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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION

TECHNOLOGY, GANDHINAGAR

ERGONOMICS
Cutting Room Ergonomics
Date : 10th oct. 2011

Under Guidance Of - Presented By -


Mr. Manoj Tiwari Abhinay Kumar
Satyam Singh
Shrey Vij
Rishab Tandon
Kuldeep Meena
CUTTING ROOM IN TERMS OF
ERGONOMICS
Unlike sewing room, the cutting room mostly consists of
equipments and workstations on which work is to be done only in
standing position.

So, there must be equipments and workstations designed


according to the anthropometric data of human body in standing
postures.

The postures are different from the sitting workstations here.

Basically in the standing position the points which are taken under
consideration are workers height, arm length, hand length, Hand
breadth etc.

Consideration is taken care of :

Workplace design

Task design

Equipment design
AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS OF
HUMAN BODY

http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/height-chart.shtml
ADVANTAGES OF STANDING
WORKSTATION

Reach is greater in standing than in sitting.


Body weight can be used to exert forces.
Standing workers require less leg room than seated
workers.

Lumbar disc pressures are lower.


It can be maintained with little muscular activity and
requires no attention.
Trunk muscle power is twice as large in standing than in
semi-standing or sitting.
STANDARD WORKING POSTURE
STANDING POSITIONS

NORMAL POSITION IDEAL POSITION


IDEAL BODY POSTURE
Maintain the S curve in your spine
Feet flat on the floor
Knees and hips at a 90 degree angle

Elbows at 90 degree angle do not lean on elbows


Shoulders relaxed and elbows close to body
Head and neck in the upright position

Hands and wrist in the neutral position


Avoid: Poor body mechanics, twisted torso, slouching,
kneeling, squatting, neck rotation/side bending, bent wrists,
and reaching overhead.
A WORKERS REACH
Usual work area/reach : (80-100 + 25) cm
Occasional work area/reach : (80-100 + 50) cm
CUTTING DEPARTMENT
The primary tasks in the cutting department are:
Loading the spreading machine
Spreading the fabric

Cutting the fabric


Stacking cut pieces
LOADING THE SPREADING
MACHINE
SPREADING THE FABRIC
CUTTING THE FABRIC
STACKING THE CUT PIECES
EQUIPMENTS USED IN CUTTING ROOM
AND THEIR ERGONOMICS FEATURES
SPREADING TABLE
Table dimensions : length - 340(approx.)
Width 72
Height 34

Adjustable Air blower beneath


Height the table
Ergonomic features of cutting table :
adjustable height
air blower beneath table for easy movement of layers
smooth edges
width according to normal human hand movements

Height according to
normal human height
Smooth edges
MANUAL SPREADING MACHINE

Rollers for Points for width size


movement
adjustment
Ergonomic features :
width size adjustable
adjustable height according to table and worker

manual edge control


rollers adjustment for easy movement between one
table to another table
STRAIGHT KNIFE

27 height easy to
handle

Handle for better


grip

Swivel base plate for movement


Handle for movement
to other tables
Ergonomic features :
Weight : 34 lbs(15.4 kg) easily moveable by cutting
person
Height : 27

For better grip and easy movement extended holder


is present
For transportation purpose on the upper part gripper
is present
For steady and vibration free working base plate is of
metal, 8 long and 5 broad

a security handle that automatically drops the


presser foot leg and stops the machine when the
handle is released
ergonomic handle that reduces wrist strain
a swivel baseplate that turns easily even in the
hardest materials
END CUTTER

Control panel in workers


reach Track for
movement
of end
cutter
Long Handle for longer
reach
Ergonomic features :
For easy movement there is a gripper to move the
end cutter length wise
Small in size

Attached to table so that the movement is not


dependable only on the cutting man i.e. weight of
end cutter is distributed between table and the
cutting man
A long rod is attached to the end cutter to move it
with the table length without the movement of the
operator
Easy to attach and detach with tables

Fitted on the tracks from easy to and fro movement


across the table
Control panels are in the reach of cutting man
BAND KNIFE Emergency
light

ADJUSTABLE Curve inserted for better


TABLE HEIGHT reach to the blade
Air flotation table
Adjustable Table height according
human height
Ergonomic features :
Adjustable table height
Air flotation for easy movement of layers during use

Additional Safety Device to ensure the operators


safety
The lighting device to reduce operators fatigue
Auto Catch Device, to catch the knife when the blade
is broken.

A curvy portion is provided to fit the cutting man for


easy reach to the blade
BAND KNIFE WORKERS REACH

80-100cm
25cm
50cm
LABELLING GUN

Handle for grip

Extra plastic griper


Ergonomic features :
gripper is provided for fast use of the labelling gun
small in size

weight is less
extra plastic grip is also provided
FUSING MACHINE

Control panel near


the operator

Automatic sensor
Ergonomic features :
continuous fusing is done so no need to move the
cut pieces every time
automatic sensor in case of any emergency

35 height of the machine bed which is according to


normal human height
Control panel is near the operators position to avoid
any emergency
Operator friendly side swing design
Operator is protected from heat radiation
GENERAL ERGONOMIC CONCERNS
DURING WORK
Static postures
constantly work with their arms above shoulder level
Awkward body postures
the height of the workstation
Repetition of movements
Standing in one position for long periods of time

No foot rest
Awkward wrist postures
Workers should try not to twist their upper body when
placing objects besides them
Vibration caused by different equipments
PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES
Avoid static postures

For standing work, the height of the workstation should allow


workers to function with elbows at 90 degrees

workers should try and sit for short periods of time while
working to give their leg and back muscles a rest

Change position after a period of time

There must be a raised foot rest provided for standing


workstations

majority of work should be done between knuckle height and


shoulder level

Workers should move their feet, instead of twisting at the waist,


in order to face the area where the object is going to be placed

Avoid repetition of movements

Assign job according to worker, not worker according to job


NORMAL WORK FLOOR ARRANGEMENT

Anti-fatigue mats for those who must stand for extended


periods of time
Footrest to allow the employee to put one foot up and
change positions often
Floor surface is free of obstacles and flat

Keep work at comfortable height to maintain erect


posture
Footwear with good support
Avoiding MSDs needs Work Smarter,
Not Harder
Work in neutral postures
Reduce excessive force & repetition
Keep everything in easy reach and at proper heights

Minimize static unsupported postures and pressure


points
Use proper lifting
techniques and lift aides

Ask for assistance with difficult tasks


Take micro-breaks (stand, stretch, change tasks)
Maintain a comfortable environment
GAPS IDENTIFIED IN WORK
ENVIRONMENT AND
EQUIPMENTS
AREAS GAPS IDENTIFIED SUPPORTIVE FINDINGS
Cutting table Work height too high Complaints of postural
discomfort and pain in
shoulders, neck and hands
Sorting table Work height too high Complaints of postural
discomfort and pain in
shoulders, neck and hands
Inadequate lighting Low level of lighting Complaints of visual strain and
blurred vision
Excessive noise Noise level exceeds 90dB Workers complaints
Dust Increased level in cutting Complaints of respiratory
section problems
Hot and humid work place Heat Humidity 23 to 57% Heat Workers complaints Identified
exposure as risk factor by hazard
identification and risk
assessment
Blade guard of the cutting Defects in design of blade Fifty per cent of workers
machine guard, non use of blade guards reported accidental cuts

General safety measure Absence of general safety Observed gaps


measures
Personal protective equipment Absence of personal protective Observation and reported
devices incidences
SUGGESTED ERGONOMIC
FEATURES IN CUTTING ROOM
Efficient spacing between the cutting tables, racks, band
knife machine, fusing machines for better movement of
man and material.
Cutting table heights are according to normal human
height
Dustbins are provided according to the height of the
cutting table and band knife machine

Racks heights are according to the normal humans hand


reach
Fabric store is near the cutting room so less movement
of man and material
The illumination level is kept to standard illumination
level i.e. 750 lx.
Cont
Provision of local exhaust ventilation that uses suction,
based on the principle of a vacuum cleaner, is to be
encouraged in the cutting and stitching sections to
remove dust from the air.
Workers are suggested to wear fine mesh cloth dust
protectors.
The handles should be made of flexible polyethylene
materials, which even after prolonged and regular use
give a comfortable feel.

The blade guards of the cutting machines are to be


redesigned. These guards can be designed either as
enclosure guards or as interlocking guards. Enclosure
guards will cover the entire blade. Interlocking guards
will allow the machine to function only after the blade
guards are lowered.
AN ERGONOMIC LAYOUT OF
CUTTING ROOM
CONCLUSION
During this project we came to know that ergonomics features
in the cutting rooms in most of the industries are very poor.

Our observation turns out that modern equipments and tools


are manufactured based on ergonomic designs and
suggestions.

But the cutting room work floor management and the building
layout do not support the concern of workers and ergonomics.

These interventions made in the units would help to improve


the work environment of the garment manufacturing units.

This study demonstrates that there is ample room for


ergonomic improvements in the clothing industry.

We need to continue to identify problems and, more


importantly, implement solutions to reduce the risk of injuries in
situations where we know problems exist.

So, there is a huge scope of improvement in the field of


ergonomics in apparel industry.
REFERENCES
PDFS
Ergonomics In The Garment Manufacturing Industry

Ergonomics Awareness Training


Ergonomic Interventions To Improve Work Environment
In Garment
Thank you