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La Consolacion University Philippines

City of Malolos, Bulacan



(Contemporary Issues/Problems Affecting Education)

In Partial Fulfilment of Master of Education

Major in Educational Management
1st Trimester, June to September 2017



Leadership in any organization is crucial and often determine the success

or failure of the organization. The law of the lid states that the leaders perspective
and direction leads the whole organization to its destination.
In any organization, the management and/or leadership depends on the
organizational structure. Larger organizations have a more complex
organizational set-up compared to that of a smaller organization. Hence, it is
easier to manage or to lead a smaller organization compared to a larger one.
Public and Private educational organizational set-up also differ as it is said
that public education tends to be bureaucratic and transactional in nature.
Often, especially in case of local community setting, decision making is being
made with the approval of the head of the local government especially in terms
of budget consideration, and staff appointments. Private on the other hand is
often linear in nature and has the advantages in decision making since often, the
decision-making process is made by the owners themselves.
The present public education system is besieged with a lot of problems
which this paper will discuss. These problems call for good will of our leaders in
solving these problematic situations.
As such, the presentation of this paper calls for leaders who can Rock the
Boat, who are visionaries, risk takers, good collaborators and communicators,
mentors, and people with uncommon passion and persistence. The severity of the
problem calls for leaders who have personal integrity, assertive and ambitious for
their organizations. Leaders who are optimists even in bad times. Leaders who
can bring energy, are opportunistic and flexible, and are not easily deterred.


In the Philippines, basic education is one of the shortest in the world. This is
composed of ten years where: six years of elementary and four years of
secondary education. A pupil enters elementary education at 6 or 7 years of age
and by age 11, he/she completes elementary education. At age 12 or 13, a
Filipino child is at the secondary level. After completing basic education at the
age of 15 or 16, a Filipino youth then proceeds to institutions of higher learning
either to obtain a college degree, earn a certificate from a post-secondary
vocational/technical institution, enter the work force, or be included in the
growing number of the unemployed and under employed.


Schools can be classified as either government supported or private
funded. The DepEd Fact Sheet for Academic Year 2002 to 2007 gives the following
education data: Teacher: Pupil (Elementary Students) Average Ratio is 1:36 while
Teacher: Student (High School Students) Average Ratio is 1:41.
Included in the DepEd fact sheet is the Ratio of Public Elementary Schools
compared Private Elementary Schools which is 42,000 : 37,000 while Public High
Schools compared to Private High Schools is 8,000 : 5,000.

Enrollment Data indicates that the ratio of Public to Private Elementary

Enrollees averaged 12Million (92%): 1Million (8%) while Enrollment Data
comparison for Public versus Private High Schools averaged 5.05Million (80%):
1.29Million (20%).

To analyze, the above data shows:

1. That there is a huge reduction of the number of students that came from
Elementary to High Schools with Completion Rate which averages 70% and
drop-out rate average of 7%.
2. That the huge number of enrollment reduction mostly came from Public
Education Systems.
3. That although there is a little different in the number of Public and Private
Schools, majority of the students are enrolled in the Public Education

Alarming Increase of Drop-out and Out of School Youth

There is an alarming increase of Out of School Youth and Student Drop-out as
indicated in the table below:

Table 1. Participation Rate

Education Level AY 2002-2003 AY 2006-2007
Elementary 90.29% 83.22%
High School 59.00% 58.59%
Source: DepEd Fact Sheet

Table II. Completion Rate

Education Level AY 2002-2003 AY 2006-2007
Elementary 71.55% 71.72%
High School 74.81% 72.14%
Source: DepEd Fact Sheet

Local Survival and Retention Rate:

Local survival and retention rates remain low: Out of 100 students that
enter Grade 1, only 58 go on to high school and only 14 become college
graduates. It is because education is expensive, students are shifting to public
from private schools, most notably in the secondary level. From a 62%
enrollment rate previously enjoyed by private schools, the figure significantly
dropped to 21% in 2005. Public schools, which in 1965 only had 38% enrollment
rate, had this figure rise to 79%.

The dismal picture presented where student survival rate is slim is further
aggravated by the shortages in Classroom, Textbook, Seats , and Teachers.
Observing the succeeding data presents the gravity of the situation which calls
for proper attention.

Teacher: Pupil Ratio Comparison

Table III: Selected Asian Country Comparison, Teacher: Pupil Ratio
COUNTRY Elementary Lower
Indonesia 24 : 1 17.6 : 1
Japan 23 : 1 17 : 1
Laos Less than 20 : 1 17 : 1
Malaysia 21 : 1
Philippines 45 : 1
South Korea 27 : 1
Thailand 21.5 : 1
Vietnam 30.1 : 1
Source : Education for All 2000 Assessment Country Reports

It is surprising that among the eight Asian countries mentioned, the

Philippine Teachers has the highest number of pupils. It also points out that the
closest figure, Vietnam marks 33% lower load compared to Philippine teachers.
Further readings will reveal the effect of these figure to the quality of education.

Shortages... Shortages.
The table below presents the worsening number of classroom and teacher
deficit. Addressing the shortage in textbook is a good indicator as well as
decrease in the shortages in seats. However, the figure shows the geometrical
increase of 686 % in classroom shortage and arithmetic increase of 31% in
teacher shortage.

Table IV. Classrooms, Seats, Textbooks, and Teachers Shortages

2001-2002 2002-2003 2003- 2004- 2005-2006
2004 2005
Classrooms 8,443 12,470 44,716 51,947 57,930
Seats 2,108,173 1,886,499 4.87M 4.56M 3.48M
Textbook --- --- 24.22M 34.7M ---
Teachers 37,932 35,818 46,356 38,535 49,699
Source: DepEd Briefing Materials, 2002-2005 Budget Hearing

Shortages 2001-2002 2005-2006

Classrooms 8,443 57,930
Teachers 37,932 49,699

Public education in the Philippines is at a crossroads. There are large-

scale shortages of classrooms, teachers, desks and chairs, textbooks,
audio-video materials. Over-crowding of classrooms is standard with class sizes
averaging about 80 students per class. The education system is marked by
inadequate teacher training programs and declining per capita expenditure per
child by the government. For every school-aged child enrolled in school, there is
another who has never attended or has dropped out. These problems are
particularly acute in the conflict-affected areas of Mindanao, especially in the
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

Teacher Shortage and Brain Drain

Though the DepEd Factsheet present a good teacher: pupil/student ratio
and also the class size per classroom, reality check reveals the shortages in
Classroom and Teachers. As mentioned in an article made by Filipino Teachers
Network written on November 12, 2006 , it says: The exodus of Filipino teachers
has taken a toll on the Philippine educational system. It is not uncommon to have
a teacher-to-student ratio of 1:150.

Living Salary Gap

Figure below indicates the Living Salary Gap our teacher faces monthly.
Teacher salaries has not increased since 2001. Further inflation increases the living
salary gap annually.

Table V. Entry Level Salary of Philippine Teachers.

Year Cost of Living Living Salary Gap
Level : Teacher 1
1998 P8,605 P13,438.80 P4,833.80
1999 P8,605 P13,825.50 P5,220.50
2000 P9,466 P14,825.50 P6,359.10
2001 P9,939 P15,174.30 P5,235.30
2002 P9,939 P15,975.90 P6,036.90
2004 P9,939 P18,069.30 P8,130.30

Family Living Salary

1st Quarter 2006
P19,950 (NCR)
P16,3344 (National)
(P665/day; P544.80/day IBON Facts and Figures)

Teacher Exodus
Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) Data reveals that
1,666 Filipino teachers leave the country every year to teach in Africa, Europe and
Asia while other work as caregivers and domestic help in the Middle East,
Hongkong and Singapore.

It is saddening that the teachers give up their profession for caregiver or

domestic helper job abroad because of the living salary gap. The domestic
helper in Hongkong for instance earns a minimum HK$3,480 or equivalent to

The shortages of teachers abroad, especially in U.S. entices Filipino teachers

to migrate. It will be noted that by 2014 U.S.A. is projected to need Two (2) Million
Teachers to teach their children. This prospect of employment in U.S. and other
prosperous nations gives a larger salary gap along with other teacher benefits
such as free access teacher trainings/seminar. Moreover, teachers in U.S. are
being paid when they go to trainings/seminars.

The table below shows the comparison of the Net Income that received by
Teachers in selected countries as of Year 2005. Figures on these countries were
Considered since they are the prime destination for our teachers. It is observed
that the Philippine Teachers average net income for one year is even less
compared to one-month average net income of teachers in the United States.
Our closest neighbor, Thailand, has a 64% higher average net income of teachers
compared to the Philippines. Countries in the which includes South Korea, Japan,
Canada, Australia, and United Kingdom have their teachers average net
income of 9 to 15 times compared to Philippine Teachers.
Table VI. 2005 Teachers Income Comparison with Selected Countries
COUNTRY Average Weekly Hours
Net Income in US$ Work Requirement
United States $ 4,055 36.6
United Kingdom $ 3,568 32.5
Australia $ 2,742 39.1
Canada $ 2,236 31.1
Japan $ 2,961 No data
South Korea $ 2,096 39.7
Thailand $ 388 38.0
Philippines $ 237 40.0

Rapid Population Growth

Data from National Census and Statistics Office cites that the Philippines
official population count as of August 2007 is 88.57 Million. Out of this figure, more
than 30% of the population is found at NCR, CALABARZON, and Central Luzon.
For eight consecutive years, 2000 to 2007, the population growth rate is 2.04% per
annum. This means that 1.81 Million new babies are being born annually. It is
projected that by Philippine Population is expected to reach 100Million in 2016.

If we are to continue our present teacher: pupil ratio which is 1 : 45, the
government should strictly consider addressing the present shortages in
classroom and teachers with due additional buffer for the 1.81 Million new
students annually (1.81Million is the actual new bonus per year).

National Toilet Bowl to Pupil Ratio

One of the things which caught the countrys attention is the national toilet
bowl ratio which was featured in the News Programs of Television, Radio,
Newspapers, and even the Internet. Toilet, as a basic facility is a must have for
all establishments be they public or private in nature. Quoted below is the article
written in Inquirer, a top Media Corporation in the country.

The national toilet bowl to pupil ratio stands at 1:51 in primary schools and 1:102
in secondary schools. In the ARMM, its 1:171 in the elementary level and 1:250 in
the secondary level while in NCR, its 1:114 and 1:143, respectively.


Education as a Public Good was created to make sure that progress will
continue as citizens earns general knowledge and technological know-how. As
the greatest equalizer, education is very important for people in all strata that is
for the rich to ensure that they maintain and even upgrade their status in society,
and for poor to be competitive and eventually attain their desired economic
Low quality of education give rise to private schools. The perception that
private schools offer better quality education makes many parents enroll their
children to this schools which is marred with commercialism. However, still majority
of Filipinos cannot afford sending their children to private schools for it is even hard
for many to even send children in public schools as indicated in low participation
The present administration has inherited flaws in the education system.
Shortages in classrooms, teachers, seats, books, and even toilet is a very big
problem that besiege the education process.
For a country whose biggest export is manpower / skilled workers, human
capital spending is a serious matter, and should be on the top priority of the
An adage: sometimes no reaction is a reaction is indeed true much more
the inadequate reaction. International standard in the Education Departments
budget of allocating 6% of a countrys GDP come with basis, that is to ensure that
high standard of quality in education is met.
Outcome of the shortages in educations budget is clearly manifested in
different aspects. Effectiveness in learning is affected as we witness our students
fare low on diagnostic test in comparison with our neighbors countries.
Aggravating factors such as the exodus of teachers because of low
salaries, the student to teacher ratio, lack of facilities and other matters continue
to take its toll on our most valuable product: the Filipino.
It is true that the Arroyo administration inherited problems in education.
However, the government has the power to inflict change and not to worsen the
status quo. As Babe Ruth used to say, You can pay now and play later, or play
now and pay later. But either way, you will have to pay.


There is a strong perception that the Philippines is lagging behind other

Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. Among the reasons
given is the low quality of basic education in the country. Recent High School
Readiness Test given to all grade six graduates in public elementary schools in
May 2004 show very low scores in science and mathematics test. In the National
Secondary Achievement Test given in year 2000, students gave correct answers
to less than 50% of the questions in science and mathematics.
In the 2008 World Competitive Yearbook of the Swiss-based International
Institute for Management Development, the Philippines ranked 52nd out of the 55
countries in education.
Though the present education situation in the country which is besiege with
problems of lack of classrooms, facilities, textbooks (some of whom have been
found containing erroneous data), and teacher emigration poses a gargantuan
task for the education officials and the political leaders to save our education
Romulo Neri, a key Cabinet official of Gloria Arroyo stated the proposed
solution of the government that the Arroyo administration aims to build 6,000
classrooms a year, grant a scholarship for every qualified student from a poor
family, put a computer in every school.
As learned above, building 6,000 new classrooms per year is way behind
the requirement to address the present shortage in classrooms which continue to
add annually because of high population growth.
On budget allocation, come 2009, the DepEd budget will increase by 15.32
% from PhP149.25 Billion to PhP167.94 Billion, the biggest budget so far in the history
of the department. However, it is still insufficient to finance the abovementioned
shortages in the basic education. The original proposed budget given by the
DepEd was P259.46 Billion, P110.21 Billion higher than the approved budget.
The International Standard for Education budget account for 6% of the
countrys Gross Domestic Product, GDP. Historical data reveals that from Year
2001 to 2007, the DepEds budget only account for 2.07 to 2.53 % of GDP, a
substandard figure.
Regarding the welfare of the Teachers, both upper and lower house of
congress on the other hand have proposed bill, Senate Bill 2408 and House Bill
4734, aimed to increase the salary of teachers by P9,000 (from P9,939 to
PhP18,939). The bill, if approved, will place the teachers salary to Salary Grade
19 from Salary Grade 10. Target implementation for this program will spread on
a 3-year timetable or PhP3,000 increase per year for three years.
It said that the Philippine Educational system is bureaucratic. Being
bureaucratic have its advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of being
a bureaucratic are: 1.) it is characterized by hierarchical authority relations,
defined spheres of competence subject to impersonal rules, recruitment by
competence, and fixed salaries. 2.) The main aims of a bureaucracy are to be
rational, efficient, and professional in the implementation of policies and
However, problems arise when bureaucracy become self-serving and self-
perpetuating. This results to losses in valuable resources (overpriced/substandard
assets, supply, etc.) due to corruption and the placement of unideal/substandard
people in the organization because of palakasan. This also results to slow down
in transactions that need speedy results.


2007 DepEd Fact Sheet

Education for All 2000 Assessment Country Reports

IBON Facts and Figures

PROCEEDINGS Policy Dialogue Series 2004: Academe Meets the Government

on the Philippine Economy.