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Energy transfer in

Turbo machines
Configuration of a basic turbine
Configuration of a basic turbine
Relative motion 1D
U
No wind
W=-U

U
Tail wind
V

W=0

V Head wind

W = V + ( U) (vectorial addition)

U is the frame velocity


V is the absolute velocity or the velocity that an observer experiences.
W is the relative velocity or the velocity experienced by the walker.
Relative motion 2D

W=U

Velocity Triangles for an Aircraft Landing

Note : Absolute velocity is the vector sum of the frame velocity and the relative velocity. V = U + W
Graphical addition and subtraction of vectors

To add two vectors A + B graphically : Place them nose to tail


and the result is given by movement from the tail of the first to
the nose of the second.

To subtract two vectors A - B graphically : Reverse the direction


of B and proceed with addition of vectors as before.
Flow through turbomachines

1 x
1 2 3
Stator

Cascade and Meridional Views of a Turbine Stage


Velocity Triangles for a Turbine Stage

Velocity triangle at 2

Velocity triangle at 3
Energy transfer in turbomachines
According to Newtons second law of motion, the sum of all the
forces acting on a control volume in a particular direction is equal to
the rate of change of linear momentum of the fluid across the
control volume.
That is,
m V2 V1
F m V2 V1
dt
or,

F dt m V2 V1
Impulse acting on the
body Change in momentum of the
body in the time period dt
Where,
m = mass of the body (kg)
V1 = initial velocity of the fluid (m/s)
V2 = final velocity of the fluid (m/s)
This equation is a modified form of Newtons second law of motion
and is known as Impulse Momentum Equation
Energy transfer in turbomachines
The impulse momentum equation is used to study the impact of
fluid jet striking a stationary or moving plate and also to study
general fluid flow characteristics.
When the flowing fluid with initial velocity V1 is obstructed by a
surface such as vane, blade etc., the fluid undergoes a change in
momentum. The impulsive force acting on the fluid by the surface
is:
F m V2 V1
According to Newtons third law of motion for every action there is
equal and opposite reaction. Therefore, the fluid reacts to this and
exerts equal and opposite force on the obstructing surface, given by

F m V1 V2

Similarly, the sum of all torques acting on the system is equal to the
rate of change of angular momentum.
Energy transfer components
Fig. shows rotor of a generalized turbomachine. o-o is the
axis of the shaft which rotates with an angular velocity .
The fluid enters the rotor at 1 and leaves at 2 after passing
through the rotor by any path. The angle of entry and exit
may be arbitrary.
Energy transfer components
Let V be the absolute velocity of the fluid entering the rotor
at 1 at any angle. This velocity vector may be resolved into
three mutually perpendicular components:
Axial component Va
Radial component Vr
Tangential component Vw
Axial component : This is parallel to the axis of rotation.
Axial force is produced due to change in magnitude of this
component. This axial force is taken by the thrust bearing
of the machine which is finally transferred to the housing.
Radial component : This is parallel to the radius of the
rotor. Radial force is produced due to change in the
magnitude of this component. Radial forces are taken by
journal bearings.
It should be noted that no torque is exerted on the rotor by
these two forces, i.e., axial and radial.
Energy transfer components
Tangential component : The torque is exerted on the rotor
only due to the change in the angular momentum of the
tangential component.
Assumptions:
Fluid enters and leaves the vane in a direction tangential to the
vane tip at inlet and outlet.
There is no frictional resistance as the fluid flows over the vane.
Let
V = absolute velocity of fluid (m/s)
N = speed pf rotation of the rotor (rpm)
r = radius of the rotor (m)
= angular velocity of the rotor (rad/s) = 2N/60
u = linear velocity of vane tip (peripheral velocity) (m/s) = dN/60

= mass flow rate of fluid (kg/s)
m
d = rotor diameter (m)
Euler turbine equation

Tangential momentum of fluid at entry = Vw1 m
Angular momentum (moment of momentum) at entry = Vw1 m r1

Angular momentum at outlet = Vw 2 m r2
T = torque on the rotor = change of angular momentum

Vw1r1 Vw 2 r2 m
Work done = rate of energy transferred = T x

Vw1r1 Vw 2 r2 m
But we know that 1r1 = u1 and 2r2 = u2. Therefore,

W .D. Vw1u1 Vw2u2 m ----- (1)

Work done per unit mass flow rate Vw1u1 Vw 2u2 ----- (2)
Euler turbine equation

Equations (1) and (2) are two forms of Euler turbine equation or
Euler equation.
Euler equation applies to all turbomachines pumps, fans,
blowers, compressors and turbines (steam, gas, water).
If Vw1u1 > Vw2u2, the RHS of equation (2) is positive and then the
machine is called turbine.
If Vw2u2 > Vw1u1, the RHS of equation (2) is negative and then
the machine is called pump, fan, blower or compressor.
If Vw1u1 > Vw2u2 and Vw2 is negative, i.e., Vw2 is opposite to that
of Vw1, then equation (2) can be written as:

Work done / unit mass flow rate vw1u1 vw 2u2 vw1u1 vw2u2
Alternate form of Euler turbine equation

v2 w2
vr2
2 2
vw2
u2

Outlet velocity triangle

v1 w1 vr1
1 1
vw1
u1

Inlet velocity triangle


Alternate form of Euler turbine equation
Let
v = absolute velocity of fluid
w = relative velocity of fluid (relative to the rotor)
vr = radial component of absolute velocity (flow velocity)
vw = tangential component of absolute velocity
Suffixes 1 and 2 indicate inlet and outlet conditions respectively
From inlet velocity triangle,
vr21 v12 vw21 -------- (3)

v w u1 vw1 w12 u12 2u1vw1 vw21


2 2 2
Also, -------- (4)
r1 1
Equating equations (3) and (4), we get
v12 vw21 w12 u12 2u1vw1 vw21
Alternate form of Euler turbine equation
On simplification we get,

u1vw1
v 2
1 u12 w12
2
Similarly,

u 2 vw 2
v 2
2 u 22 w22
2
Substituting these values in the Eulers equation

W .D / unit mass flow rate vw1u1 vw 2u2 we get,

Work done


v12 u12 w12

v22 u22 w22
Mass flowrate 2 2
Alternate form of Euler turbine equation
Work done


v12 v22 u12 u22 w22 w12
Mass flowrate 2
This is an alternate form of Euler turbine equation

Components of energy transfer


First component (v12-v22)/2 is the change in absolute kinetic
energy. Due to this, a change in dynamic head or pressure
takes place through the machine. The exit kinetic energy will be
more in power absorbing machines(e.g., pump) while it will be
less in power producing machines (e.g., turbine)
Second component (u12-u22)/2 is the change in centrifugal
energy of the fluid due to change in radius of rotation. This
causes a change in static head or pressure through the rotor.
Third component (w12-w22)/2 is the change in relative kinetic
energy due to change in relative velocity. This also causes a
change in static head or pressure through the rotor.
Alternate form of Euler turbine equation
Radially outward and inward flow machines
For radially outward flow machines, u2 > u1 and hence the fluid
gains in static head, while, for a radially inward flow machine,
u2 < u1 and the fluid loses its static head. Therefore, in radial
f low pumps or compressors the flow is always directed radially
outward, and in a radial flow turbine it is directed radially
inward.
Energy transfer in axial machines
For an axial flow machine, the main direction of flow is parallel
to the axis of the rotor, and hence the inlet and outlet points of
the flow do not vary in their radial locations from the axis of
rotation. Therefore, u1=u2 and equation of energy transfer will
be

Work done


v12 v22 w22 w12
Mass flowrate 2
Conventions in drawing velocity triangles

Vf or Vr or Cm
V or C W or Vr

Vw or Cu
u or U

u or U : Peripheral velocity, DN/60


V or C : Absolute velocity
W or Vr : Relative velocity
Vf or Vr or Cm : Component of absolute velocity in the flow direction
Vw or Cu : Component of absolute velocity in the tangential direction
: Angle between absolute velocity and peripheral velocity vectors
: Angle between relative velocity and peripheral velocity vectors
Steady flow equation 1st law of thermodynamics

The steady flow equation of the 1st law of thermodynamics is


V12 V22
Q m h1 Z1 W .D. m h2 Z2
2 2
where,
Q = rate of heat transfer
W.D. = Work output
V2/2 = kinetic energy
Z = potential energy
Suffixes 1 and 2 refer to inlet and outlet values respectively
Steady flow equation 1st law of thermodynamics
If h0 = stagnation or total enthalpy and h0 = change in total
enthalpy, then 2
V
h0 h Z or,
2
Q W .D.

h02 h01 h0
m m
that is,
q w h0
For isentropic process, q = 0 and hence h0 = -w or in
differential form, -dh0 = w. Therefore,

dh0 w
v2
1
v22 u12 u22 w22 w12
2
Steady flow equation 1st law of thermodynamics

W.D. per unit mass flow rate is


P1 = Static known as ideal Euler work (WiE).
condition
If the flow is not perfect and
1 reversible, the work done is known
Isentropic
as stage work (Wst) or isentropic
Wa Adiabatic P01 = Stagnation work.
T condition
or Wst If the flow is not perfect and the
h WiE
P2 = Static process is irreversible, then the
02 condition work done is called the actual
02
work (Wa) or adiabatic work.
2 WiE > Wst > Wa The pressure drop during stage
work and adiabatic work is the
S
same

Euler, stage (isentropic), and actual (adiabatic) work on T -s or h-s diagram


Impulse and Reaction

In general, turbomachines can be classified into the impulse


type and the reaction type depending upon the type of energy
change that occurs in the rotor blades.
An impulse stage is one in which the static pressure at inlet
and outlet of the rotor remains the same (P=0 in the rotor).
This also means that the relative velocity of fluid flow is
constant in the rotor.
A reaction stage is one where static pressure changes during
flow of fluid in the rotor (P>0 in the rotor).
The degree of reaction is a parameter that describes the
relation between the energy transfer due to static pressure
change and the energy transfer due to dynamic pressure
change.
Degree of Reaction

The degree of reaction (R) is defined as the ratio of energy


transfer by static pressure in the rotor to the total energy
transfer in the rotor.

u
Static energy
u22 w22 w12
2
R 2

1
v1 v u12 u22 w22 w12
2
2 Total energy
or,
Static enthalpy change h1 h2
R
Total enthalpy change ho1 h02
For axial flow machines, u1 = u2 and hence,

R
w w 2 2

v v w w
2 1
2 2 2 2
1 2 2 1
Degree of Reaction

The value of R may be zero, negative or positive in a turbomachine


If there is no change in the static pressure in the rotor and u1 = u2,
then such a machine is called an impulse type of machine.
Therefore, for impulse type machine, R = 0.

In an impulse type machine, if the fluid enters and leaves the rotor
at different radii, a change of static pressure occurs in one
direction. An equal amount of change in static pressure occurs in
the opposite direction to render p=0.
In an impulse type machine (i.e., zero degree of reaction), the rotor
can be of open type, i.e., an open jet of fluid with no connection with
the rotor.
A machine with any degree of reaction (R = 0) must have the rotor
enclosed in order avoid expansion of fluid in all directions. Such
machines are called reaction type machines.
General analysis of a turbomachine
Effect of blade outlet angle 2 on energy transfer
The blade outlet angle 2 in a radial machine significantly affects the
work done and the degree of reaction
Its effect can be studied by making the following assumptions:
Centrifugal effect at outlet = 2 x centrifugal effect at inlet (u2 = 2 u1)
Radial velocity (flow velocity) is constant (Vf1 = Vf2 = Vf )
No tangential component at inlet (Vw1= 0; 1= 90; Vf1= V1)
Inlet blade angle (and hence fluid angle) is 45 (u1= V1= Vf)
Outlet blade angle 2 is variable
From equation for work done,

W .D. / unit mass flow rate Vw1u1 Vw 2u2 Vw 2u2


Effect of blade outlet angle 2 on energy transfer

Therefore it follows that


Vw 2u 2 V W
H Vf
g

H u 2 V f 2 Cot 2
u2 Vw

g u
Q
Q2 Q A2V f 2 ; or V f 2
A2
Q Cot 2
Considering rotor operating at
u2
H u 2 a given speed and putting
g A2 u 22
K1
u 22 u 2 Cot 2 g
H Q u Cot 2
K2 2
g gA2 gA2
H K1 K 2 Q
Effect of blade outlet angle 2 on energy transfer
For a given pump or a compressor u, A and 2 are fixed and the
only variables are H and Q. Centrifugal pumps and compressors can
be classified as under:
Backward curved blades 2 < 90
Radial blades 2 = 90
Forward curved blades 2 > 90
For backward curved blades:
2 < 90 (and 1 = 90, Vw1 = 0, Vf1 = V1 as assumed)
Hence,
K2 is positive
H-Q line has negative slope
Outlet tip of the blade is in the direction opposite to that of
rotation.
Flow and wheel rotation are in the same direction.
Effect of blade outlet angle 2 on energy transfer

For radial blades:


2 = 90, Vw2 = u2, W2 = Vf2 (and 1 = 90, Vw1 = 0,
Vf1 = V1 as assumed)
Hence,
u 22
K2 = 0, H = K1 = = Constant.
g

Head is constant for all flow rates.


Flow and wheel rotation are in the same direction.
Outlet tip of the blade is in the radial direction.
Effect of blade outlet angle 2 on energy transfer

For forward curved blades:


2 > 90 (and 1 = 90, Vw1 = 0, Vf1 = V1 as assumed)
Hence,
K2 is negative.
H-Q line has positive slope
Flow and wheel rotation are in the same
direction.
Outlet tip of the blade is in the direction of
rotation.
Effect of blade outlet angle 2 on energy transfer

< 90 = 90 > 90
Backward curved blade Straight radial blade Forward curved blade

It can be seen that the tangential


component Vw2 is least for blade
with 2 < 90 and maximum with
Forward
2 > 90.
Very high V2 is not preferred due
= 90
to requirement of large diffusers
Head, H

Radial
for pressure recovery.
Practically 2 > 90 is not
Backward
preferred
Radial blade with 2 = 90 is used
for applications requiring high
Flow, Q
pressures.
General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines

Work done in an adiabatic process, assuming 1=90, Vw1=0, V1=Vf1

Vw2
W .D. u2Vw2 u 2
2
h0 This is also known as stage work
u2
For constant flow velocity,

V1 V f 1 V f 2 u1 tan 1

From exit velocity triangle,


Vf 2
Tan 2 V
u2 Vw2 Vf W

Vf 2 Vw
Tan 2 u
Vw2
General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines

Tan 2 V f 2 u2 Vw2 Vw2



Tan 2 Tan 2 V f 2 V f 2 u2
V u V
w2 2 w2

Substituting in the equation for W.D.,

Vw2 2 Tan 2
W .D. u2Vw2 u
2
u2
Tan 2 Tan 2
2
u2
The power absorbed therefore, will be


P m W .D. m h0 m C p T0 m u 2Vw 2
Tan 2
P m u
2

Tan 2 Tan 2
2

General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines

Degree of reaction

W .D static
u 2
2
u12

w12 w22
2 2

W .D.total
u 22 u12

w12 w22

V22 V12
2 2 2

or , W .D.total W .D.static
V22 V12
2
pressure rise in the rotor p static
R
pressure rise in the stage p total
W1
Vf1=V1

1 1
From inlet velocity triangle, u1

w12 u12 V12


General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines

We know that the static pressure rise (p)static through the impeller
is due to the change in centrifugal energy and the diffusion of the
relative flow.
u22 u12 w12 w22
p static W .D.static
2 2
Similarly, the total pressure rise through the impeller is,

p total W .D.total

u22 u12


w12 w22


V22 V12 or,

2 2 2

p total p static

V22 V12

2
General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines
For the assumption of 1 = 90 and V1 = Vf1 = Vf2 we have, from inlet
velocity triangle,
w12 u12 V12 ..(a)

We know that the static pressure change can be written as


u22 u12 w12 w22
p static
2 2
Substituting for W12 from equation (a) and simplifying, we get
u 22 w22 V f21
p static



(Since V1 = Vf1) ..(b)
2
From exit velocity triangle for 2 > 90, we get V2
W2 Vf2

2 2
w V Vw2 u2
2 2 2
u2
2 f2 VW2
General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines
Simplifying, we get
u22 w22 V f22 2u2Vw2 Vw22
Substituting in the equation (b) of the previous slide,

p static
2u V 2 w2 V 2
w2
2
Substituting in the equation for degree of reaction, R

R
2u V 2 w2 V 2
w2

1

Vw 2 2u2 Vw 2
, or,
2 u2Vw2 Vw 2 2u2
Vw 2
R 1
2u2
General analysis power absorbing centrifugal machines

Degree of reaction for different types of blades:


For backward curved blades (2 < 90)

Vw 2
1 therefore, R is always less than 1
u2

For radial blades (2 = 90)


Vw2 = u2. Therefore, R = 0.5

For forward curved blades (2 > 90)


Vw2 > u2. Therefore, R < 0.5
Efficiencies

The concept of efficiency of any machine comes from the


consideration of energy transfer and defined as the ratio of useful
energy delivered to the energy supplied.
Two efficiencies are considered for fluid machines
Hydraulic efficiency (or isentropic efficiency) which relates
energy transfer between fluid and rotor.
Overall efficiency which relates energy transfer between fluid
and shaft.

The difference between the two efficiencies represents the energy


absorbed by bearings, glands, couplings etc. or, in general, energy
loss that occurs between the rotor and the point of actual power
input or output.
Efficiencies
Efficiencies for a pump or a compressor:
useful energy in the fluid at outlet W fluid
hyd
mechanical energy delivered to rotor Wrotor
useful energy in the fluid at outlet W fluid
overall
mechanical energy delivered to shaft Wshaft
Efficiencies for a turbine:

mechanical energy delivered by the rotor Wrotor


hyd
Energy available from the fluid W fluid
mechanical energy at output shaft Wshaft
overall
Energy available fromthe fluid W fluid
The ratio of rotor and shaft efficiency is represented by mechanical
efficiency, m.
overall
mechanical
hyd
General analysis Turbines

Impulse type turbines have only the kinetic energy available at inlet
of the machine for the production of power or energy
transformation. That means, the static pressure at inlet and outlet of
the machine remains the same. Hence, W1= W2. E.g., Pelton wheel.
Reaction turbines are those in which in addition to the kinetic
energy of the fluid at inlet, pressure energy is also available in
course of energy transformation. This implies that there is a change
of static pressure during the flow over each rotor stage. E.g., Lawn
sprinkler or Parsons turbine.
Turbines run on compressible fluids (e.g., steam / gas turbines) and
incompressible fluids (e.g., hydraulic turbines).
Turbines must have a residual exit velocity to maintain flow. Even if
we have idealized frictionless flow, it is not possible to transfer all
the energy in the fluid due to the need to have a minimum exit
velocity.
General analysis Turbines

Impulse Turbine

Reaction Turbine
General analysis of Turbines Utilization factor

The hydraulic efficiency (or isentropic efficiency) of a turbine is a


product of two terms and is given by,
hyd v
where, v is the vane efficiency and takes care of frictional losses,
and is the utilization factor.
The utilization factor is defined as the ratio of the actual work
transferred from the fluid to the rotor in an ideal condition to the
maximum possible work that could be transferred in an ideal
condition.


Wactual


V12 V22 u12 u22 W12 W22
Wmax
V12 u12 u22 W12 W22
V22
Wm ax Wactual
2
General analysis of Turbines Utilization factor

We also have, work done (W) as per Eulers equation,

Wactual Vw1u1 Vw 2u2

Substituting we get,


Vw1u1 Vw2u2
V22
Vw1u1 Vw2u2
2
Similarly, can also be expressed in terms of degree of reaction, R
R H d H s H s
H static
R therefore, RH d RH s H s
H static H dyn
RH d H s (1 R )
RH d
Hs
(1 R )
General analysis of Turbines Utilization factor

Hdyn Hstatic


Wactual


V12 V22 u12 u 22 W12 W22
Wm ax

u1 u 2 W1 W2
2 2 2 2 V12
2

Hstatic
Substituting for Hstatic,

RHdyn
H dyn
(1 R) RHdyn H dyn RHdyn H dyn
2
2

RHdyn V12

V 1
RHdyn
V
1 R
1
RHdyn 1 R
(1 R) 2 2 2
General analysis of Turbines Utilization factor

Writing Hdyn in terms of V1 and V2,

V12 V22
H dyn
2
V12 V12 V22 V12
RHdyn 1 R R 1 R
2 2 2

V12 V22 V12 V22




V
R V12 V22 1 2
2
1 R RV1
2
RV2
2
V1
2
RV2
2

V1 V22
This expression holds good for 0 < R < 1 but
V V 2 2
1 2 not for R=1 because then the utilization factor
V RV22
1
2 =1 indicating 100% utilization with the result
that the exit velocity V2 becomes zero.
Axial flow Turbines

In axial flow machines, the fluid enters and leaves the rotor at the
same radius and hence u1= u2.
The axial flow velocity Vf is assumed to be constant from inlet to
outlet.
With u1= u2 the equation for degree of reaction becomes:

R 2
W
W12 2


W22 W12

2
V1 V W2 W1
2
2
2 2
Wactual
From this equation, the different values of R can be obtained
depending on the magnitude of velocity components.
Axial flow Turbines

When R < 0 (negative reaction)


If R is negative, W1 should be greater than W2. In this case, even
though R is negative, the energy transfer, Wactual is positive.

V1
V2 W2
W1
1 1 2 2 Velocity triangle for R < 0
u u

When R = 0 (Impulse type)


If R is 0, W1= W2 and hence 1 = 2.. In this case, there is no change
in static pressure across the rotor and the energy transformation
occurs purely due to the change in absolute kinetic energy
(V12 V22)/2.

V1 W2
W1 Velocity triangle for R = 0
V2

1 1 2 2
u u
Axial flow Turbines
When R = 0.5 (50% reaction)
If R is 0.5, V12- V22 = Vr22-Vr12 and hence V1= Vr2 and V2= Vr1. In this
case, 50% energy transformation occurs in the rotor and the other
50% in the stator.

V1 W2
W1 V2

1 1 2 2 Velocity triangle for R = 0.5


u u

When R = 1 (Fully reaction)


If R is 1, V1 = V2. In this case, the energy transformation occurs
purely due to change in relative kinetic energy of fluid.

W2
V1
W1 V2

1 1 2 2 Velocity triangle for R = 1


u u
Axial flow Turbines

When R > 1
If R is > 1, V2 > V1. In this case, the energy transformation can be
negative or positive.

W2
V1
W1
V2

1 1 2 2 Velocity triangle for R > 1


u u

Maximum utilization factor


For maximum utilization, the value of V2 should be minimum and
this is possible when V2 is axial.

V1 W2
W1 V2

1 1 2 2 Velocity triangle for maximum utilization (max)


u u
Condition for maximum utilization
We have the utilization factor
V12 V22
2
V1 RV22
From velocity triangle for maximum utilization factor max,V2 = V1sin1.
Therefore,

m ax
V
V12 sin 2 1
2


1
V RV12 sin 2 1
1
2

m ax 2

V12 1 sin 2 1

cos2 1

V1 1 R sin 12

1 R sin 2 1

This shows that the utilization factor is maximum when 1 = 0. Then


V2 = V1sin1 = 0 which is a zero angle turbine that is impossible to
attain.
Condition for maximum utilization-Impulse Turbine

Condition for max in impulse turbine


For impulse turbine, R=0 (and Vr1=Vr2). Substituting in the equation for
max,
cos2 1
m ax
1 R sin 2 1
For R 0, m ax cos2 1
O
Triangles OBC and OCD are similar. Hence
BC = u. Thus for max the impulse stage V1 W2
must have cos1=(u+u)/V1=2u/V1. W1 V2

1 1 2 2

But (u/V1)==speed ratio=cos1/2 A u B C u D

For zero angle (1=0) turbine, the speed ratio (u/v)=0.5


Condition for maximum utilization-Turbine with 50% reaction

When R = 0.5, V1 = Vr2 and V2 = Vr1 and hence


1 = 2 and 2 = 1. For maximum utilization,
V2 must be axial.
From velocity triangle, V1 W2
W1 V 2
V2 V1 sin 1 1 1 2 2

m ax
V V
2 2

V V sin 1
2
2 2
u u


1 2 1 1
V RV2 V R V12 sin 2 1
1
2 2
1
2

1 sin 2 1 cos2 1
m ax
1 R sin 1 1 R sin 2 1
2

for R 0.5, Also, for 50% reaction


turbine,
cos2 1 u
m ax Speed ratio cos 1
1 0.5 sin 2 1 V1
Comparison of energy transfer between Impulse and
Reaction turbines

V1 W2 V1 W2
V2 W1 V2
W1

2 2 1 1 2 2
1 1
ui ur ur
ui

Velocity triangle for max Impulse Turbine Velocity triangle for max 50% Reaction Turbine

Case (1): When both have the same blade speed


Let ui and ur be the blade speed of impulse turbine and 50% reaction
turbine.
Energy transfer by impulse turbine is given by
W .D.impulse Vw1u1 Vw2u2 ui Vw1 Vw2
W .D.impulse uiVw1
From velocity triangle for impulse turbine, Vw1 = 2ui. Hence,
W .D.impulse 2ui2
Comparison of energy transfer between Impulse and
Reaction turbines
Energy transfer by the 50% reaction turbine is given by:
W .D.0.5 R urVw1
From velocity triangle for 50% reaction turbine, Vw1 = ur
W .D.0.5 R ur ur ur2
By comparing W.D.impulse and W.D.0.5 reaction we note that the energy transfer
per unit mass of fluid in Impulse turbine is twice that of 50% reaction
turbine for the same blade speed when utilization factor is maximum.

Case (2): When both have same energy transfer


For the same amount of energy transfer, Er = Ei
i.e.,
u r2 2ui2
or , u r 2ui2 1.414 ui
For the same amount of energy transfer under maximum utilization condition, the
peripheral speed of a 50% reaction turbine should be 1.414 times that of an impulse
turbine
Comparison of energy transfer between Impulse and
Reaction turbines
Case (3): When V1 and 1 are the same in both the machines
Speed ratio for impulse stage for maximum utilization is:
ui cos1

V1 2
or, 2ui V1 cos1
Speed ratio for 50% reaction stage for maximum utilization is:
ur
cos1
V1
or , u r V1 cos1
Therefore,
u r 2ui
When V1 and 1 are the same, when operating under maximum utilization condition,
the rotational speed for 50% reaction turbine should be double that of impulse
turbine.
Optimum blade speed ratio (opt) for different types of
turbines for max. energy transfer (W.D.)max
Impulse Turbine:
For max. utilization, AB = BC = u O

Vw1 u u 2u
cos1 V1
W2

V1 V1 V1 W1 V2

u cos1 1 1 2 2
opt A u B C u D
V1 2
W .D.m ax u1Vw1 u1V1 cos1 u1.2u1 2u12
Vf 1 V1 sin 1 1
tan 1
Vw1 u V1 cos1 u V1 cos1 u

V1 sin 1 V1 sin 1

1
tan 1 2 tan 1
cot1
cot1
2
Optimum blade speed ratio (opt) for different types of
turbines for max. energy transfer (W.D.)max

50% Reaction Turbine:


For max. utilization,
V1 W2
W1 V2

Vw1 u1
cos1 opt 1
ur
1 2
ur
2

V1 V1
W .D. u1Vw1 u 2Vw 2
W .D. u1Vw1 u1V1 u 2