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# Basics for Electromechanical

Dynamics in turbine-generator

Kamin Dave
Application Engineering Manager
Kamin_dave@selinc.com
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, India
www.selinc.com

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What is difference between science,
engineering & technology?
Science is never change! (i.e. basics of earth,
properties metals, raw materials, air particles, biology)
Combination of science & mathematics bring
engineering! (i.e. mechanical & civil structure design,
basic function of mechanical/electrical machines, power
system design)
Technology is always changing! (i.e. protection
relays, SCADA, synchrophasor, power meters, fluid &
hydraulic meters, control system)
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Unfortunately there is no smooth

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We can
complexity

and
Make complex and then try to
simplify

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Engineering Basics

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Engineering Basics: Strain
Strain:
Stretch in mechanical structure divided by original length

## Below figure is showing original dimension ABCD are in

square shape. Object is stretch to x distance with a
displacement of angle ()

## Structure will fracture when this constant

is significantly reduced

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Engineering Basics: Elasticity
Elasticity:

shape after being deformed

## Material will starts o get deform when the forces are

applied frequently to object

## Material deformation is depends on elastic & plastic

nature

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Engineering Basics: Elasticity
Elasticity:

## Object in Elastic nature

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Engineering Basics: Plasticity
Plasticity:

## It describe deformation of a material under going non-

reversible changes of shape in response to applied
forces

## Plasticity is reversible nature than elasticity

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Engineering Basics: Plasticity
Plasticity:

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Engineering Basics: Bending
Bending:

## Behaviour of slender structural element subjected to

external loads applied perpendicularly to the longitudinal
axis of material. Higher Plasticity of material, resulting
increases bending nature.

Object Bending

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Engineering Basics: Buckling
Buckling:

## It is normally characterized by a sudden failure of

material or structure subjected to high compressive
stress.

## It is normally consider as a mechanical failure mode

Force applied

Mechanical damage

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Engineering Basics: Tensile Strength
Tensile Strength:
Maximum stress that a material can withstand while being
stretched or pulled before failing or breaking

## Some materials can break sharply with out plastic

deformation (normally called Brittle failure)

## Some materials are more ductile, including most metals, will

experience some plastic deformation (necking before fracture
or breaking)

## It is normally measured in force per area (N/m2, MPa

etc.)
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Engineering Basics: Tensile Strength
Tensile Strength:

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Engineering Basics: Tensile Strength
Tensile Strength:

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Engineering Basics: Endurance limit
Endurance limit of Material (Se):

## Typical (Se) limit for steels are 0.5 of the ultimate

tensile strength, to maximum of 690 MPa (pressure)

## For Iron, aluminum & copper alloys, typical value of

(Se) limit 0.4 times of the ultimate tensile strength, to a
maximum of 165 Mpa (pressure)

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Engineering Basics: Endurance limit

steel

## Typical curve for

aluminum

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Engineering Basics: Fatigue
Fatigue of Material:
It is weakening of material caused by repeated applied

## It is progressive or continuously deteriorate property of

material (plastic deformation) when apply cyclic loads

## If the loads apply above certain level or threshold,

microscopic cracks (gap between molecules) will begin

## If the cyclic loads apply frequently above threshold level,

cracks will reach on critical size 18
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Engineering Basics: Fatigue
Fatigue of Material:

## Cracks will propagate (rise) suddenly, resulting

material fracture

Crack

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Engineering Basics: Fatigue
Fatigue Life:

## It can be define by uniform material law for

aluminum & titanium materials

## There are some theoretical value for stress amplitude

below which the material will not fail for any number of
cycles

## ASTM defines fatigue strength, as the value of stress

at which failure occurs after number of cycles

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Engineering Basics: Angular Displacement

Angular Displacement:
= = 2*(s/(2r))
where;
s = arc length of circle

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Engineering Basics: Angular Displacement
Angular Displacement:
= s/r
where;
s = arc length of circle
1 revolution = 360O = 2 rad
1 rad = 360O / = 360O / 3.1428 = 57.3O
Angular displacement change in angular position;
= 1 2
where;
= angular displacement
1 = Initial angular position
2 = Final angular position

## Normally natural unit in terms of radians, degree or revolution

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Engineering Basics: Angular Velocity
Angular Velocity:
Change in angular displacement per unit time

Angular Velocity;
= / t = 1 2
--------
t1 t2
where;
= angular displacement
1 = Initial angular position
2 = Final angular position

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Engineering Basics: Angular Velocity
Angular Velocity:
Instantaneous Angular Velocity at time (t);
(t) = d / dt = v/r
where;
v = translational speed = ds/dt
ds/dt = rate of change of arc length

## Angular velocity and frequency relation ship;

= 2f

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Engineering Basics: Angular Acceleration
Angular Acceleration:
Change in angular velocity per unit time

Angular Acceleration;
= / t = 1 2
--------
t1 t2

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Engineering Basics: Angular Acceleration
Angular Acceleration:
Instantaneous angular acceleration at time (t);
(t) = d / dt = d2 / dt2

## Radial acceleration (perpendicular to direction of

motion) = v2 / r = 2r

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Engineering Basics: Angular Acceleration
Angular Acceleration:
Angular acceleration is caused by torque, which
can have positive or negative value in accordance
with positive or negative angular frequency
Ratio of torque to acceleration is call Moment
of Inertia

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Engineering Basics: Moment of Inertia
Moment of Inertia:
J = mass (m) * diameter of circle (d)
= m * r2

Unit of J is kg-m2

## Increasing mass of object (rotor/turbine) increases

moment of inertia
smax Where;
s
s = Stress
smax = maximum stress
Solid shaft of rotor
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Engineering Basics: Moment of Inertia
Moment of Inertia:
J = mass (m) * diameter of circle (d)
= m * (ri + ro)2
-----------
2

Unit of J is kg-m2

Where;
smax
s s = Stress
r ri ri = Inner radius
smax = maximum stress
Hollow shaft of rotor
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Engineering Basics: Torque
Torque:

Where;
Force = mass * angular acceleration * radius

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Engineering Basics: Torque
Torque:
T = mass * r2 * angular acceleration
= J * angular acceleration

## Power of Torque per unit time;

P = T * angular velocity
= J * angular acceleration * angular velocity

## Increasing Rate of change of Angular velocity

increases Rate of change of acceleration, resulting
increases torque

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Engineering Basics: Kinetic Energy
Kinetic Energy:
K = (J * 2) / 2
= (mass * r2 * 2) / 2

## Increasing mass of object increases stored kinetic

energy of object (rotor/turbine)

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Engineering Basics: Inertia constant
Inertia constant (H):
H = (1/2)*(K / MVA)
= {(mass * r2 * 2) / 2} * {1 / MVA)

## H = (5.48*10-9) * (J in kg-m2) * (RPM2)

-----------------------------
MVA

## Inertia constant is expressed in second

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Engineering Basics: Torsion spring

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Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Torsion Spring:
It is spring that works by torsion or twisting

## Flexible elastic material that stores mechanical energy

when it is twisted

## It exerts (produce) force (actually torque) in opposite

direction, proportional to angle it is twisted

## Material shall starts to get deform when it is twisted

above elasticity limit

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Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Torsion Spring:
General equation of motion is;

## (Moment of Inertia * Acceleration) + (Rotational Friction

* Angular velocity) + (Spring constant * Angular
displacement) = Torque (t)

## J*(d2/dt2) + C*(d/dt) + K* = Torque (t)

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Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Torsion Spring:
Apply Hookes law;

Torque = -K *

opposite to the direction of twist

Where;
= Angle of twist from equilibrium position in radians
Torque = Newton-Meter
K = Spring constant in Newton-Meter / radians

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Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Torsion Spring:

## Spring constant (stiffness of mass constant) of shaft is

directly proportional to elastic modulus of beam

## Spring constant of shaft is directly proportional to

moment of inertia of shaft. Higher shaft inertia means
good spring constant

## Spring constant of shaft is inversely proportional to

length of beam or shaft

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Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Torsion Spring:
Angle of Twist for shaft;

## = (Torque to be transmitted * Length of shaft)

-----------------------------------
(Moment of Inertia * Modulus of rigidity)

shaft is more

## Angle of twisting shall be higher when the torque to be

transmitted on shaft will be more

## Angle of twisting shall be lower with the higher

moment of inertia of rotor body 39
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Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Torsion Spring:
Angle of Twist for shaft;

## It can also simplify; Angle between the vector of

imbalance force due to rotor eccentricity and the
imbalance mass

## Rotor geometrical centre Rotor geometrical centre

(c) and centre of gravity (c) and centre of gravity
(G) are coincident (G) are not coincident
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Engineering Basics: Torsion spring

J J

## Undamped natural frequency = (n) / 2 = (1/2)*(Kt/J)1/2

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Engineering Basics: Torsion spring

## Critical speed (CR) = +/- n

Where;
+ n = Forward component indicate lateral vibration that
follows direction of shaft rotation
-n = Negative component indicate torsional vibration that
moves in opposite direction

## - Linear combination = {Ax1 * (ejnt)} + {Ax2 * (e-jnt)}

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Engineering Basics: Torsion spring
Mechanical Damper (Inertia tuning):
It is Analogous to Electrical resistance
It shall absorb shock
Mechanical damper

on coupling
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Engineering Basics: Torsion spring

## HP K12 IP K23 LP1 K34 LP2 K45 Gener

turbine turbine turbine turbine ator

## K12 = Spring constant = 25.0Nm/rad

K23 = Spring constant = 60.0Nm/rad
K34 = Spring constant = 100.0Nm/rad
K45 = Spring constant = 150.0Nm/rad

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Engineering Basics: Torsion spring

J4 = 18000Kgm2 J5 = 11000Kgm2
K45
LP2 Gener
Turbine ator

## Undamped natural frequency = (n) / 2 = (1/2)*(K45/J)1/2

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Engineering Basics: Oscillations
Oscillations:
It is an effect that the object can move between extremes.
This nature is depends on the characteristic of oscillators
Repetitive variation with respect to time
Vibration term sometimes very close to mechanical oscillations
Oscillations are not only in mechanical system, but it can also
be in electrical network or other system

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Engineering Basics: rotor dynamics
Rotor dynamics:
Great amount of Rotation energy + small amount of vibration
energy

## Rotor run above critical speed, create bending, axial and

torsional vibration. There are several critical speed under
several circumstances

## Every shaft nearly balanced, when it driven below critical

speed. Critical speed is depends on the manner in which the shaft
is supported, size of shaft and modulus of elasticity

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Engineering Basics: Lateral Vibration
Lateral Vibration:
Rotor will vibrate at particular frequencies where rotor
will bend perpendicular to the axis of rotation

## Primary characteristic of lateral analysis are bending

stiffness and weight

## Damping can be faster (Accelerating or Decelerating)

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Engineering Basics: Torsional Vibration
Torsional Vibration:
Rotor tends to twist about the axis of rotation

## Primary characteristic of torsional analysis are torsional

stiffness and rotational inertia

## Natural frequencies (Eigen values) and mode shapes (Eigen

vectors) are important to understand powertrain dynamics

## Damping can be very poor or slower.

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Engineering Basics: Torsional Vibration
Torsional Vibration:
It will be severe damages when shaft or mechanical structure
twisted frequent cyclically above elastic limit

## Rotor body twisting

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Engineering Basics: Torsional Vibration
Torsional Vibration:
Should be taken care while studying or calculating!

## Mass will be replaced by polar mass of moment of inertia

Stiffness will be replaced by torsional stiffness

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Engineering Basics: Damping
Damping:
It is an effect of reducing, preventing or restricting oscillations in
mechanical structure or system

## It can be described as following

Overdamped (>1): The system returns to equilibrium
(exponentially decay) with out oscillating. Duration shall be long

## Critically damped (=1): The system returns to equilibrium as

quickly as possible with out oscillating

## Underdamped (0<<1): The system oscillates with the

amplitude gradually decreasing to zero. System oscillates for
shorter period

## Undamped: The system oscillates at it natural resonant

frequency
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Engineering Basics: Damping
Damping:
Fs = -K*x (Linear motion)
Where;
= Damping ratio Fd = -B*dx/dt (rate of change in linear
K = Spring constant motion)
m = mass Ftotal = Fs + Fd
B = Damping coefficient (c)
Fs = Oscillatory force
Fd = Damping force

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Engineering Basics: Damping Ratio
Damping Ratio ():
= (C)
-----------------------------
2 * (mass * spring constant)1/2

Where;

0.3>>0.03

## = 0.1 normally needed for safe operation of machine

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Engineering Basics: Damping Ratio
Damped natural frequency (d):
d = n * (1 - 2)1/2

Where;

= Damping ratio
n = Undamped natural frequency

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Engineering Basics: Damping Ratio
Extreme resonant when Fr = 1 and = 0.05

Fr = / n
Where;
Amplitude ratio

= Input supply
frequency
n = Undamped
natural frequency

Fr

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Engineering Basics: Damping Ratio
Damping Ratio ():
= 1 then system is nearly critically damped, and little
resonance is seen in amplitude ratio. It shall be less vibration in
rotor

## Under damped oscillations (0<<1) are have more resonance

on Fr = 1

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Users can refer
ISO 22266-1:2009: Torsional vibration of rotating
machine

## Campbell diagram and rotor dynamics

EPRI report

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Users can refer
ASTM: American society for testing and materials

## Material standards categorised by ASTM;

Standard specifications
Standard test methods
Standard practice
Standard guide
Standard classifications

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Eletcromechanical Dynamics

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Electrical
Network

Electromechanical coupling
through electromagnetic circuit

Mechanical
system
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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

## Electromechanical power conversion occurs at constant

rate between stator circuit and mechanical system
connected to the shaft

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

## Electromechanical dynamics are usually

characterized by low frequency or poor oscillations

It can be categorized;
Local modes
oscillations in single generator
oscillations in multiple generators in same
power generating unit
These oscillation have frequency in range of 0.5
to 2Hz

## Inter area modes

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

## Electromechanical dynamics are usually

characterized by low frequency or poor oscillations

It can be categorized;
Inter area modes
generators are in one sub area oscillates
against the generators in other sub area
oscillation frequency is 0.1 to 0.8Hz

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

## Electromechanical dynamics are usually

characterized by low frequency or poor oscillations

It can be categorized;
Local modes
oscillations due to sub-harmonic resonance
oscillations frequency range 10 to 40Hz

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Electromechanical dynamics
What we can express?

## Voltage in electrical system shall be represent as a force in

mechanical system

## Inductance in electrical system shall be represent as a mass

in mechanical system

## Capacitance in electrical system shall be represent as a

spring constant in mechanical system

## Resistance in electrical system shall be represent as a

viscous damping in mechanical system

## Resonant in electrical network shall be co-relate with

vibration in mechanical structure
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Electromechanical dynamics
What we can express in terms of electrical?

## Undamped natural frequency = (F0) * (XC/XL)1/2

= (F0) * {1/(2F0C)}1/2
----------------
(2F0L)1/2

= {1 / (LC)}1/2

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Electromechanical dynamics
What we can express in terms of electrical?

## Damping ratio = {R/2} * {1 / (XL*XC)}1/2

= {R/2} * (C/L)1/2

## Damping ratio () will be higher with higher capacitance of

network

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Electromechanical dynamics

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Electromagnetic system

Mechanical System

Electrical system

## KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

## KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Synchronous machine speed should
be remain in synchronism

## 2-poles synchronous machine Machine rotates on mechanical

speed so as to produce same
electrical speed

## Electrical & mechanical speeds are

related as a function of machine
poles (i.e. p/2 due to pole pair)

## One magnetic rotation for every one

mechanical rotation

## Electrical speed (e) = (p/2) * mechanical speed (m)

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

## Two magnetic rotations for every one

mechanical rotation

mechanical speed

## Electrical speed (e) = (p/2) * mechanical speed (m)

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

## Angular speed can also calculated in terms of rotations;

mechanical rotation

Where;
F = 50Hz

## Nm = 3000 RPM for two poles machine

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Synchronous Machine;

## Armature Winding----------- Three Phase

Field Winding-------------- DC

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Picture is taken
from MIT lecture
note

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Rotor field
winding

Stator winding

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Flux distribution

## Rotor winding Positions

Stator Slot
Stator winding

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

single phase

Stator slots

## Stator winding OUT

Linkage flux minimum Stator winding IN
when stator current &
rotor MMF are coincide
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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

2 poles synchronous
machine

Flux distribution
changed based on
Considered uniform airgap rotor position
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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

4 poles synchronous
machine

Flux distribution
double, electric
Considered uniform airgap
speed double
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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

2 poles synchronous
machine
Cylindrical rotor
with multi slots

Flux distribution

## Considered uniform airgap

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

## Stator coil inductance

varies with rotor
angular position

## Considered non-uniform airgap

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
A phase winding IN A phase winding OUT

-a
-c -b

c b

2 poles synchronous
machine, 3 phases

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Where;
Ls & Lr = Self inductance of stator & rotor
Lsr = Mutual inductance
Te = Electric torque

## Mutual inductance is depends on rotor position

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

## Stator & Rotor flux Electric torque

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Electromechanical Coupling

## Mutual inductance is varying according to rotor

position, so it can be further specified as;

Where;
M = mutual inductance of fundamental component

## Mutual inductance is zero when the angle between

stator phase and rotor position are coincide
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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Electromechanical Coupling

## Now, electric torque equation shall be rewritten as;

Where;
M = mutual inductance of fundamental component

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Basic circuit for understanding of torque

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Basic circuit for understanding of force

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

## Rotor Inertia Mechanical torque

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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Basic circuit of Electromechanical Coupling

## Rotor Inertia Mechanical torque

Electrical torque is in opposite direction to Mechanical torque
Mechanical torque is equal to Electrical torque then angular
acceleration is zero (i.e. Tm = Te) 92
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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Basic circuit of Electromechanical Coupling

## Rotor Inertia Mechanical torque

Accelerating torque (Ta) = Tm Te
Decelerating torque (Ta) = Te - Tm
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Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Average Power convert between electrical & mechanical system

## Instantaneous power system flowing from coupling system to

source;

Pm = Te * (d / dt)
= Te *
= -is * ir * Msin() *

Where;
Is = stator current
Ir = rotor current
= t +
Coupling system

94
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

G X XTotal S
Es Vs1 Vr2

2H * d(-0)
= Pm - Pe
---- -------
B dt

Where;
d / dt = d(-0) / dt = rate of change of rotor position
95
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

jXs = jLs
Is
+ +

Vs Es Es
- -

Vs = Es Is*(jLs)

Te = -Es*Vs*Sin
----------
*(Ls) 96
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
jXs = jLs
Is
+ +
Vs Es Es
- -

Pm = Pe = Te = -*Es*Vs*Sin
------------
*(Ls)

97
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

G X XTotal S
Es Vs1 Vr2

2H * d(-0)
= Pm Pe = Pa
---- -------
B dt

Assume;
d / dt = d(-0) / dt = 0 then, Pm = Pe
Pa = Accelerating power which is zero when Pm = Pe
98
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

G X XTotal S
Es Vs1 Vr2
3 phase fault
2H * d(-0)
= Pm Pe = Pa
---- -------
B dt

Now;
Pe = 0 during 3 phase fault at generator terminals,
because Vs = 0
99
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

G X XTotal S
Es Vs1 Vr2 Pm after
removal of
3 phase fault Pm = Pa fault
2H * d(-0)
= Pm 0 = Pa
---- -------
B dt
Pe = 0
Now;
Pe = 0, Pm = Pa Fault cleared here & Pe
is accelerated 100
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

Operating region of
synchronous
generator
Torque required by shaft loads in range;

101
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Torque required by shaft loads in range;

## Shaft Torque will be reduced when it will be out side of

above range. Normally, the machine operation out of this
range is call it as loss of synchronism which can not
be run longer

102
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

G X XTotal S
Es Vs1 Vr2

J * d(-0)
= Tm Te = Ta
-------
dt

103
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Two Mass System

K
MT MG

## Electrical torque oppose to

mechanical torque

## KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Two Mass System

K
MT MG

calculation

## KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Simplified with per unit calculation Two Mass System

K
MT MG

## KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Swing Mode Operation Two Mass System

K
MT MG

## KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Torsional Mode Operation Two Mass System

K
MT MG

## KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Torsional Mode Operation Two Mass System

K
MT MG

## Un-damped Oscillatory Response

Natural Frequency
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Multi Mass System

## N masses : (N-1) Torsional Modes + One Swing Mode

110
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics

5 mass model

## 4 torsional modes and

one swing mode

Angular position
variations between
turbines
111
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Mode shapes and analysis

## Torque on shaft at generator end is on positive side

and negative at exciter end. This shows high
torsional torque between generator and exciter shaft
coupling

## Swing Mode Frequency Strongly Dependent on External Electrical System

When Synchronized Swing Mode Frequency generally : 0.2 to 2.0 Hz
Mode Shape Gives only Relative Information
112
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Mode shapes and analysis
Torsional mode1

Torsional mode2

Torsional mode3

Torsional mode4

Torsional mode5

Swing mode

113
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Eigen value analysis

114
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Frequency Scanning
Resonant Frequencies of Network (observability depends on
location)
Does not directly give any quantitative picture
2. Damping Torque Scanning
Can give a quantitative picture under many situations
Good Insight
The scan can be done both analytically (if linear model is available) or by
simulation
Damping Torque Scanning can give good insight to supplement
simulation

115
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basic: Electromechanical dynamics
Frequency Scanning

and

## Is subsynchronous ---- proximity to a torsional

natural frequency may cause SSR (why ?)

116
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Vibration (Specially torsional) measurement approaches;

117
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics

## Online oscillation (lateral or torsional vibrations) measurement tool

will be more interest of area

118
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Gen Set
GT MVAR
MW

G D Y GCB

PMU

C37.118

## Online Recording of Electromechanical Dynamic of individual

machine 119
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Gen Set
GT MVAR
MW

G D Y GCB

PMU

C37.118
PMU type SEL451
TEAM PDC Oscillography recording in C37.111
format

## Online Recording of Electromechanical Dynamic of individual

machine 120
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Gen Set
GT MVAR
MW

G D Y GCB

PMU

Synchrophasor
PMU type SEL735
TEAM PDC Oscillography recording in C37.111 format,
Load profile recording with high sampling
rate
Online Recording of Electromechanical Dynamic of individual
machine 121
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Gen Set
GT MVAR
MW

G D Y GCB

Vibration
sensor E

PMU

Synchrophasor
PMU type SEL451
TEAM PDC Oscillography recording in C37.111 format,
Vibration sensor detects rotor shaft speed

## Online Recording of Electromechanical Dynamic of individual

machine 122
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Gen Set
HP IP LP

## Vibration Vibration Vibration

sensor sensor sensor E

PMU

## PMU type SEL451 Synchrophasor

Oscillography recording in C37.111
format, TEAM PDC
Vibration sensor detects rotor shaft
speed
Online Recording of Electromechanical Dynamic of individual
machine 123
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Measurement: Electromechanical
dynamics
Accelerometers for measurement of generator shaft
vibration
It can also be place on driven end bearing

at axial fan

## Online Recording of Electromechanical Dynamic of individual

machine 124
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Basics: Electromechanical dynamics
Online monitoring can be done:
Measure voltages and current on generator
terminals and use them to applied torque. Analytics
model can do detail job
Measure transient torsional displacement at key
point on shaft through high resolution sensors. This
response/output can add & compute in analytics
model for analysis of torsional vibration
Diagnostic facilities to be added (i.e. frequency
spectrum, eigen values plotting and interpretations,
damping ratio, damping factor etc.)

125
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical
dynamics
Electromechanical dynamics shall have longer time
scale in several seconds. Rotor speed shall be affected

## Fast dynamics associated with electromagnetic

interaction that occur with in generator immediately
during & after disturbance appear on the system. These
dynamics leads to generator high currents and electrical
torques inside generator and typically have time scale
of milli seconds. Normally, the rotor speed shall not
change due to high inertia of turbine & generator

126
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical
dynamics
Any unbalanced torque acting on the rotor shaft will
result in the acceleration or deceleration of the rotor
speed

## Free body rotation will appear as a low frequency

oscillations of typically 0.3 to 2Hz

## Mechanical torque changes relatively slowly, due to

long thermal time constant associated with boiler &
turbine

## Electrical torque changes instantaneously (air gap

torque)
127
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical
dynamics
Tm > Te then the rotor speed accelerates
Tm < Te then the rotor speed decelerates
Vibration on rotor shaft either can be lateral or torsional
vibration
Vibration on rotor shaft is due to sudden change in energy
stored in fly wheel or rotor mass
Both rotor mass swing together in swing mode vibration,
in case of two mass system. Direction of shaft torque of both
mass are in same direction
Torsional vibration produce at own axis of shaft and with
in unit (turbine-generator)
In case of two rotor mass system, torque on one rotor
mass is opposite direction to torque on second rotor mass at
same time of instant (i.e. twisting shaft) during torsional
128
mode KNOWLEDGE
vibrationIS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical
dynamics
Torsional vibration can be understand by calculating
torsional natural frequency and relative mode shapes
Mode shapes are nothing but its comparison between two
mass (rotor shafts) rotates to each other
Torsional mode natural frequency is depends on spring
constant (K) and Heq
Shaft material deformation starts in case of torsional mode
vibration
Torsional vibration damage structure if the stress exceeds
fatigue limit
Rotor shaft fails suddenly, in case of machine run longer
period in torsional mode vibration
Failure of mechanical structure, resulting high repair cost
of machine and long break down time of machine as well!
129
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical
dynamics
Critical speed of rotor can be changed either on design
stage or during operation

## Critical speed of rotor can be changed during design stage

by changing rotor mass or its distribution and dimension of
rotor and its support length

## Critical speed of rotor can be changed during operation by

providing auxiliary support to increase the effective
stiffness of rotor and it increases the critical speed of rotor

## If machine operation near critical speed can not avoided,

then the most effective way to reduce the amplitude of
synchronous whirl is to add damping 130
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical
dynamics
Damping force can be idealized as a viscous damping
and it is mainly coming from support

## Damping does not affect natural frequency of the system.

However, their effect is more predominate for suppressing
the resonance amplitude

## The increase in the damping, results in increase in the

critical speed, however, most important parameter for
reducing the whirl amplitude at critical speed

## Measurement of the amplitude of critical speed is difficult,

therefore determination of precise critical speed is difficult
131
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical dynamics
Mechanical Damping due to steam forces on turbine
blades, shaft material hysteresis, bearing friction and
windage.

large, 4 - 60 s

## Damping due to the mechanical mechanisms is least

during no load conditions and increasing with increases

## KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Summary: Electromechanical dynamics

## 1. Electrical Network also causes damping as the

electrical torque is a function of the speed and angle
of the generator mass.

SSR conditions!

## 1. If overall damping (mechanical and electrical

mechanisms) is negative instability results.

## 2. Effect of fast transient (i.e. lightning & transformer

switching) in electrical network can not be affect the
speed of rotor
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical dynamics

1. EMTP or PSCAD type tools can use for detail study and
simulations.

## 2. Modeling can be tedious, if power electronics equipment

like HVDC, TCSC and their controllers are installed

## 3. Natural frequency analysis in FFT block or eigen value

analysis provide good idea to understand about the
behaviour of turbine generators on oscillations.
However, the results interpretations and decision for
remedial action according to results, it requires
consultation from designer of turbine-generator
manufacturer

## KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Summary: Electromechanical dynamics

## KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Summary: Electromechanical dynamics

power swings

## Speed signals are known to cause problems but speed

signals are not generally used in PSS block!

## SSR problems are not a major issue if signals like power,

delta P-Omega are used

## KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Summary: Electromechanical dynamics
Current Regulator and Auxiliary controllers used for HVDC
or TCSC control could affect Torsional Modes.
PMU can record electromechanical oscillations, but not all
type of!
PMU with oscillography recording with high resolution rate
will provide better data interpretation for analysis of
electromechanical dynamics. It requires good analytics
model
PMU, load profile and oscillography recording with high
resolution rate will provide better data interpretation for
analysis of electromechanical dynamics. It requires good
analytics model
PMU, vibration speed sensor and oscillography recording
with resolution rate will provide better data interpretation
for analysis of electromechanical dynamics. It requires good
analytics model
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE
Summary: Electromechanical dynamics
Measuring natural frequencies by online will utilize for
analysis of vibration to identify torsional modes and
frequencies from small random perturbations

## By installing strain gages on shaft and using telementry

provide reliable measurement and that can be utilize to
identify torsional natural frequencies

## Dedicated Structural vibration meter (SVN) or

accelerometers can with advance analysis tool provide good
information of vibration for detail analysis of shaft
movement between multiple mass. It requires good analytics
tool

## KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

SCHWEITZER ENGINEERING LABORATORIES