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In the autumn of the year 1891, 1 went to Armenia for a second

time, in the hope of finding an ancient version of the Book of

Enoch, and of recovering documents illustrative of the ancient

heretics of that land, particularly of the Paulicians.

For Gibbon's

picture of their puritanism, fresh and vigorous in an age when

Greek Christianity had degenerated into the court superstition of

Constantinople, had fascinated my imagination; and I could not believe that some fuller records of their inner teaching did not

survive in the Armenian tongue.

In this quest, though my other

failed, I was rewarded. I learned during my stay at Edjmiatzin,

that in the library of the Holy Synod there was preserved a manu-

script of The Key of Truth, the book of the Thonraketzi or Paulicians

of Thbnrak, with whom I was familiar from reading the letters of

Gregory Magistros, Duke of Mesopotamia in the eleventh century. I was permitted to see the book, of which a perfunctory exami-

nation convinced me that it was a genuine monument, though, as I

then thought it, a late one of the Paulicians.

For I found in it the

same rejection of image-worship, of mariolatry, and of the cult of

saints and holy crosses, which was characteristic of the Paulicians.

I could not copy it then without leaving unfinished a mass of

other work which I had begun in the conventual library ; and I was anxious to get to Dathev, or at least back to Tifiis, before the

snow fell on the passes of the anti-Caucasus. However, I arranged

that a copy of the book should be made and sent to me ; and this

I received late in the year 1893 from the deacon Galoust Ter

Mkherttschian. My first impression on looking into


I had expected to find in it a Marcionite, or at


it afresh was one



least a Manichean book; but, beyond the extremely sparse use

made in it of the Old Testament, I found nothing that savoured

of these ancient heresies. Accordingly I laid it aside, in the press of

other work which I had undertaken.

It was not until the summer

of 1896 that, at the urgent request of Mr. Darwin Swift, who had

come to me for information about the history of Manicheism in

Armenia, I returned to it, and translated it into English in the hope

that it might advance his researches.

And now I at last understood who the Paulicians really were.

All who had written about them had been misled by the calumnies

of Photius, Petrus

Siculus, and the

other Greek



describe them as Manicheans. I now realized that I had stumbled

on the monument of a phase of the Christian Church so old and so outworn, that the very memory of it was well-nigh lost. For The Key of Truth contains the baptismal service and ordinal of

the Adoptionist Church, almost in the form in which Theodotus

These form the oldest

of Rome may have celebrated those rites.

part of the book, which, however, also contains much controversial matter of a later date, directed against what the compiler regarded

as the abuses of the Latin and Greek Churches.

The date at

which the book was written in its present form cannot be put later

But we can

than the ninth century, nor earlier than the seventh.

no more argue thence that the prayers and teaching and rites preserved in it are not older, than we could contend, because our

present English Prayer Book was only compiled in the sixteenth

century, that its contents do not go back beyond that date. The

problem therefore of determining the age of the doctrine and rites

detailed in The Key of Truth is like any other problem of Christian

questions which arise in con-


It resembles the

nexion with the Didache or The Shepherd of Hernias ;

and can

only be resolved by a careful consideration of the stage which it

represents in the development of the opinions and rites of the

church. In my prolegomena I have attempted to solve this problem.

I may here briefly indicate the results arrived at.

The characteristic note of the Adoptionist phase of Christian opinion was the absence of the recognized doctrine of the Incarna-


Jesus was mere man until he reached his thirtieth year,

when he came to John on the bank of the Jordan

to receive


Then his sinless nature received the guerdon.


heavens opened and the Spirit of God came down and abode with



him. The voice from above proclaimed him the chosen Son of

God ;

a glory rested on him, and thenceforth he was the New-

Adam, the Messiah ; was the power and wisdom of God, Lord of

all creation, the first-born in the kingdom of grace.

Of divine

Incarnation other than this possession of the man Jesus by the

divine Spirit, other than this acquiescence of it in him, who had as

no other man kept the commands of God, the Adoptionists knew


in baptism, so it is the end and vocation of all men, by gradual

self-conquest, to prepare themselves for the fruition of God's grace.

And as he was chosen out to be the elect Son of God

They must believe and repent, and then at a mature age ask for

the baptism, which alone admits them into the Church or invisible

union of the faithful ; the spirit electing and adopting them to be

sons of the living God, filled like Jesus, though not in the same

degree, with the Holy Spirit. 'Et ille Christus, et nos Christi 1 .' For those who held this faith, the Baptism of Jesus was neces-

sarily the chief of all Christian feasts ; and the Fish the favourite symbol of Jesus Christ, because he, like it, was born in the waters.

Hence it is that when we first, about the end of the third century,

obtain a clear knowledge of the feasts of the church, we find that

It is not until the close

the Baptism stands at the head of them.

of the fourth century that the modern Christmas, the Birth of Jesus

from the Virgin, emerges among the orthodox festivals, and displaces

in the minds of the faithful his spiritual birth in the Jordan.


in Rome, and soon in Antioch and the nearer East, this new festival

was kept on Dec. 25.

In the farther East, however, in Egypt,

1 The phrase is that of the Spanish Adoptionists. But the thought was fully expressed five centuries earlier by Methodius, Conviv. viii. 8 : y\ eiacXTjaia

rnrapya Kal cbSivet, pi\pmip o Xpiarbs iv fjp.iv pop<pw9rj yewrjdeis, ottojs (/cclotos

tuiv ayiaiv tw p.eTex eiV Xpiarov Xpiarus yevvr)9rj. 'The Church is big with

child, and is in travail, until the Christ in us is fully formed into birth, in order

that each of the saints by sharing in Christ may be born a Christ,' that is,

And just below he continues thus: ' This is why in a certain

." ; which means that those who have

been baptized by participation of the Spirit into Christ, have become Christs.'

Harnack well sums up the teaching of Methodius as follows {Dogmengesch. bd. i. 746 (701): 'For Methodius the history of the Logos-Christ, as Faith

scripture we read, " Touch not my

through baptism.

holds it, is but the general background for an inner history, which must repeat

itself in every believer : the Logos must in his behalf once more come down

from heaven, must suffer and die and rise again in the faithful.' So Augustine,

in Ioh. tr. 21, n. 8 : - Gratias agamus non solum nos Christianos factos esse, sed

Christum.' Such then was also the Paulician conviction.



in Armenia, and in Mesopotamia, the new date for the chief festival

was not accepted, and the commemoration of the earthly or human birth of Jesus was merely added alongside of the older feast of his

Baptism, both being kept on the old day, Jan. 6.

We are only acquainted with the early Christianity of the Jewish

Church through the reports of those who were hostile to it, and

who gave to it the name of Ebionite, signifying probably such

an outward poverty in its adherents, and such a rigid simplicity

in its liturgy and rites, as characterized the Paulician Church, and

provoked the ridicule of the orthodox Armenian writers.

It is certain, however, that the christology of this church was

Adoptionist. Through Antioch and Palmyra this faith must have

spread into Mesopotamia and Persia ; and in those regions became

the basis of that Nestorian Christianity which spread over Turkestan,

invaded China, and still has a foothold in Urmiah and in Southern


diffused along the entire range of the Taurus, from Cilicia as far

as Ararat, and beyond the Araxes into Albania, on the southern


centres like


Nisibis, and Amida

it was

slopes of the Eastern Caucasus.

Its proximate centre of diffusion

in the latter region seems to have been the upper valley of the

traditional site of the martyrdom of

great Zab, where was the

St. Bartholomew, to whom the Armenians traced back the succes- sion of the bishops of the canton of Siuniq, north of the Araxes.

In Albania, Atropatene, and Vaspurakan to the east of Lake Van. and in Moxoene, Arzanene, and Taraunitis to its south and west,

as most of the early Armenian historians admit, Christianity was

not planted by the efforts of Gregory the Illuminator, but was long

anterior to him and had an apostolic origin. That it was a faith of

strictly Adoptionist or Ebionite type we know from the Disputation

of Archelaus with Mani. For Archelaus, though he wrote and

spoke in Syriac, was the bishop of an Armenian see which lay

not far from Lake Van '.

1 The identification (see pp. cii, ciii) of the See of Archelaus is somewhat

confirmed by the fact (communicated to me by Father Basil Sarkisean) that

Karkhar is the name of a hilly region (not of a town) in the vilayet of Bitlis,

about one hour south of Van. But De Morgan's map {Mission Scientifique en

Perse, 1896; of the country east of Lake Urmiah inclines one to identify the

Karkhar of Archelaus with that of Wardan, which certainly lay in the canton

of Golthn, on

the Araxes.

For this map marks a town called Arablou

^i.e. Arabion castellum) on the north bank of the river Karanghou (which



The Taurus range thus formed a huge recess or circular dam

into which flowed the early current of the Adoptionist faith, to be

therein caught and detained for centuries, as it were a backwater

Here in the

from the main stream of Christian development.

eighth and ninth centuries, even after the destruction of the Mon-

tanist Church, it still lingered in glen and on mountain crest, in

secular opposition to the Nicene faith, which, backed by the armies

of Byzantium, pressed eastward and southward from Caesarea of

Cappadocia. The historical Church of Armenia was a compromise

between these opposed forces ; and on the whole, especially in the

monasteries, the Nicene or grecizing party won the upper hand

dictating the creed and rites, and creating the surviving literature of

that Church.

But the older Adoptionist Christianity of south-east

Armenia was not extinct.

In the eighth century there was that

great revival of it, known in history as the Paulician movement.

A Paulician emperor sat on the throne of Byzantium ; and away

in Taron, about 800 a.d., the old believers seem to have organized

themselves outwardly as a separate church; and a great leader stereotyped their chief rites by committing them to writing in

an authoritative book.


In the West the Adoptionist faith was anathematized at Rome in

the person of Theodotus as early as 190 a.d., but not before it had

That book survives, and is The Key of

left a lasting monument of itself, namely, The Shepherd of Hermas.

It still survived in Moorish Spain, and was there vigorous as late as

the ninth century; and it lived on in other parts of Europe, in

Burgundy, in Bavaria, and in the Balkan Peninsula, where it was probably the basis of Bogomilism. It is even not improbable that

may be the modern form of Stranga), halfway from its source in the Sahend

hills (due south of Tabreez) towards Send, near Resht, where it flows into the


This Arablou is about 100 miles, or three days' ride, south of

Urdubad on the Araxes, the traditional site of the evangelizing activity of

Stranga was the

St. Bartholomew.

Cedrenus (xi. 575) indicates that the

boundary between Persia and Roman Vaspurakan in the eleventh century just

as it had been in the third. This view would still locate the See of Archelaus

in Pers-Armenia, on the borders of Albania and Siu»iq, and in the very region

where King Arshak (see p. cxiii), the enemy of St. Basil, found heretically

minded bishops ready to consecrate as catholicos his own nominee. In the absence of surveys and better maps it is difficult to decide between these

alternative views ; but one or other of them must be correct, and they both prove that Archelaus was an Armenian bishop.



it was the heresy of the early British Church.

landmarks, for the rival christology which figured Jesus Christ not

But it has

left few

by the descent of the Spirit on him was filled with

the Godhead, but as God incarnate from his virgin mother's womb,

advanced steadily, and, like a rising tide, soon swept over the whole

face of Christendom ; everywhere effacing literary and other traces

of the Adoptionist faith, which seems thenceforward to have only

lived on in Languedoc and along the Rhine as the submerged

Christianity of the Cathars, and perhaps also among the Waldenses.

In the Reformation this Catharism comes once more to the surface,

particularly among the so-called Anabaptist and Unitarian Chris-

as a man, who

tians, between whom and the most primitive church The Key of

Truth and the Cathar Ritual of Lyon supply us with two great

connecting links.

How, it may be asked, could such a revolution of religious opinion as the above sketch implies take place and leave so little

trace behind ? But it has left some traces. The Liber Sententiarum

is the record of the Inquisition of Toulouse from 1307-1323, and

for that short period its 400 closely printed folio pages 1 barely

suffice to chronicle the cruelties perpetrated in the name of the

God of mercy by the clergy of the orthodox or persecuting Church

of Rome. A hundred such volumes would be needed to record

the whole tale of the suppression of the European Cathars.

if we ask what has become of the literature of these old believers of

Europe, an examination of the lately found eleventh-century IMS.

of the Peregrinalio of St. Sylvia suggests an answer. This precious codex contained a description of the Feast of the Baptism, the old Christmas day, as it was celebrated on Jan. 6 in Jerusalem towards

the close of the fourth century.

It was the one tell-tale feast, the

one relic of the Adoptionist phase of Christianity which the book

contained ; and the details of its celebration would have had an


exceptional interest for the Christian archaeologist of to-day.


the particular folio which contained this information, at some

remote period, and probably in the monastery of Monte Casino

where it was written, has been carefully cut out.

If such precau-

tions were necessary as late as the twelfth century, what must not have been destroyed in the fourth and fifth centuries, when the struggle between the rival christologies raged all over the East

1 I refer to Limborch's edition.



and West ?

Then it was that the bulk

of the Christian literature

of the second and early third centuries perished, and was irrevo-

cably lost.

Because I have sometimes referred to the Adoptionists as heretics,

I trust I may not be supposed to have prejudged the case against them. In doing so I have merely availed myself of a conventional phrase, because it was convenient and clear. For it has been no

part of my task to appraise the truth or falsehood of various forms of Christian opinion, but merely to exhibit them in their mutual

relations; and, treating my subject as a scientific botanist treats

his, flora, to show how an original genus is evolved, in the process of

adaptation to different circumstances, into various species.

It rests

with the authoritative teacher of any sect to determine, like a good

gardener, which species he will sow in his particular plot.


aim of the scientific historian of opinion is only to be accurate and


opinions, ' sine ira et studio, quorum causas procul habeo.' If I have occasionally waxed warm, it has been before the spectacle of the cruel persecution of innocent people. And of a truth a pathetic interest attaches to such a book as this Key of Truth, in which, in tardy fulfilment of Gibbon's hope, the Paulicians are at last able to plead for themselves. It was no empty vow of their elect ones, ' to be baptized with the baptism of Christ, to take on themselves scourgings, imprisonments, tortures, reproaches, crosses, blows,

and this I have tried to be, moving among warring

tribulation, and all temptations of the world.'

Theirs the tears,

theirs the blood shed during more than ten centuries of fierce

persecution in the East ; and if we reckon of their number, as well

we may, the early puritans of Europe, then the tale of wicked deeds

wrought by the persecuting churches reaches dimensions which appal the mind. And as it was all done, nominally out of reve-

rence for, but really in mockery of, the Prince of Peace, it is hard to say of the Inquisitors that they knew not what they did. Even while we reprobate the tone of certain chapters of The

Key, in which the orthodox churches are represented as merely

Satanic agencies, we must not forget the extenuating fact that for over five centuries the Adoptionists had in Rome and elsewhere

been under the heel of the dominant faction.

If we hunt down

innocent men like wild animals, they are more than mortal, if they

do not requite many evil deeds with some few bitter words.

one point in their favour must be noticed, and it is this.





system was, like that of the European Cathars, in its basal idea and

conception alien to persecution ; for membership in it depended

upon baptism, voluntarily sought for, even with tears and supplica- tions, by the faithful and penitent adult. Into such a church there could be no dragooning of the unwilling. On the contrary, the

whole purpose of the scrutiny, to which the candidate for baptism

was subjected, was to ensure that his heart and intelligence were

won, and to guard against that merely outward conformity, which

is all that a persecutor can hope to impose.

It was one of the

worst results of infant baptism, that by making membership in the

Christian Church mechanical and outward, it made it cheap ; and

so paved the way for the persecutor.

Under this aspect, as under

some others, the Adoptionist believers, and the Montanists, and

certain other sects, passed with the triumph and secularization of Christianity under Theodosius into the same relative position

which the early Christians had themselves occupied under the

persecuting Roman government; whose place in turn the dominant

or orthodox church now took in all respects save one,namely,

that it was better able to hunt down dissenters, because the In- quisitors knew just enough of the Christian religion to detect

with ease the

Built into the walls and foundations of a modern church we

can often trace the fragments of an earlier and ruined edifice, but are seldom privileged to come upon a complete specimen of the older structure. Now into the fabric of many of our beliefs to-day

are built not a few stones taken from the Adoptionists ;


retrimmed to suit their new environment. In The Key of Truth

we for the first time recover a long-past phase of Christian life, and

that, not in the garbled account of an Epiphanius, or in the jejune

pages of an Irenaeus or Hippolytus ; but in the very words of those

comings in and goings forth of their victims.


lived it.

A lost church

rises before our eyes ; not a dead

anatomy, but a living organism.

humble congregation, be present at the simple rites, and find our-

selves at home among the worshippers. And it is remarkable how

We can, as it were, enter the

this long-lost church recalls to us the Teaching of the Apostles.

There is the same Pauline conception of the Eucharist indicated

by the

living water, the same absence of a hierarchy, the same description

of the President as an Apostle, the same implied Christhood of the elect who teach the word, the same claim to possess the Apostolical

stress laid on the use of a single loaf, the same baptism in




It is no far-fetched hypothesis that the Didache is itself

the handbook of an Adoptionist Church.

My Introduction contains many hints towards a history of the

feast of Christmas ; but I have mostly confined myself to Armenian

sources inaccessible to many scholars. The Greek evidence is well

gathered together in Prof. Hermann Usener's suggestive study on

and I have hardly noticed it, lest my book should

the subject;

assume unwieldy dimensions. Another work to the author of

which I am under obligations is the Dogmengeschichte of Prof.



my discussion of the origins




Church I have been

largely guided by the luminous tract of

Prof. Gelzer on the subject.

Of other works consulted by me

I have added a list at the end of my book.

I feel that many of the views advanced in my Introduction will

be sharply criticized, but I do not think that my main conclusions in regard to the character of the Paulician Church can be touched.

The intimate connexion between adult baptism and the school of

Christian thought represented by Paul of Samosata is evidenced

in a passage of Cyril of Alexandria's commentary on Luke, first

published by Mai 1


In it Cyril assails Paul of Samosata's inter-

pretation of the word apxopevos in Luke iii. 23, namely, that the

man Jesus then began to be the Son of God, though he was, in

the eye of the

follows a lacuna 2 in which Cyril coupled with this interpretation

a form of teaching which he equally censured, namely, that all

persons should be baptized on the model of Jesus at thirty years


(«$ eVo/ii'£o-o), only son of Joseph.


of age.

find it again among the Paulicians.

This teaching was plainly that of the Pauliani, and we

1 Noua Biblioth. Patrum, torn, ix ; reprinted in Migne, Pair. Gr. vol. 72, col. 524. The Syriac version (edited by R. Payne Smith) has