You are on page 1of 139

Basics for Electromechanical

Dynamics in turbine-generator

Kamin Dave
Application Engineering Manager
Kamin_dave@selinc.com
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, India
www.selinc.com

1
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
What is difference between science,
engineering & technology?
Science is never change! (i.e. basics of earth,
properties metals, raw materials, air particles, biology)
Combination of science & mathematics bring
engineering! (i.e. mechanical & civil structure design,
basic function of mechanical/electrical machines, power
system design)
Technology is always changing! (i.e. protection
relays, SCADA, synchrophasor, power meters, fluid &
hydraulic meters, control system)
2
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Unfortunately there is no smooth
road map for geometry

3
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
We can
Starts with simple and add
complexity

and
Make complex and then try to
simplify

4
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics

5
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Strain
Strain:
Stretch in mechanical structure divided by original length

Below figure is showing original dimension ABCD are in


square shape. Object is stretch to x distance with a
displacement of angle ()

Young modulus constant = Stress / Strain

Structure will fracture when this constant


is significantly reduced

6
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Elasticity
Elasticity:

Tendency of solid material to return to their original


shape after being deformed

Material will starts o get deform when the forces are


applied frequently to object

Material deformation is depends on elastic & plastic


nature

7
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Elasticity
Elasticity:

Object in Elastic nature

8
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Plasticity
Plasticity:

It describe deformation of a material under going non-


reversible changes of shape in response to applied
forces

Shape of object will change due to stretch

Plasticity is reversible nature than elasticity

9
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Plasticity
Plasticity:

10
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Bending
Bending:

Behaviour of slender structural element subjected to


external loads applied perpendicularly to the longitudinal
axis of material. Higher Plasticity of material, resulting
increases bending nature.

Object Bending

11
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Buckling
Buckling:

It is normally characterized by a sudden failure of


material or structure subjected to high compressive
stress.

It is normally consider as a mechanical failure mode

Force applied

Mechanical damage

12
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Tensile Strength
Tensile Strength:
Maximum stress that a material can withstand while being
stretched or pulled before failing or breaking

Some materials can break sharply with out plastic


deformation (normally called Brittle failure)

Generally, higher elasticity means higher tensile strength

Some materials are more ductile, including most metals, will


experience some plastic deformation (necking before fracture
or breaking)

It is normally measured in force per area (N/m2, MPa


etc.)
13
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Tensile Strength
Tensile Strength:

14
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Tensile Strength
Tensile Strength:

15
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Endurance limit
Endurance limit of Material (Se):

The stress value below endurance limit, the material


can withstand many loads cycle

Typical (Se) limit for steels are 0.5 of the ultimate


tensile strength, to maximum of 690 MPa (pressure)

For Iron, aluminum & copper alloys, typical value of


(Se) limit 0.4 times of the ultimate tensile strength, to a
maximum of 165 Mpa (pressure)

16
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Endurance limit

Typical curve for


steel

Typical curve for


aluminum

17
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Fatigue
Fatigue of Material:
It is weakening of material caused by repeated applied
loads

It is progressive or continuously deteriorate property of


material (plastic deformation) when apply cyclic loads

Plastic deformation is always be in memory of material

Material will damage over a period

If the loads apply above certain level or threshold,


microscopic cracks (gap between molecules) will begin

If the cyclic loads apply frequently above threshold level,


cracks will reach on critical size 18
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Fatigue
Fatigue of Material:

Cracks will propagate (rise) suddenly, resulting


material fracture

Crack

19
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Fatigue
Fatigue Life:

It can be define by uniform material law for


aluminum & titanium materials

There are some theoretical value for stress amplitude


below which the material will not fail for any number of
cycles

It is usually associated with tensile strength

ASTM defines fatigue strength, as the value of stress


at which failure occurs after number of cycles

20
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Angular Displacement

Angular Displacement:
= = 2*(s/(2r))
where;
s = arc length of circle
r = radius of circle

21
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Angular Displacement
Angular Displacement:
= s/r
where;
s = arc length of circle
r = radius of circle
1 revolution = 360O = 2 rad
1 rad = 360O / = 360O / 3.1428 = 57.3O
Angular displacement change in angular position;
= 1 2
where;
= angular displacement
1 = Initial angular position
2 = Final angular position

Normally natural unit in terms of radians, degree or revolution

22
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Angular Velocity
Angular Velocity:
Change in angular displacement per unit time

Angular Velocity;
= / t = 1 2
--------
t1 t2
where;
= angular displacement
1 = Initial angular position
2 = Final angular position

23
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Angular Velocity
Angular Velocity:
Instantaneous Angular Velocity at time (t);
(t) = d / dt = v/r
where;
v = translational speed = ds/dt
r = radius of circle
ds/dt = rate of change of arc length

Angular velocity and frequency relation ship;

= 2f

24
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Angular Acceleration
Angular Acceleration:
Change in angular velocity per unit time

Angular Acceleration;
= / t = 1 2
--------
t1 t2

25
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Angular Acceleration
Angular Acceleration:
Instantaneous angular acceleration at time (t);
(t) = d / dt = d2 / dt2

Radial acceleration (perpendicular to direction of


motion) = v2 / r = 2r

26
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Angular Acceleration
Angular Acceleration:
Angular acceleration is caused by torque, which
can have positive or negative value in accordance
with positive or negative angular frequency
Ratio of torque to acceleration is call Moment
of Inertia

27
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Moment of Inertia
Moment of Inertia:
J = mass (m) * diameter of circle (d)
= m * r2

Unit of J is kg-m2

Increasing mass of object (rotor/turbine) increases


moment of inertia
smax Where;
s
s = Stress
r r = radius
smax = maximum stress
Solid shaft of rotor
28
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Moment of Inertia
Moment of Inertia:
J = mass (m) * diameter of circle (d)
= m * (ri + ro)2
-----------
2

Unit of J is kg-m2

Where;
smax
s s = Stress
r ri ri = Inner radius
ro ro = Outer radius
smax = maximum stress
Hollow shaft of rotor
29
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torque
Torque:
T = Force * radius

Where;
Force = mass * angular acceleration * radius

30
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torque
Torque:
T = mass * r2 * angular acceleration
= J * angular acceleration

Power of Torque per unit time;

P = T * angular velocity
= J * angular acceleration * angular velocity

Increasing Rate of change of Angular velocity


increases Rate of change of acceleration, resulting
increases torque

31
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Kinetic Energy
Kinetic Energy:
K = (J * 2) / 2
= (mass * r2 * 2) / 2

Increasing mass of object increases stored kinetic


energy of object (rotor/turbine)

32
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Inertia constant
Inertia constant (H):
H = (1/2)*(K / MVA)
= {(mass * r2 * 2) / 2} * {1 / MVA)

H = (5.48*10-9) * (J in kg-m2) * (RPM2)


-----------------------------
MVA

Inertia constant is expressed in second

33
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsion spring

34
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Torsion Spring:
It is spring that works by torsion or twisting

Flexible elastic material that stores mechanical energy


when it is twisted

It exerts (produce) force (actually torque) in opposite


direction, proportional to angle it is twisted

It can not be twisted beyond elasticity limit

Material shall starts to get deform when it is twisted


above elasticity limit

35
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Torsion Spring:
General equation of motion is;

(Moment of Inertia * Acceleration) + (Rotational Friction


* Angular velocity) + (Spring constant * Angular
displacement) = Torque (t)

J*(d2/dt2) + C*(d/dt) + K* = Torque (t)

36
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Torsion Spring:
Apply Hookes law;

Torque = -K *

Negative sign indicates that the direction of torque is


opposite to the direction of twist

Where;
= Angle of twist from equilibrium position in radians
Torque = Newton-Meter
K = Spring constant in Newton-Meter / radians

37
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Torsion Spring:

Spring constant (stiffness of mass constant) of shaft is


directly proportional to elastic modulus of beam

Spring constant of shaft is directly proportional to


moment of inertia of shaft. Higher shaft inertia means
good spring constant

Spring constant of shaft is inversely proportional to


length of beam or shaft

38
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Torsion Spring:
Angle of Twist for shaft;

= (Torque to be transmitted * Length of shaft)


-----------------------------------
(Moment of Inertia * Modulus of rigidity)

Angle of twisting shall be higher when the length of


shaft is more

Angle of twisting shall be higher when the torque to be


transmitted on shaft will be more

Angle of twisting shall be lower with the higher


moment of inertia of rotor body 39
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Torsion Spring:
Angle of Twist for shaft;

It can also simplify; Angle between the vector of


imbalance force due to rotor eccentricity and the
imbalance mass

Rotor geometrical centre Rotor geometrical centre


(c) and centre of gravity (c) and centre of gravity
(G) are coincident (G) are not coincident
40
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsion spring

J J

Undamped natural frequency = (n) / 2 = (1/2)*(Kt/J)1/2

41
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsion spring

Undamped natural frequency = (n)

Critical speed (CR) = +/- n

Where;
+ n = Forward component indicate lateral vibration that
follows direction of shaft rotation
-n = Negative component indicate torsional vibration that
moves in opposite direction

- Linear combination = {Ax1 * (ejnt)} + {Ax2 * (e-jnt)}

42
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Mechanical Damper (Inertia tuning):
It is Analogous to Electrical resistance
It shall absorb shock
Mechanical damper

Added Enclosure ring


on coupling
43
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsion spring

J1 = 1200Kgm2 J2 = 2100Kgm2 J3 = 18000Kgm2 J4 = 18000Kgm2 J5 = 11000Kgm2

HP K12 IP K23 LP1 K34 LP2 K45 Gener


turbine turbine turbine turbine ator

K12 = Spring constant = 25.0Nm/rad


K23 = Spring constant = 60.0Nm/rad
K34 = Spring constant = 100.0Nm/rad
K45 = Spring constant = 150.0Nm/rad

44
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsion spring

J4 = 18000Kgm2 J5 = 11000Kgm2
K45
LP2 Gener
Turbine ator

Aggregate moment of Inertia (J) = (J4 + J5) / (J4 * J5)

Undamped natural frequency = (n) / 2 = (1/2)*(K45/J)1/2

45
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Oscillations
Oscillations:
It is an effect that the object can move between extremes.
This nature is depends on the characteristic of oscillators
Repetitive variation with respect to time
Vibration term sometimes very close to mechanical oscillations
Oscillations are not only in mechanical system, but it can also
be in electrical network or other system

46
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: rotor dynamics
Rotor dynamics:
Great amount of Rotation energy + small amount of vibration
energy

It is require to keep vibration energy as small as possible

Rotor run above critical speed, create bending, axial and


torsional vibration. There are several critical speed under
several circumstances

Every shaft nearly balanced, when it driven below critical


speed. Critical speed is depends on the manner in which the shaft
is supported, size of shaft and modulus of elasticity

47
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Lateral Vibration
Lateral Vibration:
Rotor will vibrate at particular frequencies where rotor
will bend perpendicular to the axis of rotation

Primary characteristic of lateral analysis are bending


stiffness and weight

Damping can be faster (Accelerating or Decelerating)

48
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsional Vibration
Torsional Vibration:
Rotor tends to twist about the axis of rotation

Primary characteristic of torsional analysis are torsional


stiffness and rotational inertia

Natural frequencies (Eigen values) and mode shapes (Eigen


vectors) are important to understand powertrain dynamics

Structure shall have one or more natural frequencies

Damping can be very poor or slower.

49
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsional Vibration
Torsional Vibration:
It will be severe damages when shaft or mechanical structure
twisted frequent cyclically above elastic limit

Rotor body twisting

50
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Torsional Vibration
Torsional Vibration:
Should be taken care while studying or calculating!

Mass will be replaced by polar mass of moment of inertia


Stiffness will be replaced by torsional stiffness

51
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Damping
Damping:
It is an effect of reducing, preventing or restricting oscillations in
mechanical structure or system

It can be described as following


Overdamped (>1): The system returns to equilibrium
(exponentially decay) with out oscillating. Duration shall be long

Critically damped (=1): The system returns to equilibrium as


quickly as possible with out oscillating

Underdamped (0<<1): The system oscillates with the


amplitude gradually decreasing to zero. System oscillates for
shorter period

Undamped: The system oscillates at it natural resonant


frequency
52
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Damping
Damping:
Fs = -K*x (Linear motion)
Where;
= Damping ratio Fd = -B*dx/dt (rate of change in linear
K = Spring constant motion)
m = mass Ftotal = Fs + Fd
B = Damping coefficient (c)
Fs = Oscillatory force
Fd = Damping force

53
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Damping Ratio
Damping Ratio ():
= (C)
-----------------------------
2 * (mass * spring constant)1/2

Where;

C = Viscous damper constant

Normally, damping ratio of passive bearing can be varying


0.3>>0.03

= 0.1 normally needed for safe operation of machine

54
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Damping Ratio
Damped natural frequency (d):
d = n * (1 - 2)1/2

Where;

= Damping ratio
n = Undamped natural frequency

55
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Damping Ratio
Extreme resonant when Fr = 1 and = 0.05

Fr = / n
Where;
Amplitude ratio

= Input supply
frequency
n = Undamped
natural frequency

Fr

56
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Engineering Basics: Damping Ratio
Damping Ratio ():
= 1 then system is nearly critically damped, and little
resonance is seen in amplitude ratio. It shall be less vibration in
rotor

Under damped oscillations (0<<1) are have more resonance


on Fr = 1

57
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Users can refer
ISO 22266-1:2009: Torsional vibration of rotating
machine

Campbell diagram and rotor dynamics

EPRI report

58
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Users can refer
ASTM: American society for testing and materials

Material standards categorised by ASTM;


Standard specifications
Standard test methods
Standard practice
Standard guide
Standard classifications

59
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Eletcromechanical Dynamics

60
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Electrical
Network

Electromechanical coupling
through electromagnetic circuit

Mechanical
system
61
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Electromechanical power conversion occurs at constant


rate between stator circuit and mechanical system
connected to the shaft

62
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Electromechanical dynamics are usually


characterized by low frequency or poor oscillations

It can be categorized;
Local modes
oscillations in single generator
oscillations in multiple generators in same
power generating unit
These oscillation have frequency in range of 0.5
to 2Hz

Inter area modes


63
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Electromechanical dynamics are usually


characterized by low frequency or poor oscillations

It can be categorized;
Inter area modes
generators are in one sub area oscillates
against the generators in other sub area
oscillation frequency is 0.1 to 0.8Hz

64
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Electromechanical dynamics are usually


characterized by low frequency or poor oscillations

It can be categorized;
Local modes
oscillations due to sub-harmonic resonance
oscillations frequency range 10 to 40Hz

65
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Electromechanical dynamics
What we can express?

Voltage in electrical system shall be represent as a force in


mechanical system

Inductance in electrical system shall be represent as a mass


in mechanical system

Capacitance in electrical system shall be represent as a


spring constant in mechanical system

Resistance in electrical system shall be represent as a


viscous damping in mechanical system

Resonant in electrical network shall be co-relate with


vibration in mechanical structure
66
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Electromechanical dynamics
What we can express in terms of electrical?

Undamped natural frequency = (F0) * (XC/XL)1/2


= (F0) * {1/(2F0C)}1/2
----------------
(2F0L)1/2

= {1 / (LC)}1/2

67
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Electromechanical dynamics
What we can express in terms of electrical?

Damping ratio = {R/2} * {1 / (XL*XC)}1/2


= {R/2} * (C/L)1/2

Damping ratio () will be higher with higher capacitance of


network

68
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Electromechanical dynamics

69
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Electromagnetic system

Mechanical System

Electrical system

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE


Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE


Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Synchronous machine speed should
be remain in synchronism

2-poles synchronous machine Machine rotates on mechanical


speed so as to produce same
electrical speed

Electrical & mechanical speeds are


related as a function of machine
poles (i.e. p/2 due to pole pair)

One magnetic rotation for every one


mechanical rotation

Electrical speed (e) = (p/2) * mechanical speed (m)


72
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

4-poles synchronous machine

Two magnetic rotations for every one


mechanical rotation

Electrical speed is double than


mechanical speed

m = (2/4)*314.28 = 314.28/2 (rad/s)

Electrical speed (e) = (p/2) * mechanical speed (m)


73
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Angular speed can also calculated in terms of rotations;

mechanical rotation

Nm = m * (60 /(2) = e * (2/p) * (60 / (2)) = 2f * (60/(2))

Where;
F = 50Hz

Nm = 3000 RPM for two poles machine

74
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Synchronous Machine;

Armature Winding----------- Three Phase


Field Winding-------------- DC

75
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Picture is taken
from MIT lecture
note

76
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Rotor field
winding

Stator winding

77
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Flux distribution

Rotor winding Positions

Stator Slot
Stator winding

78
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Linkage flux maximum for


single phase

Linkage flux

Stator slots

Stator winding OUT


Linkage flux minimum Stator winding IN
when stator current &
rotor MMF are coincide
79
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

2 poles synchronous
machine

Flux distribution
changed based on
Considered uniform airgap rotor position
80
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

4 poles synchronous
machine

Flux distribution
double, electric
Considered uniform airgap
speed double
81
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

2 poles synchronous
machine
Cylindrical rotor
with multi slots

Flux distribution

Considered uniform airgap


82
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Stator coil inductance


varies with rotor
angular position

Considered non-uniform airgap

83
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
A phase winding IN A phase winding OUT

-a
-c -b

c b

2 poles synchronous
machine, 3 phases

84
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Where;
Ls & Lr = Self inductance of stator & rotor
Lsr = Mutual inductance
Te = Electric torque

Mutual inductance is depends on rotor position

85
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Basic circuit of Electromechanical Coupling

Stator & Rotor flux Electric torque


86
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Electromechanical Coupling

Mutual inductance is varying according to rotor


position, so it can be further specified as;

Where;
M = mutual inductance of fundamental component

Mutual inductance is zero when the angle between


stator phase and rotor position are coincide
87
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Electromechanical Coupling

Now, electric torque equation shall be rewritten as;

Where;
M = mutual inductance of fundamental component

88
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Basic circuit for understanding of torque

89
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Basic circuit for understanding of force

90
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Basic circuit of Electromechanical Coupling

Rotor Inertia Mechanical torque

91
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Basic circuit of Electromechanical Coupling

Rotor Inertia Mechanical torque


Electrical torque is in opposite direction to Mechanical torque
Mechanical torque is equal to Electrical torque then angular
acceleration is zero (i.e. Tm = Te) 92
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Basic circuit of Electromechanical Coupling

Rotor Inertia Mechanical torque


Accelerating torque (Ta) = Tm Te
Decelerating torque (Ta) = Te - Tm
93
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Average Power convert between electrical & mechanical system

Instantaneous power system flowing from coupling system to


source;

Pm = Te * (d / dt)
= Te *
= -is * ir * Msin() *

Where;
Is = stator current
Ir = rotor current
= t +
Coupling system

94
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

G X XTotal S
Es Vs1 Vr2

2H * d(-0)
= Pm - Pe
---- -------
B dt

Where;
d / dt = d(-0) / dt = rate of change of rotor position
95
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

jXs = jLs
Is
+ +

Vs Es Es
- -

Vs = Es Is*(jLs)

Te = -Es*Vs*Sin
----------
*(Ls) 96
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
jXs = jLs
Is
+ +
Vs Es Es
- -

Pm = Pe = Te = -*Es*Vs*Sin
------------
*(Ls)

97
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

G X XTotal S
Es Vs1 Vr2

2H * d(-0)
= Pm Pe = Pa
---- -------
B dt

Assume;
d / dt = d(-0) / dt = 0 then, Pm = Pe
Pa = Accelerating power which is zero when Pm = Pe
98
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

G X XTotal S
Es Vs1 Vr2
3 phase fault
2H * d(-0)
= Pm Pe = Pa
---- -------
B dt

Now;
Pe = 0 during 3 phase fault at generator terminals,
because Vs = 0
99
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

G X XTotal S
Es Vs1 Vr2 Pm after
removal of
3 phase fault Pm = Pa fault
2H * d(-0)
= Pm 0 = Pa
---- -------
B dt
Pe = 0
Now;
Pe = 0, Pm = Pa Fault cleared here & Pe
is accelerated 100
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Operating region of
synchronous
generator
Torque required by shaft loads in range;

101
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Torque required by shaft loads in range;

Shaft Torque will be reduced when it will be out side of


above range. Normally, the machine operation out of this
range is call it as loss of synchronism which can not
be run longer

102
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

G X XTotal S
Es Vs1 Vr2

J * d(-0)
= Tm Te = Ta
-------
dt

103
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Two Mass System

K
MT MG

Electrical torque oppose to


mechanical torque

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE


Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Two Mass System

K
MT MG

Simplified with per unit


calculation

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE


Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Simplified with per unit calculation Two Mass System

K
MT MG

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE


Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Swing Mode Operation Two Mass System

K
MT MG

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE


Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Torsional Mode Operation Two Mass System

K
MT MG

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE


Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Torsional Mode Operation Two Mass System

K
MT MG

Second Order Linear Differential Equation

Un-damped Oscillatory Response

Natural Frequency
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Multi Mass System

N masses : (N-1) Torsional Modes + One Swing Mode

110
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

5 mass model

4 torsional modes and


one swing mode

Angular position
variations between
turbines
111
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Mode shapes and analysis

Torque on shaft at generator end is on positive side


and negative at exciter end. This shows high
torsional torque between generator and exciter shaft
coupling

Swing Mode Frequency Strongly Dependent on External Electrical System


When Synchronized Swing Mode Frequency generally : 0.2 to 2.0 Hz
Mode Shape Gives only Relative Information
112
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Mode shapes and analysis
Torsional mode1

Torsional mode2

Torsional mode3

Torsional mode4

Torsional mode5

Swing mode

113
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Eigen value analysis

114
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Frequency Scanning
1. Plain Admittance Scanning
Resonant Frequencies of Network (observability depends on
location)
Does not directly give any quantitative picture
2. Damping Torque Scanning
Can give a quantitative picture under many situations
Good Insight
The scan can be done both analytically (if linear model is available) or by
simulation
Damping Torque Scanning can give good insight to supplement
simulation

115
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Frequency Scanning

Frequencies at which Electrical Torque is created during transients

and

is the electrical frequency of generator

Is subsynchronous ---- proximity to a torsional


natural frequency may cause SSR (why ?)

116
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Vibration (Specially torsional) measurement approaches;

117
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics

Online oscillation (lateral or torsional vibrations) measurement tool


will be more interest of area

118
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Gen Set
GT MVAR
MW

G D Y GCB

PMU

C37.118

PDC PMU type SEL451

Online Recording of Electromechanical Dynamic of individual


machine 119
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Gen Set
GT MVAR
MW

G D Y GCB

PMU

C37.118
PMU type SEL451
TEAM PDC Oscillography recording in C37.111
format

Online Recording of Electromechanical Dynamic of individual


machine 120
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Gen Set
GT MVAR
MW

G D Y GCB

PMU

Synchrophasor
PMU type SEL735
TEAM PDC Oscillography recording in C37.111 format,
Load profile recording with high sampling
rate
Online Recording of Electromechanical Dynamic of individual
machine 121
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Gen Set
GT MVAR
MW

G D Y GCB

Vibration
sensor E

PMU

Synchrophasor
PMU type SEL451
TEAM PDC Oscillography recording in C37.111 format,
Vibration sensor detects rotor shaft speed

Online Recording of Electromechanical Dynamic of individual


machine 122
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Gen Set
HP IP LP

Vibration Vibration Vibration


sensor sensor sensor E

PMU

PMU type SEL451 Synchrophasor


Oscillography recording in C37.111
format, TEAM PDC
Vibration sensor detects rotor shaft
speed
Online Recording of Electromechanical Dynamic of individual
machine 123
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Accelerometers for measurement of generator shaft
vibration
It can also be place on driven end bearing

Two accelerometer installed


at axial fan

Online Recording of Electromechanical Dynamic of individual


machine 124
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basics: Electromechanical dynamics
Online monitoring can be done:
Measure voltages and current on generator
terminals and use them to applied torque. Analytics
model can do detail job
Measure transient torsional displacement at key
point on shaft through high resolution sensors. This
response/output can add & compute in analytics
model for analysis of torsional vibration
Diagnostic facilities to be added (i.e. frequency
spectrum, eigen values plotting and interpretations,
damping ratio, damping factor etc.)

125
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical
dynamics
Electromechanical dynamics shall have longer time
scale in several seconds. Rotor speed shall be affected

Fast dynamics associated with electromagnetic


interaction that occur with in generator immediately
during & after disturbance appear on the system. These
dynamics leads to generator high currents and electrical
torques inside generator and typically have time scale
of milli seconds. Normally, the rotor speed shall not
change due to high inertia of turbine & generator

126
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical
dynamics
Any unbalanced torque acting on the rotor shaft will
result in the acceleration or deceleration of the rotor
speed

Free body rotation will appear as a low frequency


oscillations of typically 0.3 to 2Hz

Mechanical torque changes relatively slowly, due to


long thermal time constant associated with boiler &
turbine

Electrical torque changes instantaneously (air gap


torque)
127
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical
dynamics
Tm > Te then the rotor speed accelerates
Tm < Te then the rotor speed decelerates
Vibration on rotor shaft either can be lateral or torsional
vibration
Vibration on rotor shaft is due to sudden change in energy
stored in fly wheel or rotor mass
Both rotor mass swing together in swing mode vibration,
in case of two mass system. Direction of shaft torque of both
mass are in same direction
Torsional vibration produce at own axis of shaft and with
in unit (turbine-generator)
In case of two rotor mass system, torque on one rotor
mass is opposite direction to torque on second rotor mass at
same time of instant (i.e. twisting shaft) during torsional
128
mode KNOWLEDGE
vibrationIS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical
dynamics
Torsional vibration can be understand by calculating
torsional natural frequency and relative mode shapes
Mode shapes are nothing but its comparison between two
mass (rotor shafts) rotates to each other
Torsional mode natural frequency is depends on spring
constant (K) and Heq
Shaft material deformation starts in case of torsional mode
vibration
Torsional vibration damage structure if the stress exceeds
fatigue limit
Rotor shaft fails suddenly, in case of machine run longer
period in torsional mode vibration
Failure of mechanical structure, resulting high repair cost
of machine and long break down time of machine as well!
129
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical
dynamics
Critical speed of rotor can be changed either on design
stage or during operation

Critical speed of rotor can be changed during design stage


by changing rotor mass or its distribution and dimension of
rotor and its support length

Critical speed of rotor can be changed during operation by


providing auxiliary support to increase the effective
stiffness of rotor and it increases the critical speed of rotor

If machine operation near critical speed can not avoided,


then the most effective way to reduce the amplitude of
synchronous whirl is to add damping 130
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical
dynamics
Damping force can be idealized as a viscous damping
and it is mainly coming from support

Damping does not affect natural frequency of the system.


However, their effect is more predominate for suppressing
the resonance amplitude

The increase in the damping, results in increase in the


critical speed, however, most important parameter for
reducing the whirl amplitude at critical speed

Measurement of the amplitude of critical speed is difficult,


therefore determination of precise critical speed is difficult
131
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical dynamics
Mechanical Damping due to steam forces on turbine
blades, shaft material hysteresis, bearing friction and
windage.

Time constant of decay of torsional oscillations is


large, 4 - 60 s

Damping due to the mechanical mechanisms is least


during no load conditions and increasing with increases
loads

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE


Summary: Electromechanical dynamics

1. Electrical Network also causes damping as the


electrical torque is a function of the speed and angle
of the generator mass.

1. Electrical Network damping could be negative under


SSR conditions!

1. If overall damping (mechanical and electrical


mechanisms) is negative instability results.

2. Effect of fast transient (i.e. lightning & transformer


switching) in electrical network can not be affect the
speed of rotor
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical dynamics

1. EMTP or PSCAD type tools can use for detail study and
simulations.

2. Modeling can be tedious, if power electronics equipment


like HVDC, TCSC and their controllers are installed

3. Natural frequency analysis in FFT block or eigen value


analysis provide good idea to understand about the
behaviour of turbine generators on oscillations.
However, the results interpretations and decision for
remedial action according to results, it requires
consultation from designer of turbine-generator
manufacturer

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE


Summary: Electromechanical dynamics

Eigen values are relative values

It has to be interpret carefully

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE


Summary: Electromechanical dynamics

PSS is very useful and cost effective for damping of


power swings

Speed signals are known to cause problems but speed


signals are not generally used in PSS block!

SSR problems are not a major issue if signals like power,


delta P-Omega are used

Excitation modulation be used to damp SSR

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE


Summary: Electromechanical dynamics
Current Regulator and Auxiliary controllers used for HVDC
or TCSC control could affect Torsional Modes.
PMU can record electromechanical oscillations, but not all
type of!
PMU with oscillography recording with high resolution rate
will provide better data interpretation for analysis of
electromechanical dynamics. It requires good analytics
model
PMU, load profile and oscillography recording with high
resolution rate will provide better data interpretation for
analysis of electromechanical dynamics. It requires good
analytics model
PMU, vibration speed sensor and oscillography recording
with resolution rate will provide better data interpretation
for analysis of electromechanical dynamics. It requires good
analytics model
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical dynamics
Measuring natural frequencies by online will utilize for
analysis of vibration to identify torsional modes and
frequencies from small random perturbations

By installing strain gages on shaft and using telementry


provide reliable measurement and that can be utilize to
identify torsional natural frequencies

Dedicated Structural vibration meter (SVN) or


accelerometers can with advance analysis tool provide good
information of vibration for detail analysis of shaft
movement between multiple mass. It requires good analytics
tool

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE


SCHWEITZER ENGINEERING LABORATORIES

Ask Q???
Kamin_dave@selinc.com

139
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE