane similar to an overhead crane, except that the bridge for
carrying the trolley or trolleys is rigidly supported on two or more legs traveling on fixed rails or
other runway structure. The fixed rails or other runway structure are usually at ground level; how-
ever, they may be at some elevation above ground level, but at an elevation below the elevation of
the bridge.

7. Manually-operated Crane -A manually-operated crane is a crane whose hoist mechanism is driven


by pulling an endless chain, or whose travel mechanism is driven in the same manner or by manu-
ally moving the load or hook.

8. Molten Material Handling Crane -A molten material handling crane is a crane used for transport-
ing or pouring molten material.

9. Outdoor Crane - An outdoor crane is an overhead or gantry crane that operates outdoors and for
which provisions are not available for storage in an area that provides protection to the crane from
weather conditions. A crane that may operate outdoors on a periodic basis is not classified as an
outdoor crane.

10. Overhead Crane - An overhead crane is a crane with a single or multiple girder movable bridge
carrying a movable or fixed hoisting mechanism and trolley and traveling on an overhead fixed
runway structure.

27
APPENDIX A

11. Polar Crane - A polar crane is an overhead or gantry type crane that travels on a circular runway.

12. Power-operated Crane - A power-operated crane is a crane whose mechanism is driven by elec-
tric, pneumatic, hydraulic, or internal combustion means.

13. Pulpit-operated Crane -A pulpit-operated crane is a crane whose movements are controlled by an
operator through the use of controllers located in a control room or a fixed or movable cab or
platform that is independent of the crane.

14. Remote-operated Crane -A remote-operated crane is a crane whose movements are controlled by
an operator through the use of controllers contained in an operating station not attached to the crane
or by means of a radio transmitter.

15. Semi-gantry Crane - A semi-gantry crane is a gantry crane with one encl of the bridge rigidly
supported on one leg that runs on a lower fixed rail or runway structure, the other end of the bridge
being supported by an encl truck running on an elevated rail or runway structure.

16. Standby Crane - A standby crane is a crane not in regular service that is used occasionally or
intermittently as required.

17. Top-Running Crane - A top-running crane is an overhead or gantry crane having encl trucks that
travel on the top surface of rails attached to the runway or runway structure.

18. Underhung (under-running) Crane - An underhung crane is a crane having end trucks that travel
on the top surface of the lower operating flange of the runway or runway structure.

19. Wall Crane - A wall crane is a crane having a cantilever frame with or without trolley, and sup-
ported from a side wall or line of columns of a building. It is a traveling type and operates on a
runway attached to the side wall or columns.

28
APPENDIX B

I. Brake - A brake is a device, other than a motor, used for retarding or stopping motion by friction or
power means.

2. Braking means - A braking means is a method or device used for stopping or holding motion by
friction or power.

3. Control braking - Control braking is a method of controlling speed by removing energy from the
moving body or by imparting energy in the opposite direction.

4. Countertorque (plugging) braking - Countertorque braking is a method of controlling speed by


reversing the motor line voltage polarity or phase sequence to develop torque in the direction oppo-
site the rotation of the motor.

5. Drag brake - A drag brake is a brake that provides a continuous retarding torque without external
control.

6. Dynamic braking -Dynamic braking is a method of controlling speed by using the motor as a
generator, with the energy being dissipated in resistors.

7. Eddy-cnrrent braking - Eddy-current braking is a method of controlling or reducing speed by


means of an electrical induction load brake.

8. Emergency brake -An emergency brake is a brake that is applied when initiated by the operator, or
automatically upon loss of power, and stops trolley or bridge travel.

9. Holding brake - A holding brake is a friction brake for a hoist that is applied automatically and
prevents motion when power to the brake is de-energized.

10. Mechanical load brake - An automatic type of friction brake for a hoist used for controlling the
speed of loads in a lowering direction. This unidirectional device requires torque from the motor for
the hoist to lower a load but does not impose any additional load on the motor when the hoist is
raising a load. A mechanical load brake is a mechanical control braking means.

I I. Parking brake - A parking brake is a brake that can be applied either automatically or manually,
and impedes horizontal travel motion of the trolley or bridge travel.

12. Regenerative braking- Regenerative braking is a method of controlling speed in which the electri-
cal energy generated by the motor is fed back into the power system.

13. Service brake - A service brake is a brake that can be applied manually by the operator during

29
NOTES
NOTES
NOTES
2003

cm AA
CRANE MANUFACTURERS
ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, INC.
CMAA is an Affiliate of
Material Handling Industry
8720 Red Oak Blvd ., Suite 201
Charlotte, NC 28217-3992
\

Telephone: (704) 676-1190


Fax: (704) 676-1199
Website: www.mhia.org/cmaa 4m 3/09