Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14

Spreadsheet-Aided Dryer Design

5 Z.B. Maroulis, G.D. Saravacos, and Arun S. Mujumdar


5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 121

5.2 Principles and Techniques of Spreadsheet-Aided Process Design.......................................................... 121
5.3 Design of a Conveyor Belt Dryer .......................................................................................................... 126
5.3.1 Process Description .................................................................................................................... 126
5.3.2 Process Model............................................................................................................................. 126
5.4 Excel Implementation of a Belt Dryer Design ....................................................................................... 127
Nomenclature ................................................................................................................................................. 129
References ...................................................................................................................................................... 134

5.1 INTRODUCTION The reader needs to become familiar with the

following topics regarding Excel software, using the
Spreadsheet software has become an indispensable related literature:
tool for engineers, because of the availability of per-
sonal computers, ease of use, and adaptability to . Modeling and spreadsheets
many types of problems. Spreadsheet software has . Analyzing the Solver
achieved great popularity because of its availability . Sensitivity analysis using Excel tables
for microcomputers at reasonable cost, the ease of . Controls and dialog boxes to input data
learning and using the software, and its flexible appli- . Graphics to get the results
cations to many problems. . Databases
Furthermore, general-purpose spreadsheet soft- . Visual Basic as a programming language
ware can be used effectively in process design (Maroulis
and Saravacos, 2003). For example, Microsoft Excel
with Visual Basic for Applications is an effective 5.2 PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES OF
tool for process design. Spreadsheets offer suffi- SPREADSHEET-AIDED PROCESS DESIGN
cient process model ‘‘hospitality.’’ They are con-
nected easily and online with charts and graphic Computer-aided design is based on computer simu-
objects, resulting in powerful and easy-to-use graph- lators, whereas computer simulators are based on
ical interfaces. Excel also supports mathematical and process modeling. The basic terms, such as modeling,
statistical tools. For instance, Solver is an excellent simulation, and design, are defined in Table 5.1. Mod-
tool for solving sets of equations and performing eling is the procedure of translating the physical laws
optimization. Databases are effectively and easily ac- of a process to mathematical equations to analyze or
cessed. In addition, Visual Basic for Applications design the process. Simulation is the appropriate soft-
offers a powerful object-oriented programming lan- ware, which predicts the real performance of a pro-
guage, capable of constructing commercial graphics cess. It is based on mathematical modeling plus the
interfaces. appropriate graphics interface in a computer environ-
It is the objective of this chapter to present step- ment. Design is a procedure of sizing and rating a
by-step procedures in order to allow application of process in order to achieve specific goals, such as
various dryer models into the Excel environment. economic production, product quality, and protection
This chapter refers to two main topics. The principles of the environment.
for solution of a process design problem are presented Modeling and simulation are useful tools in
first and then the principles for Excel implementation process design. Table 5.2 summarizes a step-by-step
are described. procedure for process modeling, whereas Table 5.3

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Basic Definitions Process Simulation Procedure in a Spreadsheet
Modeling: is the procedure to translate the physical laws of a
process to mathematical equations 1. Model development in a spreadsheet
Simulation: is the appropriate software which guesses the real 2. Implementation of alternative problem solutions or optimization
performance of a process procedures
Design: is a procedure to size and rate a process in order to obtain a 3. Development of graphics interface
specific goal
Sizing: given the process specifications calculate the equipment size
and characteristics
Rating: given the process specifications and the equipment size and
sequentially (down triangle matrix) or by using a
characteristics calculate the operating conditions
few trial variables.
The above approach is suitable for implementa-
tion in a spreadsheet environment. The resulting
simulator has generally the outline presented in
summarizes a step-by-step procedure for process simu- Figure 5.2. Four different units are distinguished,
lation. These steps are further analyzed. with each one developed in a different sheet (Maroulis
The equations constituting a model describe the and Saravacos, 2002).
physical laws, which apply to the process. They are The ‘‘Process Model Worksheet’’ is the heart of
derived from material and energy balances, thermo- the system calculations. It contains the process model.
dynamic equilibrium relationships, transport phenom- When no interactions are needed, the model solution
ena, geometry, equipment characteristics, etc. Generally uses only worksheet functions. In that case, when any
some assumptions are also built into the model. change in input variables (free variables) occurs, the
A degrees-of-freedom analysis is shown in Table solution is obtained automatically on this worksheet.
5.4 and in Figure 5.1. Suppose that M variables are Since the use of the simulator requires the solution
incorporated into the mathematical model of N equa- of different problems, several different problems are
tions; generally, M is greater than or equal to N, and the formulated in the ‘‘Problem Solution Visual Basic
difference M–N corresponds to the degrees of freedom Module.’’ Their solution is based on the simplest
of the process. The degrees of freedom is characteris- problem of the process model worksheet above, and
tic of the process. In process design, some variables uses the Solver or the Goal Seek utilities of Excel via a
have given values, due to the design specifications, Visual Basic program, to obtain a solution for the
and the remainder corresponds to design variables. alternative problems.
The number of design variables is characteristic of All technical and required data are retrieved from
the problem. Several different problems could be de- the ‘‘Database worksheet,’’ which contains all the
fined for every process (see, for example, Table 5.5). required information in the form of ‘‘data lists.’’
The values for the design variables are decided by the These data are extended and modified via appropriate
design engineer. The remainder NN set of equations dialog boxes.
is solved by using mathematical techniques. In chem- ‘‘Graphics interface worksheet’’ is a user-friendly
ical and food engineering the resulting system is way for human–machine communication. It usually
sparse, that is every variable appears in a few eq- consists of three parts: (a) Problem specifications: The
uations. In that case the system can be solved specifications and the required data for the problem


Process Modeling Degrees-of-Freedom Analysis

1. Process model formulation Total number of variables M

2. Degrees-of-freedom analysis Total number of equations N
3. Alternative problem formulations Degrees of freedom F ¼ M–N Process characteristic
4. Problem-solution algorithm Degrees of freedom F
5. Cost estimation and project evaluation analysis Problem specifications K
6. Process optimization Design variables D ¼ F–K Problem characteristic

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Total number of variables (M )

Total number of equations (N ) Degrees of freedom (F )

(Process characteristic)

Problem specifications (K ) Design variables (D )

(Problem characteristic)

FIGURE 5.1 Degrees-of-freedom analysis.

to be solved are entered by the user or estimated from 1. Workbook preparation

the databases. Data are inserted via dialog boxes or 2. Process modeling in a spreadsheet
buttons for changing some important magnitudes. (b) 3. Using ‘‘Solver’’ for process optimization
Problem-type selection: The type of problem to be 4. Using graphs and tables for presentation of the
solved is selected via buttons. (c) Results presenta- results
tion: The results are obtained automatically, and are 5. Introducing dialog boxes and controls to mod-
presented in the form of tables or charts. Since these ify data
charts are updated automatically, the user has at his 6. Toward an integrated graphics interface
disposal all the information needed for sizing, rating,
sensitivity analysis, or comparison of alternative Step 1: Workbook Preparation
solutions. Create a new workbook and name it to describe the
The following steps comprise an Excel implemen- process, e.g., ‘‘BeltDryer.xls.’’ Insert and name blank
tation procedure: sheets are presented in Table 5.6.
Step 2: Process Modeling in a Spreadsheet
Into the spreadsheet ‘‘Process’’ consider seven separ-
ate ranges, as it is presented in Table 5.7.
TABLE 5.5 Each range consists of three columns and several
Some Typical Problems rows, one row for every variable in the range. In each
range the first column contains the variable names,
Direct the second the variable values or variable formulas,
Given the characteristics of input streams and the third the units used. Name all cells in second
the equipment characteristics columns according to the names in the first column.
the operating conditions (You can use the ‘‘CtrlþShiftþF3’’ option.)
Calculate the characteristics of the output streams
Given the characteristics of input streams
the characteristics of output streams
Calculate the equipment characteristics Graphics interface Problem solution
the operating conditions worksheet Visual Basic module

Given the characteristics of input streams
the characteristics of output streams
the equipment characteristics
Calculate the operating conditions
Identification Database Process model
Given the characteristics of input streams worksheet worksheet
the characteristics of output streams
the operating conditions
Calculate the equipment characteristics FIGURE 5.2 Simulator architecture on a spreadsheet

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Model,’’ ‘‘Process Constraints,’’ and ‘‘Economic
Model’’ contain formulas.
Sheets in ‘‘BeltDryer.xls’’ Workbook
Having inserted data and formulas, the process
Sheet Name Purpose model implementation has been completed. The
resulting spreadsheet ‘‘Process’’ looks like that pre-
Spreadsheets sented in Figure 5.3. The cell ranges can be colored
Process Process model
with different colors. The drawn arrows show the
Flow sheet Process flow sheet
information flow in the spreadsheet.
Report Summary report of results
Control Graphics interface
The spreadsheet process model is now ready for
Visual Basic Modules use. Any changes in process data, economic data,
Optimize Process optimization subroutines process specifications, design variables are taken
Controls Subroutines for dialog boxes and controls into account and the results are updated immediately.
Dialog box sheets Any optimization technique, graphical or tabu-
Spec Process specifications lated reports, any scenario analysis, or sensitivity an-
Tech Technical data alysis, any sophisticated graphics interface can be
Cost Economical data based on the ‘‘Process’’ spreadsheet. Some examples
Step 3: Using ‘‘Solver’’ for Process Optimization
The ranges ‘‘Technical Data,’’ ‘‘Design Vari- Create a Visual Basic subroutine with the name
ables,’’ ‘‘Process Specifications,’’ and ‘‘Economic ‘‘optimum’’ in the ‘‘Optimize’’ module. The approp-
Data’’ contain only data. The ranges ‘‘Process riate code is shown in Table 5.8.

TABLE 5.7 Visual Basic Subroutine for Process Optimization
Cell Content in ‘‘Process’’ Spreadsheet
Sub optimum( )
1 Sheets(‘‘Process’’).Activate
Range Name Content
2 SolverReset
Technical data Data 3 SolverOk SetCell: ¼ Range(‘‘objective’’), MaxMinVal: ¼ 1,
Design variables Data ByChange: ¼ Range(‘‘variables’’)
Process specifications Data 4 SolverAdd CellRef: ¼ Range(‘‘constraints’’), Relation: ¼ 3,
Economic data Data FormulaText: ¼ 0#
Process model Formulas 5 SolverSolve UserFinish: ¼ True
Process constraints Formulas 6 Beep
Economic model Formulas End Sub

Economic data Economic model Excel solver

Technical data

Process model Excel table

Design variable Excel graph

Data Equations Excel tools

FIGURE 5.3 Model implementation in the ‘‘Process’’ spreadsheet.

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Statement 1 activates the ‘‘Process’’ spreadsheet. which the first column of the table corresponds to
Statement 2 resets the Solver. Statement 3 selects x-values and the second to y-values. Similarly, con-
the cell with the name ‘‘objective’’ to be the ob- struct a second ‘‘XY(Scatter)’’ chart in which the first
jective function [SetCell: ¼ Range(‘‘objective’’)], re- column of the table corresponds to x-values and the
quires the minimization of the objective function third to y-values.
[MaxMinVal: ¼ 2], and selects the range ‘‘variables’’ Any other tabulated results or desired reports can
to be the decision variables [ByChange: ¼ Range be easily obtained as follows: select a spreadsheet to
(‘‘variables’’)]. Statement 4 suggests that all cells in the incorporate the required information. Insert text or
range ‘‘constraints’’ [CellRef: ¼ Range(‘‘constraints’’)] graphics as you like. Get the information from the
must be greater than [Relation: ¼ 3] zero [Formula- ‘‘Process’’ sheet, as described previously in the flow
Text: ¼ 0#]. Statement 5 activates the solver to find sheet construction procedure.
the optimum. Step 5: Introducing Dialog Boxes and Controls to
The above-mentioned cell names must be defined. Modify Data
Thus, in the sheet ‘‘Process’’ name: A dialog box can be used to modify the values of
process specifications, which are included in the
. The cells that contain the values of the design range ‘‘Process Specifications’’ in the spreadsheet
variables as ‘‘variables’’ ‘‘Process.’’
. The cells that contain the process constraints as In the Dialog Module ‘‘db_spec’’ insert for every
‘‘constraints’’ variable one ‘‘Label’’ (from the toolbar ‘‘forms’’) for
. The cell that contains the profit as ‘‘objective’’ its description, one ‘‘Edit Box’’ (from the toolbar
‘‘forms’’) for its value, and one ‘‘Label’’ for its units.
In the sheet ‘‘Process’’ insert a new button, name it Name all the Edit Boxes with the name of the corre-
‘‘optimizer’’ and assign it to the subroutine ‘‘opti- sponding variable.
mum.’’ In the Visual Basic Module ‘‘vb_controls’’ type a
Press the button ‘‘optimizer’’ and the optimum is subroutine to use the dialog box in the sheet
reached in a few seconds. ‘‘d_spec,’’ as described in Table 5.9.
Step 4: Using Excel Tables and Charts for Presenta- In the spreadsheet ‘‘Process’’ insert a button,
tion of the Results name it ‘‘specifications,’’ and assign it to the subrou-
The process design results can be further analyzed tine ‘‘DialogSpecifications.’’
using the tools ‘‘Tables’’ and ‘‘Charts’’ supported by Press the button ‘‘specifications’’ and a dialog
Excel. box appears in order to modify data for process
For example, a process flow sheet can easily be specifications.
constructed in Excel as follows: in the sheet ‘‘Flow A scroll bar can be used for each design variable in
sheet’’ draw a flow sheet by using the drawing tool- order to modify the values of the design variables,
bar. Any information concerning process conditions which are included in the range ‘‘Design Variables’’ in
can be inserted in cells near the desired point of the the spreadsheet ‘‘Process.’’
flow sheet. For each piece of information there need
to be three cells, one for the variable name, one for
the variable value, and one for the variable units.
That is, to insert a stream flow rate, select a cell near TABLE 5.9
the icon of the stream arrow and insert the symbolic A Subroutine to Activate the Dialog Box
name of the stream flow rate, i.e., ‘‘F ¼ ,’’ in a neigh-
boring cell insert the formula ‘‘ ¼ F’’ to get the Sub DialogSpecifications( )
value from the ‘‘Process’’ sheet, and in another cell, dbName ¼ ‘‘d_spec’’
nearby, insert the units, i.e., ‘‘kg/s.’’ You can add any DialogSheets(dbName).EditBoxes(‘‘W’’).Text ¼ Range(‘‘W’’).Value
DialogSheets(dbName).EditBoxes(‘‘Xo’’).Text ¼ Range(‘‘Xo’’).Value
information you like. Any changes in data are up-
DialogSheets(dbName).EditBoxes(‘‘Yo’’).Text ¼ Range(‘‘Yo’’).Value
dated immediately.
If DialogSheets(dbName).Show Then
In order to plot the effect of the design variable Range(‘‘W’’).Value ¼ DialogSheets(dbName).EditBoxes(‘‘W’’).Text
(X) on a technical (Y) and an economic (Z) variable Range(‘‘Xo’’).Value ¼ DialogSheets(dbName).EditBoxes(‘‘Xo’’).Text
the following steps can be used: construct a one-di- Range(‘‘Yo’’).Value ¼ DialogSheets(dbName).EditBoxes(‘‘Yo’’).Text
mensional Excel table in which the ‘‘Column Input End If
Cell’’ is the cell with the name ‘‘X.’’ The second and Beep
third output columns refer to the cells ‘‘Y’’ and ‘‘Z,’’ End Sub
respectively. Next construct a ‘‘XY(Scatter)’’ chart in

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

A scroll bar, in order to handle the variable X, can 5.3.1 PROCESS DESCRIPTION
be inserted as follows:
A typical flow sheet of a conveyor belt dryer is pre-
. Insert the scroll bar icon from the toolbar sented in Figure 5.4. The wet feed at flow rate F (kg/s
‘‘forms’’ db), temperature T0 (8C), and humidity X0 (kg/kg db)
. Insert the minimum allowable value in a cell is distributed on the belt as it enters the dryer. The
named ‘‘X.min’’ dried product exits the dryer at the same flow rate on
. Insert the maximum allowable value in a cell dry basis F (kg/s db), temperature T (8C), and mois-
named ‘‘X.max’’ ture content X (kg/kg db). The belt is moving at a
. Insert the coded value in a cell named ‘‘X.CV’’ velocity u (m/s) and requires an electrical power Eb
(kW). The drying air enters the dryer at a flow rate Ff
The coded value ranges between 0 and 100 and is (kg/s db), temperature T (8C), and humidity Y (kg/kg
defined as follows: db). The drying air temperature is controlled in the
X.CV ¼ (XX.min)/(X.maxXmin)*100 heater, and the drying air humidity is controlled
through the flow rate of the fresh air Fa (kg/s db).
. Insert a scroll bar from the toolbar ‘‘forms’’ and An electrical power Ef (kW) is expended by the fan
assign the ‘‘Cell Link’’ (in the ‘‘Format Object’’ and a thermal power Q (kW) is expended by the
menu) to the coded value ‘‘X.CV’’ heater. The air conditions for design can be consid-
. Replace the content of the cell named ‘‘X’’ with ered constant due to the high air recirculation.
the following formula:
¼ X.minþX.CV*(X.maxX.min)/100
It must be noted that the range ‘‘variables’’ which A mathematical model of the process presented in
is handled by the solver during optimization must be Figure 5.4 is summarized in Table 5.10.
redefined to refer to coded values, instead of the ac- Equation T10.1 calculates the vapor pressure at
tual values. This modification guarantees the proper drying temperature, whereas Equation T10.2 is the
performance of the optimization and of scroll bars. psychrometric equation. Equation T10.1 and Equa-
tion T10.2 are used to calculate the water activity at
Step 6: Toward an Integrated Graphics Interface drying conditions (i.e., temperature T and air humid-
Any desired graphics interface can be developed in the ity Y). Equation T10.3 calculates the equilibrium
spreadsheet ‘‘Control.’’ It can be constructed as follows: material moisture content at drying conditions,
whereas Equation T10.4 estimates the drying time
. Draw a process flow sheet in sheet ‘‘Controls,’’ constant at drying conditions. Both Equation T10.3
as described in Step 5 and Equation T10.4 are used in Equation T10.5,
. Insert buttons to appear and disappear the cru- which calculates the required drying time.
cial graphs Equation T10.6 and Equation T10.7 constitute
. Insert buttons to activate the desired dialog boxes the moisture balance at the dryer. Equation T10.6
. Insert scroll bars to modify the desired process refers to solid, and Equation T10.7 to air. The ther-
variables mal energy requirements for drying are summarized
. Insert buttons to solve different problems, e.g.,
process optimization.

The user has now at his disposal a process simula-

tor. He can enter data via scroll bars or dialog boxes
and observe the results via buttons, which activate the
desired graphs or reports.
The graphics interface could be further improved
to look professional using appropriate programming
code in Visual Basic.


In this section a design approach is described for a
conveyor belt dryer (Maroulis and Saravacos, 2003). FIGURE 5.4 Schematic representation of a belt dryer.

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Equation T10.18 through Equation T10.20 are
TABLE 5.10
used for sizing the fan. Equation T10.18 calculates
Belt Dryer Model
the pressure loss of air through the loaded belt. Equa-
Psychrometric equations tion T10.19 correlates the airflow with the air vel-
Ps ¼ exp [a1a2/(a3 þ T)] (T10.1) ocity. Equation T10.20 estimates the required
Y ¼ mawPs/(PawPs) (T10.2) electrical power to operate the fan.
Drying kinetics Equation T10.21 estimates the required electrical
Xe ¼ b1 exp[b2/(273þT)] [aw/(1aw)]b3 (T10.3) power to move the belt. Equation T10.22 calculates
tc ¼ c0dc1Vc2Tc3Yc4 (T10.4) the required total electrical power.
t ¼ tc ln[(XXe)/(X0Xe)] (T10.5) Finally, Equation T10.23 and Equation T10.24
Material balance define two crucial dryer performance indices. Equa-
W ¼ F (X0X) (T10.6) tion T10.23 defines the dryer thermal performance,
W ¼ Fa(Y  Y0) (T10.7) whereas Equation T10.24 calculates the evaporating
Thermal energy requirements capacity per unit belt area.
Qwe ¼ F(X0  X) [DH0  (CPL  CPV)T] (T10.8) Thirty-seven variables presented in Table 5.11 are
Qsh ¼ F [CPS þ X0CPL] (T  T0) (T10.9) involved in the model of 24 equations presented in
Qah ¼ Fa [CPA þY0CPV] (T  T0) (T10.10) Table 5.10. The corresponding technical data are
Q ¼ Qwe þ Qsh þ Qah (T10.11) summarized in Table 5.12. The process specifications
Air heater of a typical design problem are presented in Table
Q ¼ AsUs(TsT) (T10.12) 5.13, whereas a degrees-of-freedom analysis is shown
Belt dryer in Table 5.14, which results in four design variables.
M ¼ tF (1þX0) (T10.13) Table 5.15 suggests a selection of design variables and
M ¼ (1«)rsH (T10.14) the corresponding solution algorithm is presented in
H ¼ Z0DL (T10.15) Table 5.16. The total annualized cost (TAC) pre-
Ab ¼ LD (T10.16) sented in Table 5.17 is used as objective function in
ub ¼ L/t (T10.17)
process optimization. The required cost data are
Fan summarized in Table 5.18.
DP ¼ f1Z0V2 (T10.18)
Fi ¼ raVDL (T10.19)
Ef ¼ DPFf/ra (T10.20)
Belt driver
Eb ¼ e1L(1þX0)F (T10.21) DRYER DESIGN
Electrical energy requirements In this section the dryer design model presented in
E ¼ Eb þ Ef (T10.22) Section 5.3 is implemented in an Excel environment
Performance indices according to the principles and techniques presented
n ¼ Qwe/Q (T10.23) in Section 5.2.
r ¼ W/Ab (T10.24) Steps 1–3 of Section 5.2 are applied and the dryer
model is created on the spreadsheet ‘‘process’’ as shown
in Figure 5.5. The ranges ‘‘Technical Data,’’ ‘‘Process
in Equation T10.8 through Equation T10.11. Equa- Specifications,’’ ‘‘Design Variables,’’ and ‘‘Cost Data’’
tion T10.8 refers to water evaporation, Equation contain data according to Table 5.12, Table 5.13, Table
T10.9 to solids heating, Equation T10.10 to rejected 5.15, and Table 5.18, respectively. The range ‘‘Model
air heating, and Equation T10.11 refers to the total Solution’’ contains the solution of the model in Table
energy required by the heater. 5.10 according to the solution presented in Table 5.16,
Equation T10.12 is used for sizing the heater. and the range ‘‘Cost Analysis’’ represents the analysis
Equation T10.13 through Equation T10.17 are used presented in Table 5.17. Finally, the button ‘‘optimize’’
for sizing the belt. performs an optimization, i.e., it finds the (optimal)
Equation T10.13 correlates the residence time values of the design variables (Y, T, V, D), which min-
with the mass holdup, and Equation T10.14 the imize the objective function (TAC). Figure 5.5 consti-
mass holdup with the volume holdup. These equa- tutes a simple but accurate belt dryer design simulator.
tions are valid for all dryer types. Equation T10.15 is Different problems (different material, financial envir-
the geometrical distribution of the volume holdup on onment, process specifications) can be solved instant-
the belt. Equation T10.16 calculates the required belt aneously.
area, and Equation T10.17 the required belt velocity Step 4 of Section 5.2 is applied, as an example, (a)
to obtain the desired residence time. to construct a dynamic process flow sheet (Figure 5.6);

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

TABLE 5.11 TABLE 5.12
Process Variables Technical Data

Drying air Density (kg/m3)

Fa ton/h Fresh airflow rate rw Water
Ff ton/h Recycle airflow rate ra Air
T 8C Drying air temperature rs Dry material
Y kg/kg db Drying air humidity Specific heat (kJ/kg K)
V m/s Drying air velocity CPL Water
P bar Drying pressure CPV Water vapor
T0 8C Ambient temperature CPA Air
Y0 kg/kg db Ambient humidity CPS Dry material
Ps bar Vapor pressure at drying conditions
Latent heat (kJ/kg)
aw — Water activity at drying conditions
DH0 Steam condensation at 08C
Material Other
F ton/h Material flow rate Us Heat transfer coefficient at air heater
X0 kg/kg db Initial moisture content (kW/m2 K)
X kg/kg db Final moisture content « Void (empty) fraction of loading
Xe kg/kg db Equilibrium moisture content at
Empirical constants
drying conditions
a1, a2, a3 Antoine equation for vapor pressure
d m Particle size
of water
tc h Drying time constant at drying
b1, b2, b3 Oswin equation for material isotherms
c0, c1, c2, c3, c4 Drying kinetics equation
t h Drying time
e1 Belt driver power equation
Dryer f1 Pressure loss equation
W ton/h Drying rate
L m Dryer length
D m Dryer width
M ton Dryer mass holdup TABLE 5.13
H m3 Dryer volume holdup Process Specifications
Ab m2 Belt area
As m2 Air heater transfer area F ton/h db Feed flow rate
ub m/s Belt velocity X0 kg/kg db Initial material moisture content
Z0 m Loading depth X kg/kg db Final material moisture content
DP bar Pressure loss of air flowing d m Material characteristic size
through belt T0 8C Ambient temperature
Y0 kg/kg db Ambient humidity
Thermal load
Z0 m Loading depth
Qwe kW Water vaporization
P bar Ambient pressure
Qsh kW Solid heating
Ts 8C Heating steam temperature
Qah kW Air heating
Q kW Total thermal load
Ts 8C Steam temperature
Electrical load TABLE 5.14
Eb kW Belt driver Degrees-of-Freedom Analysis
Ef kW Fan
E kW Total power requirement Process variables 37 Degrees of freedom 13
Process equations 24 Specifications 9
Degrees of freedom 13 Design variables 4
n — Thermal efficiency
r kg/h m2 Specific rate of evaporation

TABLE 5.15
Design Variables
(b) to investigate the effect of one design variable on Y kg/kg db Drying air humidity
an economic variable (Figure 5.7); (c) to analyze the T 8C Drying air temperature
effect of two design variables on a technical variable V m/s Drying air velocity
(Figure 5.8); (d) to summarize the results of the design D m Belt width
on a synoptic report (Figure 5.9). Any other analysis

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

TABLE 5.16 TABLE 5.18
Model Solution Algorithm Cost Data

Equation Utility cost

T10.1 ! Ps Ce $/kW h Cost of electricity
T10.2 ! aw Cs $/kW h Cost of heating steam
T10.3 ! Xe Equipment unit cost
T10.4 ! tc Cbel $/m2 Belt dryer
T10.5 ! t Cexc $/m2 Heat exchanger
T10.6 ! W Cfan $/kW Fan
T10.7 ! Fa
Equipment size scaling factor
T10.8 ! Qwe
nbel — Belt dryer
T10.9 ! Qsh
nexc — Heat exchanger
T10.10 ! Qah
nfan — Fan
T10.11 ! Q
T10.12 ! As Other
T10.13 ! M ty h/yr Annual operating time
T10.14 ! H ir — Interest rate
T10.15 ! L lf yr Lifetime
T10.16 ! Ab
T10.17 ! ub
T10.18 ! DP
T10.19 ! Ff
T10.21 ! Eb
T10.22 ! E
ai Antoine equation constants
T10.23 ! n Ab belt area, m2
T10.24 ! r As air heater transfer area, m2
aw water activity
bi Oswin equation constants
ci drying kinetics equation constants
Cbel belt dryer unit cost, $/m2
can be performed in a similar way according to the
Ce cost of electricity, $/kW h
scope of the designer.
Cexc heat exchanger unit cost, $/m2
Step 5 of Section 5.2 is also applied exemplarily to
Cfan fan unit cost, $/kW
insert a ‘‘scroll bar’’ for each of the design variables
CPA specific heat of air, kJ/kg K
and a ‘‘dialog box’’ to modify the process specifica-
CPL specific heat of water, kJ/kg K
tions. The results are shown in Figure 5.10. The
CPS specific heat of dry material, kJ/kg K
resulting graphics interface of Figure 5.10 could be
CPV specific heat of water vapor, kJ/kg K
further improved by introducing more tools, tables,
CPW specific heat of liquid water, kJ/kg K
and graphs. It can also become more professional
Cs cost of heating steam, $/kW h
using appropriate programming in Visual Basic.
D dryer width, m
d particle size, m
db dry basis
TABLE 5.17 E total power requirement, kW
Cost Analysis e capital recovery factor
e1 belt driver power equation constant
Equipment cost Eb belt driver power, kW
Ceq ¼ Cbel Anbel þ Cexc Ans exc þ Cfan Efnfan (T17.1) Ef fan power, kW
Annual operating cost Er rotating driver power, kW
Cop ¼ (Cs Q þ Ce E)ty (T17.2) F material flow rate, ton/h db
Total annual cost (objective function) f1 pressure loss equation power
TAC ¼ eCeq þ Cop (T17.3) Fa fresh airflow rate, ton/h
where the Capital Recovery Factor is calculated
Ff recycle airflow rate, ton/h
from the equation
H dryer volume holdup, m3
ir (1 þ ir )lf
e¼ (T17.4) ir interest rate
(1 þ ir )lf  1
L dryer length, m

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Technical data Design variables Model solution
pw 1.00 tn/m3 y 0.100 kg/kg db ps 0.70 bar
po 1.00 kg/m3 T 90.0⬚C ow 0.20 -
ps 1.75 tn/m3 v 1.50 m/s Xe 0.05 kg/kg db
Cpl 4.20 kJ/kg C D 2.0 m tc 0.54 h
Cpv 1.90 kJ/kg C t 2.87 h
Cpo 1.00 kJ/kg C Process specification W 0.99 tn/h
Cps 2.00 kJ/kg C F 0.10 tn/h Fa 11 tn/h
ΔHo 2.50 MJ/kg Xo 10 kg/kg db Qwe 0.63 MW
m 0.622– X 0.1 kg/kg db Qsh 0.08 MW
Us 0.10 kW/m2 K db 0.010 m Qah 0.20 MW
e 0.40– To 25.0⬚C Q 0.91 MW
a1 1.19E+01– Yo 0.010 kg/kg db As 130 m2
a2 3.99E+03– Zo 0.20 m M 3.16 tn
a3 2.34E+02– p 1.0 bar H 5.06 m3
b1 7.35E+04– Ts 160⬚C L 12.6 m
b2 1.75E+03– Ab 25 m2
b3 4.00E+01– Cost data o 4.4 m/h
c0 0.50– Ce 0.10 $/kW h Dp 0.9 bar
c1 1.40– Cs 0.05 $/kW h Ff 137 tn/h
c2 −0.25– Cbel 25.00 k$ Ef 34.1 kW
c3 −1.65– Cexc 2.00 k$ Eb 27.8 kW
c4 0.12– Cfan 1.00 k$ E 62.0 kW
e1 2.00– Nbel 0.95– n 0.69–
f1 2.00– Nexc 0.65– r 39.1 kg/hm
Nfan 0.75–
ty 4000 h/y Cost analysis
Optimize tr 0.08– Ceq 599 k$
lf 5.0 y Cop 207 k$/y
TAC 357 k$/y

FIGURE 5.5 Dryer model implementation in the ‘‘Process’’ spreadsheet.

FIGURE 5.6 Process flow sheet implemented in the spreadsheet ‘‘Flow sheet.’’

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

FIGURE 5.7 Analyze the effect of one design variable on some economic variables, using the ‘‘One-Dimensional Table’’ and
‘‘Chart’’ tools, supported by Excel.

lf lifetime, yr Q total thermal load, kW

m air–water molecular weight ratio Qah air-heating thermal load, kW
M dryer mass holdup, ton Qsh solid-heating thermal load, kW
n thermal efficiency Qwe water vaporization thermal load, kW
nbel belt dryer scaling factor r specific rate of evaporation, kg/h m2
nexc heat exchanger t drying time, h
nf number of flights T drying air temperature, 8C
nfan fan scaling factor tc drying time constant, h
P pressure, bar T0 ambient temperature, 8C
Ps vapor pressure at temperature T, bar Ts steam temperature, 8C
Belt are (m2)

Drying are humidity (kg/kg db)

FIGURE 5.8 Analyze the effect of two design variables on a technical variable, using the ‘‘Two-Dimensional Table’’ and
‘‘Chart’’ tools, supported by Excel.

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Belt Dryer Design Report page 3/5
Belt Dryer Design Report page1/5
Cost Data
Utility Cost
Problem Folmulation Electricity Ce = 0.10 $/kWh
Heating Steam Cs = 0.05 $/kWh
Material xxxxxxx
Equipment Unit Cost
Process Specification Belt Dryer Cbel = 25.0 k$/m2
Feed Flow Rate F = 0.1 ton/h Heat Exchanger Cexh = 2.00 k$/m2
Initial Material Moisture Content Xo = 10 kg/kg db Fan Cfan = 1.00 k$/kW
Final Material Moisture Content X = 0.1 kg/kg db
Material Characteristic Size d = 0.01 m Equipment Size Scaling Factor
Ambient Temperature To = 25⬚C Belt Dryer nbel = 0.95–
Ambient Humidity Yo = 0.01 kg/kg db Heat Exchanger nexh = 0.65–
Loading Depth Zo = 0.2 m Fan nfan = 0.75–
Ambient Pressure P = 1 bar
Heating SteamTemperature Ts = 160⬚C Other
Annual Operating Time ty = 4000 h/y
Design Variables Interest Rate ir = 0.08–
Drying Air Humidity Y = 0.1 kg/kg db Lifetime lf = 5.00 y
Drying Air Temperature T = 90⬚C
Drying Air Velocity V = 1.5 m/s
Belt Width D = 2m Belt Dryer Design Report page 4/5

Drying Air
Fresh Air Flowrate Fa = 11 ton/h
Recycle Air Flowrate Ff = 137 ton/h
Belt Dryer Design Report page 2/5
Drying Air Temperature T = 90 ⬚C
Drying Air Humidity y = 0.1 kg/kg db
Drying Air Velocity V = 1.5 m/s
Technical Data Drying Pressure P = 1 bar
Ambient Temperature To = 25 ⬚C
Density Ambient Humidity Yo = 0.01 kg/kg db
Water rw = 1.00 ton/m3 Water Activity at Drying Conditions aw = 0.20–
Air ra = 1.00 kg/m3
Dry Material rs = 1.75 ton/m3
Material Flow Rate F = 0.1 ton/h
Initial Moisture Content Xo = 10 kg/kg db
Specific Heat Target Moisture Content X = 0.10 kg/kg db
Water Cpw = 4.20 kJ/kgK Equiliblium Moisture Content Xe = 0.05 kg/kg db
Water Vapor Cpv = 1.90 kJ/kgK Particle Size d = 0.01 m
Air Cpa = 1.00 kJ/kgK Drying Time Constant tc = 0 0.54 h
Drying Time t = 2.87 h
Dry Material Cps = 2.00 kJ/kgK
Latent Heat Drying Rate W = 0.99 ton/h
Steam Condensation ΔHo = 2.50 MJ/kg Dryer Length L = 12.6 m
Dryer Width D = 2 m
Other Dryer Mass Holdup M = 3.16 ton
Dryer Volume Holdup H = 5.06 m3
Heat Transfer Coefficient Us = 0.10 kW/m2K
Belt Area Ab = 25.3 m2
Void Fraction of Loading ε = 0.40– As =
Air Heater Transfer Area 130 m2
Belt Velocity u = 4.40 m/s
Antoine Equation Loading Depth Zo = 0.20 m
for Vapor Pressure of Water a1 = 1.19E+01
a2 = 3.99E+03 Thermal Load
Oswin Equation a3 = 2.34E+02 Water Vaporization Qwe = 0.63 MW
Solid Heating Qsh = 0.08 MW
for Material Isotherms b1 = 7.35E−04 Qah =
Air Heating 0.20 MW
b2 = 1.75E+03
Total Thermal Load Q = 0.91 MW
Drying Kinetics Equations b3 = 4.00E−01
c0 = 5.00E−01 Electrical Load
c1 = 1.40E+00 Belt Drive Eb = 27.8 kW
c2 = −2.50E−01 Fan Ef = 34.1 kW
c3 = −1.65E+00 Total Power Requirement E = 62.0 kW
Belt Driver Power Equation c4 = 1.20E−01
Pressure Loss Equation e1 = 2.00E+00 Performance
Thermal Efficiency n = 0.69−
f1 = 2.00E+00
Specific Rate of Evaporation r = 39.1 kg/hm2

FIGURE 5.9 A summary report of the process design results.

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Belt Dryer Design Report page 5/5

Cost Analysis Results

Equipment Cost
Belt Dryer 538
Heat Exchanger 47
Fan 14
Total Ceq = 599 k$

Operating Cost
Electricity 25
Heating Steam 182

Total Cop = 207 k$

Annualized 150
Equipment 207
Total TAC = 357 k$/y

FIGURE 5.9 (continued)

FIGURE 5.10 Toward an integrated graphics interface.

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

ty annual operating time, h/yr ra air density, kg/m3
ub belt velocity, m/s rm construction material density, kg/m3
Us heat transfer coefficient at air heater, kW/m2 K rs dry material density, kg/m3
V drying air velocity, m/s rw water density, kg/m3
W evaporating capacity, ton/h
X final moisture content, kg/kg db
Xe equilibrium moisture content, kg/kg db REFERENCES
X0 initial moisture content, kg/kg db Maroulis ZB, Saravacos GD, 2002. Modeling, simulation
Y drying air humidity, kg/kg db and design of drying processes. Keynote Lecture at
Y0 ambient air humidity, kg/kg db the 13th International Drying Symposium, IDS 2002,
Z0 loading depth, m Beijing, China.
DH0 latent heat of water evaporation at 08C, kJ/kg Maroulis ZB, Saravacos GD, 2003. Food Process Design,
DP pressure loss of air, bar Marcel Dekker, New York.
« void (empty) fraction of loading

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.