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Lab Manual
GE6674-Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory


2015 - 2016

Name: ----------------------------------------------------------

Year / Sem: ------------------- Branch: ------------------

Roll No: ---------------------- Reg.No --------------------

GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016


Name of the Lab Incharge: Reg No:

Year :
Sem :

S. Page
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GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016


(Fifth Semester)

(Common to all branches of B.E / B.Tech Programmes)

0 0 4 2

Globalisation has brought in numerous opportunities for the teeming millions, with more
focus on the students overall capability apart from academic competence. Many students,
particularly those from non-English medium schools, find that they are not preferred due to their
inadequacy of communication skills and soft skills, despite possessing sound knowledge in their
subject area along with technical capability. Keeping in view their pre-employment needs and
career requirements, this course on Communication Skills Laboratory will prepare students to
adapt themselves with ease to the industry environment, thus rendering them as prospective
assets to industries. The course will equip the students with the necessary communication skills
that would go a long way in helping them in their profession.


To equip students of engineering and technology with effective speaking and listening
skills in English.
To help them develop their soft skills and interpersonal skills, which will make the
transition from college to workplace smoother and help them excel in their job.
To enhance the performance of students at Placement Interviews, Group Discussions and
other recruitment exercises.

I. PC based session (Weightage 40%) 24 periods

A. English Language Lab (18 Periods)

1. Listening Comprehension: (6)

Listening and typing Listening and sequencing of sentences Filling in the blanks -Listening
and answering questions.
2. Reading Comprehension: (6)
Filling in the blanks - Close exercises Vocabulary building - Reading and answering questions.
3. Speaking: (6)
Phonetics: Intonation Ear training - Correct Pronunciation Sound recognition exercises
Common Errors in English.
Conversations: Face to Face Conversation Telephone conversation Role play activities
(Students take on roles and engage in conversation)
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

B. Viewing and discussing audio-visual materials (6 periods)

(Samples are available to learn and practice)
1. Resume / Report Preparation / Letter Writing (1)
Structuring the resume / report - Letter writing / Email Communication - Samples.
2. Presentation skills: (1)
Elements of effective presentation Structure of presentation - Presentation tools Voice
Modulation Audience analysis - Body language Video samples
3. Soft Skills: (2)
Time management Articulateness Assertiveness Psychometrics
Innovation and Creativity - Stress Management & Poise - Video Samples
4. Group Discussion:
Why is GD part of selection process ? - Structure of GD Moderator led and other GDs -
Strategies in GD Team work - Body Language - Mock GD -Video samples

5. Interview Skills: (1)

Kinds of interviews Required Key Skills Corporate culture Mock interviews-Video

II. Practice Session (Weightage 60%) 24 periods

1. Resume / Report Preparation / Letter writing: Students prepare their (2)
own resume and report.
2. Presentation Skills: Students make presentations on given topics. (8)
3. Group Discussion: Students participate in group discussions. (6)
4. Interview Skills: Students participate in Mock Interviews (8)

1. Anderson, P.V, Technical Communication, Thomson Wadsworth , Sixth
Edition, New Delhi, 2007.
2. Prakash, P, Verbal and Non-Verbal Reasoning, Macmillan India Ltd., Second
Edition, New Delhi, 2004.
3. John Seely, The Oxford Guide to Writing and Speaking, Oxford University
Press, New Delhi, 2004.
4. Evans, D, Decisionmaker, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
5. Thorpe, E, and Thorpe, S, Objective English, Pearson Education,
Second Edition, New Delhi, 2007.
6. Turton, N.D and Heaton, J.B, Dictionary of Common Errors, Addision Wesley
Longman Ltd., Indian reprint 1998.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016


Cycle Exercise No weeks Topic
I 1 4 Presentation
(i) Technical Topic (2Nos)

(ii) General Topic (2Nos)

2 2 Resume Writing (With Covering Letter)

(i) Fresher

(ii) Experience

II 3 2 Interview Skills and Mock Interview

(i) Group Discussion
(ii) Role Play
(iii) Debate
(iv) Panel Discussion

4 2 Describing Charts andTables

5 1 (i) E-mail
(ii) SMS
(iii) Blog
(iv) Tweets
6 1
Analysis and Report Writing

Writing for Media on current events

GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016



An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration, the
acceleration experienced relative to freefall.Single- and multi-axis models are available to
detect magnitude and direction of the acceleration as a vector quantity, and can be used to sense
orientation, acceleration, vibration shock, and falling.
An accelerometer measures proper acceleration, which is the acceleration it
experiences relative to freefall and is the acceleration felt by people and objects. Put another
way, at any point in spacetime the equivalence principle guarantees the existence of a local
inertial frame, and an accelerometer measures the acceleration relative to that frame. Such
accelerations are popularly measured in terms of g-force. An accelerometer at rest relative to
the Earth's surface will indicate approximately 1 g upwards because any point on the Earth's
surface is accelerating upwards relative to the local inertial frame (the frame of a freely falling
object near the surface). To obtain the acceleration due to motion with respect to the Earth, this
"gravity offset" must be subtracted.
Conceptually, an accelerometer behaves as a damped mass on a spring. When
the accelerometer experiences an acceleration, the mass is displaced to the point that the spring
is able to accelerate the mass at the same rate as the casing. The displacement is then measured
to give the acceleration.
In commercial devices, piezoelectric, piezoresistive and capacitive components
are commonly used to convert the mechanical motion into an electrical signal. Piezoelectric
accelerometers rely on piezoceramics (e.g. lead zirconate titanate) or single crystals (e.g.
quartz, tourmaline). They are unmatched in terms of their upper frequency range, low packaged
weight and high temperature range. Piezoresistive accelerometers are preferred in high shock
applications. Capacitive accelerometers typically use a silicon micro-machined sensing
element. Their performance is superior in the low frequency range and they can be operated in
servo mode to achieve high stability and linearity.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016


Accelerometers can be used to measure vehicle acceleration. They allow for
performance evaluation of both the engine/drive train and the braking systems. Useful numbers
like 0-60 mph, 60-0 mph and 1/4 mile times can all be found using accelerometers.

Accelerometers are also increasingly used in the Biological Sciences. High
frequency recordings of bi-axial or tri-axial acceleration (>10 Hz) allows the discrimination of
behavioral patterns while animals are out of sight. Furthermore, recordings of acceleration
allow researchers to quantify the rate at which an animal is expending energy in the wild, by
either determination of limb-stroke frequency or measures such as Overall Dynamic Body


Accelerometers are also used for machinery health monitoring of rotating
equipment such as pumps, fans, rollers, compressors, and cooling towers,. Vibration
monitoring programs are proven to save money, reduce downtime, and improve safety in plants
worldwide by detecting conditions such as shaft misalignment, rotor imbalance, gear failure or
bearing fault which can lead to costly repairs. Accelerometer vibration data allows the user to
monitor machines and detect these faults before the rotating equipment fails. Vibration
monitoring programs are utilized in industries such as automotive manufacturing, machine tool
applications, pharmaceutical production, power generation and power plants, pulp and paper,
food and beverage production, water and wastewater, hydropower, petrochemical and steel
. Within the last several years, Nike, Polar and other companies have produced
and marketed sports watches for runners that include footpods, containing accelerometers to
help determine the speed and distance for the runner wearing the unit.
An Inertial Navigation System (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer
and motion sensors (accelerometers) to continuously calculate via dead reckoning the position,
orientation, and velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the
need for external references. Other terms used to refer to inertial navigation systems or closely
related devices include inertial guidance system, inertial reference platform, and many other
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

A number of modern notebook computers feature accelerometers to
automatically align the screen depending on the direction the device is held, i.e. switching
between portrait and landscape modes. This feature is relevant in Tablet PCs and some
smartphones and digital cameras.
For example, Apple uses an LIS302DL accelerometer in the iPhone, iPod
Touch and the 4th&5th generation iPod Nano allowing the device to know when it is tilted on
its side. Third-party developers have expanded its use with fanciful applications such as
electronic bobble heads. The BlackBerry Storm and Storm 2 Touchscreen phones also
incorporate this orientation sensing feature.

Many laptops feature an accelerometer, such as Lenovo's (formerly IBM's)
Active Protection System, Apple's Sudden Motion Sensor and HP's 3D DriveGuard, which is
used to detect drops. If a drop is detected, the heads of the hard disk are parked to avoid data
loss and possible head or disk damage by the ensuing shock.
Thus the principle and the applications of the accelerometers have been


A sensor; is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal
which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example, a mercury-in-glass
thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which
can be read on a calibrated glass tube. A thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage
which can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, most sensors are calibrated against
known standards.
Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile
sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include cars,
machines, aerospace, medicine, manufacturing and robotics.
A sensor is a device which receives and responds to a signal or stimulus. Here, the term
"stimulus" means a property or a quantity that needs to be converted into electrical form. Hence,
sensor can be defined as a device which receives a signal and converts it into electrical form
which can be further used for electronic devices. A sensor differs from a transducer in the way
that a transducer converts one form of energy into other form whereas a sensor converts the
received signal into electrical form only.

A good sensor obeys the following rules:

Is sensitive to the measured property
Is insensitive to any other property likely to be encountered in its application
Does not influence the measured property
Ideal sensors are designed to be linear or linear to some simple mathematical function of the
measurement, typically logarithmic. The output signal of such a sensor is proportional to the
value or simple function of the measured property. The sensitivity is then defined as the ratio
between output signal and measured property. For example, if a sensor measures temperature
and has a voltage output, the sensitivity is a constant with the unit [V/K]; this sensor is linear
because the ratio is constant at all points of measurement.

If the sensor is not ideal, several types of deviations can be observed:
The sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified. This is called a sensitivity
error, but the sensor is still linear.
Since the range of the output signal is always limited, the output signal will eventually reach
a minimum or maximum when the measured property exceeds the limits. The full scale range
defines the maximum and minimum values of the measured property.
If the output signal is not zero when the measured property is zero, the sensor has
an offset or bias. This is defined as the output of the sensor at zero input.
If the sensitivity is not constant over the range of the sensor, this is called nonlinearity.
Usually this is defined by the amount the output differs from ideal behavior over the full
range of the sensor, often noted as a percentage of the full range.
If the deviation is caused by a rapid change of the measured property over time, there is
a dynamic error. Often, this behaviour is described with a bode plot showing sensitivity error
and phase shift as function of the frequency of a periodic input signal.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

If the output signal slowly changes independent of the measured property, this is defined
as drift (telecommunication).
Long term drift usually indicates a slow degradation of sensor properties over a long period
of time.
Noise is a random deviation of the signal that varies in time.

Hysteresis is an error caused by when the measured property reverses direction, but there
is some finite lag in time for the sensor to respond, creating a different offset error in one
direction than in the other.
If the sensor has a digital output, the output is essentially an approximation of the measured
property. The approximation error is also called digitization error.
If the signal is monitored digitally, limitation of the sampling frequency also can cause a
dynamic error, or if the variable or added noise noise changes periodically at a frequency
near a multiple of the sampling rate may induce aliasing errors.
The sensor may to some extent be sensitive to properties other than the property being
measured. For example, most sensors are influenced by the temperature of their environment.
All these deviations can be classified as systematic errors or random errors. Systematic errors
can sometimes be compensated for by means of some kind of calibration strategy. Noise is a
random error that can be reduced by signal processing, such as filtering, usually at the expense of
the dynamic behaviour of the sensor.

The resolution of a sensor is the smallest change it can detect in the quantity that it is
measuring. Often in a digital display, the least significant digit will fluctuate, indicating that
changes of that magnitude are only just resolved. The resolution is related to the precision with
which the measurement is made. For example, a scanning tunneling probe (a fine tip near a
surface collects an electron tunnelling current) can resolve atoms and molecules.
All living organisms contain biological sensors with functions similar to those of the mechanical
devices described. Most of these are specialized cells that are sensitive to:
Light, motion, temperature, magnetic fields, gravity, humidity, vibration, pressure, electrical
fields, sound, and other physical aspects of the external environment
Physical aspects of the internal environment, such as stretch, motion of the organism, and
position of appendages (proprioception)
Environmental molecules, including toxins, nutrients, and pheromones
Estimation of biomolecules interaction and some kinetics parameters
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Internal metabolic milieu, such as glucose level, oxygen level, or osmolality

Internal signal molecules, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and cytokines
Differences between proteins of the organism itself and of the environment or alien creatures



A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows

hot magma, ash and gases to escape from below the surface.

Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging.
A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused
by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes
caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not
created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Volcanoes can also form where there is
stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust (called "non-hotspot intraplate volcanism"), such as in
the East African Rift, the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North

Volcanoes can be caused by mantle plumes. These Also-called hotspots, for example
at Hawaii, can occur far from plate boundaries. Hotspot volcanoes are also found elsewhere in
the solar system, especially on rocky planets and moons.

The word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian
Islands of Italy whose name in turn originates from Vulcan, the name of a god of firer in Roman
mythology.] The study of volcanoes is called volcanology, sometimes spelled Vulcan logy.


At the mid-oceanic ridges, two tectonic plates diverge from one another.
New oceanic crust is being formed by hot molten rock slowly cooling and solidifying. The crust
is very thin at mid-oceanic ridges due to the pull of the tectonic plates. The release of pressure
due to the thinning of the crust leads to adiabatic expansion, and the partial melting of
the mantle causing volcanism and creating new oceanic crust. Most divergent plate
boundaries are at the bottom of the oceans, therefore most volcanic activity is submarine,
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

forming new seafloor. Black smokers or deep sea vents are an example of this kind of volcanic
activity. Where the mid-oceanic ridge is above sea-level, volcanic islands are formed, for
example, Iceland.
Subduction zones are places where two plates, usually an oceanic plate and a
continental plate, collide. In this case, the oceanic plate subducts, or submerges under the
continental plate forming a deep ocean trench just offshore. Water released from the subducting
plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle wedge, creating magma. This
magma tends to be very viscous due to its high silicacontent, so often does not reach the surface
and cools at depth. When it does reach the surface, a volcano is formed. Typical examples for
this kind of volcano are Mount Etna and the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire.
Hotspots are not usually located on the ridges of tectonic plates, but above mantle
plumes, where the convection of the Earth's mantle creates a column of hot material that rises
until it reaches the crust, which tends to be thinner than in other areas of the Earth. The
temperature of the plume causes the crust to melt and form pipes, which can vent magma.
Because the tectonic plates move whereas the mantle plume remains in the same place, each
volcano becomes dormant after a while and a new volcano is then formed as the plate shifts over
the hotspot. The Hawaiian Islands are thought to be formed in such a manner, as well as
the Snake River Plain, with the Yellowstone Caldera being the part of the North American plate
currently above the hot spot.
The most common perception of a volcano is of a conical mountain,
spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit. This describes just one of many
types of volcano, and the features of volcanoes are much more complicated. The structure and
behavior of volcanoes depends on a number of factors. Some volcanoes have rugged peaks
formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater, whereas others present landscape features
such as massive plateaus. Vents that issue volcanic material (lava, which is what magma is called
once it has escaped to the surface, and ash) and gases (mainly steam and magmatic gases) can be
located anywhere on the landform. Many of these vents give rise to smaller cones such
as Puu on a flank of Hawaii's Klauea.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016


Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes
instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystemi.e. physical systems or living
organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or
light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally
occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural
levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.

Air pollution, the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous air
pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) andnitrogen
oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and are created as
nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust is
characterized by their micrometer size PM10 to PM2.5.

Light pollution, includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference.

Noise pollution, which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as
high-intensity sonar.
Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage.
Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy
metals, MTBE,herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
Radioactive contamination, resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as
nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment.
Thermal pollution, is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human
influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant.

Air pollution comes from both natural and man made sources. Though globally man made
pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly
significant in the air pollution equation.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution. China, United
States, Russia, Mexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. Principal
stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil
refineries, petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock
farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics
factories, and other heavy industry. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary
practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of
pesticides and herbicide

About 400 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year. The United
States alone produces about 250 million metric tons. Americans constitute less than 5% of
the world's population, but produce roughly 25% of the worlds CO2, and generate
approximately 30% of worlds waste. In 2007, China has overtaken the United States as the
world's biggest producer of CO2.


Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone pollution can
cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. Water
pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking
water by untreated sewage in developing countries. An estimated 700 million Indians have no
access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrhoeal sickness every day. Nearly
500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water. 656,000 people die prematurely each
year in China because of air pollution. In India, air pollution is believed to cause 527,700
fatalities a year. Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the US
could be over 50,000.

Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood
pressure, stress, andsleep disturbance. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in
children and neurologic symptoms. Older people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air
pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. Children and infants are
also at serious risk. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological
problems. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects.
Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. There are a number of effects
of this:
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Biomagnifications describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals) may pass
through trophic levels, becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process.
Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification, the ongoing decrease in the pH of the
Earth's oceans as CO2 becomes dissolved.
The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many
Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants can
contribute debris and biomolecules (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical
compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competitiveness.
Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilize land which can change the
species composit
Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil.



5th, April 2014.

No.16 Venkatakrishna Nagar,2nd street,
Chennai-600 106.

The Human Resource Manager,
111, Pune road,

Respected sir,
SUB:Application for the post of Assistant Control Engineer

With reference to your advertisement in THE HINDU dated on 25th March 2012, I apply for the
post of Assistant Control Engineer. I consider as the best opportunity given to me to work in your
esteemed company. I have attached my resume with this letter. I assure you that I will give my best for
the betterment of the company. I am looking forward to hearing from you. Hoping for a positive reply.

Thanking you,

Yours Sincerely,
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Dev Sharma
Email ID- **** Contact No. +91-*******

Career Objective- To work for an organization which provides me the opportunity to improve
my skills and knowledge to growth along with the organization objective.

Profile Summary-
- An enthusiastic fresher with highly motivated and leadership skills having bachelors of
engineering degree in
Mechanical Engineering.
- Expert in implementation of each step of project.
- Eager to learn new technologies and methodologies.
- Always willing to innovate the new things which can improve the existing technology.

Personality Traits-
- Highly motivated and eager to learn new things.
- Strong motivational and leadership skills.
- Ability to produce best result in pressure situation.
- Excellent communication skills in written and verbal both.
- Ability to work as individual as well as in group.

- Bachelor of engineering from ASD institute of Technology with 75%
- Diploma in Mechanical Engineering from AKL Institute with 73%

Technical Qualification-
- 2D Drafting Package : AutoCAD.
- 3D Drafting Package : Solid Edge
- Analysis Package : Femap
- Internet Savvy

Leaf spring by using Natural fibres
Duration -3 month
Description- In this project we use natural fibres for using as leaf spring and it is cost effective

- FOUR suggestion certificates issued by TVS for my best suggestions.
- SAE INDIA MEMBER and attended one day workshop conducted by SAEINDIA
- Participated in International Conference on Emerging Trends in Energy and Environment.
- Completed training on Basic Life Support and First Aid Skills
- Completed training on Basic Fire Safety and Emergency Preparedness.

Extra-Curricular Activities-
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

- Participated in Robotics Championship in SDF University.

- Actively participated in program of ASD NGO.
- Reading Books

Personal Details-
- Languages Known- Hindi, English
- Address- NBJSBJSB

Ex.No: 3(B) Date:


No.16 Venkatakrishna Nagar,2nd street,
Chennai-600 106.

The Human Resource Manager,
111, Pune road,

Respected sir,
SUB: Application for the post of Senior Control Engineer

With reference to your advertisement in THE HINDU dated on 25th March 2012, I
apply for the post of Senior Control Engineer. I consider as the best opportunity given to me to
work in your esteemed company. I have attached my resume with this letter. I assure you that I
will give my best for the betterment of the company. I am looking forward to hearing from you.
Hoping for a positive reply.

Thanking you,

Yours Sincerely,

Samrat Shekhar
Email ID- **** Contact No. +91-********
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Career Objective - Currently looking for a full time position in an environment that offers a
greater challenge, increased benefits for my family, and the opportunity to help the company.

Career Summary-
- A innovative thinker with excellent construction skills possesses 3 year experience as an
- Possessing a proven ability to made a economical and strong architecture plan for client.
- Excellent in assessing the resources and identify the oppurtunities.
- Excellent in coordinating with seniors and taking orders.
- Excellent in analysis, ratings and forecasts and rigorous benchmarking of the business

Personality Traits-
- Strong motivational skills
- Remarkable analytical, logical skills
- Unmatchable communication skills in written and verbal both.
- Ability to give the best result in pressure situations

Key Responsibilities Handled-

- Prepare the plan according to the client needs.
- Presenting the plan in front of seniors.
- Implement the suggestions in the plan.
- Identify the resources of the project.
- Perform design reviews across the organization.
- Ensure that work should be done on time.
- Supervise the each stage of manufacturing and giving suggestions.
- Train the new employees.

- Receive Best Architecture Award in ASD Constructions.
- Receive many appreciations from seniors for excellent work.

- Working as Chief architecture in ASD constructions from 2010- present.
- Worked as Architecture in FGH Constructions from 2009-2010.

- Bachelors of architect from GHJ Technical Institute with 81%.
- Diploma in architecture.

Personal Details-
- Languages Knnown- Hindi, English
-Address- JSBJSDBJJi
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016


1.Tell me about your self

Hello Sir, I am Nitin Sijwali, I am from Delhi only. Currently I'm pursuing Bachelor of
Technology from Northern India Engineering College, Delhi under IP University in Mechanical
& Automation. I am a final year student. Currently I have maintained 79.6% aggregate and
hoping to make it better. We are 3 siblings and parents in my family. I'm the youngest one. My
father is in service and mother is a housewife.
I done my schooling from Bharti Public School, New Delhi and got 87% in 12th standard and
8.6 CGPA in class 10th.
I am an active member of P.Y.P, a social group working in our college which imparts free
education to local children of the area.
As a fresher I have no work experience but I will prove myself when opportunity comes.
It was a pleasure introducing myself to you.

2.What are your strength

"Out of the box" thinking, hardworking, flexibility, leadership, keeping calm and composure are
some of my strengths.
My biggest asset is my positive attitude and my nature.
I am a hard worker and quick learner thats my strength.
What are your weakness?
My weak points is that I am too emotional who easily get swayed away by someone's emotions.
My weakness is I trust every one easily even I meet that person at first time.

3. Which adjective would you use to describe yourself?

I am confident that I would make a valuable addition to your team and I am very diligent person.
I am good at applying at work.

4.What do you know about our company?

Being a reputed and fast growing company across the globe its a big platform for all young
aspirants as me! there is yet lot to explore. I see this as full of opportunities and challenging
ahead, the amazing thing over here is the work environment one will get to learn a lot, transform
to the best and connect with the people (customer) across the globe as you do! You have touched
the lives of people through the sectors and products you produce.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

5.Why do you want to work for us?

Sir, I am looking for a job in a reputed company like yours where I will be able to apply my
skills, knowledge and my past experience what I gathered from my previous job in better way for
the growth of myself and as well as your company and also get scope to learn any new things for
the further development of both myself and company too. So I do believe that your company will
be an ideal place for me where I will be able to give my future a good shape and also be able to
steer my career in better way.

6.Why should I hire you?

Thank you for this question to me, Sir as a fresher I need to start my carrier with one of the best
organization like yours if you give me an opportunity I will show all of my knowledge in the
field and already I mentioned myself am self-motivated so it will help me and as well as my
company growth to.

7.What makes you want to work hard?

My parents taught me that it's important to have a work ethic. I work hard simply because it is
important to me that my work be the best it can be. I don't do it for pats on the head or other
external praise. It comes from my own pride in doing the best job I can. Slacking off or doing a
sloppy job causes me to be ashamed of myself.

8.What type of work environment do you like best?

My ideal work environment is one that is adaptive. When necessary, it easily handles fast paced
work, and is ready for any challenges it undertakes, but also slows down when work is slow,
recognizing the natural shifts in business and responding accordingly.

9.Where do you see yourself five years from now?

I would hope that by then my hard work and enthusiasm would have led to increased recognition
and responsibility within the organization.

10. Explain how you overcame a major obstacle.

Still now I havent faced any major obstacle. Well to overcome obstacle, one should have
strong determination and self-confidence on himself / herself. They have to face life as it comes.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016


A group discussion can be categorically divided into three different phases:

i. Initiation/ Introduction

ii. Body of the group discussion

iii. Summarisation/ Conclusion

Let's stress on the initiation and summarisation:

Initiation Techniques:

Initiating a GD is a high profit-high loss strategy.

When you initiate a GD, you not only grab the opportunity to speak, you also grab the attention
of the examiner and your fellow candidates.

If you can make a favourable first impression with your content and communication skills after
you initiate a GD, it will help you sail through the discussion.

But if you initiate a GD and stammer/ stutter/ quote wrong facts and figures, the damage might
be irreparable.

If you initiate a GD impeccably but don't speak much after that, it gives the impression that you
started the GD for the sake of starting it or getting those initial kitty of points earmarked for an

When you start a GD, you are responsible for putting it into the right perspective or
framework. So initiate one only if you have indepth knowledge about the topic at hand.

There are different techniques to initiate a GD and make a good first impression:

~ Quotes:

Quotes are an effective way of initiating a GD.

If the topic of a GD is: Should the Censor Board be abolished?, you could start with a quote like,
'Hidden apples are always sweet'.

For a GD topic like, Customer is King, you could quote Sam (Wal-mart) Walton's famous
saying, 'There is only one boss: the customer. And he can fire everybody in the company -- from
the chairman on down, simply by spending his money somewhere else.'
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

~ Definition:

Start a GD by defining the topic or an important term in the topic.

For example, if the topic of the GD is Advertising is a Diplomatic Way of Telling a Lie, why not
start the GD by defining advertising as, 'Any paid form of non-personal presentation and
promotion of ideas, goods or services through mass media like newspapers, magazines,
television or radio by an identified sponsor'?

For a topic like The Malthusian Economic Prophecy is no longer relevant, you could start by
explaining the definition of the Malthusian Economic Prophecy.

~ Question:

Asking a question is an impactful way of starting a GD.

It does not signify asking a question to any of the candidates in a GD so as to hamper the flow. It
implies asking a question, and answering it yourself.

Any question that might hamper the flow of a GD or insult a participant or play devil's
advocate must be discouraged.

Questions that promote a flow of ideas are always appreciated.

For a topic like, Should India go to war with Pakistan, you could start by asking, 'What does war
bring to the people of a nation? We have had four clashes with Pakistan. The pertinent question
is: what have we achieved?'

~ Shock statement:

Initiating a GD with a shocking statement is the best way to grab immediate attention and put
forth your point.

If a GD topic is, The Impact of Population on the Indian Economy, you could start with, 'At the
centre of the Indian capital stands a population clock that ticks away relentlessly. It tracks 33
births a minute, 2,000 an hour, 48,000 a day. Which calculates to about 12 million every year.
That is roughly the size of Australia. As a current political slogan puts it, 'Nothing's impossible
when 1 billion Indians work together'.'

~ Facts, figures and statistics:

If you decide to initiate your GD with facts, figure and statistics, make sure to quote them
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Approximation is allowed in macro level figures, but micro level figures need to be correct and

For example, you can say, approximately 70 per cent of the Indian population stays in rural areas
(macro figures, approximation allowed).

But you cannot say 30 states of India instead of 28 (micro figures, no approximations).

Stating wrong facts works to your disadvantage.

For a GD topic like, China, a Rising Tiger, you could start with, 'In 1983, when China was still
in its initial stages of reform and opening up, China's real use of Foreign Direct Investment only
stood at $636 million. China actually utilized $60 billion of FDI in 2004, which is almost 100
times that of its 1983 statistics."

~ Short story:

Use a short story in a GD topic like, Attitude is Everything.

This can be initiated with, 'A child once asked a balloon vendor, who was selling helium gas-
filled balloons, whether a blue-coloured balloon will go as high in the sky as a green-coloured
balloon. The balloon vendor told the child, it is not the colour of the balloon but what is inside it
that makes it go high.'

~ General statement:

Use a general statement to put the GD in proper perspective.

For example, if the topic is, Should Sonia Gandhi be the prime minister of India? you could start
by saying, Before jumping to conclusions like, Yes, Sonia Gandhi should be, or No, Sonia
Gandhi should not be, lets first find out the qualities one needs to be a good prime minister of
India. Then we can compare these qualities with those that Mrs. Gandhi possesses. This will help
us reach the conclusion in a more objective and effective manner.

Summarization Techniques:

Most GDs do not really have conclusions. A conclusion is where the whole group decides in
favour or against the topic.

But every GD is summarised. You can summarise what the group has discussed in the GD in a

Keep the following points in mind while summarising a discussion:

Avoid raising new points.

GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Avoid stating only your viewpoint.

Avoid dwelling only on one aspect of the GD.
Keep it brief and concise.
It must incorporate all the important points that came out during the GD.
If the examiner asks you to summarise a GD, it means the GD has come to an end. Do
not add anything once the GD has been summarised.


1.Indian cultural values have nothing to fear from globalization

2. The impact of economic reforms has been that rich people have become richer rich and poor
people poorer.
3. Management education is only for the rich.
4. Reservation in parliament for women.
5. The US dollar is no longer a stable currency.
6. The impact of Internet on India.
7. Behind every man there is a woman.
8. Politicians are not interested in the future of our country.
9. Wisdom does not come with age.
10. Corruption is the main outcome of democracy.
11. Is the consumer really the King in India?
12. Globalization verses Nationalism.
13. Conditional access system for cable TV watchers: boon or bane?
14. If India is poorly governed, the reason is that we have designed our system of governance for
protecting if not encouraging corruption.
15. Commercialization of health care: good or bad?
16. Should agricultural subsidies be stopped?
17. Do we lag behind China? Che tanaS
18. Who says MNCs are superior to Indian companies?
19. Food comes first, ethics later!
20. To survive in the civilized world one needs to be a hypocrite.
21. Money is the sixth sense without which one can't enjoy the other five.
22. English language as a mode of instruction in primary level.
23. Men and Women are different.
24. Given the present state of affairs, India will remain a developing country forever.
25. IIM's and IIT's encourage only brain drain.
26. Whether reservation to women is beneficial?
27. There is no alternative to Pokhran nuclear test in present scenario.
28. Modern cinema is a boon to Indian society.
29. Should youth indulge in politics?
30. US war on Iraq-justified or not.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Ex. No: 6 SOFT SKILLS Date:


Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to recognize one's own and other people's emotions, to
discriminate between different feelings and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to
guide thinking and behaviour. We probably all know people, either at work or in our personal lives,
who are really good listeners. No matter what kind of situation we're in, they always seem to
know just what to say and how to say it so that we're not offended or upset. They're caring
and considerate, and even if we don't find a solution to our problem, we usually leave feeling
more hopeful and optimistic.

We probably also know people who are masters at managing their emotions. They don't get
angry in stressful situations. They're excellent decision makers, and they know when to trust
their intuition. Regardless of their strengths, however, they're usually willing to look at
themselves honestly. They take criticism well, and they know when to use it to improve their
People like this have a high degree of emotional intelligence, or EI. They know themselves very
well, and they're also able to sense the emotional needs of others.

What is Emotional Intelligence?

We all have different personalities, different wants and needs, and different ways of showing our
emotions. Navigating through this all takes tact and cleverness especially if we hope to succeed
in life. This is where EI becomes important.
EI is the ability to recognize your emotions, understand what they're telling you, and realize how
your emotions affect people around you. It also involves your perception of others: when you
understand how they feel; this allows you to manage relationships more effectively.

Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify and manage your own emotions and the emotions
of others. It is generally said to include 3 skills:
1. Emotional awareness, including the ability to identify your own emotions and those of others;
2. The ability to harness emotions and apply them to tasks like thinking and problems solving;
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

3. The ability to manage emotions, including the ability to regulate your own emotions, and the
ability to cheer up or calm down another person.

Characteristics of Emotional Intelligence

Self-awareness People with high EI are usually very self-aware. They understand their
emotions, and because of this, they don't let their feelings rule them.

Self-regulation This is the ability to control emotions and impulses. People who self-regulate
typically don't allow themselves to become too angry or jealous, and they don't make impulsive,
careless decisions.

Motivation People with a high degree of EI are usually motivated. They're willing to defer
immediate results for long-term success.

Empathy This is perhaps the second-most important element of EI. Empathy is the ability to
identify with and understand the wants, needs, and viewpoints of those around you.
Social Skills It's usually easy to talk to and like people with good social skills, another sign of
high EI.


Harvard professor Howard Gardner has identified eight different types of intelligences that each
individual has the capacity to possess. The idea of multiple intelligences is important because it
allows for educators to identify differing strengths and weaknesses in students and also
contradicts the idea that intelligence can be measured through IQ. In researching about genius,
we found that Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences provides a great alternative to
the popular measurable IQ method.

Summaries of eight intelligences:

1. Visual/Spatial - Involves visual perception of the environment, the ability to create and
manipulate mental images, and the orientation of the body in space.
2. Verbal/Linguistic - Involves reading, writing, speaking, and conversing in one's own or
foreign languages.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

3. Logical/Mathematical - Involves number and computing skills, recognizing patterns and

relationships, timeliness and order, and the ability to solve different kinds of problems
through logic.
4. Bodily/Kinesthetic - Involves physical coordination and dexterity, using fine and gross
motor skills, and expressing oneself or learning through physical activities.
5. Musical - Involves understanding and expressing oneself through music and rhythmic
movements or dance, or composing, playing, or conducting music.
6. Interpersonal - Involves understanding how to communicate with and understand other
people and how to work collaboratively.
7. Interpersonal - Involves understanding one's inner world of emotions and thoughts, and
growing in the ability to control them and work with them consciously.
8. Naturalist - Involves understanding the natural world of plants and animals, noticing
their characteristics, and categorizing them; it generally involves keen observation and
the ability to classify other things as well.

"Multiple intelligences are a psychological theory about the mind. It's a critique of the notion
that there's a single intelligence which we're born with, which can't be changed, and which
psychologists can measure. It's based on a lot of scientific research in fields ranging from
psychology to anthropology to biology. It's not based upon based on test correlations, which
most other intelligence theories are based on.

The claim is that there are at least eight different human intelligences. Most intelligence tests
look at language or logic or both - those are just two of the intelligences. The other six are
musical, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. I make two
claims. The first claim is that all human beings have all of these intelligences. It's part of our
species definition. The second claim is that, both because of our genetics and our environment,
no two people have exactly the same profile of intelligences, not even identical twins, because
their experiences are different."

Change is a constant in both our professional and our private lives. Our children grow up taking
for granted such things as powerful personal computers that we could not envision at their ages.
The idea that human beings naturally resist change is deeply embedded in our thinking about
change. Our language (e.g., resistance to change), our assumptions, and our mental models
about change all seem to imply that something in our natures leads us to resist change. However,
it is easy to find examples of human beings, from childhood on through old age, actively seeking
out change of all sorts. Human beings do not necessarily resist change automatically; however,
many people do resist being changed, i.e., having changes imposed on them.

Change management is an approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and

organizations to a desired future state. In a project management context, change management
may refer to a project management process wherein changes to the scope of a project are
formally introduced and approved.

Understanding Change Management

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Theories about how organizations change draw on many disciplines, from psychology and
behavioral science, through to engineering and systems thinking. The underlying principle is that
change does not happen in isolation it impacts the whole organization (system) around it, and
all the people touched by it.

In order to manage change successfully, it is therefore necessary to attend to the wider

impacts of the changes. As well as considering the tangible impacts of change, it's important to
consider the personal impact on those affected, and their journey towards working and behaving
in new ways to support the change. The Change Curve is a useful model that describes the
personal and organizational process of change in more detail.
Change management is, therefore, a very broad field, and approaches to managing
change vary widely, from organization to organization and from project to project. Many
organizations and consultants subscribe to formal change management methodologies. These
provide toolkits, checklists and outline plans of what needs to be done to manage changes
When you are tasked with "managing change" (irrespective of whether or not you
subscribe to a particular change management approach), the first question to consider is what
change management actually means in your situation. Change management focuses on people,
and is about ensuring change is thoroughly, smoothly and lastingly implemented. And to know
what that means exactly in your situation, you must dig down further to define your specific
change management objectives.

Typically, these will cover:

Sponsorship: Ensuring there is active sponsorship for the change at a senior executive level
within the organization, and engaging this sponsorship to achieve the desired results.
Buy-in: Gaining buy-in for the changes from those involved and affected, directly or indirectly.
Involvement: Involving the right people in the design and implementation of changes, to make
sure the right changes are made.
Impact: Assessing and addressing how the changes will affect people.
Communication: Telling everyone who's affected about the changes.
Readiness: Getting people ready to adapt to the changes, by ensuring they have the right
information, training and help.

It seems that there is never enough time in the day. But, since we all get the same 24
hours, why is it that some people achieve so much more with their time than others? The
answer lies in good time management.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Good time management requires an important shift in focus from activities to results:
being busy isnt the same as being effective. (Ironically, the opposite is often closer to the
Spending your day in a frenzy of activity often achieves less, because youre dividing your
attention between so many different tasks. Good time management lets you work smarter not
harder so you get more done in less time. Time management is the process of organizing and
planning how much time you spend on specific activities. Invest some time in our
comprehensive collection of time management articles to learn about managing your own time
more efficiently, and save yourself time in the future.

What is Time Management?

Time management refers to the way that you organize and plan how long you spend on
specific activities.
It may seem counter-intuitive to dedicate precious time to learning about time management,
instead of using it to get on with your work, but the benefits are enormous:
Greater productivity and efficiency.
A better professional reputation.
Less stress.
Increased opportunities for advancement.
Greater opportunities to achieve important life and career goals.
Failing to manage your time effectively can have some very undesirable consequences:
Missed deadlines.
Inefficient work flow.
Poor work quality.
A poor professional reputation and a stalled career.
Higher stress levels.
Spending a little time learning about time-management techniques will have huge benefits now
and throughout your career.

10 ways that you can use to improve your time management skills and increase productivity.

1. Delegate Tasks: It is common for all of us to take more tasks than our desired potential. This
can often result in stress and burnout. Delegation is not running away from your responsibilities
but is an important function of management. Learn the art of delegating work to your
subordinates as per their skills and abilities.

2. Prioritize Work: Before the start of the day, make a list of tasks that need your immediate
attention as unimportant tasks can consume much of your precious time. Some tasks need to be
completed on that day only while other unimportant tasks could be carried forward to next day.
In short, prioritize your tasks to focus on those that are more important.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

3. Avoid Procrastination: Procrastination is one of the things that badly affect the productivity.
It can result is wasting essential time and energy. It should be avoided at all costs. It could be a
major problem in both your career and your personal life.

4. Schedule Tasks: Carry a planner or notebook with you and list all the tasks that come to your
mind. Make a simple To Do list before the start of the day, prioritize the tasks, and make sure
that they are attainable. To better manage your time management skills, you may think of
making 3 lists: work, home, and personal.

5. Avoid Stress: Stress often occurs when we accept more work than our ability. The result is
that our body starts feeling tired which can affect our productivity. Instead, delegate tasks to your
juniors and make sure to leave some time for relaxation.

6. Set up Deadlines: When you have a task at hand, set a realistic deadline and stick to it. Try to
set a deadline few days before the task so that you can complete all those tasks that may get in
the way. Challenge yourself and meet the deadline. Reward yourself for meeting a difficult

7. Avoid Multitasking: Most of us feel that multitasking is an efficient way of getting things
done but the truth is that we do better when we focus and concentrate on one thing. Multitasking
hampers productivity and should be avoided to improve time management skills.

8. Start Early: Most of the successful men and women have one thing in common. They start
their day early as it gives them time to sit, think, and plan their day. When you get up early, you
are more calm, creative, and clear-headed. As the day progresses, your energy levels starts going
down which affects your productivity and you dont perform as well.

9. Take Some Breaks: Whenever you find yourself for 10-15 minutes, take a break. Too much
stress can take toll on your body and affect your productivity. Take a walk, listen to some music
or do some quick stretches. The best idea is to take off from work and spend time with your
friends and family.

10. Learn to say No: Politely refuse to accept additional tasks if you think that youre already
overloaded with work. Take a look at your To Do list before agreeing to take on extra work.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016


Stress management refers to the wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed
at controlling a person's levels of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of
improving everyday functioning. It may seem that theres nothing you can do about stress. The
bills wont stop coming, there will never be more hours in the day, and your career and family
responsibilities will always be demanding. But you have more control than you might think. In
fact, the simple realization that youre in control of your life is the foundation of stress
management. Managing stress is all about taking charge: of your thoughts, emotions, schedule,
and the way you deal with problems. Identify the sources of stress in your life

Stress management starts with identifying the sources of stress in your life. This isnt as
easy as it sounds. Your true sources of stress arent always obvious, and its all too easy to
overlook your own stress-inducing thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Sure, you may know that
youre constantly worried about work deadlines. But maybe its your procrastination, rather than
the actual job demands, that leads to deadline stress.

Stress management strategy #1: Get moving

Physical activity plays a key role in reducing and preventing the effects of stress. Here are a few easy

Put on some music and dance around

Take your dog for a walk
Walk or cycle to the grocery store
Use the stairs at home or work rather than an elevator
Park your car in the farthest spot in the lot and walk the rest of the way

Stress management strategy #2: Avoid unnecessary stress

Not all stress can be avoided, and its not healthy to avoid a situation that needs to be addressed.
Learn how to say no Know your limits and stick to them. Whether in your personal
or professional life, taking on more than you can handle is a surefire recipe for stress.
Avoid people who stress you out If someone consistently causes stress in your life and
you cant turn the relationship around, limit the amount of time you spend with that
person or end the relationship entirely.
Take control of your environment If the evening news makes you anxious, turn the
TV off. If traffics got you tense, take a longer but less-traveled route. If going to the
market is an unpleasant chore, do your grocery shopping online.
Avoid hot-button topics If you get upset over religion or politics, cross them off your
conversation list. If you repeatedly argue about the same subject with the same people,
stop bringing it up or excuse yourself when its the topic of discussion.
Pare down your to-do list Analyze your schedule, responsibilities, and daily tasks. If
youve got too much on your plate, distinguish between the should and the musts.
Drop tasks that arent truly necessary to the bottom of the list or eliminate them entirely.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Stress management strategy #3: Alter the situation

If you cant avoid a stressful situation, try to alter it.
Express your feelings instead of bottling them up. If something or someone is
bothering you, communicate your concerns in an open and respectful way. If you dont
voice your feelings, resentment will build and the situation will likely remain the same.
Be willing to compromise. When you ask someone to change their behavior, be willing
to do the same. If you both are willing to bend at least a little, youll have a good chance
of finding a happy middle ground.
Be more assertive. Dont take a backseat in your own life. Deal with problems head on,
doing your best to anticipate and prevent them. If youve got an exam to study for and
your chatty roommate just got home, say up front that you only have five minutes to talk.
Manage your time better. Poor time management can cause a lot of stress. When youre
stretched too thin and running behind, its hard to stay calm and focused. But if you plan
ahead and make sure you dont overextend yourself, you can alter the amount of stress
youre under.

Stress management strategy #4: Adapt to the stressor

If you cant change the stressor, change yourself.
Reframe problems. Try to view stressful situations from a more positive perspective.
Rather than fuming about a traffic jam, look at it as an opportunity to pause and regroup,
listen to your favorite radio station, or enjoy some alone time.
Look at the big picture. Take perspective of the stressful situation. Ask yourself how
important it will be in the long run. Will it matter in a month? A year? Is it really worth
getting upset over? If the answer is no, focus your time and energy elsewhere.
Adjust your standards. Perfectionism is a major source of avoidable stress. Stop setting
yourself up for failure by demanding perfection. Set reasonable standards for yourself
and others, and learn to be okay with good enough.
Focus on the positive. When stress is getting you down, take a moment to reflect on all
the things you appreciate in your life, including your own positive qualities and gifts.
This simple strategy can help you keep things in perspective.

Stress management strategy #5: Accept the things you cant change
Some sources of stress are unavoidable.
Dont try to control the uncontrollable. Many things in life are beyond our control
particularly the behavior of other people. Rather than stressing out over them, focus on
the things you can control such as the way you choose to react to problems.
Look for the upside. As the saying goes, What doesnt kill us makes us stronger.
When facing major challenges, try to look at them as opportunities for personal growth. If
your own poor choices contributed to a stressful situation, reflect on them and learn from
your mistakes.
Share your feelings. Talk to a trusted friend face to face or make an appointment with a
therapist. The simple act of expressing what youre going through can be very cathartic,
even if theres nothing you can do to alter the stressful situation. Opening up is not a sign
of weakness and it wont make you a burden to others. In fact, most friends will be
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flattered that you trust them enough to confide in them, and it will only strengthen your
Learn to forgive. Accept the fact that we live in an imperfect world and that people
make mistakes. Let go of anger and resentments. Free yourself from negative energy by
forgiving and moving on.

Stress management strategy #6: Make time for fun and relaxation
Beyond a take-charge approach and a positive attitude, you can reduce stress in your life by
nurturing yourself.
Set aside relaxation time. Include rest and relaxation in your daily schedule. Dont
allow other obligations to encroach. This is your time to take a break from all
responsibilities and recharge your batteries.
Connect with others. Spend time with positive people who enhance your life. A strong
support system will buffer you from the negative effects of stress.
Do something you enjoy every day. Make time for leisure activities that bring you joy,
whether it be stargazing, playing the piano, or working on your bike.
Keep your sense of humor. This includes the ability to laugh at yourself. The act of
laughing helps your body fight stress in a number of ways.

Stress management strategy #7: Adopt a healthy lifestyle

In addition to regular exercise, there are other healthy lifestyle choices that can increase your
resistance to stress.

Eat a healthy diet. Well-nourished bodies are better prepared to cope with stress, so be
mindful of what you eat. Start your day right with breakfast, and keep your energy up and
your mind clear with balanced, nutritious meals throughout the day.
Reduce caffeine and sugar. The temporary "highs" caffeine and sugar provide often end
in with a crash in mood and energy. By reducing the amount of coffee, soft drinks,
chocolate, and sugar snacks in your diet, youll feel more relaxed and youll sleep better.
Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs. Self-medicating with alcohol or drugs may
provide an easy escape from stress, but the relief is only temporary. Dont avoid or mask
the issue at hand; deal with problems head on and with a clear mind.
Get enough sleep. Adequate sleep fuels your mind, as well as your body. Feeling tired
will increase your stress because it may cause you to think irrationally.


The traits of an effective leader include the following:

Emotional stability. Good leaders must be able to tolerate frustration and
stress. ...
Dominance. ...
Enthusiasm. ...
Conscientiousness. ...
Social boldness. ...
Tough-mindedness. ...
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Self-assurance. ...

Over the past several years, one of the most important contributions psychology has made to the
field of business has been in determining the key traits of acknowledged leaders. Psychological
tests have been used to determine what characteristics are most commonly noted among
successful leaders. This list of characteristics can be used for developmental purposes to help
managers gain insight and develop their leadership skills.

The increasing rate of change in the business environment is a major factor in this new emphasis
on leadership. Whereas in the past, managers were expected to maintain the status quo in order to
move ahead, new forces in the marketplace have made it necessary to expand this narrow focus.
The new leaders of tomorrow are visionary. They are both learners and teachers. Not only do
they foresee paradigm changes in society, but they also have a strong sense of ethics and work to
build integrity in their organizations.

Raymond Cattell, a pioneer in the field of personality assessment, developed the Leadership
Potential equation in 1954. This equation, which was based on a study of military leaders, is used
today to determine the traits which characterize an effective leader. The traits of an effective
leader include the following:
Emotional stability. Good leaders must be able to tolerate frustration and stress. Overall,
they must be well-adjusted and have the psychological maturity to deal with anything
they are required to face.
Dominance. Leaders are often times competitive and decisive and usually enjoy
overcoming obstacles. Overall, they are assertive in their thinking style as well as their
attitude in dealing with others.
Enthusiasm. Leaders are usually seen as active, expressive, and energetic. They are often
very optimistic and open to change. Overall, they are generally quick and alert and tend
to be uninhibited.
Conscientiousness. Leaders are often dominated by a sense of duty and tend to be very
exacting in character. They usually have a very high standard of excellence and an
inward desire to do one's best. They also have a need for order and tend to be very self-
Social boldness. Leaders tend to be spontaneous risk-takers. They are usually socially
aggressive and generally thick-skinned. Overall, they are responsive to others and tend to
be high in emotional stamina.
Tough-mindedness. Good leaders are practical, logical, and to-the-point. They tend to be
low in sentimental attachments and comfortable with criticism. They are usually
insensitive to hardship and overall, are very poised.
Self-assurance. Self-confidence and resiliency are common traits among leaders. They
tend to be free of guilt and have little or no need for approval. They are generally secure
and free from guilt and are usually unaffected by prior mistakes or failures.
Compulsiveness. Leaders were found to be controlled and very precise in their social
interactions. Overall, they were very protective of their integrity and reputation and
consequently tended to be socially aware and careful, abundant in foresight, and very
careful when making decisions or determining specific actions.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Beyond these basic traits, leaders of today must also possess traits which will help them motivate
others and lead them in new directions. Leaders of the future must be able to envision the future
and convince others that their vision is worth following. To do this, they must have the following
personality traits:
High energy. Long hours and some travel are usually a prerequisite for leadership
positions, especially as your company grows. Remaining alert and staying focused are
two of the greatest obstacles you will have to face as a leader.
Intuitiveness. Rapid changes in the world today combined with information overload
result in an inability to "know" everything. In other words, reasoning and logic will not
get you through all situations. In fact, more and more leaders are learning to the value of
using their intuition and trusting their "gut" when making decisions.
Maturity. To be a good leader, personal power and recognition must be secondary to the
development of your employees. In other words, maturity is based on recognizing that
more can be accomplished by empowering others than can be by ruling others.
Team orientation. Business leaders today put a strong emphasis on team work. Instead
of promoting an adult/child relationship with their employees, leaders create an
adult/adult relationship which fosters team cohesiveness.
Empathy. Being able to "put yourself in the other person's shoes" is a key trait of leaders
today. Without empathy, you can't build trust. And without trust, you will never be able
to get the best effort from your employees.
Charisma. People usually perceive leaders as larger than life. Charisma plays a large part
in this perception. Leaders who have charisma are able to arouse strong emotions in their
employees by defining a vision which unites and captivates them. Using this vision,
leaders motivate employees to reach toward a future goal by tying the goal to substantial
personal rewards and values.

Overall, leaders are larger than life in many ways. Personal traits play a major role in
determining who will and who will not be comfortable leading others. However, it's important to
remember that people are forever learning and changing.

Leaders are rarely (if ever) born. Circumstances and persistence are major components in the
developmental process of any leader. So if your goal is to become a leader, work on developing
those areas of your personality that you feel are not "up to par". For instance, if you have all of
the basic traits but do not consider yourself very much of a "people" person, try taking classes or
reading books on empathy. On the other end, if relating to others has always come naturally to
you, but you have trouble making logical decisions, try learning about tough-mindedness and
how to develop more psychological resistance. Just remember, anyone can do anything they set
their mind to...


The process of working collaboratively with a group of people in order to achieve a goal.
Teamwork is often a crucial part of a business, as it is often necessary for colleagues to work well
together, trying their best in any circumstance. Teamwork means that people will try to cooperate,
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

using their individual skills and providing constructive feedback, despite any personal conflict
between individuals. Effective teamwork is both profoundly simple and difficult at the same time.

Keys to Successful Teamwork

The team understands the goals and is committed to attaining them. This clear direction
and agreement on mission and purpose is essential for effective teamwork.
This team clarity is reinforced when the organization has clear expectations for the
team's work, goals, accountability, and outcomes.
The team creates an environment in which people are comfortable taking reasonable
risks in communicating, advocating positions, and taking action. Team members trust
each other. Team members are not punished for disagreeing.
Communication is open, honest, and respectful. People feel free to express their
thoughts, opinions, and potential solutions to problems. People feel as if they are heard
out and listened to by team members who are attempting to understand. Team members
ask questions for clarity and spend their thought time listening deeply rather than
forming rebuttals while their co-worker is speaking.
Team members have a strong sense of belonging to the group. They experience a
deep commitment to the groups decisions and actions. This sense of belonging is
enhanced and reinforced when the team spends the time to develop team norms or
relationship guidelines together.
Team members are viewed as unique people with irreplaceable experiences, points of
view, knowledge, and opinions to contribute. After all, the purpose for forming a team is
to take advantage of the differences.
Creativity, innovation, and different viewpoints are expected and encouraged.
Comments such as, "we already tried that and it didn't work" and "what a dumb idea" are
not allowed or supported.
The team is able to constantly examine itself and continuously improve its processes,
practices, and the interaction of team members. The team openly discusses team norms
and what may be hindering its ability to move forward and progress in areas of effort,
talent, and strategy.
The team has agreed upon procedures for diagnosing, analyzing, and resolving team
work problems and conflicts. The team does not support member personality conflicts
and clashes nor do team members pick sides in a disagreement. Rather, members work
towards mutual resolution.
Participative leadership is practiced in leading meetings, assigning tasks, recording
decisions and commitments, assessing progress, holding team members accountable, and
providing direction for the team.
Members of the team make high quality decisions together and have the support and
commitment of the group to carry out the decisions made.


Career planning is an ongoing process that can help you manage your learning and development.
You can use the four step planning process whether you are:
still at school;
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a school leaver;
an adult adding on skills; or
an adult changing your job or career.

Career planning is the continuous process of:

thinking about your interests, values, skills and preferences;
exploring the life, work and learning options available to you;
ensuring that your work fits with your personal circumstances; and
Continuously fine-tuning your work and learning plans to help you manage the changes in your life
and the world of work.
You can revisit and make use of this process all the way through your career.
Start at the step that is most relevant for you now.
The career planning process has four steps:
Step 1: Knowing yourself
Step 2: Finding out
Step 3: Making decisions
Step 4: Taking action

Step 1: Knowing yourself

Begin by thinking about where you are now, where you want to be and how youre going to get there.
Once you have thought about where you are at now and where you want to be, you can work on getting
to know your skills, interests and values.
Begin by asking yourself the following questions:
Where am I at now?
Where do I want to be?
What do I want out of a job or career?
What do I like to do?
What are my strengths?
What is important to me?
At the end of this step you will have a clearer idea of your work or learning goal and your individual
preferences. You can use this information about yourself as your personal wish list against which you
can compare all the information you gather in Step 2: finding out. Your personal preferences are very
useful for helping you choose your best option at this point in time, which you can do in Step 3: making

Step 2: Finding out

This step is about exploring the occupations and learning areas that interest you. Once you have some
idea of your occupational preferences you can research the specific skills and qualifications required for
those occupations.
Explore occupations that interest you and ask yourself how do my skills and interests match up
with these occupations?
Where are the gaps?
What options do I have to gain these skills or qualify for these occupations?
What skills do I need?
Where is the work?
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At the end of this step you will have a list of preferred occupations and/or learning options.

Step 3: Making decisions

This step involves comparing your options, narrowing down your choices and thinking about what suits
you best at this point in time.
Ask yourself:
What are my best work/training options?
How do they match with my skills, interests and values?
How do they fit with the current labour market?
How do they fit with my current situation and responsibilities?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of each option?
What will help and what will hinder me?
What can I do about it?
At the end of this step you will have narrowed down your options and have more of an idea of what you
need to do next to help you achieve your goals.

Step 4: Taking action

Here you plan the steps you need to take to put your plan into action.
Use all you have learnt about your skills, interests and values together with the information you have
gathered about the world of work to create your plan.
Begin by asking yourself:
What actions/steps will help me achieve my work, training and career goals?
Where can I get help?
Who will support me?
At the end of this step you will have:
a plan to help you explore your options further (eg work experience, work shadowing or more
research); or
a plan which sets out the steps to help you achieve your next learning or work goal.
Decide which step is relevant for you right now and start from there.


Intercultural communication is a form of communication that aims to share information

across different cultures and social groups. Intercultural communication is defined as situated
communication between individuals or groups of different linguistic and cultural origins. This is
derived from the following fundamental definitions: communication is the active relationship
established between people through language, and intercultural means that this communicative
relationship is between people of different cultures, where culture is the structured manifestation
of human behaviour in social life within specific national and local contexts, e.g. political,
linguistic, economic, institutional, and professional. Intercultural communication is identified as
both a concept and a competence. Intercultural competence is the active possession by
individuals of qualities which contribute to effective intercultural communication and can be
defined in terms of three primary attributes: knowledge, skills and attitudes. In the context of this
document, the acquisition of skills and human attributes likely to enhance intercultural
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communication is viewed exclusively as a component of language programmes, i.e. as an

accompaniment to the practical acquisition of language itself.

Knowledge, understanding and skills (competences)

Having completed a first cycle higher education programme of language study, incorporating
explicit study of intercultural communication, in higher education, students should have
Knowledge of the cultures, institutions, histories and ways of life of different communities and
the ability to recognise their impact on behavioural norms in given fields of communication
Understanding of the relationship between culture, contexts of communication and language use
Insight into the roles and conventions governing behaviour within specific intercultural
Critical awareness of their own and others beliefs and values
Sensitivity towards cultural stereotypes and related obstacles to successful intercultural

Intercultural communication or communication between people of different cultural

backgrounds has always been and will probably remain an important precondition of human co-
existence on earth. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework of factors that are
important in intercultural communication within a general model of human, primarily linguistic,
communication. The term intercultural is chosen over the largely synonymous term cross-
cultural because it is linked to language use such as interdisciplinary that is cooperation
between people with different scientific backgrounds. Perhaps the term also has somewhat fewer
connotations than cross-cultural. It is not cultures that communicate, whatever that might imply,
but people (and possibly social institutions) with different cultural backgrounds that do. In
general, the term cross-cultural is probably best used for comparisons between cultures. The
term culture refers to all the characteristics common to a particular group of people that are
learned and not given by nature. That the members of
a group have two legs is thus not a cultural characteristic but a natural one, while a special but
common way of walking would probably be cultural. Analytically, we can differentiate between
the following four primary cultural dimensions:

(i) Patterns of thought common ways of thinking, where thinking includes factual beliefs,
values, norms, and emotional attitudes.
(ii) Patterns of behaviour common ways of behaving, from ways of speaking to ways of
conducting commerce and industry, where the behaviour can be intentional/unintentional,
aware/unaware or individual/interactive.
(iii) Patterns of artefacts common ways of manufacturing and using material things, from
pens to houses (artefact = artificial object), where artefacts include dwellings, tools, machines or
media. The art factual dimension of culture is usually given special attention in museums.
(iv) Imprints in nature the long-lasting imprints left by a group in the natural surroundings,
where such imprints include agriculture, trash, roads or intact/ruined human habitations. In fact,
culture in the sense of growth (i.e. a human transformation of nature) gives us a basic
understanding of what the concept of culture is all about.
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All human activities involve the first two dimensions. Most activities involve the third
dimension, and ecologically important activities also involve the fourth. When a particular
activity lastingly combines several of these traits, one usually says that the activity has become
institutionalized and that it is thus a social institution.

Similarly, one may speak of a culture or a subculture when one or more of the characteristics
are lastingly connected with a certain group of people. In the context of intercultural
communication, the groups are often associated with national states, and we may speak about
Swedish culture, French culture, etc. However, a group does not necessarily have to be a national
group. It may be any group at all that is distinguishable over a longer period of time.


Critical thinking involves logical thinking and reasoning including skills such as comparison,
classification, sequencing, cause/effect, patterning, webbing, analogies, deductive and inductive
reasoning, forecasting, planning, hypothesizing, and critiquing.

Creative thinking involves creating something new or original. It involves the skills of flexibility,
originality, fluency, elaboration, brainstorming, modification, imagery, associative thinking,
attribute listing, metaphorical thinking, forced relationships. The aim of creative thinking is to
stimulate curiosity and promote divergence.

While critical thinking can be thought of as more left-brain and creative thinking more right
brain, they both involve "thinking."

Many great breakthroughs and discoveries in art, science and innovation have resulted from
combining creative and critical thinking skills. Approaches differ considerably between the skills
used in creative thinking and those used in critical thinking. However, it is because of the
synergy created by the combination of both sets of skills that they are being discussed in
conjunction with one another in this unit. By applying creative and critical thinking approaches
to your subject area you will enrich and deepen your learning experiences. Furthermore, creative
and critical thinking skills can benefit many other areas of your life from problem solution to
decision making. Creative thinking is about applying imagination to finding a solution to your
learning task.

Some approaches involved in creative thinking skills

Creative thinking skills involve such approaches as:

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- Engaging in reflection.

- Looking for many possible answers rather than one.

- Allowing yourself to make wild and crazy suggestions as well as those that seem sensible.

- Not judging ideas early in the process - treat all ideas as if they may contain the seeds of
something potentially useful.

- Allowing yourself to doodle, daydream or play with a theory or suggestion.

- Being aware that these approaches necessarily involve making lots of suggestions that are
unworkable and may sound silly.

- Making mistakes.

- Learning from what has not worked as well as what did.

There is no limit to ways there are of thinking creatively. Some techniques you can begin
with are listed here under.

Brainstorm ideas on one topic onto a large piece of paper: don't edit these. Just write them
down as soon as they come into your head.

Allow yourself to play with an idea while you go for a walk or engage in other activities

Draw or paint a theory on paper.

Ask the same question at least twenty times and give a different answer each time.

Combine some of the features of two different objects or ideas to see if you can create several

Change your routine. Do things a different way. Walk a different route to college.

Let your mind be influenced by new stimuli such as music you do not usually listen to.

Be open to ideas when they are still new: look for ways of making things work and pushing the
idea to its limits.
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What is critical thinking?

No one always acts purely objectively and rationally. We connive for selfish interests. We
gossip, boast, exaggerate, and equivocate. It is "only human" to wish to validate our prior
knowledge, to vindicate our prior decisions, or to sustain our earlier beliefs. In the process of
satisfying our ego, however, we can often deny ourselves intellectual growth and opportunity.
We may not always want to apply critical thinking skills, but we should have those skills
available to be employed when needed.Critical thinking enables us to recognise a wide range of
subjective analyses of otherwise objective data, and to evaluate how well each analysis might
meet our needs. Facts may be facts, but how we interpret them may vary.

Combining creative and critical thinking

Both creative thinking and critical thinking skills are valuable and neither is superior. In
fact, it has been shown that when either is omitted during the problem solving process,
effectiveness declines. For example you could focus on a subject in a logical, analytical way for
some time, sorting out conflicting claims, weighing evidence, thinking through possible
solutions. Then, while daydreaming, or distracting the mind, but still holding the same problem
lightly at the back of the mind, you may have a burst of creative energy and arrive at an Aha
moment even though you were not trying so hard to find the answer. However, the daydream
on its own did not achieve anything.

Ex.No: 7(A) BLOG WRITING Date:

The history of Indian Cinema goes back to the nineteenth century. In 1896, the very first
films shot by the Lumiere Brothers were shown in Mumbai (then Bombay).
But history was actually created when Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatavdekar popularly known
as Save Dada, the still photographer, was so much influenced by the Lumiere Brothers
production that he ordered a camera from England. His first film was shot at the Hanging
Gardens in Mumbai, known as The Wrestlers. It was a simple recording of a wrestling match
which was screened in 1899 and is considered as the first motion picture in the Indian Film
Beginning of Bollywood
Father of Indian Cinema, Dadasaheb Phalke released the first ever full-length feature film
Raja Harishchandra in 1913. The silent film was a commercial success. Dadasaheb was not
only the producer but was also the director, writer, cameraman, editor, make-up artist and art
director. Raja Harischandra was the first-ever Indian film which was screened in London in
1914. Though Indian Cinemas first mogul, Dadasaheb Phalke supervised and managed the
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production of twenty three films from 1913 to 1918, the initial growth of the Indian Film
Industry was not as fast as that of Hollywood.
Numerous new production companies emerged in the early 1920s. Films based on
mythological and historical facts and episodes from Mahabharata and Ramayana dominated the
20s but Indian audiences also welcomed Hollywood movies, especially the action films.

Beginning of the Talkies

The first ever talkie Alam Ara by Ardeshir Irani was screened in Bombay in 1931. It
was the first sound film in India. The release of Alam Ara started a new era in the history of
Indian Cinema. Phiroz Shah was the first music director of Alam Ara. The first song which was
recorded for Alam Ara in 1931 was De de khuda ke naam par. It was sung by W.M. Khan.
Thereafter, several production companies emerged leading to an increase in the release of the
number of films. 328 films were made in 1931 as compared to 108 in 1927. During this time,
huge movie halls were built and there was a significant growth in the number of audiences.
During the 1930s and 1940s many eminent film personalities such as Debaki Bose, Chetan
Anand, S.S. Vasan, Nitin Bose and many others emerged on the scene.
Growth of Regional Films
Not only did the country witness the growth of Hindi Cinema, but the regional film
industry also made its own mark. The first Bengali feature film Nal Damyanti in 1917 was
produced by J.F. Madan with Italian actors in the leading roles. It was photographed by Jyotish
The year 1919 saw the screening of the first silent South Indian feature film named Keechaka
Vadham. The movie was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar of Madras (Chennai). Dadasaheb
Phalkes daughter Manadakini was the first female child star who acted as the child Krishna in
Phalkes Kaliya Mardan in 1919.
The first ever talkie film in Bengali was Jamai Shashthi, which was screened in 1931 and
produced by Madan Theatres Ltd. Kalidass was the first Tamil talkie which was released in
Madras on 31 October 1931 and directed by H.M. Reddy. Apart from Bengali and South Indian
languages, regional films were also made in other languages such as Assamese, Oriya, Punjabi,
Marathi, and many more.
Ayodhecha Raja was the first Marathi film which was directed by V. Shantaram in 1932. This
film was made in double version. Ayodhya ka Raja in Hindi and Ayodhecha Raja in Marathi
was the first ever Indian talkie produced by Prabhat Film Company in 1932.
Birth of a New Era
The number of films being produced saw a brief decline during the World War II. Basically the
birth of modern Indian Film industry took place around 1947. The period witnessed a remarkable
and outstanding transformation of the film industry. Notable filmmakers like Satyajit Ray, and
Bimal Roy made movies which focused on the survival and daily miseries of the lower class.
The historical and mythological subjects took a back seat and the films with social messages
began to dominate the industry. These films were based on themes such as prostitution, dowry,
polygamy and other malpractices which were prevalent in our society.
In the 1960s new directors like Ritwik Ghatak, Mrinal Sen, and others focused on the real
problems of the common man. They directed some outstanding movies which enabled the Indian
film industry to carve a niche in the International film scenario.
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The 1950s and 1960s are considered to be the golden age in the history of the Indian cinema and
saw the rise of some memorable actors like Guru Dutt, Raj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Meena
Kumari, Madhubala, Nargis, Nutan, Dev Anand, Waheeda Rehman, among others.
This article will be incomplete if the contribution of music in Indian cinema is not mentioned.
Songs are an integral part of Indian movies. Presence of songs has given Indian films a
distinctive look as compared to international films. The Indian film industry has produced many
talented lyricists, music directors and artists.
Bollywood The Pioneer of Masala Movies
The 1970s saw the advent of Masala movies in Bollywood. The audiences were captivated and
mesmerised by the aura of actors like Rajesh Khanna, Dharmendra, Sanjeev Kumar, Hema
Malini, and many others.
The most prominent and successful director, Manmohan Desai was considered by several
people as the father of Masala movies. According to Manmohan Desai, I want people to forget
their misery. I want to take them into a dream world where there is no poverty, where there are
no beggars, where fate is kind and god is busy looking after its flock.
Sholay, the groundbreaking film directed by Ramesh Sippy, not only got international
accolades but also made Amitabh Bachchan a Superstar.
Several women directors like Meera Nair, Aparna Sen and others showcased their talents in the
1980s. How can we forget the extraordinary and splendid performance of Rekha in the film
Umrao Jaan in 1981?
The 1990s saw a whole new batch of actors like Shah Rukh Khan, Salman Khan,
Madhuri Dixit, Aamir Khan, Juhi Chawla, Chiranjivi, and many more. This new genre of actors
used new techniques to enhance their performances which further elevated and upgraded the
Indian Film Industry. 2008 was a notable year for the Indian film industry as A.R. Rahman
received two academy awards for best soundtrack for Slumdog Millionaire.
Indian cinema is no longer restricted to India and is now being well appreciated by
international audiences. The contribution of the overseas market in Bollywood box office
collections is quite remarkable. Around 30 film production companies were listed in National
Stock Exchange of India in 2013. The multiplexes too have boomed in India due to tax
Indian cinema has become a part and parcel of our daily life whether it is a regional or a
Bollywood movie. It has a major role to play in our society. Though entertainment is the key
word of Indian cinema it has far more responsibility as it impacts the mind of the audiences.
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Ex.No: 7(B) E-MAIL Date:

1. Send a mail to your HR explaining your situation for over reacting during the meeting:

Dear ashok
I am sorry I overreacted yesterday to the news of my project teams restructuring. I apologize for
making inappropriate assumptions about your decision.
I realize since we talked that I depend on Carolines participation, and dont want to lose her
enthusiasm and expertise on my team. You are correct that she is ready for larger company
I regret my comments, and you have my promise to fully support the team restructure. Please
accept my apology.

2.Send a mail to your staff member reporting her continuous absences:

Mr./Ms. x

It has been observed from the attendance record that you are absenting from the duty
unauthorized i.e. without permission since <5.9.15> till date.

Your continuous unauthorized absence, if proved, comes within the purview of breach of
discipline and negligence of duty, and hampering daily day to day activities in your department.

You are therefore directed to furnish explanation in writing within 48 hours of receipt of this
show cause as to why appropriate disciplinary action should not be taken against you for your
above misconducts, failing which it will be presumed that you have no explanation to offer and
the matter will proceed expert.
3. Send a mail to your HR requesting for leave
Dear sir,

I would like to take leave form 9.9.15 date to 11.9.15 due to attend my sister marriage . Hence I
request you to please approve my leave.

Thanking you,

yours faithfully.
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Ex.No: 7(C) SMS Date:

1. Send a sms to your staff member regarding annual meeting

Hi guys, today evening we have our annual meeting so please assemble @ conference hall by 3
pm without fail.

2. Send a sms to your staff members to inform about the workshop

A workshop is being conducted on Automation Systems on 13-09-2015. You are requested
to attend this workshop without fail.

3. Send an sms to your staff members informing them about your companys success
Dear staff, we are happy to inform that our previous project has become a grand success in the
market. Thank you for your support and hard work.

4. Send a sms to your staff members - invitation to your companys success party
Dear staff, due to grand success of our product our company has decided to throw a party
tonight. We invite you all to attend this party and be a part of our success.

Ex.No: 7(D) TWEETS Date:

1. Tweet about your companys new project

An into solution approach for #IVHM of the landing gear system for a typical transport aircraft
http:// #IOTSWC #IoT

2. Tweet about the workshop conducted by your company

1 day to go for #IBC2015, register & network with Into experts from Communication Media &
Entertainment .

3. Tweet about your meeting

Schedule a meeting with our travel & hospitality experts at @FutureTravelX Global 2015

4. Tweet about your companys new collaboration

I acquires StrongLoop, a leading development software provider #IandStrongLoop
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

5. Tweet about your companys product launch

I is bringing sports into the digital age, starting with the @usopen by @luchanglu via
@DigitalTrends #usopen


Gross Domestic Product in the UK

The bar chart illustrates the gross domestic product generated from the IT and Service Industry
in the UK from 1992 to 2000. It is measured in percentages. Overall, it can be seen that both
increased as a percentage of GDP, but IT remained at a higher rate throughout this time.

At the beginning of the period, in 1992, the Service Industry accounted for 4 per cent of GDP,
whereas IT exceeded this, at just over 6 per cent. Over the next four years, the levels became
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

more similar, with both components standing between 6 and just over 8 per cent. IT was still
higher overall, though it dropped slightly from 1994 to 1996.

However, over the following four years, the patterns of the two components were noticeably
different. The percentage of GDP from IT increased quite sharply to 12 in 1998 and then nearly
15 in 2000, while the Service Industry stayed nearly the same, increasing to only 8 per cent.

At the end of the period, the percentage of GDP from IT was almost twice that of the Service


Report on the Fire Accident

Prepared By
The Safety Engineer



To: The Managing Director Ref: DMC/155/B9

From: The Safety Engineer 05 May 2009

Sub: A report on the fire accident in our Factory reg.,

With reference to your intimation dated 04 may 2009; a detailed study has been made on
the fire accident that took place on the 2nd of this month in our factory.
On the above mentioned date, a huge fire had broken out around 11 a.m. in our Welding
Department. It spread so quickly that it consumed fairly a large number of tools and spare parts.
Above all, Mr.Sai, our chief welder was also badly hurt. Luckily he was the only person working
at that time as the other workers had gone for tea break. Immediately, fire men were summoned
and they extinguished the fire after battling for about half-an-hour. Mr.Sai was hospitalized and
he is now recovering fast.
Under investigation, it is found that the fire broke out because of a short circuit in the
main line. As Mr. Sai had been welding at that time, the fire had spread quickly. In addition, the
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

wires had worn out and needed replacement. All these had resulted in the devastating fire. The
total loss is estimated to be nearly Rs.1, 50,000.

To avoid such mishaps in the future, it is recommended that

i. Wiring should be replaced and be checked at regular intervals

ii. Enough fire extinguishers must be kept handy.
iii. Automatic fire extinguishing sprays can be installed.
iv. Proper fuses should be used to avoid excess flow.
v. Employees should be given proper training with regard to the use of
electrical components and fire extinguishers.

If all these measures are taken, definitely such accidents can be prevented in future and thereby,
great loss to human as well other resources could be averted.

Yours Faithfull
Safety Engineer

Ex. No: 10 MEDIA WRITING Date:

Four characteristics of media writing

Accuracy is the chief requirement of a writer for the mass media. This is not just a journalists
requirement. All writers are expected to present information accurately and to take some pains in
doing so. Many of the procedures for writing for the mass media are set up to ensure accuracy.
Clarity means that you should present your information using commonly understood words and
phrases and in a context so that it can be easily understood by a mass audience. Your writing
should answer all of the questions that could be expected by the audience. (Not all of the
questions that could be asked, but all those that it takes to understand the information.)
Efficiency is one of the most prized writing characteristics. Efficiency means using the fewest
words to present you information accurately and clearly. Efficiency is difficult to achieve
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* most of us write inefficiently, especially on first draft

* most of use do not do a good job in editing our writing
* the world is filled with inefficient writing, and we often fall victim to it.

Precision means that as a writer, you take special care with the language. You know good
grammar and practice it. You use words for precisely what they mean. You develop a love for
the language.
How do we learn to exhibit these characteristics in our writing?

First, we pay attention to the basics.

The world in which we report and write

The major fact about journalism these days in the development of digital media. The
environment in which journalism is practiced and produced is changing radically from what it
was five or 10 years ago. This change may not be as apparent to you as it is to those who are 30
years old and older, but it is palpable and important.

So how do we understand this change?

One way is by comparing the web (and its mobile descendents) to what is now termed the
traditional media (newspapers, magazines, radio and television, etc.). Here are some of the
characteristics of the web as a news medium that we must understand:

Capacity The web can handle more material than either print or broadcast.
Flexibility The web is a platform for a variety of forms text, audio, photos, audio and video
and journalists must decide what form to use to present their information.
Immediacy The web is an immediate medium; information can be posted immediately, even as
events are in progress, and journalists must learn how to do this.
Permanence Nothing on the web need be lost, and everything that is on the web is retrievable
and easily duplicated.
Interactivity Readers, users, and other journalists can contribute to the coverage of a topic or
Linkage Journalists tap the power of the web when they learn how to link their content to other
GE6674 Communication and Soft Skills- Laboratory Based Reg. No: 2015-2016

Mobility Cellphones and hand-held devices are the medium of choice for many news
consumers; journalists who want to communicate with them have to understand the nature of this


CHENNAI: The Rs 45,000 crore HCL group will be investing around $1 billion in Tamil Nadu
over the next five years and is also going into robotics and artificial intelligence, said a top

Speaking at the Global Investors Meet organized by Tamil Nadu government here, Shiv Nadar,
HCL group chairman said, "The group has till date invested around Rs 6,000 crore in Tamil
Nadu. Going forward we will be allocating $1 billion for investment in Tamil Nadu over the next
five years."

He said HCL will spread its operations in Madurai and Tirunelvelli districts while expanding its
operations in Coimbatore.

Nadar, who started his speech in Tamil, said Tamil Nadu is important for the HCL group as
around 35,000 employees out of total 110,000 are in the state. The group has operations in
Chennai and Coimbatore. Nadar also said the group would train around 20,000 youth to make
them job ready.