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ASME SECTION VIII Plate materials: a) ASME section II but with some restrictions which stated in ASME
Three Section : Code Sec VIII Div 1 in subsection C e.g. UCS, UHF, UNF.
ASME Section VIII Div. 1 => 3000 psi b) Identical with ASTM specification A 516/ A516M-90;
ASME Section VIII Div. 2 => Alternative rule 10000 psi Edition 1990 is very important
ASME Section VIII Div. 3 => Alternative rule > 10000 psi C) UG-10 in ASME Section VIII Div 1. Pare 57 of 2007 edition
For Non-ASME Material instead of ASME materials:
ASME Section VIII Div. 1: . Consistency with ASME Material
Stape-1: melting method, melting practices, de-oxidation, and heat treatment
Three Mandatory Non-mandatory Stape-2: chemical composition = within range
Subsections Appendices, Appendices. Stape-3: Mechanical test = No of test, size, result, Impact Test = code,
Sub section A =>UG (General requirement) Result, temperature as per SA 370.
Sub section B =>UW, UF, UB (Specific requirement for Fabrication) Stape-4: recertified Certified per UG-10.
Sub section C =>UCS, UNF, UHA, UCI, UCL, UCD, UHT, ULW,
and ULT (Specific requirement for MOC)
Other Requirement for Pressure Vessel Plate? Joint categories: UW-3, UW-11(a) (5) (b)
UG-93 in ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1 specifies requirements for plate Category A: All longitudinal welds in shell and nozzles, All welds in
material inspection. Based on this clause, only plate material is heads, Hemisph-head to shell weld joint
require to have a material test certificate(MTR).It means this Category B: All circumferential welds in shell and nozzles Head to
requirement only can be applied for plate material; for other material shell joint (other than Hemisph.)
such as pipe and flange, MTR's are not required and marking on the Category C and D: are flange welds and nozzle attachment welds
materials would be acceptable respectively
Longitudinal welds (Category A) are more critical than Circumferential
Plate Inspection: welds (Category B) because they are under double stress.
a) Visual inspection for surface defects also need to be done based RT 1: Items 1, 2 and 3, (E=1), All butt welds-full length radiography
on SA 20 specifications. RT 2: Item 4 (E=1), Category A and D butt welds full length radiog-
b) Marking on both side Punching & Stencilling. raphy and category B and C butt welds spot Radiography
c) In low thickness punching not required. RT 3: (E=0.85), Spot radiography butt welds
RT 4: (E=0.7), Partial / No radiography
4 steps for impact test exemption assessment: UG 84 (page 111) Pressure Vessel Heads:
Stap-1: UG-20 (f) => Ellipsoidal Head => Dished end Thk. = Shell Thk.
Stap-2: UCS-66(a) => H = D/4, knuckle radius = 0.17D, spherical radius = 0.9D.
Torispherical Head => Dished end Thk. = 1.77 x Shell Thk.
Stap-3:UCS-66(b) =>
H = D/4, knuckle radius = 0.06 crown radius, crown radius
Stap-4: UCS-68(c) =>
= OD of the head skirt.
Impact Test Code SA 370 / ISO 148.
Hemispherical Head => Dished end Thk. = 0.5 x Shell Thk., H = D/2
Summary of weld types:
Type 1: Full penetration welds (Typically Double welded) Template of checking profile of dished end to be verified
Type 2: Welds with backing strip Knuckle radius = 17 % ID, Crown radius = 90% ID,
Type 3: Single welded partial penetration welds Knuckle thickness > Crown thickness
Type 4, 5 and 6: Various Lap welds (rarely used)
Pressure Vessel Dimension Inspection: 2. Tolerances for Formed Heads =>
1. Mill Under tolerance of Plates and Pipes => a) Formed head dimension checked as per UG-81
Plate: b) Checked by Wooden sweep boards :
a) Design calculated Thickness = Min Thickness + Corrosion outer surface Max. 11/4% x D and Inner surface Max. 5/8% x D
Allowance + Mill Under tolerance c) Skirt max and min ID should not be more than 1% of the ID
b) 0.01 inch or 6% under tolerance, whichever is smaller of the d) Plates Thk 0.01 inch or 6% under tolerance, whichever is smaller
given design thickness specified. 3. Out of Roundness of shell =>
c) As per ASME SA 20 (Page 23) plate thickness / visual a) as per UG-80
inspection to be done. b) The Max. Ovality = (D max D min) shall not exceed 1% of the
d) the suggested Plate material specification to obtain the exact nominal diameter of the vessel.
amount of mill under tolerances. (D max D min) 0.01 x D nom
c) If you have an opening, then the tolerance can be increased by
2% x d (d = diameter of opening), if the measurement is taken within a
a) ASME B36.10 for select our pipe schedule distance of d from the axis of the opening.
b) Pipe and tube under tolerances = -12.5 % of the nominal wall (D max D min) 0.01 x D nom + 0.02 x d opening
c) Min. Nozzle thickness = the shell thickness 4. Nozzles and attachments Orientation=>
d) the suggested Pipe / tube material specification to obtain the a) +/- 1 degree
exact amount of mill under tolerances. b) 1 = (3.14 x OD) / 360
C) ASME Code SEC VIII Div 1 has not specified
6. Nozzles and attachments Projection => Vessel Pressure Testing:
a) +/- 0.25 inch = +/- 6.35 mm => as per UG-99 and UG-100 in ASME Code Section VIII Div. 1
b) ASME Code SEC VIII Div 1 has not specified Before pressure vessel hydro-static testing:
7. Nozzles and attachments elevation => => NDT of Weld Joints Clearance
a) +/- 0.25 inch = +/- 6.35 mm => Vessel Internal Cleaning & Dry External surface
b) ASME Code SEC VIII Div 1 has not specified => Cal. Of Pr. Gauge,
range Lower Limit = 1.5 x Test Pr., range Upper Limit = 4 X Test Pr.
8. Nozzles and attachments levelness => Pr. gauge Range = 2 x Test Pressure
a) 0.5 degree => Min. Test temperature= MDMT + 30F
b) ASME Code SEC VIII Div 1 has not specified Max. Test temperature = 120F (49C)
c) Sin = X / Flange dia. MDMT = Min. Design Metal Temp.
9. Weld mismatch=> => Making sure which reinforcement pads are already soap tested
a) ASME Code SEC VIII Div 1 has specified UW-33 => testing water quality and using corrosion inhibitor if it is necessary
10. Weld reinforcement => => Checking of vents
b) ASME Code SEC VIII Div 1 has specified UW-35 During pressure vessel hydro-static testing: => filling and pressur-
izing are done from the lowest point and venting from the highest point
Three Stage Pressurisation Difference Between the Design Formula of a Cylindrical Shell and
1st Stage => 40 % of Final Pr. and 5 min. hold a Spherical :
2nd Stage => 70 % of Final Pr. and 5 min. hold t = PR/ (SE-0.6P) for cylindrical shell
3rd Stage => 100 % of Final Pr. and 45 min. hold t = PR/ (2SE-0.2P) for the spherical shell
De-pressurise to Inspection Pr. = H T Pr. / 1.3 t = Thickness, R = Inside Radius, S = Allowable Stress, P =
Hydrostatic Test Pressure = 1.3 x MAWP X Stress Ratio Design Pressure and E = Joint Efficiency
Stress Ratio= (Allowable Stress at Test Temp.)/(Allowable
Stress at Design Temp.) Application and Advantage of a Spherical Pressure Vessel:
Vessel is immediately and carefully drained after the test and dried by air. a) Thickness 50% as compare to Cylindrical Shell.(more commercial)
=> Vessel MAWP => measured at top-most point. b) Longer place required for Cylindrical Shell
=> Measure at lowest of vessel part MAWPs, c) Spherical Vessel is used for big volume of liquid/gas
adjusted for hydrostatic head.
Disadvantage of a Spherical Pressure Vessel: Fabrication cost high
Hydrostatic pressure caused due to liquid with specific gravity = 1,
1ft of height = 0.43 psig. Or 1 mtr of height = 0.1 Bar
Materials are Stored in a Spherical Pressure? When and where PWHT is mandatory by code requirement?
For Cylindrical shell = Propane, Butane, N2, O2, NH3, H2 Conditions as per ASME Code Section 8 Div 1 =>
For Spherical shell = LNG & LPG 1) Requirement of UW-2(a), (c), (d)
2) UCS-56 when our nominal thickness exceeds a specific value, for
In-Service Insp. Requirements for Spherical Shell PV:
instance 38 mm for P No.1 material or 0 mm for P No.3 material.
a) as per API std 510
3) UNF-56, UHA-32, UHT-56 and etc.
b) Intervals not exceeding one half of the remaining life, or 10 years,
4) UCS-68(b) when our MDMT (Minimum Design Metal Tempera
whichever is less. ture) is below -55 Degree F.
c) RL = (Tc-Tmin)/CR ; How PWHT must be done?
When Tc = Actual Thickness, CR =corrosion rate. 1) UW-40 which detail to us the PHWT procedure.
Tmin = Minimum Required Thickness, Furnace PWHT, Loading Temp. shall not exceed 800F, heating
Tmin = nominal thickness - corrosion allowance, rate 400 deg F/hr/inch of thk., cooling rate 500F /hr/inch of thk.
Difference in the PWHT Process? 2) Still air cooling permitted below 800F. During soaking period, temp
For Cylindrical shell = in furnace 5ft lap difference between hottest and coldest part shall not exceed 150F.
For Spherical shell = one or more high velocity burners that are fired 3) Minimum overlap for PWHT in multiple heats is 5 ft.
into the vessel using the top or bottom man ways PWHT => 610C for CS
Normalising => 900 to 950C for CS
Solution annealing => 1150C for SS
Pressure Vessel Definition - Scope Boundaries
based ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1 The welding end of the first circumferential joint for welded connections
MAWP > 15 psi The first threaded joint for screwed connections
Inside diameter > 152 mm The face of the first flange for bolted, flanged connections
No piping or piping component The first sealing surface for proprietary connections or fittings
No rotating or reciprocating Equipment Non pressure parts welded directly to a pressure retaining surface
Not Water Vessel up to 300psi or 210F Pressure retaining covers
Not within the scope of other Sections Pressure relief devices
Also for gas fired double shell heat exchangers < 50 psi
Not Steam Boilers with direct firing
Not for Human Occupancy (PVHO)
1) Clad Plate 2) Clad material
ASME SA 263 => Stainless Cr Steel Clad Plate Stainless steel
264 => Stainless Cr-Ni Steel Clad Plate ASTM A 240 316 C- 0.08 Ni- 10 14 Cr. 16 18, Mo 2 - 3
265 => Ni & Ni base alloy Steel Clad Plate 316L C- 0.03 Ni- 10 14 Cr. 16 18, Mo 2 3
Tensile test Composite plate Base Steel only Ni & Ni alloy
Composite gage 38 mm same ASTM B 424 N08825
TS 70 Ksi / 485 Mpa same Fe 22; Ni 38 46; Cr 19.5 23.5, Mo 2.5 3.5
YS 40 / 275 same ASTM B 443 N08625
TS Min to 35 Mpa over Fe < 5; Ni > 58; Cr 20 23, Mo 8 10
Base Metal
Shear strength 20 Ksi / 140 Mpa or three Bend test (bond Test)
Clad = 1.9 mm min thk need