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English in Use ESO 3 Lomce Grammar Appendix

Students Book, pg. 174 Students Book,


pgs. 175-176
Used to
Afirmativa Negativa El Past Perfect Simple
I used to dance I didnt use to dance Afirmativa Forma contrada
You used to dance You didnt use to dance I had won Id won
He used to dance He didnt use to dance You had won Youd won
She used to dance She didnt use to dance He had won Hed won
It used to dance It didnt use to dance She had won Shed won
We used to dance We didnt use to dance It had won Itd won
You used to dance You didnt use to dance We had won Wed won
They used to dance They didnt use to dance You had won Youd won
Respuestas breves They had won Theyd won
Interrogativa
Afirmativa Negativa Negativa Forma contrada
Did I use to dance? Yes, I did. No, I didnt. I had not won I hadnt won
Did you use to dance? Yes, you did. No, you didnt. You had not won You hadnt won
Did he use to dance? Yes, he did. No, he didnt. He had not won He hadnt won
Did she use to dance? Yes, she did. No, she didnt. She had not won She hadnt won
Did it use to dance? Yes, it did. No, it didnt. It had not won It hadnt won
Did we use to dance? Yes, we did. No, we didnt. We had not won We hadnt won
Did you use to dance? Yes, you did. No, you didnt. You had not won You hadnt won
Did they use to dance? Yes, they did. No, they didnt. They had not won They hadnt won
Used to expresa hechos o estados que eran Respuestas breves
Interrogativa
habituales en otro tiempo y luego dejaron de serlo. Afirmativa Negativa
Solo tiene la forma de pasado y va seguido de otro Had I won ... ? Yes, I had. No, I hadnt.
verbo en la forma base. Se traduce como el pretrito
Had you won ... ? Yes, you had. No, you hadnt.
imperfecto del verbo soler o del verbo que lo sigue.
Had he won ... ? Yes, he had. No, he hadnt.
Afirmativa: sujeto + used to + un verbo en la forma
base. Had she won ... ? Yes, she had. No, she hadnt.
I used to play tennis every day. Had it won ... ? Yes, it had. No, it hadnt.
(Sola jugar / Jugaba a tenis todos los das.)
Had we won ... ? Yes, we had. No, we hadnt.
Negativa: sujeto + did not / didnt + use to (sin d) +
un verbo en la forma base. Had you won ... ? Yes, you had. No, you hadnt.
S ophie didnt use to have short hair. Had they won ... ? Yes, they had. No, they hadnt.
(Sophie no sola tener / tena el pelo corto.)
Se usa para indicar que una accin ocurri antes que
Interrogativa: Did + sujeto + use to (sin d) + un otra en el pasado. Esta ltima va en Past Simple.
verbo en la forma base.
Did you use to get good marks at school? Afirmativa: sujeto + had + un verbo en participio.
(Solas sacar / Sacabas buenas notas en el Pam bought the book that she had seen the day before.
colegio?) (Pam compr el libro que haba visto el da anterior.)

Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre Negativa: sujeto + had + la partcula not o la


personal sujeto + did o didnt. contraccin nt + un verbo en participio.
Did they use to have a dog? Yes, they did. / When John phoned, we hadnt arrived home yet.
No, they didnt. (Cuando llam John, no habamos llegado a casa
(Solan tener / Tenan un perro? S. / No.) an.)

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Grammar Appendix
Interrogativa: Had + sujeto + un verbo en participio. El futuro con be going to
Had she been in Rome before?
Be going to se usa para hablar de intenciones, planes
(Haba estado en Roma antes?)
o decisiones sobre el futuro y para expresar lo que va
Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre a suceder porque se ven indicios de ello.
personal sujeto + had o hadnt. Im going to paint the house.
Had you locked the door? Yes, I had. / No, I hadnt. (Voy a pintar la casa.)
(Habas cerrado la puerta con llave? S. / No.) Shes going to have a baby.
Con el Past Perfect Simple se suelen usar las (Va a tener un beb.)
siguientes expresiones temporales y adverbios:
I had cleaned the car before El Present Continuous con valor de futuro
before antes
I went to the party. El Present Continuous expresa lo que est
He ate some ice cream after ocurriendo en el presente, pero tambin se usa para
after despus anunciar planes personales que ocurrirn en el
he had finished lunch.
futuro prximo porque se han fijado de antemano.
as soon tan pronto As soon as I had got up, I
as I am cooking for my friends today.
como went to buy the newspaper.
(Hoy cocino / cocinar para mis amigos.) [ya se ha
by the By the time he was five, he
(para) cuando decidido]
time had read many books.
Until I went to Italy, I hadnt Se distingue de be going to en que expresa algo
until hasta que seguro, no una intencin, y del Present Continuous
eaten real Italian food.
Ian had finished his normal en las expresiones temporales, que se
when cuando refieren al futuro y no al presente: soon (pronto),
homework when I arrived.
later (ms tarde), tomorrow (maana), tonight (esta
afirmativa: I had already seen Jim when
already noche), next week / month / year (la semana /
ya he said hello to us.
el mes / el ao que viene), etc.
negativa: It was 3 am and the pub W  e are visiting a chocolate factory next month.
todava, an hadnt closed yet. (Visitamos / Visitaremos una fbrica de chocolate el
yet When you arrived at the
interrogativa: mes que viene.)
station, had the train left Susan is coming later.
ya
yet? (Susan viene / vendr ms tarde.)

Students Book, pg. 177 Students Book,


El Present Simple con valor de futuro pgs. 178-179
El Present Simple se puede utilizar como tiempo El Future Continuous
futuro cuando va seguido de horarios y programas. Afirmativa Forma contrada
The next train leaves at 10 oclock. I will be skiing Ill be skiing
(El prximo tren sale a las 10.)
You will be skiing Youll be skiing
The Internet course starts next week.
(El curso de Internet empieza la semana que viene.) He will be skiing Hell be skiing
She will be skiing Shell be skiing
Repaso de los tiempos de futuro It will be skiing Itll be skiing
El futuro con will We will be skiing Well be skiing
You will be skiing Youll be skiing
Will se usa para anunciar acciones o hechos
futuros, para predecir lo que se cree que ocurrir y They will be skiing Theyll be skiing
para expresar decisiones repentinas. Negativa Forma contrada
Kim will come to our concert. I will not be skiing I wont be skiing
(Kim vendr a nuestro concierto.)
You will not be skiing You wont be skiing
I think it will snow tonight.
(Creo que nevar esta noche.) He will not be skiing He wont be skiing
Im tired. Ill take a taxi. She will not be skiing She wont be skiing
(Estoy cansada. Coger un taxi.)
It will not be skiing It wont be skiing
We will not be skiing We wont be skiing
You will not be skiing You wont be skiing
They will not be skiing They wont be skiing

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Grammar Appendix
Respuestas breves En lugar de would, podemos usar el verbo modal
Interrogativa could en el resultado, pero este indica que la
Afirmativa Negativa
probabilidad de que se cumpla la hiptesis es an
Will I be skiing? Yes, I will. No, I wont. menor. Equivale al verbo poder en condicional o a
Will you be skiing? Yes, you will. No, you wont. las expresiones tal vez o quizs + condicional.
Will he be skiing? Yes, he will. No, he wont. I could arrive on time if I left now.
(Podra llegar a tiempo si me marchara ahora.)
Will she be skiing? Yes, she will. No, she wont.
Si el verbo de la condicin es to be, se suele usar
Will it be skiing? Yes, it will. No, it wont. were en todas las personas del singular y del plural.
Will we be skiing? Yes, we will. No, we wont.  If that house were on sale, Id buy it.
(Si esa casa estuviera a la venta, la comprara.)
Will you be skiing? Yes, you will. No, you wont.
Para dar consejos se utiliza la frmula If I were.
Will they be skiing? Yes, they will. No, they wont. I f I were him, Id talk to Judy.
(Si yo fuera l, hablara con Judy.)
Se usa para indicar lo que estar ocurriendo en un
momento determinado del futuro. Negativa: se puede negar la condicin, el resultado
o ambos.
Afirmativa: sujeto + will be + verbo principal
If I didnt have a car, I would go by bus.
acabado en -ing.
(Si yo no tuviera un coche, ira en autobs.)
I will be sleeping all morning.
If I had a car, I wouldnt go by bus.
(Estar durmiendo / Dormir toda la maana.)
(Si yo tuviera un coche, no ira en autobs.)
Negativa: sujeto + will not be o wont be + verbo If I didnt have a car, I wouldnt go by bus.
principal acabado en -ing. (Si yo no tuviera un coche, no ira en autobs.)
P eter wont be taking us home on Monday. (Peter no
nos llevar a casa el lunes.) Interrogativa: Would + sujeto + predicado de la
oracin principal (resultado) + oracin subordinada
Interrogativa: Will + sujeto + be + verbo principal (condicin).
acabado en -ing. Would you call the police if you saw someone stealing
Will she be staying with us next week? a car?
(Se quedar con nosotros la semana que viene?) (Llamaras a la polica si vieras a alguien robando
Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre un coche?)
personal sujeto + will o wont. Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre
Will you be studying for the exam at this time personal sujeto + would o wouldnt.
tomorrow? Yes, I will. / No, I wont. Would you spend more time with your friends if you
(Estars estudiando para el examen maana a could? Yes, I would. / No, I wouldnt.
estas horas? S. / No.) (Pasaras ms tiempo con tus amigos si pudieras?
El Future Continuous a veces se utiliza para S. / No.)
interesarse por los planes de alguien, especialmente
si se quiere conseguir algo. Students Book, pg. 181
Will you be working on Saturday?
(Estars trabajando / Trabajars el sbado?) El tercer condicional
Con el Future Continuous se suelen usar las Se usa para hablar de condiciones totalmente
siguientes expresiones temporales: at this time imposibles, pues se refieren al pasado y ya no pueden
tomorrow (maana a esta/s hora/s), at this time realizarse.
next ... (el/la... que viene a esta/s hora/s), on + un Afirmativa: la condicin se expresa con if + Past
da de la semana, in the next decade (en la prxima
Perfect Simple, y el resultado con would have +
dcada), etc.
participio.
A  t this time next week, I will be flying to Athens.
I f we had had a tent, we would have slept outside.
(La semana que viene a estas horas, estar volando
(Si hubiramos tenido una tienda de campaa,
a Atenas.)
habramos dormido fuera.)

Students Book, pg. 180 Negativa: se puede negar la condicin, el resultado


o ambos.
I wouldnt have been late if I had taken the
El segundo condicional underground.
Se usa para hablar de acciones hipotticas referidas (No habra llegado tarde si hubiera cogido el metro.)
al presente, es decir, que es poco probable que I would have been late if I hadnt taken the
ocurran. underground.
Afirmativa: la condicin se expresa con if + Past (Habra llegado tarde si no hubiera cogido el metro.)
Simple, y el resultado con would (o la contraccin d) I wouldnt have been late if I hadnt taken the
+ el verbo en la forma base. underground.
I f I had a lot of money, I would live in a residential (No habra llegado tarde si no hubiera cogido el
area. (Si tuviera mucho dinero, vivira en una zona metro.)
residencial.)
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Grammar Appendix
Interrogativa: Would + sujeto + have + participio + May (puede que, tal vez) y might (pudiera / podra
predicado de la oracin principal (resultado) + ser que) expresan posibilidad, aunque en el segundo
oracin subordinada (condicin). caso es ms remota. May tambin se utiliza para dar,
Would you have found the market if you hadnt pedir o denegar permiso, o para hacer peticiones
asked the police officer? educadas.
(Habras encontrado el mercado si no le hubieras Afirmativa: sujeto + may / might + un verbo en la
preguntado al polica?) forma base.
Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre  I may / might arrive late.
personal sujeto + would o wouldnt. (Puede que llegue / Podra ser que llegara tarde.)
Would you have bought the tickets if they had been  You may use my backpack.
more expensive? Yes, I would. / No, I wouldnt. (Puedes usar mi mochila.)
(Habras comprado las entradas si hubieran sido Negativa: sujeto + may / might not + un verbo en
ms caras? S. / No.) la forma base.
 hey may / might not win the game.
T
Students Book, pg. 182 (Puede que no ganen / Podra ser que no ganaran el
partido.)
Las oraciones temporales Interrogativa: May + sujeto + un verbo en la forma
base. En interrogativa, solo se usa may y tiene el
Las referidas al futuro se forman como las oraciones significado de permiso o peticin, no el de
del primer condicional: Present Simple en la posibilidad.
subordinada y Future Simple en la principal. Lo que May I go to the toilet, please?
cambian son las conjunciones. En lugar de if o unless, (Puedo ir al bao, por favor?)
se usan by the time ((para) cuando), when (cuando),
as soon as (tan pronto como, en cuanto), after (despus Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre
de (que)), before (antes de (que)), once (una vez que, personal sujeto + may o may not.
en cuanto), etc. May I have a seat? Yes, you may. / No, you may not.
I will call you as soon as I get home. (Puedo sentarme? S. / No.)
(Te llamar en cuanto llegue a casa.)
Well have something to eat when Mike arrives.
need to / dont need to
(Comeremos algo cuando llegue Mike.) Afirmativa Negativa
I need to go I dont need to go
Students Book, You need to go You dont need to go
pgs. 183-184 He needs to go He doesnt need to go
She needs to go She doesnt need to go
Los modales
It needs to go It doesnt need to go
may / might We need to go We dont need to go
Afirmativa
You need to go You dont need to go
I may come I might come
They need to go They dont need to go
You may come You might come
Respuestas breves
He may come He might come Interrogativa
Afirmativa Negativa
She may come She might come
Do I need to go? Yes, I do. No, I dont.
It may come It might come
Do you need to go? Yes, you do. No, you dont.
We may come We might come
Does he need to go? Yes, he does. No, he doesnt.
You may come You might come
Does she need to go? Yes, she does. No, she doesnt.
They may come They might come
Does it need to go? Yes, it does. No, it doesnt.
Negativa
I may not come I might not come Do we need to go? Yes, we do. No, we dont.
You may not come You might not come Do you need to go? Yes, you do. No, you dont.
He may not come He might not come Do they need to go? Yes, they do. No, they dont.
She may not come She might not come Significa tener que y expresa como have to, la
It may not come It might not come obligacin o necesidad de hacer algo. Se puede
We may not come We might not come conjugar y, por lo tanto, puede usarse en todos los
tiempos verbales.
You may not come You might not come
Afirmativa: sujeto + need to / needs to + un verbo
They may not come They might not come
en la forma base.
I need to study for the exam.
(Tengo que estudiar para el examen.)
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Grammar Appendix
Negativa: sujeto + dont / doesnt need to + un Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre
verbo en la forma base. personal sujeto + to be como verbo auxiliar en
Y ou dont need to come with me. presente, sin contraer en afirmativa o contrado en
(No tienes que venir conmigo.) negativa.
Interrogativa: Do / Does + sujeto + need to + un Are they able to run a marathon? Yes, they are. /
verbo en la forma base. No, they arent.
D  oes he need to buy bread for dinner? (Pueden correr una maratn? S. / No.)
(Tiene que comprar pan para la cena?)
Repaso de los modales
Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre
personal sujeto + do / does o dont / doesnt. should / shouldnt
Do we need to leave now? Yes, you do. / No, you dont.
(Tenemos que marcharnos ahora? S. / No.) Should se usa para dar o pedir consejos y para decir
lo que se debera o no hacer.
be able to
Afirmativa: sujeto + should + un verbo en la
Afirmativa Negativa
forma base.
I am able to swim Im not able to swim You should call your parents.
You are able to swim You arent able to swim (Deberas llamar a tus padres.)
He is able to swim He isnt able to swim Negativa: sujeto + should not o shouldnt (la ms
habitual es la segunda) + un verbo en la forma base.
She is able to swim She isnt able to swim
They shouldnt send so many text messages.
It is able to swim It isnt able to swim (No deberan enviar tantos mensajes de texto.)
We are able to swim We arent able to swim Interrogativa: Should + sujeto + un verbo en la
You are able to swim You arent able to swim forma base.
S  hould I buy a new mobile phone?
They are able to swim They arent able to swim (Debera comprarme un telfono mvil nuevo?)
Respuestas breves Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre
Interrogativa
Afirmativa Negativa personal sujeto + should o shouldnt.
Am I able to swim? Yes, I am. No, Im not. Should we leave at six oclock? Yes, you should. /
No, you shouldnt.
Are you able to swim? Yes, you are. No, you arent.
(Deberamos irnos a las seis? S. / No.)
Is he able to swim? Yes, he is. No, he isnt.
Is she able to swim? Yes, she is. No, she isnt. must / mustnt
Is it able to swim? Yes, it is. No, it isnt. Afirmativa: sujeto + must + un verbo en la forma
Are we able to swim? Yes, we are. No, we arent. base. Expresa la obligacin y la necesidad o
conveniencia de hacer algo, y significa deber.
Are you able to swim? Yes, you are. No, you arent. You must turn off your phones.
Are they able to swim? Yes, they are. No, they arent. (Debis apagar los telfonos.)
Negativa: sujeto + must not o mustnt (la ms
Tiene el mismo significado que can, pero be able to
habitual es la segunda) + un verbo en la forma base.
puede conjugarse.
Expresa prohibicin, que algo no est permitido, y
Afirmativa: sujeto + to be en presente + able to + tambin que algo no se debe hacer porque no es
un verbo en la forma base. conveniente o correcto hacerlo.
 Kevin is able to speak Chinese. [habilidad] You mustnt smoke here.
(Kevin sabe hablar chino.) (No debes fumar aqu.) [est prohibido]
I am not able to help you. [posibilidad] S he mustnt lie to her parents.
(No puedo ayudarte.) (No debe mentir a sus padres.) [no es correcto]
Negativa: sujeto + to be en presente + not o nt + Interrogativa: Must + sujeto + un verbo en la forma
able to + un verbo en la forma base. base. En ese caso, must expresa obligacin o
She isnt able to come to the party. [posibilidad] necesidad, aunque este verbo modal no se suele
(No puede venir a la fiesta.) usar en la forma interrogativa.
Interrogativa: to be en presente + sujeto + able to + M ust we tell Sally about the accident?
un verbo en la forma base. (Debemos decirle a Sally lo del accidente?)
I s he able to play the violin? [habilidad] Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre
(Sabe tocar el violn?) personal sujeto + must.
M  ust I invite Ben? Yes, you must.
(Debo invitar a Ben? S.)

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Grammar Appendix
have to / dont have to Interrogativa: Can + sujeto + un verbo en la
forma base.
Afirmativa: sujeto + have / has to + un verbo en la C an they come with us? [permiso]
forma base. Significa tener que y expresa, como (Pueden venirse con nosotros?)
must, la obligacin o necesidad de hacer algo. La Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre
diferencia es que have to s se conjuga y, por eso, personal sujeto + can o cant.
se usa en los tiempos que must no tiene. C an you make pottery? Yes, I can. / No, I cant.
We have to send her an e-mail right now. (Sabes hacer cermica? S. / No.)
(Tenemos que enviarle un correo electrnico
ahora mismo.) could / couldnt
Negativa: sujeto + dont / doesnt have to + un
verbo en la forma base. Significa no tener que /  ould expresa habilidad y posibilidad en el pasado y
C
por qu. tambin se puede usar para pedir permiso o favores
He doesnt have to buy her a present. de forma ms educada que con can.
(No tiene que / por qu comprarle un regalo.) Afirmativa: sujeto + could + un verbo en la
Recuerda que have to significa lo mismo que must, forma base.
pero dont have to y mustnt no son equivalentes. Lucy could read when she was three years old.
You dont have to go. [habilidad]
(No tienes que / por qu ir.) [no es necesario] (Lucy saba leer cuando tena tres aos.)
You mustnt go. They could finish their homework on time. [posibilidad]
(No debes ir.) [est prohibido] (Pudieron terminar los deberes a tiempo.)
Interrogativa: Do / Does + sujeto + have to + un Negativa: sujeto + could not o la forma contrada
verbo en la forma base. couldnt + un verbo en la forma base.
Do you have to do any homework this afternoon? I couldnt go to school because I was ill. [posibilidad]
(Tienes que hacer deberes esta tarde?) (No pude ir al colegio porque estaba enfermo.)
Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre Interrogativa: Could + sujeto + un verbo en la
personal sujeto + do / does o dont / doesnt. forma base.
Does she have to take care of Paul? Yes, she does. / Could you take me home? [permiso]
No, she doesnt. (Podrais llevarme a casa?)
(Tiene que cuidar a Paul? S. / No.) Respuestas breves: se pone el pronombre
Aunque el uso de have to y must es similar, must personal sujeto + could o couldnt.
suelen utilizarlo las personas que tienen autoridad Could they hire a car? Yes, they could. / No, they
(profesores, padres, mdicos, etc.), mientras que couldnt. (Pudieron alquilar un coche? S. / No.)
have to lo usa todo el mundo.
You must be on time for the exam. Students Book,
(Debis llegar a tiempo al examen.)
I have to do many exercises.
pgs. 185-186
(Tengo que hacer muchos ejercicios.)
Las oraciones de relativo
can / cant Son oraciones subordinadas que aportan ms
informacin sobre la persona, cosa o animal que se
Can expresa habilidad o capacidad para hacer algo menciona en la oracin principal y van introducidas
(saber), posibilidad (poder) y tambin se usa para pedir por pronombres relativos que pueden ser el sujeto o el
permiso o favores (poder). complemento de la oracin. En este ltimo caso es
Afirmativa: sujeto + can + un verbo en la frecuente omitirlos en la conversacin.
forma base.
L  isa can swim very well. [habilidad] Defining relative clauses
(Lisa sabe nadar muy bien.) Las oraciones de relativo especificativas aportan
W  e can book our flight on the Internet. [posibilidad] informacin tan esencial sobre su antecedente que sin
(Podemos reservar nuestro vuelo por Internet.) ellas, la frase quedara incompleta.
Y  ou can take my suitcase to London. [permiso] Who se usa cuando el antecedente es una persona.
(Puedes llevarte mi maleta a Londres.) Se puede sustituir por that.
Negativa: sujeto + cannot o la forma contrada H  e is the man who / that won the lottery.
cant + un verbo en la forma base. (Es el hombre que gan la lotera.)
I cannot / cant play the piano. [habilidad]
En el lenguaje formal, a veces se utiliza whom en
(No s tocar el piano.)
lugar de who cuando funciona como complemento de
la oracin de relativo.
 his is Mary, whom you met last year.
T
(Esta es Mary, a quien conociste el ao pasado.)

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Grammar Appendix
Which se usa para referirse a cosas o animales. Se Estilo directo Estilo indirecto
puede sustituir por that. Present Simple Past Simple
I liked the book which / that you lent me. I always recycle newspapers, Beth said.
(Me gust el libro que me prestaste.)
Beth said that she always recycled newspapers.
Where se usa cuando el antecedente es un lugar. (Beth dijo que siempre reciclaba los peridicos.)
No se puede sustituir por that.
Present Continuous Past Continuous
The house where my aunt lives is very old.
(La casa donde vive mi ta es muy antigua.)
She is giving a talk at school, Paul said.
Paul said that she was giving a talk at school.
When se usa cuando el antecedente es una (Paul dijo que ella estaba dando una charla en el colegio.)
clusula temporal. Se puede sustituir por that.
Past Simple Past Perfect Simple
I remember the year when / that you moved to London.
(Recuerdo el ao en que te mudaste a Londres.) We set up a foundation, Tom said.
Tom said that they had set up a foundation.
Whose se usa cuando el antecedente es una (Tom dijo que ellos haban creado una fundacin.)
persona. Expresa posesin.
Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple
 Mark has got a neighbour whose dog barks a lot.
(Mark tiene un vecino cuyo perro ladra mucho.) I have received 2,000 e-mails a day, the boy said.
The boy said that he had received 2,000 e-mails a day.
Los pronombres relativos pueden ser sujeto o (El chico dijo que haba recibido 2.000 correos al da.)
complemento de la oracin subordinada. Si funcionan
como complemento se pueden omitir los pronombres Future (will) Future (would)
who, which, when y that. I will visit all the museums in Oslo, Jane said.
This is the car I wanted to buy. Jane said that she would visit all the museums in Oslo.
(Este es el coche que quera comprar.) (Jane dijo que visitara todos los museos de Oslo.)
can could
Non-defining relative clauses You can buy green products, the teacher said.
Las oraciones de relativo explicativas aaden The teacher said that we could buy green products.
informacin sobre sus antecedentes, que no es (La profesora dijo que podamos comprar productos
esencial para que la frase tenga sentido, y van entre ecolgicos.)
comas. Se forman con who, which, where, when y must had to
whose, que no se pueden omitir ni sustituir por that.
Ben, who hasnt got a Facebook account, didnt know We must take care of the environment, Dad said.
about the party. (Ben, que no tiene cuenta en Dad said that we had to take care of the environment.
Facebook, no se enter de la fiesta.) (Pap dijo que tenamos que cuidar del medio ambiente.)
Cuando la frase enuncia una verdad general no hay
Students Book, cambio en los tiempos verbales:
pgs. 187-188  People dont recycle enough, she said.
She said that people dont recycle enough.
El estilo indirecto (Ella dijo que la gente no recicla lo suficiente.)
Se utiliza para contar lo que ha dicho alguien sin El cambio de estilo directo a indirecto tambin
repetir exactamente sus palabras. afecta a las expresiones de tiempo y de lugar, a los
demostrativos y a los posesivos:
Reported statements
Estilo directo Estilo indirecto
Se usan los verbos say o tell y la conjuncin that now then
(esta se suele omitir en ingls hablado), se quitan las
comillas y se cambian el pronombre sujeto y la today, tonight that day, that night
persona del verbo. tomorrow the next / following day
Im having lunch, Alice says. yesterday the previous day, the day before
Alice says that shes having lunch.
(Alice dice que est comiendo.)
next week / year the following week / year
the week / year before,
Pero lo normal es contarlo en pasado. Por lo tanto, last week / year
the previous week / year
se usan said o told y adems, el verbo de la oracin
a month before, the previous
subordinada introducida por that da un salto atrs a month ago
month
en el tiempo (de Present Simple a Past Simple, de
este a Past Perfect Simple, etc.). here there
this, these that, those
my his / her, etc.

7
Grammar Appendix
Reporting verbs Reported commands
Son los que introducen el estilo indirecto, como say Para pasar una orden a estilo indirecto se cambia el
y tell, que transmiten el mensaje sin aadir ms imperativo por un infinitivo. Pero antes del infinitivo se
informacin. El verbo tell va siempre seguido de un usa un verbo que exprese mandato, como tell u
complemento sin to. El verbo say puede llevar o no order, seguido del complemento indirecto. Hay otros
llevar complemento, pero si lo lleva, debe llevar to. verbos que siguen esta estructura a pesar de no
tell + compl. expresar una orden: ask o beg para expresar
say (+ to + compl.) peticiones, o warn para advertir a alguien de algo.
Ive spent my salary on this freezer, he said. Take the books to the library, she asked me.
He said (to us) / told us that he had spent his salary She asked me to take the books to the library.
on that freezer. (Me pidi que llevara los libros a la biblioteca.)
(l nos dijo que se haba gastado el sueldo en ese Cuando se trata de una oracin negativa, se pone not
congelador.) delante de to.
Cuando se quiere comunicar la intencin o el tono Dont leave your dirty clothes on the floor, my mother
del hablante, se pueden usar otros muchos ordered me.
reporting verbs: add, admit, agree, announce, My mother ordered me not to leave my dirty clothes
complain, explain, promise, shout, warn, on the floor.
whisper, etc. (Mi madre me orden que no dejase la ropa sucia en
I didnt like the food at the restaurant, Sara el suelo.)
complained.
Sara complained that she hadnt liked the food at the Reported suggestions
restaurant.
Primero se pone el sujeto y el verbo suggest o
(Sara se quej de que no le haba gustado la comida
recommend en pasado y, a continuacin, decimos lo
del restaurante.)
que sugiri esa persona. Tambin se pueden usar
advise para dar consejo e invite para hacer una
Reported questions invitacin. Las sugerencias se pueden pasar al estilo
Hay dos tipos de preguntas en ingls: indirecto de dos formas:
Las Yes / No questions son las que se pueden Usando una oracin de complemento directo
contestar con un s o un no. Para ponerlas en introducida por that, con su sujeto y el verbo en la
estilo indirecto se emplea el verbo ask, y a forma base.
continuacin if o whether. Entonces, como la
pregunta deja de serlo y se convierte en una
 You should stay at home, my sister suggested.
afirmativa, no hay inversin sujeto-verbo ni signo de
My sister suggested that I stay at home.
(Mi hermana sugiri que me quedara en casa.)
interrogacin, y tampoco comillas.
Usando el gerundio, sin especificar ningn sujeto.
Do you know who won the match? they asked her.
They asked her if / whether she knew who had won Lets go to the cinema tomorrow.
the match. She suggested going to the cinema the next day.
(Le preguntaron si saba quin haba ganado (Ella sugiri ir al cine al da siguiente.)
el partido.)
Las Wh- questions no se pueden contestar con un
Reported offers
s o un no. Son las que comienzan con una Para pasar un ofrecimiento a estilo indirecto, se pone
partcula interrogativa (what, who, where, when, el sujeto y el verbo offer o promise en pasado y, a
why, whose, etc.). Al pasarlas al estilo indirecto continuacin, un verbo en infinitivo con to.
ponemos dicha partcula en lugar de if o whether. Ill make dinner tonight.
Luego van el sujeto y el verbo, y se prescinde del He offered to make dinner that night.
signo de interrogacin y de las comillas. (l se ofreci a hacer la cena esa noche.)
 Where have you spent your summer holidays? Lea Cuando se trata de una oracin negativa, se pone not
asked Sophie. delante de to.
Lea asked Sophie where she had spent her summer
holidays. I promise I wont be late.
(Lea pregunt a Sophie dnde haba pasado sus He promised not to be late.
vacaciones de verano.) (l prometi no llegar tarde.)
Las preguntas en estilo indirecto pueden expresar
algo de lo que no se est seguro o que no se sabe.
We wanted to know / wondered who had sent her
flowers. (Queramos saber / Nos preguntbamos
quin le haba enviado flores.)
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