Sie sind auf Seite 1von 5



SEMESTER 1, 2016/20117 SESSION

Programme : COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Level of Study: UG 4

Time : 5:00 pm - 7:00 pm Date : 18/10/2016

Duration : 2 Hr 00 mins Venue : Audi A

Course Code : ECE 4346 Section(s) : 1

Course Title : Selected Topic in Communications (Introduction to Radar Systems)

This Question Paper Consists of Four (4) Printed Pages (Including Cover Page) With
Five (5) Questions.



Total marks of this examination is 100.

This examination is worth 25% of the total assessment.
Answer all 5 (Five) questions.

Any form of cheating or attempt to cheat is a serious offence

which may lead to dismissal.
Introduction to Radar Systems ECE 4346

[Answer all Five (5) questions]

Q.1 [20 marks]

(a) Draw and appropriately label the radar block diagram consisting of any ten (10)
components. (5 marks)

(b) List any four (4) properties of a target that can be observed by radar systems.
(2 marks)

(c) List any six (6) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. (3 marks)

(d) Explain the typical use of VHF and UHF radars. (3 marks)

(e) Describe the normal application of Ka-band and V-band radars. (3 marks)

(f) List two (2) advantages of high frequencies in radar applications. (2 marks)

(g) List two (2) disadvantages of high frequencies in radar applications. (2 marks)

Q.2 [20 marks]

(a) What is the difference between a monostatic and bi-static radar? (3 marks)

(b) Sketch map of Malaysia and label any five (5) locations of our Royal Malaysian
Air Force (RMAF) air defense radars. (5 marks)

(c) Describe how the atmospheric attenuation can effect radar performance.
(3 marks)

(d) Explain how the reflections from Earths surface can influence radar performance.
(3 marks)

(e) Describe how the radar cross section (RCS) of a jet fighter was determined using
full scale measurement technique (3 marks)

(f) Explain why radar cross section of a jet fighter is assumed the same for
frequencies above 1 GHz. (3 marks)

Q.3 [20 marks]

(a) What is the difference between search radar and track radar? (3 marks)

(b) List any six (6) sources of noise that can be received by a radar. (3 marks)

Introduction to Radar Systems ECE 4346

(b) List any eight (8) losses that can be experienced by a radar. (4 marks)

(c) Determine the signal-to-noise ratio SNR for an airport surveillance radar when
performing detection of twin-engine light aircraft with radar cross section RCS of
about 1 m2 at 60 nmi range. The peak power is 1.4 MW, the duty cycle is 525 x
10-6, pulse width of 0.6 microseconds, the bandwidth 1.67 MHz, operating
frequency of 2.8 GHz, pulse repetition frequency of 1.2 MHz, antenna size of 4.9
m x 2.7 m, azimuth beamwidth of 1.350 and system noise temperature 9500. The
antenna rotation rate is 12.8 RPM. The beam shaping losses is 9 dB and system
losses is 8 dB. The Boltzmann constant is 1.38 x 1 -23 w/Hz0K. The radar has 21
integrated pulses. (10 marks)

Q.4 [20 marks]

An RMAF ground based air defence radar; the Martello 743D is located at Bukit Puteri,
Jertih, Terengganu. The radar was designed to provide coverage of 250 nmi range. It is
expected to be able to detect all targets with radar cross section of 2 m2. The peak power
of such radar is 20 MW with pulse width of 10 s. The wavelength of this radar is 23
centimetres. Its antenna is 5 m wide by 3 m high and the antenna aperture efficiency is
0.6. Determine the followings;
(i) the signal frequency (2 marks)
(ii) the numbers of pulses are being transmitted within one second (2 marks)
(iii) the time difference between pulses (2 marks)
(iv) the average power. (2 marks)
(v) the duty cycle. (2 marks)
(vi) the radar resolution. (2 marks)
(vii) the effective area of receive antenna (2 marks)
(viii) the transmit gain (2 marks)
(ix) the power reflected echoes received (2 marks)
(x) the comprehensive sketch with labels of the pulse diagram (2 marks)

Q.5 [20 marks]

(a) A primary radar sends a microwave pulse of 40kW towards a target and receives
the return pulse 100S later. The frequency is 3GHz, the received pulse is 70x10 -
W and the antenna rotation rate is 12.8 revolution per minute. The radar antenna
has a directive gain of 26dB, it has an efficiency of 90%. Assuming no
polarisation loss and 0.1dB/km atmospheric loss. 0.6. Calculate

Introduction to Radar Systems ECE 4346

(i) What is the radar refresh update rates? (3 marks)

(ii) How far away is the target? (3 marks)
(iii) What is the power density incident on the target? (3 marks)
(iv) What is the radar cross section area of the target? (3 marks)

(b) Explain in your own words how an air traffic radar works. (8 marks)

Introduction to Radar Systems ECE 4346