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Pump Control (Main Hydraulic)... M312, M315, M318 and M320 Excavators Hydraulic System Caterpillar | Spare parts

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Main Autodata Caterpillar

Pump Control (Main Hydraulic)... M312, M315, M318 and M320


Excavators Hydraulic System Caterpillar
Styrofoam Machine
Manufacturer of styrofoam machine 30 Years Experience,factory price. zhongji.com

Usage:
M318 6ES M312 6TL M315 7ML M318 8AL M318 8SS

Components

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Illustration 1 g00813300

Illustration 1 shows two sectional views of the main pump regulator. The regulator consists of a horsepower control, torque control and load
sensing control.

Load Sensing Regulator

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Illustration 2 g00813300

The load sensing regulator has priority. The load sensing regulator works as flow control is needed by the user. The flow control is supplied by
the pump. The load sensing regulator works with the horsepower regulator in order to regulate the pump flow in relation to demand and in
relation to system pressure. The load sensing pressure is generated in the main control valve. Then, the load sensing pressure is directed to
the pump regulator. The load sensing pressure is equal to the load pressure from the hydraulic circuit with the highest working pressure. The
load sensing pressure is directed to the spring end of the load sensing spool. System pressure from the pump is directed to the other end of
the spool. The spring force maintains a constant difference between the two pressures. This pressure difference is the margin pressure.
Adjustments to the margin pressure are made with the adjustment screw for margin pressure.

Section A-A shows the upstoke piston which acts on a pinned lever. The pinned lever acts on the right end of the constant horsepower control
spool.

Horsepower Regulator

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Illustration 3 g00813300

The horsepower spool regulates pump flow in relation to pump pressure and in relation to power shift pressure (PS).

Power shift pressure is a reduced amount of pilot system pressure. The proportional reducing valve (PRV) receives electrical signals from the
electronic control unit (ECU). These electrical signals generate the power shift pressure.

In the upper view, the constant horsepower regulator spool is shown from a different angle and the load sensing regulator spool is visible. The
power shift pressure piston and the power shift signal are shown.

Torque Control

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Illustration 4 g00813300

The torque control moves the constant horsepower curve to a lower value. The PS pressure piston acts directly on the spring and the
horsepower spool. The PS pressure is directly related to the power.

The main pump, the control valve and the destroke servo piston are shown as symbols.

The load sensing control contains an orifice with a shutoff valve, that is set to a differential pressure PD - LS of 1200 kPa (174 psi). This
minimum pressure ensures a quicker response time during multiple implement operations. If the margin pressure drops below 1200 kPa (174
psi), the shutoff valve closes the tank return line of the LS oil.

Main Pump Regulator Operation

Main Pump Regulator with the Engine Off

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Illustration 5 g00813157

Illustration 5 shows the pump regulator, when the engine is off. There is no active implement and all main control valves are in the NEUTRAL
position. There is no load sensing signal coming from the control valve. There is no control pressure from the proportional reducing valve. The
load sensing spool is forced to the released position by the load sensing spring. The horsepower spool is forced by the torque control spring
against the power shift pressure piston. This causes the lever to rotate. Since there is no pressure on the upstroke piston or on the destroke
piston, the swashplate is shifted to the maximum angle position by the spring on the upstroke piston.

The following conditions exist when the regulator is in the position that is shown in Illustration 5:

Conditions

Engine ... 0 rpm


LS ... 0 kPa (0 psi)
PD ... 0 kPa (0 psi)
PS1 ... 0 kPa (0 psi)
Flow ... 0 L/min (0 US gpm)
Swashplate ... Maximum angle

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Illustration 6 g00813307

Main Pump Regulator In Standby Position

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Illustration 7 g00813315

Illustration 7 shows the pump regulator in a standby position. The load sensing regulator and the horsepower regulator work together in order
to regulate the pump flow.

The pump servo pistons are connected to the swashplate. Pump output pressure is directed to the upstroke servo piston at all times. The load
sensing regulator directs control pressure to the destroke servo piston in order to move the swashplate to the minimum angle for decreased
pump flow.

With the joysticks in the NEUTRAL position, the electronic controller sets the power shift pressure to a standby value. The increased power
shift pressure works against the horsepower control spring.

Note: Throughout the discussion of the pump regulator operation, the power shift pressure remains constant. Changes in the power shift
pressure can cause the pump to stroke.

When all the hydraulic control valves are in the NEUTRAL position, no load sensing signal pressure is directed to the spring side of the load
sensing control. With no signal pressure in the spring chamber of the load sensing control, the pump output pressure moves the load sensing
spool against the spring force. The load sensing spool opens a passage for the control pressure to the destroke servo piston. The standby
pressure acts on the upstroke piston and control pressure acts on the destroke piston. The larger area of the destroke piston moves the
swashplate to the minimum angle position.

The force that is exerted by the PS pressure piston on the lever overcomes the force of the actuator piston with the corresponding pivot
distance.

The following conditions exist when the regulator is in the position that is shown in Illustration 7:

Conditions

Engine ... Running


Implements ... HOLD
PD ... 2500 to 3000 kPa (360 to 435 psi)
Flow ... Minimum leakage through destroke piston

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Swashplate ... Minimum angle

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Illustration 8 g00813319

The control valve is in HOLD position with no LS signal to the pump regulator. PS pressure is delivered from the PRV according to the mode
selection on the electronic control.

The pump is delivering flow against the closed control valve. The restriction creates pressure on pump output. The load sensing spool is
metered to a middle position that is balanced by the pump output and the LS spring. The passage is open for control pressure to the destroke
piston. The LS orifice spool is in the open position by pump output pressure. The horsepower spool is pushed by the PS pressure piston
against the horsepower spring.

Pump output pressure is applied on the upstroke servo piston and the control pressure is applied on the destroke servo piston.

The force of the destroke servo piston holds the swashplate at "Qmin". Flow is at a minimum in order to replace the leakage oil.

Main Pump Regulator In Upstroke Position

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Illustration 9 g00813339

Illustration 9 shows the pump regulator at the start of upstroke that is caused by a increase in the load sensing pressure.

The following conditions cause an increase in flow from the main pump:

An increase in the load sensing signal

An increase in power shift pressure from the proportional reducing valve

A decrease in pump output pressure

When at least one of the hydraulic pilot control valves are activated, load sensing pressure signal is directed to the spring chamber of the load
sensing spool. When the load sensing signal pressure increases, the combined force of the load sensing signal pressure and the margin
spring becomes higher than the force of the pump output pressure on the load sensing control spool. This unbalanced force shifts the load
sensing spool. This connects the passage from the destroke piston to the tank.

When the destroke piston is open to the tank the upstroke piston pushes the swashplate toward the maximum angle. When the upstroke
piston moves toward the UPSTROKE position, the mechanical advantage of the actuator piston on the lever pushes the horsepower control
spool against the power shift force. This stops the return oil from the destroke piston from returning to the tank and the swashplate stops
moving.

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Illustration 10 g00813346

When the control lever is moved to the upstroke position, the control valve is open to the cylinder and flow is required. Pressure from the
control valve is sent back to the pump regulator as a load sensing signal that moves the load sensing spool in order to open the flow from the
destroke servo piston to the tank. LS signal with the spring pushes the LS orifice spool to the closed position.

The horsepower spool is against the spring and the destroke piston. The horsepower spool is open to the tank. The force of the power shift
pressure piston is higher than the combined forces of the horsepower spring and the control piston against the lever.

Pump delivery pressure and the upstroke servo spring upstroke the pump. The pump flow increases until the following conditions have been
met:

The pump delivery pressure that acts on the control piston overcomes the force of power shift pressure.

The horsepower spool rotates the lever.

The increased flow is followed by increased restriction and pressure.

Main Pump Regulator in Destroke Position

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