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Q. No. 2. (a) What were the main objectives of Clean Development Mechanism?

Also explain the reasons for

the criticism on Koyoto Protocol by the developed countries.
The Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Waste
If you have heard of something called the waste hierarchy you may be wondering what that means. It is the order of priority of actions to be taken
to reduce the amount of waste generated, and to improve overall waste management processes and programs. The waste hierarchy consists of 3 Rs
as follows:

Called the three Rs of waste management, this waste hierarchy is the guidance suggested for creating a sustainable life. You might be wondering
as to how can you incorporate these principles in your daily life. They are not hard to implement. All you need is to bring a small change in your
daily lifestyle to reduce waste so that less amount of it goes to the landfill that can reduce your carbon footprint.
The three Rs reduce, reuse and recycle all help to cut down on the amount of waste we throw away. They conserve natural resources, landfill
space and energy. Plus, the three Rs save land and money communities must use to dispose of waste in landfills. Siting a new landfill has become
difficult and more expensive due to environmental regulations and public opposition.
By refusing to buy items that you dont need, reusing items more than once and disposing the items that are no longer in use at appropriate recycling
centers, you can contribute towards a healthier planet.

The First R Reduce

The concept of reducing what is produced and what is consumed is essential to the waste hierarchy. The logic behind it is simple to understand if
there is less waste, then there is less to recycle or reuse. The process of reducing begins with an examination of what you are using, and what it is
used for. There are three simple steps to assessing the reduction value of an item or process

Is there something else that can be used for this purpose? Using multi-use items is essential to beginning reduction. One example
would be a coffeepot and a cappuccino maker. Both of them do distinctly different things, but you can buy a coffeepot that has a
steaming attachment on it so it can do both. The purchase of the one item means that you dont use two. It reduces the amount of
production, and the amount of waste packaging material that will be generated.

Is this something that needs to be done? A lot of our waste material comes from items that are considered to be disposable. Not in
the sense that you use something once and then throw it away, that can actually be a part of environmental responsibility when you are
working with medical items disposable in this sense means whether or not what the item allows you to do has any real meaning or

Is the item a part of something that you need to do, or want to do in your life? There is a limit to what you need to be prepared for in
life. Chances are you wont need a car that is equipped to handle a sandstorm in the desert. Buying one encourages production, wastes
your resources and creates more generative waste than you can imagine. Always make sure that what you consume, or keep in your life
as preparation matches the reality of potential opportunity in your life.
Here are some of things you can do to reduce the waste:
1. Print on both sides of the paper to reduce paper wastage.
2. Use electronic mail to reach out to people instead of sending paper mail.
3. Remove your name from the mailing lists that you no longer want to receive.
4. Use cloth napkins instead of paper napkins.
5. Avoid using disposable plates, spoons, glass, cups and napkins. They add to the problem and result in large amount of waste.
6. Avoid buying items that are over-packaged with foil, paper, and plastic. This excess packaging goes to waste.
7. Buy durable goods that have long warranty. They generally run longer and save landfill space.
Number 3 deals with the problems created by living within a culture of consumerism. This type of consumption driven culture also makes fulfilling
the second R difficult, but it is getting easier to do.

The Second R Reuse

You may have a box of things you keep that are broken or that you dont have a use for that you hang on to in-case you find another use for them; or
you may find bargains on old furniture or go trash picking and get things that you can refinish in either case you are working towards reusing the
item. Learning to reuse items, or re-purpose them for a use different then what they are intended for is essential in waste hierarchy.
One of the best examples for how this is being done today is the modular construction of homes and office buildings that is being created out of
discarded shipping containers. These large, semi-truck sized metal containers represent a huge waste problem. Repurposing them as homes and
offices saves them from the landfills and doesnt require the additional expenditure of nature resources to melt down and reconfigure the metals used
to create them.
You may either reuse those items for your own use or donate so that others can use them. You can reuse below items like:
1. Old jars and pots: Old jars and pots can be used to store items in kitchen. They can also be used to store loose items together such as computer
2. Tyres: Old tyres can either be sent to recycling station or can be used to make tyre-swing.
3. Used wood: Used wood can be used as firewood or can be used woodcrafts.
4. Newspaper: Old newspapers can be used to pack items when youre planning to move to another home or store old items.
5. Envelopes: Old and waste envelopes can be used by children to make short notes.
6. Waste paper: Waste paper can be used to make notes and sketches and can be send to recycling center when you dont need them anymore.
Items that can be donated to others include:
1. Old books: Your old books can be used by poor children or can be donated to public libraries.
2. Old clothes: Your unwanted clothes can be used by street children or can be donated to charity institutions.
3. Old electric equipment: Old electric equipment can be donated to schools or NGOs so that they can use them.
4. Rechargeable batteries: Rechargeable batteries can be used again and again and helps to reduce unnecessary wastage as opposed to regular
Apart from this, you can build a compost bin and reuse many waste items like used tea bags. The waste then degrades and turns into compost that
help your plants grow and shine.

The Third R Recycling

The last stage of the waste hierarchy is to recycle. To recycle something means that it will be transformed again into a raw material that can be
shaped into a new item. There are very few materials on the earth that cannot be recycled. One of the issues facing communities that want to become
more involved with a recycling effort is that while the relying collection and sorting process may be affordable to implement, there still has to be a
facility to receive and transform the discarded waste into a raw material. More progress is being made toward uniting recycling plants with industries
that can process the waste material through agreements and incentive credits.
One need to learn as to what products can be recycled and what not. By carefully choosing the products that can be recycled, can be a first step
towards efficient recycling.
1. Buy products from market that are made up of recycled materials i.e. the product should be environment friendly.
2. Buy products that can be recycled such as glass jars.
3. Invent new ways to recycle different items.
4. Avoid buying hazardous materials that could pose difficulty for you to recycle. Buy non-toxic products, whenever possible.
5. Buy products that have been made from recycled material.
6. Use recycled paper for printing or making paper handicrafts.

(b) Differentiate between Sanitary and Industrial Landfills, also describe the land selection criteria for

Types of Landfills
Sanitary landfills - landfill that uses a clay liner to isolate the trash from the environment SANITARY LANDFILLS

Sights where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe. It is considered safe when it has completely
degraded biologically, chemically, and physically. Sanitary landfills use technology to contain the waste and prevent the
leaching out of potentially hazardous substances. There are two main methods used in sanitary landfills, the
trench method and the area method.

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills - uses a synthetic (plastic) liner to isolate the trash from the environment This
type of landfill collects household garbage and are regulated by state and local governments. The Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) has established minimum criteria that these landfills must meet. Some materials may be
banned from disposal in municipal solid waste landfills. Items such as paints, cleaners, chemicals, motor oil, batteries,
and pesticides are some of the common items that are banned from MSW's. However, some household appliances can
be turned into MSW's for disposal.

Construction and demolition waste landfills - consist of the debris generated during the construction, renovation, and
demolition of buildings, roads, and bridges. These types of landfills used for debris generated during construction,
renovations, demolitions of buildings and bridges. The types of debris include: concrete, wood, asphalt, gypsum (the
main component of drywall), metals, bricks, glass, plastics, trees, stumps, earth, rock, and building components (doors,
windows, plumbing fixtures).
Industrial Waste Landfills- nonhazardous solid waste, consists of nonhazardous waste associated with manufacturing
and other industrial activities Industrial hazardous waste is a separate form of waste consisting of nonhazardous waste
associated with manufacturing and other industrial activities.

Criteria for Selection of Land fill Site

Landfill site for solid wastes should be selected on following criteria:

Land area and volume should be sufficient enough to provide landfill capacity so that the projected need
can be fulfilled for several years. In this way the cost coming on all that procedure can be justified.
The landfill site should not be at locations where suitable buffer zones between land fill site and population
are not available.
The landfill area having steep gradient (where stability of slope could be problematic) should not be
The water level in ground water table should be sufficient below the base of any excavation to enable
landfill development.
The land which is significant environmentally (lands of biodiversity); the sensitive ecological area of such
a land should be present within potential area of landfill site.
Public & private irrigation water supply wells should be well away from the boundaries of landfill site
because these supply wells will be at risk of contamination.
Landfill area should not be very close to significant water bodies (water courses or dams). There will be
the risk of contamination of water bodies, which can be hazardous for aquatic life.
No major power transmission or other infrastructure like sewers, water supply lines should be crossing
through landfill developmental area.
No residential development should be near the boundaries of landfill site. The waste disposal site must
be very away from residential or commercial areas and water resources.
Landscaping and protective shelf should be included in the design so that to minimize the visibility of
Unstable areas that have significant seismic risk which could cause destruction of berms are not
recommended for landfill site.
There should not be fault lines and significantly fractured geological structure. These fault lines can allow
the unpredictable movement of gas within 500 meters of perimeter of proposed landfill development.
Groundwater quality should not be disturbed during the site developmental phase. There should be
monitoring facilities at site in order to ensure that ground water quality is maintained.
In areas under the laws of concerned municipality it should be responsibility of municipality to identify
landfill site and handover to operators for operations.
Selection of landfill site should be based upon the examination of environmental issues.
The landfill site should be near the wastes recycling facility otherwise, the waste recycling facility should
be planned as integral part of landfill site.
Biomedical wastes should be disposed off in accordance with guidelines issued by Ministry Of Health,
Government of Pakistan.

Landfill site should be away from airports. There is need of approval of airbase authorities like civil
aviation authorities of government of Pakistan for setting up of landfill site in case if site is to be locating
within ten kilometer of an airport boundary.

Q. No. 3. (a) Write a short note on artificial intelligence.

(b) Write short notes on: (2 each)
(i) Fibre Optics (ii) Global Positioning System

Q. No. 4. (a) What are vaccines? Classify these and discuss DNA vaccines in detail.
(b) What are causative organism and vector for dengue, enlist possible ways of prevention from dengue.

Q. No. 5. (a) Comment, liver is the chief chemist in human body.

(b) What is Cholesterol? Discuss its importance, normal blood level and dangers of elevated levels with
reference to the health and disease in humans.

Q. No. 6. (a) What do you know about the Remote Sensing Techniques? Explain resolution and write down
the names of its various types?
(b) What is hydrological cycle? Discuss its importance.

Q. No. 7. (a) What is tsunami? How the tsunamis generated and what are their characteristics?
(b) What is an earth quake? Discuss Richter Scale in this context. What was the intensity of the earth quake
in Pakistan dated 26 October 2015 and where was the locus?

Q. No. 8. (a) Explain the shape of water molecule with the help of Molecular Orbital Theory, also draw its
orbital diagram.
(b) What are the gamma rays? Explain their applications.

Q. No. 9. (a) Discuss importance of preservatives and antioxidants in food.

(b) Comment, Green House Effect is a blessing. Also discuss Enhanced Green House Effect and its relation
with global warming.