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Matlab y sus tipos e aplicaciones en el campo de ingeniería hidráulica

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Matlab y sus tipos e aplicaciones en el campo de ingeniería hidráulica

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RENATA ROMANOUICZ

Eeztlakez Rezeavch Inztitute, Woov Row, Cumbvia, CA2J 3LN, JK

ABSTRACT

The MATLAB SIMULINH programming language is applied to the TOPMODEL rainfallrunoR model. SIMULINH

requires a good recognition of model dynamics, which has been achieved here in a version based on the first

TOPMODEL (Beven and Hirkby, 1979). Introducing the topographic index distribution in a vector form allows the

generalization and simplification of the SIMULINH structure. The SIMULINH version of TOPMODEL has a very easy

to understand graphical representation, which shows, in a straightforward way, all the physical interactions that take

place in the model. Moreover, owing to its modular structure it is easy to add new and]or develop old submodels,

depending on the available data and the goal of the modelling. In the example given here TOPMODEL was extended by

two submodels representing the soil moisture and evaporation distribution in the catchment. Preparation of the data and

presentation of the results is done in MATLAB. Discharge predictions and spatial patterns of hydrological response are

demonstrated for a separate validation period. g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd.

Kydvol. Pvocezz., Vol. 11, 11151129 (1997).

HEY UORDS TOPMODEL; MATLAB SIMULINH; rainfallrunoR modelling; soil moisture modelling; spatial

predictions

The model used in this study is a simplified version of the semi-distributed model TOPMODEL (Beven and

Hirkby, 1979; Beven, 1984, 1986; Romanowicz et al., 1993, 1994; Beven et al., 1995). It requires digitized

elevation data and a sequence of rainfall and potential evapotranspiration data, and predicts the resulting

stream discharges.

In TOPMODEL the predicted hydrological responses depend upon the distribution of an index of

(

hydrological similarity ln a/tan )

(see Beven, 1997). This is derived from an analysis of the topography, as

described by the digital elevation data of the particular catchment being studied. Simple steady-state theory

is used to develop a relationship between the topographic index and the local saturation of the soil as the

catchment wets and dries. This relationship can be used to predict runoR contributing areas in a non-linear

way. The model also describes the subsurface drainage to the stream (Beven et al., 1995) through

Qb (t) = Z 0 e e S (t)/m

(1)

where Qb(t) is thesubsurface drainage, Z 0 is the average eRective transmissivity of the soil when the profile is

just saturated, = 1/A i dA is the catchment average of the topographic index = i ( ) i , where

ln ai /tan

i represents the discrete increment of , ai is the area of the hillslope per unit contour length that drains

through the location corresponding to this value of topographic index, and tan i is the local surface slope.

S(t)is the catchment average storage deficit and m is a parameter that can be derived from an analysis of the

recession curves for the catchment when it can be assumed that all the flow is derived from subsurface

Contract grant number GST]02]491.

g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd. Accepted 6 Decembev 1996

1116 R. ROMANOUICZ

drainage. Equation (1) can be inverted, given an initial flow at the start of the prediction, to give an initial

value of storage deficit S(t0). Then, S(t) is updated at each time step by a mass balance calculation involving

vertical recharge to the unsaturated zone and the subsurface drainage (Q)b t .

The parameter m also enters as a scaling parameter in the calculation of the runoR production areas in the

catchment, through the relationship

where ASi is the diRerence between local and catchment average storage deficits, and i is the local value of

the topographic index. Equation (2) assumes that the eRective transmissivity at soil saturation is

homogeneous in the catchment. Surface runoR contributing areas are predicted in locations where the local

storage deficit is zero. This occurs first at points with high values of i, and as the catchment wets up the

contributing area will spread to lower values of the index. The index can be calculated using digital terrain

maps of a catchment (Quinn et al., 1991, 1995).

In the simplest version of the hydrological model, Equations (1) and (2) represent the most important

functions in the model, with parameters m and Z 0. Under relatively wet conditions TOPMODEL has proven

to be generally successful in predicting stream discharges in catchments of relatively shallow soils and

moderate to steep slopes (see Beven et al., 1995; Beven, 1997). As reported in the literature, TOPMODEL is

most sensitive to the changes in the recession parameter m, while the transmissivity is influencing the

resulting eAciencies in a limited way, i.e. it should be bigger than some threshold value, depending on the

conditions in the catchment.

For the purpose of the SIMULINH implementation, an extension of the dynamic structure of TOPMODEL

presented in the work of Beven and Hirkby (1979) seemed to be the most suitable. According to this work

TOPMODEL consists of three basic dynamic components

(a) Root zone storage, S1, with maximum storage, SRmax, which must be filled, before infiltration, Q, from

it can take place. Evaporation is allowed at the potential rate until the store is empty. Uhen this zone is

saturated, it contributes to the surface runoR. This formulation of root zone storage does not allow any

interaction with saturated storage to take place and was changed as described in the following section.

However, in the new formulation the concept of the root zone storage was maintained and therefore it is left in

this description.

(b) A gravity drainage store S2, with a constant through time increment leakage rate Q =v LAiQri, to the

third non-linear storage S3 in the area which is not saturated (Ai denotes contributing area weighted by the

topographic index distribution). It is assumed that the rain falling on the saturated contributing area, Ac, will

immediately become overland flow. Also, any area that saturates during the time step owing to rainfall

evaporation conditions in the catchment provides some overland flow. Evaporation from the store S2 is

assumed at the potential rate.

(c) A non-linear saturated subsurface storage with storage deficit S3(t ) = (S) t and subsurface drainage Qb

defined by Equation (1) followed by the steady-state distribution of soil moisture deficits in the catchment

according to the topographic index distribution [Equation (2)].

The scheme of those three storages and their interconnection can be presented as shown in Figure 1. The

dynamics of these three conceptual stores are described by the set of the ordinary non-linear diRerential

equations. Now, taking the TOPMODEL scheme given in Figure 1 as a basis, the complete SIMULINH

TOPMODEL structure is built, as shown in Figure 2.

SIMULINH is a program for simulating dynamic systems (MathUorks Inc., 1992). It uses block diagram

windows, where models are created, and edited, principally by mouse driven commands. The icons on the

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997) g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd.

TOPMODEL 4 MATLAB IMPLEMENTATION 1117

SIMULINH window shown on Figure 2 represent SIMULINH built-in routines used to perform diRerent

operations, such as vector or scalar summation (block sum), or block demux and mux, which are used to

rearrange vectors into subvectors. Icon yout allows writing the results of simulations into the MATLAB

workspace. The same icon connected with the clock writes the corresponding time vector to the MATLAB

workspace, thus allowing graphic display of the simulation results. The block called constant allows a

constant parameter to be set [here a vector MATB= mx ln (a/tan ]) as one of the model input variables,

while the block from workspace represents the vector of time-variable rainfall and evaporation data

(data12) loaded into the MATLAB workspace. The standard SIMULINH operations and those built by the

user can be grouped together into subsystems, with inputs and outputs corresponding to their structure.

Each subsystem can also contain other interconnected subsystems. The icons root, vector, roR ,

gravity zone and saturation zone represent such complex subsystems. All those icons are shown in

Figure 2 to help the interested reader in building their own SIMULINHTOPMODEL model.

The basic structure of SIMULINHTOPMODEL consists of three dynamic subsystems, corresponding

to the subsystems from Figure 1. The root zone submodel corresponds to the first storage from the scheme,

the gravity drainage zone submodel corresponds to the second storage and the saturated zone submodel

corresponds to the third storage. The module steady-state soil moisture deficit distribution is represented by

the submodel called vector. It evaluates the distribution of the soil moisture deficits in the catchment,

according to the static relation of TOPMODEL [Equation (2)], which can be rewritten in the form

where S3(t) =

[ ( )S t in Equations (1) and (2)] denotes a scalar averaged catchment soil moisture deficit,

evaluated in the third submodel, and the vector S3=S[3,1, S3,2, . . . , S3,n is

] the topography-dependent soil

moisture deficit changing with time according to S3(t), where n denotes the number of discrete values of the

topographic distribution (here n = 60), and is a vector representing the topographic index distribution. In

the runoR submodel the overland flow from the root zone and the gravity drainage zone are summed up

according to the incremental areas of the topographic index distribution. As shown in Figure 1, both the root

zone and gravity drainage zone depend on the topographic index distribution through the soil moisture

deficit vector S3. Hence, those submodels are also represented in a vector form. This feedback is a simplified

description of the dependency of the upward and downward groundwater fluxes on the soil moisture deficit.

The submodel dynamics were changed to some extent in comparison with the model presented by Beven

and Hirkby (1979), without changing the essential structure of the model. Explanations of the changes will

be given in the following sections, together with more detailed descriptions of SIMULINHTOPMODEL

subsystems.

g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997)

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997)

1118

Figure 2. SIMULINHTOPMODEL general scheme. Icons Demux and sum and clock represent SIMULINH operations. The other icons are user defined. The icons

R. ROMANOUICZ

with iconographic drawing represent complex subsystems

g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd.

Figure 3. SIMULINH scheme of root zone model, subsystem root from Figure 2. Icon Gain denotes multiplication by a constant. Icons time translation, vector product

and matrix gain denote SIMULINH operations

TOPMODEL 4 MATLAB IMPLEMENTATION 1119

The search for a better description of the interrelations between the root zone and the unsaturated

saturated zone in the catchment, without introduction of many new parameters, resulted in a submodel

based on the simple water balance relation in vector form (corresponding to the introduced vector

representation)

where P(t) denotes the rainfall; Ep the potential evaporation; 8(t) the vector of soil moisture content,

averaged over the root zone depth; LRZ is the depth of the root; zone and Z(t) denotes the vector of

groundwater levels, defined below the root zone depth, which we assume is linearly related to the soil

moisture deficit as

where A80 is some volumetric moisture deficit formed by rapid drainage assumed constant with depth

(Beven, 1986).

In this description it is assumed that the root zone has a constant soil moisture with depth. Upward or

downward flux in the unsaturated zone is treated as a steady recharge or capillary rise. It is conditioned on

the boundary conditions of the root zone moisture content and the depth of the groundwater table.

The recharge or capillary rise, Q[ 8( t) , Z( t)], depends on the moisture content in the root zone and the

groundwater level, which both depend on the soiltopographic index. For the sake of simplicity, its

derivation will be explained using the scalar notation. This relation is obtained on the basis of a Darcian

analysis of steady recharge from above or below (an assumption consistent with the TOPMODEL assump-

tions, see Beven et al., 1995), such that

.

&h

Q = K(h) 1 (5)

&z

where h denotes the moisture pressure head, z is the vertical coordinate and K(h) is the vertical conductivity

in the unsaturated zone. The further assumption is made that the relation between vertical conductivity and

moisture pressure head is exponential, corresponding to the so-called Gardner model (Gardner, 1958)

In order to get the relation between soil moisture and conductivity, we shall implement a generalized

Gardner model (Romanowicz et al., 1995), which allows for a non-linear diRusivitymoisture relation and

gives a non-linear conductivitysoil moisture relation of the form

. a2

8

K(8) = Ks (7)

8s

where a1, from Equation (6), and a2 are coeAcients depending on soil properties.

Combining Equations (47) and introducing the time index t and vector notation, the following relation

for the flux from the root zone to the saturated zone, or vice versa, is obtained

. a2

8(t)

exp[a 1Z(t)]

8s

Q[8(t), Z(t)] = K s

(8)

1 exp[a1 Z(t)]

This relation depends on the saturated conductivity K s , soil moisture content in the root zone 8, groundwater

level Z and soil porosity parameters a1 and a2. As the groundwater level is changing across the catchment

g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997)

1120 R. ROMANOUICZ

according to the soiltopographic index, the vertical flux and root zone water content will also change. The

initial moisture content in the root zone is estimated from the initial average storage deficit as determined

from the inversion of Equation (1).

In the original formulation of TOPMODEL the root zone represents a soil water storage reflecting the

field capacity concept (Beven et al., 1995). Flow into gravity storage, i.e. unsaturated and saturated

storages, occurs only when field capacity is satisfied. In the present formulation steady capillary rise or

downward flux from the root zone to the water table depends on the root zone moisture content and the

water table depth. Uhen the root zone is full to field capacity, rainfall infiltrates into the gravity storage with

a steady flux approaching K s for low water table depths [see Equation (9)], which is consistent with the

original TOPMODEL formulation. This case would be regarded in the literature as post-ponding infiltration

with constant saturated soil moisture at the surface (Philip, 1969). The present formulation diRers from that

given by Uood et al. (1990), where, after ponding, infiltration proceeds with the rate determined from the

concentration boundary condition at the surface (Philip, 1969) and with the vertical flow formulations used

in recent versions of TOPMODEL (Beven et al., 1995). The main diRerence between the present and original

formulation occurs for the intermediate cases, when the root zone water content is small and the water table

is close to the root zone and capillary rise takes place. Conductivity is assumed to change exponentially with

pressure head according to the Gardner assumptions.

The SIMULINH scheme for the root zone is presented in Figure 3. As mentioned above, in order to

simplify and generalize the program structure, a vector representation of the topographic index is introduced.

This description yields a state space representation of the root zone with a dimension equal to the dimension

of the discretized topographic index distribution (60 discrete values in the presented paper). The input to the

submodel consists of the catchment average precipitation, evaporation and the local soil moisture deficits in

the catchment evaluated in the vector submodel. The submodel output consists of the vector of the resulting

water transfers from or to the unsaturated zone and runoR from the contributing areas.

A detailed scheme of the SIMULINH gravity drainage submodel is given in Figure 4. In this particular

application the unsaturated zone has very simplified dynamics, as given by Equation (9). In the case when

some more detailed observations in the catchment are available it could be developed further without the

danger of overparameterization. The input to this submodel consists of the vector of soil moisture transfers

from]to the root zone and the vector of soil moisture deficits evaluated in the vector submodel. Hence, this

submodel has a vector form dependent on the topographic index. Its dynamics has the form

where S2 (t )denotes the vector of deficits of the unsaturated zone, which is not allowed to be bigger than the

soil moisture deficit for a given topographic index calculated from the third saturation zone submodel.

Q[8(t), Z (t)]denotes the vector of water flux from the root zone submodel given by Equation (8).

Thus, the water transfer to the saturated zone in the vector notation is equal to

As the saturated zone submodel is averaged over the catchment, the vector given by Equation (11) must also

be averaged using the aerial weight associated with each discrete value of topographic index. The compo-

nents of Qr can be positive or negative, depending on the conditions in the catchment.

The third storage is assumed to be non-linear with the exponential outflow, Qb(t), given by the scalar

exponential function of Equation (1). The change of catchment average saturation zone storage deficit S3(t)

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997) g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd.

g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd.

Figure 4. SIMULINH scheme of gravity drainage submodel from Figure 2. Icon Mux denotes SIMULINH operation

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997)

1121

Figure 5. SIMULINH scheme of saturation zone submodel from Figure 2. Icon integrator represents SIMULINH operation

1122 R. ROMANOUICZ

dS3 (t)

= Qb (t) Qv (t) (11)

dt

where Qb(t) is the downslope flow and Qv(t) = LAiQvi(t) is the total amount of water transferred between the

catchment surface and the saturated zone summed over the topographic index distribution aerial weights Ai,

with Qv negative in the case of capillary rise. It is assumed that the outflow from this storage is non-linear

and follows an exponential rule in a relation equivalent to Equation (1)

The SIMULINH scheme of this submodel is given in Figure 5. Its input is the catchment average recharge

from the unsaturated zone and its output is evaluated according to Equation (12). This submodel is one-

dimensional and is the basic component of TOPMODEL described by Equations (2), (11) and (12). It uses a

continuous integrator with initial soil moisture deficit specified from an initial discharge in accordance with

Equation (1). Both root zone and unsaturated zone submodels have discrete integrators represented

by discrete state space modules. This is owing to the fact that when the scheme was built, continuous

integrators were not yet available in vector form within SIMULINH. A continuous integrator is usually

recommended for continuous problems and the user can easily change the scheme accordingly. Those

discrete integrators have been left here to demonstrate the ability of the model to incorporate diRerent

submodel descriptions.

The vector submodel conceptually belongs to the saturated zone model but was shown separately, mainly

for the illustrative purpose of stressing the diRerent use of the vector and scalar form of the soil moisture

deficits in this form of TOPMODEL.

The root zone, gravity drainage zone and saturated zone submodels constitute the main body of

TOPMODEL. Depending on the goal of the modelling and available data the user can further develop

TOPMODEL structure, adding new, or extending and developing existing, components. The next section

demonstrates the extension of the root zone model towards the estimation of the spatial patterns of soil

moisture and evaporation changes in the catchment. As there are no data available for the calibration of

parameters involved, the demonstration has a mainly illustrative purpose.

The vector of root zone soil moisture, as dependent on the topographic index can be used to produce a

two-dimensional graphical representation of the soil moisture and evaporation spatial distribution in a

catchment, developed in MATLAB. It is assumed that the distribution of the moisture content over the

catchment is consistent with the distribution of the topographic index, i.e. the soil transmissivity is uniform.

This assumption may be changed if there is some additional information available about the vegetation]soil

distribution in the catchment. To relate the soil moisture at the surface to the initial recharge of the

unsaturated zone, Equation (8) is used.

The soil moisture content evaluated in the root zone can be related to the actual evaporation from the

catchment Ea with the help of the relationship introduced by Philip (1957), who expressed the actual

evapotranspiration in terms of relative soil moisture and atmospheric humidity

hp(t) ha

Ea(t) = Ep (13)

1 ha

where Ep denotes potential evaporation and ha and hp are relative atmospheric and soil humidity,

respectively.

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997) g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd.

TOPMODEL 4 MATLAB IMPLEMENTATION 1123

Figure 6. Simulated and observed flow, validation period, January 1988, River Severn catchment at Plynlimon, UH

The relative soil humidity can be expressed in terms of the soil moisture potential using the thermo-

dynamic equation under the assumptions of negligible temperature changes (see also OHane, 1992).

Assuming some tractable model of the moisture characteristic curve (e.g. a generalized Gardner form, as in

Romanowicz et al., 1995) the following formula can be derived

.

8(t) n$e/a

exp (n$e) ha

8s

Ea(t) = Ep (14)

(1 ha )

where ha denotes the relative humidity of the air at the soil surface, Ep is the potential evaporation, $e is

air entry soil moisture potential, 8s is soil moisture at saturation, n is a thermodynamic constant

(n = 74 ~ 106 kg J1 at t = 20C) and a = a1/a2 depends on soil porosity; and 8(t) denotes the vector of

soil moisture content in the root zone, changing with time. Hence, Ea also has a vector form, depending on

the soiltopographic index and it is possible to map it back on to the topography using the spatial

distribution of that index (Figure 7). In other words, each cell of the grided catchment area has some

g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997)

1124 R. ROMANOUICZ

Figure 7. Topographic index distribution for the River Severn catchment at Plynlimon, UH. Stars on the map indicate the Severn

catchment boundaries with an outlet at the right-hand corner. The picture scale corresponds to number of, x and y, 50-m grid pixels

(6 km ~ 8 km rectangle)

known topographic index value which corresponds, in turn, to the value of evaporation and soil moisture

content. In this way both changes of soil moisture content and actual evapotranspiration distributions

with time can be represented graphically. Figures 8 and 9 show soil moisture distribution and evapo-

transpiration for an area of mid-Uales at two diRerent time steps during a storm event. In the numerical

application presented, soil parameters were set to values typically met in the literature for loamyclay

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997) g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd.

TOPMODEL 4 MATLAB IMPLEMENTATION 1125

Figure 8. Soil moisture distribution over the Severn catchment at Plynlimon, UH, at t = 45 h of an event (validation period), January

1988. Stars on the map indicate the Severn catchment boundaries with an outlet at the right-hand corner. The picture scale corresponds

to number of, x and y, 50-m grid pixels (6 km ~ 8 km rectangle)

m h 1 , ha 0 = For those parameters the exponent for

001.

the soil moisture in Equation (13) is equal to 0.2. Soil parameters used in this submodel, as well as

in the root zone submodel, have been treated as average values over the catchment. As already men-

tioned, the maps presented have only qualitative meaning owing to lack of observations for parameter

calibration.

g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997)

1126 R. ROMANOUICZ

Figure 9. Evaporation distribution over the Severn catchment at Plynlimon, UH, at t = 45 h of an event, January 1988. Stars on

the map indicate the Severn catchment boundaries with an outlet at the right-hand corner. The picture scale corresponds to number of,

x and y, 50-m grid pixels (6 km ~ 8 km rectangle)

The model was tested on the Institute of Hydrology experimental catchment on the River Severn at

Plynlimon, mid-Uales, UH, which forms part of the 8 ~6 km 2 area shown in Figures 79. It is a small,

predominantly forested catchment of area 8.7 km2 with continuous hourly flow and rainfall data. The

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997) g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd.

TOPMODEL 4 MATLAB IMPLEMENTATION 1127

Table I. Optimization results for diRerent starting points and diRerent time horizons in two-dimensional parameter space

0.02 0 .1 0.0098 0.2188 200 62

0.01 0 .1 0.0137 0.1298 400 63

0.02 0 .2 0.0137 0.1291 400 80

0.03 0 .3 0.0133 0.1292 500 108

Table II. TOPMODEL parameters used in the validation experiment shown in Figure 6

m (m) LRZ (m) Z 0 (m2 h 1 ) K s (m/h1) a 8s ha $e (m)

0.0098 0.2188 103 0.006 037 ~ 10 4 0.42 0.001 0 .1

required data are the same as for the FORTRAN version of TOPMODEL. They consist of rainfall,

evaporation and flow data, as well as a topographic index distribution obtained from the elevation data. The

available DTM has 50 m resolution and contains also the adjacent Uye experimental catchment. The time

data consist of hourly discharges and rainfall series for the years 1986 and 1988. The hourly potential

evapotranspiration is estimated from meteorological measurements using the PenmanMonteith formula.

In this application the model is used to simulate hourly flows using hourly rainfall inputs.

The parameters of the model may be set on the basis of any suitable calibration method outside the

MATLAB software. However, it is convenient to calibrate the parameters of SIMULINHTOPMODEL

using the optimization routines within the MATLAB workframe. The multivariable optimization routine in

MATLAB uses the non-gradient NelderMeade simplex search described in Dennis and Uoods (1987). The

SIMULINHTOPMODEL system has the form of an M-file in MATLAB and constitutes a set of

diRerential equations that are integrated at each call of the optimization routine. The choice of method of

integration is the same as in the SIMULINH Menu (e.g. RungeHutta 3rd and 5th order, Gear, Adams or

Euler). In the presented application an Adams]Gear method of integration was chosen. The results of the

simulations are used to evaluate some performance measure specified by the user that is directly used in the

optimization procedure. The results of the subsequent runs of TOPMODEL (e.g. time trajectory of

simulated and observed flows) can be displayed on-line within the MATLAB graphical window, together

with the corresponding parameter values obtained during the optimization procedure. To ensure proper

communication between diRerent MATLAB subroutines all the parameters that undergo changes because of

the optimization procedure should be declared as global in the MATLAB workspace.

As can be easily guessed, the MATLAB calibration procedure will take more computer time than a

corresponding FORTRAN procedure. However, it might be very useful when experimenting with the model

structure. Also, it can save programming time when more complicated, non-linear diRerential equation

structures are considered, since the integrators are robust and quick and do not require any programming

eRort. In the corresponding FORTRAN program ordinary diRerential equations are replaced by diRerence

equations with a time step dictated by the discretization of input data. In SIMULINH, integrator algorithms

can use a variable time step controlled by the required accuracy of the solution.

Four examples of the results of the MATLAB-based joint calibration routine of the recession parameter m

and root zone layer depth LRZ, for diRerent starting points of parameters and diRerent length of time

horizon, are given in Table I. The other model parameters are given in Table II. From previous numerical

experiments performed on this catchment (Romanowicz et al., 1993) it was known that the transmissivity

parameter does not influence the simulated flow when its value is bigger than some threshold value (here

= 3 m2 h1). Therefore, this parameter was not included in the optimization.

Z 0 10

The time horizons of simulations were 200, 400 and 500 hours long. The sum of square diRerences between

the simulated and observed flows was taken as the objective function. The time of computation of a single

g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997)

1128 R. ROMANOUICZ

simulation was about 20 s on a SUN 10 workstation. A single parameter optimization needs about

22 simulations (objective function evaluations) for a 200 hours time horizon. Parameter NI in Table I

denotes the number of simulations needed to obtain some precision of the optimization (minimum value of

the objective function) specified by the user. Uhen starting from diRerent initial parameter values diRerent

numbers of simulations are required to obtain the same goodness-of-fit measure of the model performance.

The number of simulations required will also be diRerent for diRerent sets of inflow data. As the time of

computation of a single simulation increases with the increase of the length of time horizon, so the optim-

ization time will increase. Because of the use of non-gradient optimization procedures, time of computations

increases rapidly with the increase in the number of calibrated variables and will depend on how far the

starting point is from the best estimate. Hence, because of long times of computations, this software is not

recommended for a multiple search through the entire parameter region for long (thousands of hours) time

periods. It can be useful in the case when it is expected that owing to changes in the model structure,

parameters should change slightly, or when we want to set the initial values for the parameters that would

give reasonable results for short time periods. MATLAB graphical facilities allow the display of the results of

simulations for each change of parameter set, which might also help in model analysis.

The model parameters m, and LRZ were optimized using the MATLAB non-gradient optimization routine

described above. Sensitivity analysis of the results has shown that the depth of the root zone influences the

results in a most pronounced way. Soil parameters as used in the model are treated as averaged over the

catchment. From the results presented in Table I it can be seen that the value of optimal parameters depend

on the length of the time horizon of simulations and the initial parameter values. Hence, running the

optimization procedure for the longest possible time horizons for several diRerent starting points is

recommended. To minimize the time of computations of a single run of the model, and for clarity of the

SIMULINH scheme, all the preparations of data needed by the program, such as initial value of the soil

moisture deficit and the catchment average topographic index, were done in a MATLAB program that is run

before the SIMULINH program. Uhen the optimization facilities are used this program is incorporated into

the optimization procedures in MATLAB. SIMULINH graphical facilities allow on-line observation of any

variables in the model during the simulation process. The results of simulations can also be presented using

the MATLAB graphical facilities after the simulations are finished. Figure 6 presents the simulated and

observed outflow hydrographs for a separate validation period with parameters given in Table II.

The changes of the soil moisture content for diRerent values of topographic index can be mapped back on

to the space, thus allowing a two-dimensional (or three-dimensional when over imposed on the topography

map) graphical representation of the spatial changes of those variables in the catchment as shown in

Figures 78. MATLAB allows time and space changes to be shown together, in the form of video images

that can be presented on the computer screen.

CONCLUSIONS

This paper has described a SIMULINH version of TOPMODEL, and its use together with a MATLAB

parameter calibration routine. These included

1. A state space representation of TOPMODEL.

2. The vector representation of the topographic index distribution.

3. The scheme of the main SIMULINHTOPMODEL structure and the schemes of the submodels.

4. The graphical presentation of the results.

5. Parameter calibration using the MATLAB optimization routines.

It is worth noting that SIMULINH forces the modeller to use the language of systems analysis. It

encourages a deeper understanding of the model used and clear division of the physical system into the

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997) g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd.

TOPMODEL 4 MATLAB IMPLEMENTATION 1129

interacting subsystems. Its structure clearly demonstrates the simplifications used in the representation of the

physical process and the mutual interdependence of the subprocesses. It also allows more complicated

descriptions of the subprocesses to be used, while the main structure of the model is still unchanged. For

example, we can easily imagine introducing a more precise description of the evapotranspiration process or

gravity drainage zone, when more observations are available. Also, in the case when contaminant data are

present, another submodel describing transport in the catchment could be added. Also, model parameters

can be easily adjusted by the user while comparing the simulation results with the expected ones or

observations. The possibility of using the MATLAB powerful non-gradient optimization routines allows for

a more precise choice of any parameters, without the need of building the equivalent FORTRAN program.

The main advantages of the SIMULINHTOPMODEL lie in its very illustrative and easy to follow

system structure, which makes evident the direction of data flows in the modelled process. This system

structure gives the possibility of further investigation and development of its subsystems using the MATLAB

graphical tools, including the easy presentation of spatially distributed predictions either during a simulation

run as an animation, or later as oR-line evaluation of the results. This form of visual presentation is

particularly useful in assessing and comparing the performance of distributed models, relative to the

expectations of the observed catchment behaviour.

ACHNOULEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank Heith Beven for his encouragement and help in developing the root zone submodel and

Ulodek Tych (both from Environmental Sciences Division, Lancaster University), for introducing me to

MATLABSIMULINH. Data used in the numerical examples given were taken from research done by the

author as part of NERC grant GST]02]491.

REFERENCES

Beven, H. 1984. Infiltration into a class of vertically non uniform soils, Kydvol. Sci. J., 29, 425434.

Beven, H. J. 1986. RunoR production and flood frequency in catchment of order n an alternative approach, in Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

and Uood, E. F. (Eds), Scale Pvoblemz in Kydvology. Reidel, Dordrecht. pp. 107131.

Beven, H. J., 1997. TOPMODEL a critique, Kydvol. Pvocezz., 11, 10691085.

Beven, H. and Hirkby, M. J. 1979. A physically based variable contributing area model of basin hydrology, Kydvol. Sci. Bull., 24,

4369.

Beven, H. J., Lamb, R., Quinn, P., Romanowicz, R. and Freer, J. 1995. TOPMODEL, in Sing, V. P. (Ed.), Computev Wodelz of

Eatevzhed Kydvology. Uater Resource Publications, Colorado. pp. 627668.

Dennis, J. E. and Uoods, D. J. 1987. New Computing Enrivonmentz Wicvocomputevz in Lavge-Scale Computing, Uouk, A. (Ed.).

Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa. pp. 116122.

Gardner, U. R. 1958. Some steady state solutions of the unsaturated moisture flow equation with application to evaporation from a

water table, Soil Sci., 85, 228232.

MathUorks Inc. 1992. SIWJLINK Dynamic Syztem Simulation Softwave, Jzev Guide, MathUorks Inc., Mass., US.

OHane, P. J. 1992. The hydrology of milled peat production, in OHane, J. P. (Ed.), Adrancez in Zheovetical Kydvology A Zvibute

to Jamez Dooge. European Geophysical Society Series on Hydrological Sciences, Vol. 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Philip, J. R. 1957. Evaporation and moisture and heat fields in soil, J. Weteovol., 14, 354366.

Philip, J. R. 1969. Theory of infiltration, Adr. Kydvozci., 5, 215296.

Quinn, P. F., Beven, H., Chevallier, P., and Planchon, O. 1991. The prediction of hillslope flow paths for distributed hydrological

modelling using digital terrain models, Kydvol. Pvocezz., 5, 5979.

Quinn, P. F., Beven, H. J., and Lamb, R. 1995. The (l a/tan ) index how to calculate it and how to use it within the TOPMODEL

framework, Kydvol. Pvocezz., 9, 161182.

Romanowicz, R., Beven, H., Freer, J., and Moore, R. 1993. TOPMODEL as an application module within UIS, in Hovar, H. and

Nachtnebel, H. P. (Eds), Pvoceedingz of the Intevnational Confevence on Application of Geogvaphic Infovmation Syztemz in Kydvology

and Eatev Rezouvcez, KydvoGIS93, IAHS Publ. No 211. IAHS, Uallingford. pp. 211233.

Romanowicz, R., Beven, H. and Moore, R. 1994. GIS and distributed hydrologic models, in Mather, P. M. (Ed.), Geogvaphical

Infovmation Kandling Rezeavch and Applicationz. Uiley, Chichester. pp. 197205.

Romanowicz, R. J., Dooge, J. C. I., and OHane, J. P. 1995. Spatial variability of evaporation from the land surface random initial

conditions, in Hundzewicz, Z. (Ed.), New Jncevtainty Conceptz in Kydvology and Eatev Rezouvcez. Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge. pp. 197205.

Uood, E. F., Sivapalan, M., and Beven, H. J. 1990. Similarity and scale in catchment storm response, Rer. Geophyz., 28, 118.

g 1997 by John Uiley & Sons, Ltd. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 11, 11151129 (1997)

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