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Subject Code/ Session BFC 32501/ Sem 1 2017/2018
Section 1
Group Members


Lecturer / Instructor
Submission Date

CLO 1: Report/
Presentation/ 20%
Team work

CLO 2: Report/
Presentation/ 40%
Team work

CLO 3: Team work/


Received Stamp TOTAL

Examiner Comments

Sampling is the process of collecting a portion of an environmental medium as

representative of the locally remaining medium. Sampling is the basic process we go
through before starting the another test. The collected portion of the medium is then
analysed to determine the ideas and information about sampling and analysis of chemicals
as they impact the community. It involved in collecting and preparing samples in the field
for analysis, and in evaluating the results of these analyses.

Biological oxygen demand is defined as the amount of oxygen required by

microorganism to stabilize biological decomposable organic matter in a waste under aerobic
conditions. BOD is evaluated by measuring oxygen concentration in sample, before and
incubation in the dark at 20c for 5 days. Therefore, a low BOD is an indicator of good
quality water while a high BOD indicates polluted water. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is
consumed by bacteria when large amounts of organic matter from sewage of other
discharges are present in the water. DO is the actual amounts of oxygen available in
dissolved form in the water. When the DO drops below a certain level, the life forms in that
water are unable to continue at a normal rate. The decrease in the oxygen supply in the
water has negative effect on the fish and other aquatic life.

Jar Test is a method of measuring the effect of coagulation, flocculation, and

sedimentation on turbidity. Although the procedure is not outlined in Standard Methods, it is
used in most water treatment plant to find the best coagulant dosages under varying
conditions. Coagulation / flocculation is the process of binding small particles in the water
together into larger, heavier clumps which settle out relatively quickly. The larger particles
are known as flock. Properly formed flock will settle out of water quickly in the
sedimentation basin, removing the majority of the waters turbidity. In this laboratory, we
will perform the jar test on a river water samples taken from the FKAAS river in UTHM.
By adding a little amount of alum and measuring initial and final Ph values, conductivity,
temperature, and turbidity, we were able to determine the optimum dosage of alum solution
added to water sample by looking at trends in the data what the most effective approach to
the river water treatment.

Bacteria count is to indicate how many microorganisms, such as bacteria and yeast,
are present within all human environments without being conspicuously recognizable to the
naked human eye. Environmental swabs were taken of 11 variable locations, were isolated,
and were then grown over a 48 hour incubation period in agar media for optimum colony
presence. Colonies were gram stained in order to morphologically categorize bacteria by
shape and gram negative or positive status. Bacteria consist of only a single cell which is
amazingly complex and fascinating group of creatures. Bacteria have been found that can
live in temperatures above the boiling point and in cold that would freeze your blood. They
"eat" everything from sugar and starch to sunlight, sulphur and iron.

Total suspended solids are the material residue left after evaporation of a sample and
its subsequent drying in an oven. Some factors that affects the separation of suspended
from dissolved solids are pore size, porosity, particle size and amount of material deposited
on the filter paper. Dissolved solids are solids that passes a 2 while suspended solids is
the portion retained on the filter. According to Total Suspended Solid (TSS) , high
concentration of suspended solids will make the water warmer thus decreasing the ability of
water to hold oxygen and this will also prevent aquatic lives to live in the water.

In this environmental laboratory, all the water samples for all of the experiment are
taken from the FKAAS Lake. By determines the initial and final pH values, conductivity,
temperature, and turbidity, we were able to determine most effective approach to the lake
water treatment.

Based on BFC 32501 course, it required to identify the water quality of

sedimentation pond in UTHM which is exactly located in front of Faculty of Civil
Engineering & Environment UTHM. Therefore, to get the water quality of the
sedimentation pond, it should be carried out based on turbidity, total suspended solid, pH,
Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and bacteria count test.
Then, it will be classified based on Malaysia Interim National Water Quality Standard.

So, to classify the water sample, there are four parameters that has used during the
laboratory which are Bacteria Count, Total Suspended Solid, Biochemical Oxygen Demand
(BOD) and Jar Test. Before the experiment is carried out by using these parameters, the
correct method of water sampling technique was practiced.

The first parameter is using Bacteria Count which required determining the bacteria
population by using plate count method. Plate counts reflect the number of variable
microbes and assume that each bacterium grows into simple colony. It impossible to say that
each colony is arise from an individual cell and plate counts are jot down as number of
colony forming units instead number of cell. The plate count should be done either pour
plate method or spread plate method.

Next, the parameter used was Total Suspended Solid (TSS). The term total
suspended solids are referred to materials that are not dissolved in water and non-filtrate in
nature. In laboratory works for TSS, it more to turbidity and total solid in water sample.
Other than that, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) also was used to measure the quantity
of oxygen used by microorganisms in the oxidation of organic matter. It means that BOD is
used to measure the dissolved oxygen concentration caused by microorganism as they
degrade organic matter. The water is poor if the BOD is higher.

Turbidity in water was caused by suspended and colloidal matter such as clay, silt,
finely divided organic and inorganic matter, plankton and also others microscopic organism.
Therefore, Jar Test parameters are used to determine the turbidity of water. The particle are
encourage to collide and leading to coalescence of particle to form particle which are bigger
& heavier.


It is important to know how to conduct the experiment in the lab. The procedure is
important as a guideline. Therefore, before we identify the water quality of sedimentation
lake in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), we are required to identify the
specific lake that needed to be used to take the water sample.

Water quality is refers to the environmental indicator which are divided into physical
indicators, chemical indicators and also biological indicators. For physical indicators, it can
be interpret with our senses such as by our eyes, nose, skin & etc. Next, for chemical
indicators, it indicates the chemical reading of the example such as pH, Biochemical
Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). Lastly, biological indicators are
index of biological integrity.

So, collect the water sample there is some steps should be follow. Besides, there are
also a few precaution steps should be considered to make sure there is no injury and
accident happens when the process is carried out.

Figure 3.0: Map of UTHM

The sedimentation lake that has been chosen is in front of Faculty of Civil &
Environment Engineering (FKAAS) UTHM which is located at longitude 1.864353 and
latitude 103.083481 as shown in the figure 3.0. The surrounding environment of the lake is
quite suitable to take water sample as there are not many trees around the lake. Besides, the
lake is a natural type lake & not a man-made lake.

The water sample was collected in 1L laboratory bottle. Then, the bottle should be
clearly labeled by date, time, number of sample, data collected in-situ and the most
important thing is site area. As we all know, water sampling is the first step before testing or
analyzing the data.


4.1 MA01 - Sampling

Sampling Procedure:
1. The water sample bottle sampling is rinsed with sample water at least 3 times.
2. Move to another running water area, and the mouth of the bottle is pointed downstream.
3. The water sample bottle sampling is filled with water until full. The half-filled water in
bottle will provides more room for oxygen to promote degradation of the sample.
4. The data of pH and turbidity is collected.
5. The bottle is labeled.

Location: Faculty of Civil and Environment Engineering (FKAAS)
Date: 22/10/2017
Time: 14:25 hours
No Parameter Equipment Reading Unit
1. pH pH meter 6.34 -
2. Turbidity Turbidity meter 33.5 NTU
4.2 MA02 : Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5)

pH of sample : 8.08

Eqn A = minimum waste to be filled in BOD bottle

= [(2 mg/L) 300 mL] / 40 mg/L
= 15 mL
Eqn B = maximum waste to be filled in BOD bottle
= [(8 mg/L 1 mg/L) 300 mL] / 40 mg/L
= 52.5 mL
Therefore sample size = 15 mL to 52 mL (15mL has been choose)

BOD ID Volume of Volume of Initial DO Final DO

sample Dilution water (mg/L) (mg/L)
(mL) ( mL)
Sample 1 15 285 8.08 7.37
Sample 2 15 248 8.12 6.35

Blank 1 - 300 8,06 7.92

Blank 2 - 300 8.04 7.74

4.3 MA03 : Total suspended solid (TSS)

Total suspended solid is a materials which are not dissolved in water and non-filterable in
nature. It is defined as residue upon evaporation of non-filterable sample on a filter paper

Description Weight (g)

Weight of the clean filter paper (g) W1 0.094

Weight of the filter paper and the residue (g) W2 0.433

Weight of residue (g) W 0.339

Volume of sample (mL) V 100


W1 = 0.094g
W2 = 0.433g
V = 100ml
Weight of residue (g) = W2 W1
= 0.433g 0.094g
= 0.339g

Weight of residue in mg = 0.339 x 1000

W (mg) = 339mg

Total Suspended Solid (mg/L)

W/V = 339mg / 100ml
= 3.39mg / ml
= 3.39mg / ml x 1000L
= 3390mg / L

4.4MA04 : Bacteria Count

Dilution Countable Bacterial Count Bacterial Count

( Yes/No) CFU/ml CFU/100 ml
1/10 Yes 113 1.13
1/100 Yes 51 0.51
1/1000 Yes 48 0.48
1/10000 No 45 0.45
1/100000 No 38 0.38


For Spread Plate Method:

Total bacteria:

= (1.13 x 10) + (0.51 x102 ) + (0.48 x103 ) + (0.45 x104 ) + (0.38 x105 )
= 4.303 x104
Average Colony/Plate:
= (1.13 + 0.51 + 0.48 + 0.45 + 0.38) / 5
= 1.475 CFU / 100ml
4.5 MA05: JAR Test

JAR NO. 1 2 3
Initial pH 5.43 5.27 5.22
Initial Temperature ( C) 29.5 29.4 29.4
Initial Turbidity (NTU) 42.5 41.8 42.5
Alum dose (ml) 1.0 2.0 3.0
Agigate (minutes) 11 11 11
Fast (rpm) 100 100 100
Slow (rpm) 30 30 30
Settling Depth (mm) 1.2 0.7 1.0
Final pH 3.67 3.62 3.90
Final Temperature (oC) 27.4 27.2 27.6
Final Turbidity (NTU) 19.39 19.20 20.7
Floc Formation moderate fine moderate

Plot the turbidity values against alum dose. Discuss the results.

Turbidity Values vs Alum Dose

Turbidity (NTU)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Alum Dose (ml)

Turbidity is essentially a measure of the cloudiness of the water which indicates the
presence of colloidal particles. The particles should be making sure removed from the water
before for the public use. Very simply, the particles in the colloid range are too small to
settle in a reasonable time period, and too small to be trapped in the pores of a filter. For
colloids to remain stable they must remain small. Most colloids are stable because they
consist a negative charge that repel other colloidal particles before they collide with one

Based on this experiment, the alum doses increased in the containers from no 1 to no
3. For this water, as the dose of alum increased the residual turbidity improved. It is
important to note that the optimum alum dose is the dose which meets the specified turbidity
required on the regulatory permit. The addition of excess alum dose may reduce turbidity
beyond what is required but also could lead to the production of more sludge which would
require disposal.

The most effective dose of alum we get from the Graph turbidity versus alum dose
after the experiment is 2.0 ml.

Procedure Jar Test

1. Determine the turbidity and pH of the raw water sample.

2. Place 1 liters of raw water in each of the 3 beakers of the laboratory stirrer. Immerse
blades and stir the raw water samples at about 100 rpm.
3. Add alum solution into each of the beaker to obtain the desired concentrations in the raw
water samples.
4. Let the samples mix at approx. 100 rpm for 1minute, then decrease the speed to approx.
30 rpm. Allow the sample to mix for a period of 10 minutes. Observe any changes in the
suspended matter in the sample.
5. At the end of the mixing period, turn off the stirrer, let the flocs settle (at least 20
minutes) and carefully remove the supernatant from each beaker and determine the turbidity
in each of the samples. Determine the pH of each treated water sample.

1. Differentiate the water quality of sample with the quality of similar sample as
measured from previous research (refer to any final year project, conference paper or
journal). What is the similarity or significant changes.

The pH and turbidity of our water sample are 6.34 and 33.5 NTU. In addition, these
concentrations were within standard permissible limits of National Water Quality
Standards, Malaysia (NWQS) for Malaysian rivers and categorized as class II.

2. Compare the observed water quality (from laboratory activities) to Effluent quality
standard. In your opinion, is it possible to discharge the sample used in this
laboratory measurement test to be discharged to the river? Give your reason

From our laboratory activities, the Total Suspended Solid of water sample is 3390
mg/L while the Effluent quality standards states that 50 mg/L (A standard). The pH
value according to the Effluent quality standard in the range 6.0 to 9.0 for A
Standard, our pH value for water sample is 6.34. However, our BOD is 21.37 mg/L
while the Effluent quality standard for A Standard is 20 mg/L.
Its possible to discharge the sample used in the laboratory into the river because the
observed quality of the water sample met the standards. The sample also categorized
as Class II according to NWQS.

As a conclusion, the water quality of sedimentation pond in UTHM which is exactly

located in front of Faculty of Civil Engineering & Environment UTHM was not
totally in range of Effluent quality standard. Only pH value and BOD are in Effluent
quality standard, but for total suspended solid must be correct. However, the pond is
still safe.

Books :

i. Rodger Baird, Roy Keith Smith 2002. Third Century of Biological Oxygen Demand:
Water Environment Federation
ii. Htter, 1994: Wasser und Wasseruntersuchung [Water & Water Investigations], 6th
edition, Otto Salle Verlag Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Internet :


MA01 Sampling

Figure 7.0: Bottle sampling with label Figure 7.1: FKAAS Sediment Lake

Figure 7.2: Taking Water Sample Process

MA02 : Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5)

Figure 7.3 : Taking sample BOD reading

Figure 7.4 : Taking sample BOD of pH reading Figure 7.5 : Our BOD&Blank sample in the incubator
MA03 : Total suspended solid (TSS)

-Figure 7.6 Clean filter membrane - Figure 7.7 The filter paper was filtered
washed with clean water the sample water.

-Fugure 7.8 Vacuum pump that help

filtered the water
MA04 : Bacteria Count

-Figure 7.9 the liquid is transfer with equivalent all

-Figure 7.10 the test tubes is clean before and after use
MA05: JAR Test

Figure 7.11 Adding alum into the water

samples using pipette. The dose of alum
differs from one beaker to another

Figure 7.12 Allowing the sample to mix

with 30 rpm

Figure 7.13 Let the flocs settled for

about 20 minutes before all the data were
Lab Report Assessment Rubrics
Section: 1



CLO 1: Explain the important of safety in laboratory/chemical handling based on JKKP/OSHA etc. [PLO4, C1,C2]

Assessment Criteria Sub-criteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score

Identify laboratory hazards
(physical/chemical/biological) and safety C1 1
Safety cautions and Lab
measurements at work place.
work aim/purpose
List laboratory equipments and materials
C1 1
Report/lab being used in the experiments.
Descriptions of the lab work needs C1 1
Perform on-site sampling
Correct use of safety attire and sampling
C2 1

Total /20

CLO 2: Display high quality of technical and interpretation skills in solving the assign problems. [PLO2, P4]
Assessment Criteria Sub-criteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score
Descriptions of the lab work needs P1 2
Perform on-site lab work Correct use of measurement technique and
P2 2
Report Discussion on the Describe correct and precise data collection P2 2
applications of the lab
work with measurement Analyse and discuss the data trends and
techniques and equations P3 2
patterns using correct graphs
Total /40

CLO 3: Describe the laboratory testing procedures among group members throughout the experiments. [PLO5, A2]

Assessment Criteria Sub-criteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score

Format of report follows given format A1 2
Team work: contribution from all members A1 2
Report/lab Convey information in
group Follows the field work instructions including
Session/on-site A2 2
safety cautions
Follows the lab instructions including safety
A2 2
Total /40

Total (%)
Assessor signature/ date: