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UJIAN AKHIR SEMESTER

Nama/ Nim : Wawa Anisa Ade / 06101381419045

Kelas : Palembang

Mata Kuliah : Kimia Bahan Makanan

SOAL

1. Formalin adalah larutan yang tidak berwarna dan baunya sangat menusuk. Di dalam
formalin terkandung 37% formaldehid dalam air. Biasanya ditambahkan metanol hingga
15% sebagai pengawet. Mengapa formalin tidak boleh digunakan dalam bahan makanan
dan jelaskan serta tulis rumus struktur kimianya

2. Jelaskan gambar berikut/ dibawah ini sebagai sumber sumber bahaya kimia

3. Teknologi ozon alternatif pengawetan makanan yang aman, jelaskan mengapa ini sesuai
sebagai alternatif pengawetan makanan masa depan

4. Coba jelaskan apa arti simbol kemasan untuk bahan pangan berikut
JAWABAN

1. Formalin or formaldehyde is a substance that is colorless, flammable, but has a very strong
odor. Formalin is commonly used as an ingredient for cleaning fluids and is also used in
the manufacture of household utensils, furniture, or plywood. Glue materials such as glue
also use formalin to make it. Formalin is also used for disinfectants, fungicides and
germicides. In Indonesia, the formalin used for food preservatives is actually strictly
prohibited by our Ministry of Health. Even some laws and permenkes were also issued to
ban the use of this formaldehyde. Here are some of the dangers of formaldehyde in food
for human health.

Irritation of the respiratory tract. If formalin is inhaled by the nose and into other
respiratory systems, the immediate effects may be a feeling of heat in the nose or
throat. Can also be sneezing and coughing continuously. Even a person exposed to
formalin at a certain level can make breathing difficult to breathe.
Nausea. In some cases, when the body is exposed to formaldehyde, a person may
experience nausea or nausea.
Skin redness. When formaldehyde about the skin, its direct impact can irritate the skin
that is marked by a reddish color on the skin surface. After some time the effects of
formalin can also make the skin feel thickened and rough and skin tissue will become
hard.
damaged digestive organs. If formalin is ingested and enters the human body,
formalin can damage the digestive organs. At first the first to appear is sensani
burning in the throat, throat, until the stomach feels burning. Other symptoms may
make it difficult to swallow food. This situation can even lead to deep bleeding and
loss of consciousness.
Menstrual Disorders. If women accidentally swallow formalin, the effect can even
make the menstrual cycle becomes disrupted. At some stage can even cause fertility
problems.
Cancer of the nose. If you are frequently exposed to formaldehyde and your nose
smells formaldehyde in the long run, formalin can cause cancer in the nose. This is
because formalin has a very toxic nature of the body and also carcinogenic
substances.
Causes diarrhea. Formalin contained in food and unintentionally consumed by
humans, can cause a person to experience diarrhea. Stomach irritation can result in
diarrhea.
Insomnia. If formalin enters the body and damages the nervous system, the lightest
thing you can feel is sleeplessness or insomnia. In the long term, a person who is
exposed to formaldehyde may find it difficult to concentrate, forget things easily, to
make you more sensitive.
Brain cancer. The effects of formalin in the long term will be very harmful to health.
The effect of formalin can even lead to death if one is exposed continuously and for
long periods of time. If entering the body, formalin can cause a brain cancer. Formalin
is also a carcinogenic substance that can cause the growth of cancer cells.
Harming the growth process. Formalin is found in many snacks sold in schools such
as snacks of children. If the child is allowed to continue consuming a formalin snack,
the effect can cause the child to experience growth problems.
Lung cancer. Inhalation of formalin for long periods can cause disturbance to the
respiratory system. Formalin is continuously inhaled the body can cause cancer in the
lungs-paru.
Headache. If formalin has invaded the nervous system, usually in cases like this one
can also experience a mild headache to a severe headache.
Coma - Death. Formalin swallowed into the body in high concentrations can cause
death of body cells and numbness of the body. This can make a person into a coma
until death.
Effect of formalin on mice kidney:

Figure 1: Renal histoarchitecture of switch albino mice. (A) Compact configuration of


renal tissue of control mice. (B) Shrieked and ruptured glomeruli along with
hemorrhage of treatment group 1. (C) Leucocytic infiltrations and shrieked glomeruli
of treatment group 2. (D) Mild congestion was observed in renal tissueof treatment group
3.
Effect of formalin on mice liver:

Formula of chemical structure :

2. In the field of agriculture, the use of pesticides has also benefited to increase production.
Today pesticides are an indispensable tool. Primarily used to protect crops and crops,
livestock and fish from losses caused by various intruding bodies. Even by most farmers,
it is assumed that pesticides are a very vital "deity god". Because with the help of
pesticides, farmers believe can be protected from losses due to attacks of plant-disturbing
bodies consisting of groups of pests, diseases and weeds. This belief, tend to trigger the
use of pesticides from time to time increases rapidly.

Pesticides provide many benefits and benefits. Among them, rapidly reducing the
population of plant-disturbing bodies with longer control periods, easy and practical ways
of using them, easy to produce on a large scale and easily transported and stored. Another
benefit, the economic use of pesticides is relatively profitable. However, that does not mean
the use of pesticides does not cause adverse effects. Recently it was realized that the use of
pesticides, especially synthetic pesticides is like a double-edged knife. Behind the great
benefits of increasing agricultural production, it is shrouded by terrible dangers. It can not
be denied, the pesticide hazards are increasingly felt by the public, especially due to the
unwise use of pesticides. Losses in the form of adverse effects of the use of pesticides, can
be grouped into 3 parts:
Pesticides have negative effect on human health,
Pesticides have an adverse effect on environmental quality, and
Pesticides promote the development of plant-disturbing plant populations. If the use
of pesticides without offsetting with health care and protection, people who are often
associated with pesticides, will gradually affect their health.
Pesticides poison humans not only when the pesticide is used, but also when preparing, or
after spraying.Accidents due to pesticides in humans often occur, especially experienced by
people who directly implement spraying. They may experience dizziness while spraying or
afterwards, or vomiting, heartburn, watery eyes, itchy skin and become sores, convulsions,
fainting, and not a few cases end in death. The incidence is generally due to a lack of
attention to safety and the lack of awareness that pesticides are toxic. Sometimes farmers or
plantation workers are less aware of the toxicity of pesticides, so in their storage and use
they do not pay attention to safety aspects. Pesticides are often placed haphazardly, and
when spraying often do not use a protector, for example without plastic shirts, no long-
sleeved shirts, and do not wear masks cover the mouth and nose. Also the way of spraying
often does not pay attention to the direction of the wind, so the spray liquid about his body.
In fact, sometimes the container where pesticides are used as a place to drink, or dumped in
any place. Another carelessness, the use of application doses is often not recommended. The
dose and concentration used are sometimes increased to exceed the recommended limits,
with the reason that low doses are no longer able to control plant pests and diseases.
Inadvertently, pesticides can poison humans or livestock through the mouth, skin, and
breathing. Often unwittingly these toxic chemicals enter into a person's body without
causing sudden pain and resulting chronic poisoning. A person suffering from chronic
poisoning, discovered after a long interval, after months or years. Chronic poisoning from
pesticides is now the most feared, since the toxic effects can be karsiogenic, mutagenic (and
genetic damage for future generations), and teratogenic (birth of a child from a poisoned
mother). In addition to direct poisoning, the negative impacts of pesticides can affect the
health of lay people who are not farmers, or people who have nothing to do with pesticides.
This possibility can occur due to the remaining toxic (residue) of pesticides present in plants
or parts of plants that humans consume as food ingredients. Consumers who consume these
products, unknowingly have concocted pesticide toxins through food dishes consumed
every day. If the type of pesticide has too high residue in the plant, it will endanger the
human or livestock consuming the plant. The higher the residue, the more dangerous for the
consumer.Pesticide residues in food and environment are increasingly frightening to
humans. The problem of this residue, especially found in vegetable crops such as cabbage,
tomatoes, petsai, onions, chili, wine and others. Because these types are generally sprayed
regularly with high spraying frequency, can be ten to fifteen times in a season. Even a few
days before the harvest, still done pesticide applications. Scientific publications have
reported in the body tissue of babies born to a mother who regularly consume vegetables
sprayed with pesticides, there are genetic abnormalities that could potentially cause the baby
is physically disabled as well as mentally disabled. Sources of the chemical dangerous start
at vehicle emission, agricultural practices and others that produce dangerous chemicals and
will be eaten by livesyock absorbed by crope and contaminate marine plant and animals.
And then, the livestock, crope, and seafood will be proceed or storage by the company or
others then will be retailed. Next, we will cooked it and the food will be consumption by all
of us. So, it means that we have consumed hazardour chemicals indirectly.

3. Ozone is an active substance which, when reacted, can kill bacteria. The ozone technology
it develops uses sterilization treatment method using water of ozone. The ozone technology
is being developed to deal with postharvest vegetables that still contain a lot of peptides and
quickly rot because they contain bacteria, can be eliminated By using ozone technology, the
perennial products such as vegetables and fruits are washed and sprayed so that the bacteria
are killed and the pesticide is shed. Through washing with ozone-containing water, for 27
days the tomatoes remain fresh even though they are not put into the cooler. Why do not
tomatoes rotten? Because ozone can kill bacteria that cause tomatoes to rot. When in the
water, the ozone becomes free radicals that can puncture the bacterial water membrane. This
is what causes the bacteria to die.

In addition, ozone technology does not cause negative effects such as formalin
because it can directly turn into oxygen. Thus, no substance is left in the food so it has no
side effects and is safe. Ozone kills bacteria that make food durable, in addition ozone is
also useful to eliminate odor, decomposing organic compounds to remove color. Although it
kills viruses and bacteria, food sprayed with water is safe because ozone (O3) is highly
active and rapidly decomposes into Oxygen (O2) in just one hour and leaves no residue.
When the water of oozone cleans food, ozone also eliminates pesticides that are usually
attached to crops and difficult to clean, so that food in addition to being durable is also free
of pesticides.

Because of its very strong oxidizing properties, Ozone is superior to:

Disinfection (kills germs)

In terms of disinfection / sterilization of water, Ozone technology is superior and highly


effective. Ozone can destroy germs, bacteria, viruses, fungi, spores, cysts, mosses and other
organic substances. In addition, it can also neutralize inorganic / mineral substances are
excessive / toxic. The use of Ozone produces no residual substances that endanger health.
On the contrary, it will increase the oxygen levels in the water so it is fresher and healthier

Detoxification (neutralize toxic substances)

Application of ozone technology in this case for example in the meat processing industry, and
the process of preserving fruits and vegetables in the delivery. Meat, fruits and vegetables
are stored in ozone air and washed with water that is azozone to reduce the effects of toxic
substances such as pesticides / herbicides, to improve the appearance, freshness, and to slow
decay.
Deodorization (removes unpleasant odors) in water and air.

Ozone technology is also used to improve water quality in polluted lakes / ponds / rivers, and
sewage treatment plants. Ozone also eliminates odor in the factory / home / office / car such
as the smell of cigarette smoke, the smell of paint, the smell of new carpets and so on. Fish
treatment in aquariums has also used ozone technology. The pool and modern spa use ozone
to clear and kill germs. Therefore, eye irritation / red eyes after swimming is no longer a
problem.

4. on the bottle there is usually a code on the packaging. as for the meaning of code on each
bottle is:

Code 1 : This mark is a recycled logo with the number 1 inside and there is PETE or PET or
polyethylene terephthalate writing. This type of plastic is commonly used for plastic
bottles, clear / transparent / translucent colors such as mineral water bottles, etc. You
need to know, this bottle ONLY FOR USE. Do not use it again for storing warm or
hot water, because the resulting polymer layer on the bottle will melt and remove
carcinogenic substances that can cause cancer in the long run.

code 2: Here is the meaning of 7 Plastic Drinking Bottle CodesSuch as the recycled picture
and inside there are inscription 2, and HDPE (high density polyethylene) writing on
the bottom of the triangle. Typically, HDPE is used for gallons of drinking water,
milk bottles, tupperware, and so on. In HDPE able to prevent chemical reactions
between HDPE plastic packaging with food / beverages that packed.You should
know that HDPE is also recommended ONLY FOR USE, the release of antimony
trioxide compounds continues to increase over time. So it should not be refilled
again

code 3 : In this type of plastic is very difficult to recycle. V writing means PVC (polyvinyl
chloride). This plastic is hazardous to health, because in PVC contains DEHA which
can react with food packed with plastic made from PVC. AVOID THE PLASTIC
USE OF THIS TYPE
code 4:On a recycle symbol that reads LDPE (low density polyethylene) is a brown type
plastic (thermoplastic / made from petroleum). Plastic type is commonly used for
food places, plastic packaging, and bottles are soft. This type of plastic is GOOD
FOR FOOD PLACE and water vapor protection is good, but not good for other
gases like oxygen.

code 5 : For recycled logos with 5 in it and PP (Polypropylene) is the best choice of plastic
material. For a place to eat or drink, This bottle is safe

code 6 :PS stands for polystyrene discovered in 1839, by Eduard Simon, a pharmacist from
Germany inadvertently. Materials of this type SHOULD be avoided, because it is
harmful to brain health, disrupts estrogen hormones in women, and growth and
nervous system. To recycle PS requires a very long and very long process. When
burned, this material will emit a yellow orange colored flame, and leave the soot.

code 7: Here is the meaning of 7 Plastic Drinking Bottle Code. As the picture beside, Plastic
7 Other has 4 types, namely PC - polycarbonate, SAN - styrene acrylonitrile, ABS -
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, and Nylon. You can find OTHER types on food and
beverage spots, auto parts, household appliances, and other plastic containers.
Plastic type PC, NOT RECOMMENDED FOR USE OF ANYWHERE. While SAN
and ABS is one of the excellent plastic materials for use in food or beverage
packaging.