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Turbo machines

Configuration of a basic turbine

Configuration of a basic turbine

Relative motion 1D

U

No wind

W=-U

U

Tail wind

V

W=0

V Head wind

W = V + ( U) (vectorial addition)

V is the absolute velocity or the velocity that an observer experiences.

W is the relative velocity or the velocity experienced by the walker.

Relative motion 2D

W=U

Note : Absolute velocity is the vector sum of the frame velocity and the relative velocity. V = U + W

Graphical addition and subtraction of vectors

and the result is given by movement from the tail of the first to

the nose of the second.

of B and proceed with addition of vectors as before.

Flow through turbomachines

1 x

1 2 3

Stator

Velocity Triangles for a Turbine Stage

Velocity triangle at 2

Velocity triangle at 3

Energy transfer in turbomachines

According to Newtons second law of motion, the sum of all the

forces acting on a control volume in a particular direction is equal to

the rate of change of linear momentum of the fluid across the

control volume.

That is,

m V2 V1

F m V2 V1

dt

or,

F dt m V2 V1

Impulse acting on the

body Change in momentum of the

body in the time period dt

Where,

m = mass of the body (kg)

V1 = initial velocity of the fluid (m/s)

V2 = final velocity of the fluid (m/s)

This equation is a modified form of Newtons second law of motion

and is known as Impulse Momentum Equation

Energy transfer in turbomachines

The impulse momentum equation is used to study the impact of

fluid jet striking a stationary or moving plate and also to study

general fluid flow characteristics.

When the flowing fluid with initial velocity V1 is obstructed by a

surface such as vane, blade etc., the fluid undergoes a change in

momentum. The impulsive force acting on the fluid by the surface

is:

F m V2 V1

According to Newtons third law of motion for every action there is

equal and opposite reaction. Therefore, the fluid reacts to this and

exerts equal and opposite force on the obstructing surface, given by

F m V1 V2

Similarly, the sum of all torques acting on the system is equal to the

rate of change of angular momentum.

Energy transfer components

Fig. shows rotor of a generalized turbomachine. o-o is the

axis of the shaft which rotates with an angular velocity .

The fluid enters the rotor at 1 and leaves at 2 after passing

through the rotor by any path. The angle of entry and exit

may be arbitrary.

Energy transfer components

Let V be the absolute velocity of the fluid entering the rotor

at 1 at any angle. This velocity vector may be resolved into

three mutually perpendicular components:

Axial component Va

Radial component Vr

Tangential component Vw

Axial component : This is parallel to the axis of rotation.

Axial force is produced due to change in magnitude of this

component. This axial force is taken by the thrust bearing

of the machine which is finally transferred to the housing.

Radial component : This is parallel to the radius of the

rotor. Radial force is produced due to change in the

magnitude of this component. Radial forces are taken by

journal bearings.

It should be noted that no torque is exerted on the rotor by

these two forces, i.e., axial and radial.

Energy transfer components

Tangential component : The torque is exerted on the rotor

only due to the change in the angular momentum of the

tangential component.

Assumptions:

Fluid enters and leaves the vane in a direction tangential to the

vane tip at inlet and outlet.

There is no frictional resistance as the fluid flows over the vane.

Let

V = absolute velocity of fluid (m/s)

N = speed pf rotation of the rotor (rpm)

r = radius of the rotor (m)

= angular velocity of the rotor (rad/s) = 2N/60

u = linear velocity of vane tip (peripheral velocity) (m/s) = dN/60

= mass flow rate of fluid (kg/s)

m

d = rotor diameter (m)

Euler turbine equation

Tangential momentum of fluid at entry = Vw1 m

Angular momentum (moment of momentum) at entry = Vw1 m r1

Angular momentum at outlet = Vw 2 m r2

T = torque on the rotor = change of angular momentum

Vw1r1 Vw 2 r2 m

Work done = rate of energy transferred = T x

Vw1r1 Vw 2 r2 m

But we know that 1r1 = u1 and 2r2 = u2. Therefore,

W .D. Vw1u1 Vw2u2 m ----- (1)

Work done per unit mass flow rate Vw1u1 Vw 2u2 ----- (2)

Euler turbine equation

Equations (1) and (2) are two forms of Euler turbine equation or

Euler equation.

Euler equation applies to all turbomachines pumps, fans,

blowers, compressors and turbines (steam, gas, water).

If Vw1u1 > Vw2u2, the RHS of equation (2) is positive and then the

machine is called turbine.

If Vw2u2 > Vw1u1, the RHS of equation (2) is negative and then

the machine is called pump, fan, blower or compressor.

If Vw1u1 > Vw2u2 and Vw2 is negative, i.e., Vw2 is opposite to that

of Vw1, then equation (2) can be written as:

Work done / unit mass flow rate vw1u1 vw 2u2 vw1u1 vw2u2

Alternate form of Euler turbine equation

v2 w2

vr2

2 2

vw2

u2

v1 w1 vr1

1 1

vw1

u1

Alternate form of Euler turbine equation

Let

v = absolute velocity of fluid

w = relative velocity of fluid (relative to the rotor)

vr = radial component of absolute velocity (flow velocity)

vw = tangential component of absolute velocity

Suffixes 1 and 2 indicate inlet and outlet conditions respectively

From inlet velocity triangle,

vr21 v12 vw21 -------- (3)

2 2 2

Also, -------- (4)

r1 1

Equating equations (3) and (4), we get

v12 vw21 w12 u12 2u1vw1 vw21

Alternate form of Euler turbine equation

On simplification we get,

u1vw1

v 2

1 u12 w12

2

Similarly,

u 2 vw 2

v 2

2 u 22 w22

2

Substituting these values in the Eulers equation

Work done

v12 u12 w12

v22 u22 w22

Mass flowrate 2 2

Alternate form of Euler turbine equation

Work done

v12 v22 u12 u22 w22 w12

Mass flowrate 2

This is an alternate form of Euler turbine equation

First component (v12-v22)/2 is the change in absolute kinetic

energy. Due to this, a change in dynamic head or pressure

takes place through the machine. The exit kinetic energy will be

more in power absorbing machines(e.g., pump) while it will be

less in power producing machines (e.g., turbine)

Second component (u12-u22)/2 is the change in centrifugal

energy of the fluid due to change in radius of rotation. This

causes a change in static head or pressure through the rotor.

Third component (w12-w22)/2 is the change in relative kinetic

energy due to change in relative velocity. This also causes a

change in static head or pressure through the rotor.

Alternate form of Euler turbine equation

Radially outward and inward flow machines

For radially outward flow machines, u2 > u1 and hence the fluid

gains in static head, while, for a radially inward flow machine,

u2 < u1 and the fluid loses its static head. Therefore, in radial

f low pumps or compressors the flow is always directed radially

outward, and in a radial flow turbine it is directed radially

inward.

Energy transfer in axial machines

For an axial flow machine, the main direction of flow is parallel

to the axis of the rotor, and hence the inlet and outlet points of

the flow do not vary in their radial locations from the axis of

rotation. Therefore, u1=u2 and equation of energy transfer will

be

Work done

v12 v22 w22 w12

Mass flowrate 2

Conventions in drawing velocity triangles

Vf or Vr or Cm

V or C W or Vr

Vw or Cu

u or U

V or C : Absolute velocity

W or Vr : Relative velocity

Vf or Vr or Cm : Component of absolute velocity in the flow direction

Vw or Cu : Component of absolute velocity in the tangential direction

: Angle between absolute velocity and peripheral velocity vectors

: Angle between relative velocity and peripheral velocity vectors

Steady flow equation 1st law of thermodynamics

V12 V22

Q m h1 Z1 W .D. m h2 Z2

2 2

where,

Q = rate of heat transfer

W.D. = Work output

V2/2 = kinetic energy

Z = potential energy

Suffixes 1 and 2 refer to inlet and outlet values respectively

Steady flow equation 1st law of thermodynamics

If h0 = stagnation or total enthalpy and h0 = change in total

enthalpy, then 2

V

h0 h Z or,

2

Q W .D.

h02 h01 h0

m m

that is,

q w h0

For isentropic process, q = 0 and hence h0 = -w or in

differential form, -dh0 = w. Therefore,

dh0 w

v2

1

v22 u12 u22 w22 w12

2

Steady flow equation 1st law of thermodynamics

P1 = Static known as ideal Euler work (WiE).

condition

If the flow is not perfect and

1 reversible, the work done is known

Isentropic

as stage work (Wst) or isentropic

Wa Adiabatic P01 = Stagnation work.

T condition

or Wst If the flow is not perfect and the

h WiE

P2 = Static process is irreversible, then the

02 condition work done is called the actual

02

work (Wa) or adiabatic work.

2 WiE > Wst > Wa The pressure drop during stage

work and adiabatic work is the

S

same

Impulse and Reaction

type and the reaction type depending upon the type of energy

change that occurs in the rotor blades.

An impulse stage is one in which the static pressure at inlet

and outlet of the rotor remains the same (P=0 in the rotor).

This also means that the relative velocity of fluid flow is

constant in the rotor.

A reaction stage is one where static pressure changes during

flow of fluid in the rotor (P>0 in the rotor).

The degree of reaction is a parameter that describes the

relation between the energy transfer due to static pressure

change and the energy transfer due to dynamic pressure

change.

Degree of Reaction

transfer by static pressure in the rotor to the total energy

transfer in the rotor.

u

Static energy

u22 w22 w12

2

R 2

1

v1 v u12 u22 w22 w12

2

2 Total energy

or,

Static enthalpy change h1 h2

R

Total enthalpy change ho1 h02

For axial flow machines, u1 = u2 and hence,

R

w w 2 2

v v w w

2 1

2 2 2 2

1 2 2 1

Degree of Reaction

If there is no change in the static pressure in the rotor and u1 = u2,

then such a machine is called an impulse type of machine.

Therefore, for impulse type machine, R = 0.

In an impulse type machine, if the fluid enters and leaves the rotor

at different radii, a change of static pressure occurs in one

direction. An equal amount of change in static pressure occurs in

the opposite direction to render p=0.

In an impulse type machine (i.e., zero degree of reaction), the rotor

can be of open type, i.e., an open jet of fluid with no connection with

the rotor.

A machine with any degree of reaction (R = 0) must have the rotor

enclosed in order avoid expansion of fluid in all directions. Such

machines are called reaction type machines.

General analysis of a turbomachine

Effect of blade outlet angle 2 on energy transfer

The blade outlet angle 2 in a radial machine significantly affects the

work done and the degree of reaction

Its effect can be studied by making the following assumptions:

Centrifugal effect at outlet = 2 x centrifugal effect at inlet (u2 = 2 u1)

Radial velocity (flow velocity) is constant (Vf1 = Vf2 = Vf )

No tangential component at inlet (Vw1= 0; 1= 90; Vf1= V1)

Inlet blade angle (and hence fluid angle) is 45 (u1= V1= Vf)

Outlet blade angle 2 is variable

From equation for work done,

Effect of blade outlet angle 2 on energy transfer

Vw 2u 2 V W

H Vf

g

H u 2 V f 2 Cot 2

u2 Vw

g u

Q

Q2 Q A2V f 2 ; or V f 2

A2

Q Cot 2

Considering rotor operating at

u2

H u 2 a given speed and putting

g A2 u 22

K1

u 22 u 2 Cot 2 g

H Q u Cot 2

K2 2

g gA2 gA2

H K1 K 2 Q

Effect of blade outlet angle 2 on energy transfer

For a given pump or a compressor u, A and 2 are fixed and the

only variables are H and Q. Centrifugal pumps and compressors can

be classified as under:

Backward curved blades 2 < 90

Radial blades 2 = 90

Forward curved blades 2 > 90

For backward curved blades:

2 < 90 (and 1 = 90, Vw1 = 0, Vf1 = V1 as assumed)

Hence,

K2 is positive

H-Q line has negative slope

Outlet tip of the blade is in the direction opposite to that of

rotation.

Flow and wheel rotation are in the same direction.

Effect of blade outlet angle 2 on energy transfer

2 = 90, Vw2 = u2, W2 = Vf2 (and 1 = 90, Vw1 = 0,

Vf1 = V1 as assumed)

Hence,

u 22

K2 = 0, H = K1 = = Constant.

g

Flow and wheel rotation are in the same direction.

Outlet tip of the blade is in the radial direction.

Effect of blade outlet angle 2 on energy transfer

2 > 90 (and 1 = 90, Vw1 = 0, Vf1 = V1 as assumed)

Hence,

K2 is negative.

H-Q line has positive slope

Flow and wheel rotation are in the same

direction.

Outlet tip of the blade is in the direction of

rotation.

Effect of blade outlet angle 2 on energy transfer

< 90 = 90 > 90

Backward curved blade Straight radial blade Forward curved blade

component Vw2 is least for blade

with 2 < 90 and maximum with

Forward

2 > 90.

Very high V2 is not preferred due

= 90

to requirement of large diffusers

Head, H

Radial

for pressure recovery.

Practically 2 > 90 is not

Backward

preferred

Radial blade with 2 = 90 is used

for applications requiring high

Flow, Q

pressures.

General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines

Vw2

W .D. u2Vw2 u 2

2

h0 This is also known as stage work

u2

For constant flow velocity,

V1 V f 1 V f 2 u1 tan 1

Vf 2

Tan 2 V

u2 Vw2 Vf W

Vf 2 Vw

Tan 2 u

Vw2

General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines

Tan 2 Tan 2 V f 2 V f 2 u2

V u V

w2 2 w2

Vw2 2 Tan 2

W .D. u2Vw2 u

2

u2

Tan 2 Tan 2

2

u2

The power absorbed therefore, will be

P m W .D. m h0 m C p T0 m u 2Vw 2

Tan 2

P m u

2

Tan 2 Tan 2

2

General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines

Degree of reaction

W .D static

u 2

2

u12

w12 w22

2 2

W .D.total

u 22 u12

w12 w22

V22 V12

2 2 2

or , W .D.total W .D.static

V22 V12

2

pressure rise in the rotor p static

R

pressure rise in the stage p total

W1

Vf1=V1

1 1

From inlet velocity triangle, u1

General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines

We know that the static pressure rise (p)static through the impeller

is due to the change in centrifugal energy and the diffusion of the

relative flow.

u22 u12 w12 w22

p static W .D.static

2 2

Similarly, the total pressure rise through the impeller is,

p total W .D.total

u22 u12

w12 w22

V22 V12 or,

2 2 2

p total p static

V22 V12

2

General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines

For the assumption of 1 = 90 and V1 = Vf1 = Vf2 we have, from inlet

velocity triangle,

w12 u12 V12 ..(a)

u22 u12 w12 w22

p static

2 2

Substituting for W12 from equation (a) and simplifying, we get

u 22 w22 V f21

p static

(Since V1 = Vf1) ..(b)

2

From exit velocity triangle for 2 > 90, we get V2

W2 Vf2

2 2

w V Vw2 u2

2 2 2

u2

2 f2 VW2

General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines

Simplifying, we get

u22 w22 V f22 2u2Vw2 Vw22

Substituting in the equation (b) of the previous slide,

p static

2u V 2 w2 V 2

w2

2

Substituting in the equation for degree of reaction, R

R

2u V 2 w2 V 2

w2

1

Vw 2 2u2 Vw 2

, or,

2 u2Vw2 Vw 2 2u2

Vw 2

R 1

2u2

General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines

For backward curved blades (2 < 90)

Vw 2

1 therefore, R is always less than 1

u2

Vw2 = u2. Therefore, R = 0.5

Vw2 > u2. Therefore, R < 0.5

Efficiencies

consideration of energy transfer and defined as the ratio of useful

energy delivered to the energy supplied.

Two efficiencies are considered for fluid machines

Hydraulic efficiency (or isentropic efficiency) which relates

energy transfer between fluid and rotor.

Overall efficiency which relates energy transfer between fluid

and shaft.

absorbed by bearings, glands, couplings etc. or, in general, energy

loss that occurs between the rotor and the point of actual power

input or output.

Efficiencies

Efficiencies for a pump or a compressor:

useful energy in the fluid at outlet W fluid

hyd

mechanical energy delivered to rotor Wrotor

useful energy in the fluid at outlet W fluid

overall

mechanical energy delivered to shaft Wshaft

Efficiencies for a turbine:

hyd

Energy available from the fluid W fluid

mechanical energy at output shaft Wshaft

overall

Energy available fromthe fluid W fluid

The ratio of rotor and shaft efficiency is represented by mechanical

efficiency, m.

overall

mechanical

hyd

General analysis Turbines

Impulse type turbines have only the kinetic energy available at inlet

of the machine for the production of power or energy

transformation. That means, the static pressure at inlet and outlet of

the machine remains the same. Hence, W1= W2. E.g., Pelton wheel.

Reaction turbines are those in which in addition to the kinetic

energy of the fluid at inlet, pressure energy is also available in

course of energy transformation. This implies that there is a change

of static pressure during the flow over each rotor stage. E.g., Lawn

sprinkler or Parsons turbine.

Turbines run on compressible fluids (e.g., steam / gas turbines) and

incompressible fluids (e.g., hydraulic turbines).

Turbines must have a residual exit velocity to maintain flow. Even if

we have idealized frictionless flow, it is not possible to transfer all

the energy in the fluid due to the need to have a minimum exit

velocity.

General analysis Turbines

Impulse Turbine

Reaction Turbine

General analysis of Turbines Utilization factor

product of two terms and is given by,

hyd v

where, v is the vane efficiency and takes care of frictional losses,

and is the utilization factor.

The utilization factor is defined as the ratio of the actual work

transferred from the fluid to the rotor in an ideal condition to the

maximum possible work that could be transferred in an ideal

condition.

Wactual

V12 V22 u12 u22 W12 W22

Wmax

V12 u12 u22 W12 W22

V22

Wm ax Wactual

2

General analysis of Turbines Utilization factor

Substituting we get,

Vw1u1 Vw2u2

V22

Vw1u1 Vw2u2

2

Similarly, can also be expressed in terms of degree of reaction, R

R H d H s H s

H static

R therefore, RH d RH s H s

H static H dyn

RH d H s (1 R )

RH d

Hs

(1 R )

General analysis of Turbines Utilization factor

Hdyn Hstatic

Wactual

V12 V22 u12 u 22 W12 W22

Wm ax

u1 u 2 W1 W2

2 2 2 2 V12

2

Hstatic

Substituting for Hstatic,

RHdyn

H dyn

(1 R) RHdyn H dyn RHdyn H dyn

2

2

RHdyn V12

V 1

RHdyn

V

1 R

1

RHdyn 1 R

(1 R) 2 2 2

General analysis of Turbines Utilization factor

V12 V22

H dyn

2

V12 V12 V22 V12

RHdyn 1 R R 1 R

2 2 2

V

R V12 V22 1 2

2

1 R RV1

2

RV2

2

V1

2

RV2

2

V1 V22

This expression holds good for 0 < R < 1 but

V V 2 2

1 2 not for R=1 because then the utilization factor

V RV22

1

2 =1 indicating 100% utilization with the result

that the exit velocity V2 becomes zero.

Axial flow Turbines

In axial flow machines, the fluid enters and leaves the rotor at the

same radius and hence u1= u2.

The axial flow velocity Vf is assumed to be constant from inlet to

outlet.

With u1= u2 the equation for degree of reaction becomes:

R 2

W

W12 2

W22 W12

2

V1 V W2 W1

2

2

2 2

Wactual

From this equation, the different values of R can be obtained

depending on the magnitude of velocity components.

Axial flow Turbines

If R is negative, W1 should be greater than W2. In this case, even

though R is negative, the energy transfer, Wactual is positive.

V1

V2 W2

W1

1 1 2 2 Velocity triangle for R < 0

u u

If R is 0, W1= W2 and hence 1 = 2.. In this case, there is no change

in static pressure across the rotor and the energy transformation

occurs purely due to the change in absolute kinetic energy

(V12 V22)/2.

V1 W2

W1 Velocity triangle for R = 0

V2

1 1 2 2

u u

Axial flow Turbines

When R = 0.5 (50% reaction)

If R is 0.5, V12- V22 = Vr22-Vr12 and hence V1= Vr2 and V2= Vr1. In this

case, 50% energy transformation occurs in the rotor and the other

50% in the stator.

V1 W2

W1 V2

u u

If R is 1, V1 = V2. In this case, the energy transformation occurs

purely due to change in relative kinetic energy of fluid.

W2

V1

W1 V2

u u

Axial flow Turbines

When R > 1

If R is > 1, V2 > V1. In this case, the energy transformation can be

negative or positive.

W2

V1

W1

V2

u u

For maximum utilization, the value of V2 should be minimum and

this is possible when V2 is axial.

V1 W2

W1 V2

u u

Condition for maximum utilization

We have the utilization factor

V12 V22

2

V1 RV22

From velocity triangle for maximum utilization factor max,V2 = V1sin1.

Therefore,

m ax

V

V12 sin 2 1

2

1

V RV12 sin 2 1

1

2

m ax 2

V12 1 sin 2 1

cos2 1

V1 1 R sin 12

1 R sin 2 1

V2 = V1sin1 = 0 which is a zero angle turbine that is impossible to

attain.

Condition for maximum utilization-Impulse Turbine

For impulse turbine, R=0 (and Vr1=Vr2). Substituting in the equation for

max,

cos2 1

m ax

1 R sin 2 1

For R 0, m ax cos2 1

O

Triangles OBC and OCD are similar. Hence

BC = u. Thus for max the impulse stage V1 W2

must have cos1=(u+u)/V1=2u/V1. W1 V2

1 1 2 2

Condition for maximum utilization-Turbine with 50% reaction

1 = 2 and 2 = 1. For maximum utilization,

V2 must be axial.

From velocity triangle, V1 W2

W1 V 2

V2 V1 sin 1 1 1 2 2

m ax

V V

2 2

V V sin 1

2

2 2

u u

1 2 1 1

V RV2 V R V12 sin 2 1

1

2 2

1

2

1 sin 2 1 cos2 1

m ax

1 R sin 1 1 R sin 2 1

2

turbine,

cos2 1 u

m ax Speed ratio cos 1

1 0.5 sin 2 1 V1

Comparison of energy transfer between Impulse and

Reaction turbines

V1 W2 V1 W2

V2 W1 V2

W1

2 2 1 1 2 2

1 1

ui ur ur

ui

Velocity triangle for max Impulse Turbine Velocity triangle for max 50% Reaction Turbine

Let ui and ur be the blade speed of impulse turbine and 50% reaction

turbine.

Energy transfer by impulse turbine is given by

W .D.impulse Vw1u1 Vw2u2 ui Vw1 Vw2

W .D.impulse uiVw1

From velocity triangle for impulse turbine, Vw1 = 2ui. Hence,

W .D.impulse 2ui2

Comparison of energy transfer between Impulse and

Reaction turbines

Energy transfer by the 50% reaction turbine is given by:

W .D.0.5 R urVw1

From velocity triangle for 50% reaction turbine, Vw1 = ur

W .D.0.5 R ur ur ur2

By comparing W.D.impulse and W.D.0.5 reaction we note that the energy transfer

per unit mass of fluid in Impulse turbine is twice that of 50% reaction

turbine for the same blade speed when utilization factor is maximum.

For the same amount of energy transfer, Er = Ei

i.e.,

u r2 2ui2

or , u r 2ui2 1.414 ui

For the same amount of energy transfer under maximum utilization condition, the

peripheral speed of a 50% reaction turbine should be 1.414 times that of an impulse

turbine

Comparison of energy transfer between Impulse and

Reaction turbines

Case (3): When V1 and 1 are the same in both the machines

Speed ratio for impulse stage for maximum utilization is:

ui cos1

V1 2

or, 2ui V1 cos1

Speed ratio for 50% reaction stage for maximum utilization is:

ur

cos1

V1

or , u r V1 cos1

Therefore,

u r 2ui

When V1 and 1 are the same, when operating under maximum utilization condition,

the rotational speed for 50% reaction turbine should be double that of impulse

turbine.

Optimum blade speed ratio (opt) for different types of

turbines for max. energy transfer (W.D.)max

Impulse Turbine:

For max. utilization, AB = BC = u O

Vw1 u u 2u

cos1 V1

W2

V1 V1 V1 W1 V2

u cos1 1 1 2 2

opt A u B C u D

V1 2

W .D.m ax u1Vw1 u1V1 cos1 u1.2u1 2u12

Vf 1 V1 sin 1 1

tan 1

Vw1 u V1 cos1 u V1 cos1 u

V1 sin 1 V1 sin 1

1

tan 1 2 tan 1

cot1

cot1

2

Optimum blade speed ratio (opt) for different types of

turbines for max. energy transfer (W.D.)max

For max. utilization,

V1 W2

W1 V2

Vw1 u1

cos1 opt 1

ur

1 2

ur

2

V1 V1

W .D. u1Vw1 u 2Vw 2

W .D. u1Vw1 u1V1 u 2

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