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International Journal of Advanced in Management, Technology and Engineering Sciences

ISSN NO : 2249-7455


Deep s patel #1 , Prof. Amit shah #2 , Dr. Vijay Dhiman #3 , Prof. Atul Suthar #4

#1 PG Student, Mechanical Engineering Department, SVMIT-Bharuch, Gujarat Technological University. #2 Asst.Prof, Mechanical Engineering Department, SVMIT-Bharuch, Gujarat Technological University. #3 Prof, Mechanical Engineering Department, GEC-Surat, Gujarat Technological University. #4 Asst.Prof, Mechanical Engineering Department, SSASIT-Surat, Gujarat Technological University. 1, 2, 3, 4

Abstract –

Diesel engine are used in service for both heavy duty vehicle & light duty vehicle, however diesel engine emits significant amount of pollution such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ), unburnt hydrocarbon (HC), smoke etc. which is harmful to environment. There is various methods of improving diesel engine performance and reduce emission. In this present review experiments are conducted to study effect of piston bowl geometry and modified catalytic converter with using alternate biodiesel. Performance parameter such as break power, specific fuel consumption & thermal efficiency are calculated based on experimental analysis of engine. Emission such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ), unburnt hydrocarbon (HC) are measured.

Keywords : Diesel Engine, Piston Geometry, Biodiesel, Catalytic Converter.



Internal combustion engines are the engines which burn the fuel inside it and produce the energy. Of all the engines the direct injection diesel engines have their own importance because of their higher thermal efficiencies than all the others. They can be used for both light-duty

and heavy duty vehicles. Diesel engines are considered a reliable source of energy in the fields of agriculture, construction, transportation and power-generation, owing to their fuel economy, high fuel efficiency, power output and reliability. However, ever tighter emission regulations are

a burning issue which diesel engines are confronted with today. Although diesel engines have advantages of less carbon dioxide (CO2)

emissions responsible for global warming, their exhaust contains environmentally harmful pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and

particulate matter.

In order to control these exhaust pollutants and hence to meet the emission standards, different strategies like advancement in engine technology, engine after treatment technology, and fuel/lubricant modification are being used in diesel engines. The aim of this review is to gain knowledge the effect of piston bowl geometry on biodiesel with using modified catalytic converter on diesel engine. This review briefly discusses is to use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology with alternative biodiesel fuel and to optimize the combustion chamber conditions in the engine in such a way that leads to the reduction of particle emissions and fuel consumption.

Increasing automobile vehicles on the roads results in twin problems, namely, the fast depletion of the conventional fossil fuels and the environmental pollution caused by toxic emission. The exploitation of bio diesel has alleviated the problem of fast decreasing fossil fuel and the environmental pollution. Bio diesel is a liquid fuel made from esterifies vegetable oils that can be used in a mixture with, or as substitute for diesel fuel without any engine modification. Its merits are that it is oxygenated and contain no sulphur while its viscosity, calorific value, density, and volatility contribute to its demerits. A number of experimental investigations were carried out on the properties, performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the bio diesel fuels, namely Soybean oil, Rapeseed oil, mustard oil, cotton oil, Palm oil, Sunflower oil, Jatropha oil, Used cooking oil etc., in diesel engines without any modification to the diesel engine. These investigations have shown significant reduction in exhaust gas emission, namely UBHC, CO and slight improvement or similar profile in brake thermal efficiency. But the drawback is emission of higher oxides of nitrogen.

The world is getting affected of the harmful effects like global warming, global cooling, changes in environment and human health too. The automobile exhaust emissions contribute nearly 46% of the total pollution of the world and today automobiles are inseparable part of our daily life. So these emissions need to be controlled. Various norms have been made as standards like US, EURO, Bharat Stage (B.S.), Tier etc. in respective countries. Number of technologies have been invented and presented to control automobile exhaust emissions like Diesel

Particulate Filter, Lean NOx Burner, Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Selective Catalyst Reduction etc. But the most effective technology was found

to be Catalytic Converter. There are two types of catalytic converter- one is Two way catalytic converter and another is Three way catalytic

converter. The two way catalytic converter was used for controlling HC and CO emissions. The modification in the two way converter was made

to control NOx emissions by introducing reduction catalyst in the converter which is known as three way catalytic converter. The TWC consists

of substrate with catalyst support and wash coat, insulation, heat shield and outer housing. The most important parameter in accordance with

emission control is the material selection and its procurements for characterization.

Volume 7 Issue 11 2017


International Journal of Advanced in Management, Technology and Engineering Sciences

ISSN NO : 2249-7455

The For a better performance of DI diesel engine the injected fuel has to quickly evaporate and form an ignitable mixture at different regions of the combustion chamber. For good efficiency, diffusive combustion (i.e. large spray penetration and spray breakup) has to be as fast as possible. This can be achieved by two methods: a) by employing a high pressure injector, b) by modification of the combustion chamber geometry with various bowl geometries to increase the swirl and hence turbulence. Air motion inside the engine cylinder plays an important role, and they have a significant impact on the combustion quality. Swirl is the predominant air motion prevailing in a DI diesel engine and depending on the geometrical configurations of the bowl, the swirl motion is conserved in the engine The geometry of the piston bowl can be designed to produce a squish and swirling action which can improve the fuel/air mixture before the ignition takes place With the introduction of modified piston the combustion efficiency has increased due to better mixing of fuel and air.


1.1 Literature Review on Performance & Exhaust Emission investigation by modified piston head geometry

Vinay Kumar [1] , have investigated that For diesel engine piston shape that give better diffusion-atomization of fuels and high swirling induction that finally affects the engine performance and emissions. In this study, performance enhancement and exhaust emissions reduction was carried out with the help of design modification in piston bowl in a single cylinder Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. Guided air motion in modified pistons due to alternate geometries resulted into high atomization inside cylinder that resulted into uniform combustion at every location of cylinder which increases the brake thermal efficiency, brake mean effective pressure and lowers the specific fuel consumption compared to baseline engine.

P. Prabhakaran, P. Ramesh, C.G. Saravanan, M. Loganathan, E. James Gunasekaran [2] , have performed experiment with swirl

enhancing modifications on a DI diesel engine. Six tangential holes on each piston with diameters of the hole varying from 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 mm are made in the piston with suitable inclinations with respect to the cylinder axis. Numerical & experimental investigations are carried out at full load condition with the modified engine piston. Results reveal that the tangential hole of 2.5 mm produces a better combustion and higher pressure. The swirl motion as well as kinetic energy increases with the increasing hole diameters. The piston with 2.5 mm hole produces a highest performance improvement.

K.S.Karunakar, Dr. C. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, D.S. Jaheer Basha, M. Sivaramakrishnaiah [3] , work deals with a new kind of piston modification. Tangential swirling grooves were made on flat surface with centered bowl Piston for better combustion process by increasing swirl in diesel engine. Aim of This research is to create swirling motion of the compressed air in the combustion chamber by

preparing some internal grooves on the piston. Creating more swirl motion in combustion chamber tends to make the fuel and air as homogeneous mixture which leads to improve the combustion of fuel. The simulations results shows that the swirl generated inside the chamber

is more by using piston with tangential grooves and hence the complete combustion is achieved along with reduced emissions.

Chetan S Bawankar1, Rajesh Gupta [4] , have worked on effect of piston bowl geometry on combustion and emissions. One of the important parameters which affect the combustion in diesel engine is piston geometry. In this study four different piston geometries (hemispherical, omega, single curved, double curved) have been selected for comparative study. Simulation has been carried out for various

piston geometries while keeping parameters such as speed, compression ratio and mass of fuel injected constant. The study has been carried out

at full as well as half load. Emission and performance parameters like SOOT, NO, efficiency and BSFC have been studied. The results indicated

that omega shaped piston works best for the current set-up. As compared to baseline shape of hemisphere, it gives 12% higher NO but 19% less

SOOT. Also, the efficiency and BSFC are better for omega shaped piston.

J Paul Rufus Babu, B Madhu Babu, T Dada Khalandar and P S Bharadwaj [5] , have performed experimental investigation of air

swirl in the cylinder upon the performance and emission of a single cylinder diesel direct injection diesel engine. Experiments are carried out on

a diesel engine using Modified different configuration piston which is a four stroke single cylinder air cooled and constant speed engine.

Performance parameters such as brake power, specific fuel consumption and Thermal efficiency are calculated based on experimental analysis of

the engine. the modified piston rgp 9 has shown improvement in brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency exhaust emission.

Santhosh kumar Gugulothu, K.Hema Chandra Reddy [6] , have to develop a numerical model for in-cylinder fluid motion to study the effect of variation of swirl ratio, split injection, injection timing and piston bowl geometries on the engine performance characteristics. The model was developed in computational fluid dynamics code, ANSYS. The simulations were carried out for the combinations of swirl ratio, three split injection, injection timings and four piston bowl geometries. The simulation results revealed that, the split injection and injection timings and adopting suitable combination of combustion chamber configuration would enhance the engine performance, besides reducing emission level to a greater extent.

J. Isaac Joshua Ramesh Lalvani n, M. Parthasarathy, B. Dhinesh, K.Annamalai [7] , have worked on effect of injection pressure on

combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine powered with turbulence inducer piston was studied. Engine tests were executed using conventional diesel and 20% blend of adelfa biodiesel. The results calculated from renewable fuel A20 in the conventional engine showed reduction in brake thermal efficiency, due to the result of poor air fuel mixing characteristics and the higher viscosity of the

tested fuel. The analysis was carried out to study the combined effect of injection pressure and turbulence inducer piston. Considerable improvement in the emission characteristics like hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, smoke was acheived as a result of optimized injection pressure.

Volume 7 Issue 11 2017


International Journal of Advanced in Management, Technology and Engineering Sciences

ISSN NO : 2249-7455

J. Li, W.M. Yang, H. An, A. Maghbouli, S.K. Chou [8] , have worked on numerical study of the effects of piston bowl geometry on combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel under medium load condition. Three different piston bowl geometries namely: Hemispherical Combustion Chamber, Shallow depth Combustion Chamber, and the baseline Omega Combustion Chamber were created with the same compression ratio of 18.5. It is found that the narrow entrance of combustion chamber could generate a strong squish, especially at high engine speed, hence enhancing the mixing of air and fuel. Also, the simulation results indicate that in terms of performance SCC is favorable at low engine speed, whereas at high engine speed, OCC is preferred.

C.V. Subba Reddy, C. Eswara Reddy & K. Hemachandra Reddy [9] , have investigated the suitable tangential grooved piston configuration to increase swirl motion in the combustion chamber and vegetable oil blended fuel at 200 bar injection pressure for which the diesel engine delivers better efficiency with minimum pollutants and there by the suitable replacement for diesel oil. The experiments are conducted on D.I. Diesel engine with three different tangential grooved pistons and cotton seed oil methyl esters blended with diesel in various proportions. The effect of three different sizes of tangential grooves on piston crown on the performance and emission characteristics are studied. Brake specific energy consumption decreases and thermal efficiency of engine slightly increases when operating on blended fuel of 20% Cotton seed oil methyl ester and 80% diesel (20BD) than that operating on diesel fuel.

B.V.V.S.U. Prasad, C.S. Sharma, T.N.C. Anand, R.V. Ravikrishna [10] , have worked on effect of swirl induced by re-entrant piston bowl geometries on pollutant emissions from a single-cylinder diesel engine. The baseline engine configuration consists of a hemispherical piston bowl and an injector with finite sac volume. The simulation results indicate that the selected piston bowl geometry could actually be reducing the in-cylinder swirl and turbulence and the emission reduction may be entirely due to the introduction of the sac-less injector. In- cylinder air motion was then studied in a number of combustion chamber geometries, and a geometry which produced the highest in-cylinder swirl and Turbulence Kinetic Energy (TKE) around the compression top dead centre (TDC) was identified. The optimal nature of this re-entrant piston bowl geometry is confirmed by detailed combustion simulations and emission predictions.

1.2 Literature Review on Performance & Exhaust Emission investigation by modified catalytic converter:

A.M.Leman, Afiqah Jajuli, Dafit Feriyanto, Fakhrurrazi Rahman and Supaat Zakaria [11] , Have reviewed the present development and improvement on the catalytic converter used on the reduction of exhaust emission in order to meet the regulations and market demand. The use of new catalyst such as to replace the noble metal material of Platinum (Pt), Palladium (Pd) and Rhodium (Rh) has been reviewed. Material such as zeolite, nickel oxide and metal oxide has been found to effectively reduce the emission than the commercial converter. The preparation method of the catalyst has also evolved through the years as it is to ensure a good characteristic of a good monolith catalyst. Ultrasonic treatment with combination of electroplating technique, citrate method and Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) has been found as the latest novel preparation method on producing an effective catalyst in reducing the exhaust emission.

Ahmad M. Abu-Jrai, Ala'a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Ahmad O. Hasan [12] , have investigated the effect of tri fuel (ULSD, H2, AND CH4) operation under real exhaust gas conditions with different gaseous fuel compositions on the combustion characteristics, engine emissions, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) after treatment was examined at low, medium, and high engine loads. Pt/Al2O3- SCR reactor was used and operated at different exhaust gas temperatures. Results revealed that at low load, the two gaseous fuels (H2 and CH4) have the same trend on combustion process, where both reduce the in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release. at high engine load, fuels with high CH4 content tend to reduce NOx formation, whereas, fuels with high H2 content tend to reduce PM formation, moreover, combustion of tri fuel with 50:50 fuel mixture resulted in lower BSFC compared to the other ratios and hence, the best engine efficiency. The hydrocarbon-SCR catalyst has shown satisfactory performance in NOx reduction under real diesel exhaust gas in a temperature window of 180-280º C for all engine loads.

Mari Pietikainen, Ari Valiheikki, Kati Oravisjarvi, Tanja Kolli, Mika Huuhtanen, Seppo Niemi, Sampo Virtanen, Toomas Karhu, Riitta L. Keiski [13] , have investigated the number and chemical composition of particles emitted from a non-road diesel engine with and without a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit were investigated. Common diesel fuel oil (DFO) and untreated rape seed oil (RSO) were used as fuels. The NOx reduction activity of the fresh SCR catalyst was also investigated. The results indicated that the fuel had a great impact on the particles emitted from the engine. The particle number was 10e100 times higher when RSO was used as fuel compared to DFO. The DFO particles contained carbon in significantly higher proportions compared to the RSO particles. Metals, such as Fe and Cu, were also found in the DFO particles. For both fuels the NOx reduction activity was 79% with a SCR converter. As a conclusion, the use of the SCR converter decreased the number of particles in general but increased the number of the nanoparticles.

C. Syed Aalam, Dr. C.G. Saravanan1 and C. Mohamed Samath [14] , have performed testing of a catalytic converter coated with

aluminium oxide nanoparticles as catalyst to be used in the conventional catalytic converter. The catalytic converter was developed based on catalyst materials consisting of metal oxides such as aluminium oxide nano particles (Al2o3). The catalyst material (Al2o3) is inexpensive in comparison with noble catalysts such as platinum or palladium. In addition, the noble metals such as platinum group metals are now recognized as human health risk due to their exhaust emissions in the environment from the conventional catalytic converter. It is experimentally found that the conversion efficiencies of Al2o3 based catalytic converter are 99.5%, 92% for /CO and HC emissions respectively.

M. Valencia, E. López, S. Andrade, M.L. Iris, V.Rico Pérez, C. Salinas Martínez de Lecea, A. Bueno López [15] , have worked on

to demonstrate that the SCR of NOx can be performed in a real diesel exhaust stream by commercial diesel fuel and using a full size Pt/beta zeolite/honeycomb monolith catalyst. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx has been performed in a real diesel exhaust stream with commercial diesel fuel by using a full size home-made Pt/beta zeolite/honeycomb prototype catalyst. Fuel was injected upstream of the catalyst

to achieve total hydrocarbon concentrations between 1000 and 5000 ppm, and the SCR behavior observed was similar to that typically reported in laboratory experiments performed with model hydrocarbons. The results of this study demonstrated that the SCR of NOx can be performed in a real diesel exhaust stream with commercial diesel fuel by using a full size Pt/beta zeolite/honeycomb monolith catalyst.

Volume 7 Issue 11 2017


International Journal of Advanced in Management, Technology and Engineering Sciences

ISSN NO : 2249-7455

Raya Mrad, Aissa Aissata, Renaud Cousina, Dominique Courcota, Stéphane Sifferta [16] , have worked on metal ion-exchanged zeolites and the influence of various parameters on the catalysts activities (acidity, O2content, etc.). The general approach has focused on developing new catalysts with complex materials in order to meet the stringent environmental regulations. They have reviewed supported metal catalysts, base metal oxides, hybrid catalysts and the possible reducing agents to remove NOx. It can be inferred that the most active catalysts for HC-SCR should have acidic sites, an active phase like copper or cobalt, or for a wider activity.

R. Vallinayagam, S. Vedharaj, W.M. Yang, C.G. Saravanan, P.S. Lee, K.J.E. Chua, S.K. Chou [17] , have proposed pine oil

biofuel, as renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NO X formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke,

CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively.

Lei Jiang, Yunshan Ge, Asad Naeem Shah, Chao He, Zhihua Liu [18] , have worked on number-size distribution of particles, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbonyl compounds (CC) or carbonyls emitted from a 4-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a vanadium-based urea selective catalytic reduction catalyst. The engine was run on an electric dynamometer in accordance with the European steady-state cycle. Pollutants were analyzed using an electric low pressure impactor, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, and a high performance liquid chromatography system for the number-size distribution of particles, VOCs, and CC emissions, respectively. Experimental results revealed that total number of particles was decreased.

K. Theinnoi, A. Tsolakis, S. Sitshebo, R.F. Cracknell, R.H. Clark [19] , have investigated on The activity of a Ag/Al2O3 catalyst in

reducing NOx emissions in a passive mode hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) was tested using exhaust gas from the diesel engine operation on diesel, biodiesel (RME) and low temperature Fischer–Tropsch synthetic diesel (SD). Compared to diesel fuel, biodiesel combustion produces a higher amount of NOx with reduced concentrations of HCs, while both HC and NOx emissions were reduced in the engine exhaust from the combustion of SD fuel. The use of Ag/Al2O3 catalysts in a passive mode HC-SCR system shows good NOx reduction under the different HC1:NOx ratios, followed the order diesel > SD> RME when the respective fuels are used for combustion. The engine fuel quality can influence significantly the performance of the after treatment systems in reducing emissions. Fuels such as synthetic diesel can also

contribute in the improved engine-after treatment system efficiency and contribute in achieving future emissions regulations that include control of CO 2 .

SHI Xiaoyan, YU Yunbo, HE Hong, SHUAI Shijin, DONG Hongyi, LI Rulong [20] , worked to reduce NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from a diesel engine using both ethanol-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx over an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst and a biodiesel- ethanol-diesel fuel blend (BE-diesel) on diesel engine. The SCR catalyst was effective in NOx reduction by ethanol, and the NOx conversion was approximately 73%. Ag/Al2O3 ethanol system was extremely effective for the NOx reduction when the diesel engine was fueled by both diesel fuel and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel fuel blends.


In this paper, a literature review on effect of piston geometry and selective catalytic converter with using biodiesel on diesel engines performance and emission characteristic is presented. By changing piston geometry the turbulence increases and hence results in better air-fuel mixing compared to normal piston of diesel engine. The blending of Diesel with biodiesel is proposed to reduce the cost of alternative fuel by using blends of diesel with biodiesel. The bio diesels are prone to increase smoke and NO x emissions, the selective catalytic reduction technology is very effective in reduction of various emissions as compared to conventional catalytic converter. From literature survey, different findings are concluded,

The modified piston bowl geometry improves atomization inside cylinder which leads to complete combustion.

The break power, specific fuel consumption & efficiency is increased.

Better fuel economy.

Overall reduction of exhaust emission.

Cheaper alternative catalytic material have been reviewed and investigated.

Volume 7 Issue 11 2017


International Journal of Advanced in Management, Technology and Engineering Sciences


[1] Kumar, Vinay. "Experimental Investigation of Piston Bowl Geometry Effects on Performance and Emission

ISSN NO : 2249-7455

Characteristics of Diesel

Engine at Variable Injection Pressure and Timings." International Journal of Ambient Energyjust-accepted (2017): 1-13.

[2] Prabhakaran, P., et al. "Experimental and numerical investigation of swirl enhancing grooves on the flow and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine." Energy 115 (2016): 1234-1245.

[3] Karunakar, K. S., et al. "Design & Analysis on A Diesel Engine By Implementing Tangential Grooves on Piston for Combustion Improvement Through Cfd." (2016).

[4] Bawankar, Chetan S., and Rajesh Gupta. "Effects of piston bowl geometry on combustion and emission characteristics on diesel engine: a cfd case study." IJRET 5 (2016): 81-93.

[5] Babu, J. Paul Rufus, et al. "Experimental Investigation Of Rhombus Shaped Grooves On Piston Crown Of A Single Cylinder 4-Stroke Di Diesel Engine." International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research 4.1 (2015): 514.

[6] kumar Gugulothu, Santhosh, and K. Hema Chandra Reddy. "Effect of Injection Timing & Split Injection on Different Piston Bowl Configuration in a DI Diesel Engine." Procedia Engineering 127 (2015): 924-931.

[7] Lalvani, J. Isaac JoshuaRamesh, et al. "Pooled effect of injection pressure and turbulence inducer piston on performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine powered with biodiesel blend." Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 134 (2016): 336-343.

[8] Li, J., et al. "Effects of piston bowl geometry on combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel fueled diesel engines." Fuel 120 (2014): 66-73.

[9] Reddy, CV Subba, C. Eswara Reddy, and K. Hemachandra Reddy. "effect of tangential grooves on piston crown of DI diesel engine with blends of cotton seed oil methyl easter." International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences 13.1 (2012).

[10] Prasad, B. V. V. S. U., et al. "High swirl-inducing piston bowls in small diesel engines for emission reduction." Applied Energy 88.7 (2011): 2355-2367.

[11] Leman, A. M., et al. "Advanced Catalytic Converter in Gasoline Engine Emission Control: A Review." MATEC Web of Conferences. Vol. 87. EDP Sciences, 2017.

[12] Abu-Jrai, Ahmad M., H. Ala'a, and Ahmad O. Hasan. "Combustion, performance, and selective catalytic reduction of NOx for a diesel engine operated with combined tri fuel (H 2, CH 4, and conventional diesel)." Energy119 (2017): 901-910.

[13] Pietikäinen, Mari, et al. "Particle and NO x emissions of a non-road diesel engine with an SCR unit: The effect of fuel." Renewable Energy 77 (2015): 377-385.

[14] Aalam, C. Syed, C. G. Saravanan, and C. Mohamed Samath. "Reduction of Diesel Engine Emissions Using Catalytic Converter with Nano Aluminium Oxide Catalyst." International Journal for Research in Emerging Science and Technology 2.07 (2015).

[15] Valencia, M., et al. "Proof of concept of the SCR of NOx in a real diesel engine exhaust using commercial diesel fuel and a full size Pt/beta zeolite/honeycomb monolith." Catalysis Communications 46 (2014): 86-89.

[16] Mrad, Raya, et al. "Catalysts for NO x selective catalytic reduction by hydrocarbons (HC-SCR)." Applied Catalysis A: General 504 (2015):


[17] Vallinayagam, R., et al. "Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter." Atmospheric environment80 (2013): 190-197.

[18] Jiang, Lei, et al. "Unregulated emissions from a diesel engine equipped with vanadium-based urea-SCR catalyst." Journal of Environmental Sciences22.4 (2010): 575-581.

[19] Theinnoi, K., et al. "Fuels combustion effects on a passive mode silver/alumina HC-SCR catalyst activity in reducing NO x." Chemical Engineering Journal 158.3 (2010): 468-473.

[20] Xiaoyan, S. H. I., et al. "Combination of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel fuel blend and SCR catalyst assembly to reduce emissions from a heavy- duty diesel engine." Journal of Environmental Sciences 20.2 (2008): 177-182.

Volume 7 Issue 11 2017